I scouted for the army a few years.
I have four sons in the army but still I don't fret.
His army was the greatest that the Romans had ever seen.
There is an army of people who would kill for what you possess.
We don't have the people or supplies to sustain ourselves on the regular army side.
Just think of an army of blind people, with guns and cannon!
The whole army was extended in three lines: the cavalry in front, behind it the artillery, and behind that again the infantry.
"And so you think Napoleon will manage to get an army across?" asked Boris with a smile.
Bordeaux, are you going to throw in with the Army again?
"Darkyn incorporated them into his army. He sent most to the Immortal stronghold," Jared said.
I've got an army of bored assassins on the verge of killing off the wrong souls.
Your army is grumbling.
The Russian army is advancing against you to avenge the Austrian army of Ulm.
She twisted her head to see the jumbled outlines of the small army of vamps running toward them from the direction of the burning mountain.
The novelty Anna Pavlovna was setting before her guests that evening was Boris Drubetskoy, who had just arrived as a special messenger from the Prussian army and was aide-de-camp to a very important personage.
And at that moment, though the day was still, a light gust of wind blowing over the army slightly stirred the streamers on the lances and the unfolded standards fluttered against their staffs.
In Petersburg everyone is rejoicing, and the rewards sent to the army are innumerable.
The whole French army, and even Napoleon himself with his staff, were not on the far side of the streams and hollows of Sokolnitz and Schlappanitz beyond which we intended to take up our position and begin the action, but were on this side, so close to our own forces that Napoleon with the naked eye could distinguish a mounted man from one on foot.
Out of an army of a hundred thousand we must expect at least twenty thousand wounded, and we haven't stretchers, or bunks, or dressers, or doctors enough for six thousand.
The Council can't talk any sense into A'Ran, and they're amassing this ginormous army to destroy him.
If he doesn't kill her, she might be what prevents him from building his Army of Souls.
Next day, the army began its campaign, and up to the very battle of Austerlitz, Boris was unable to see either Prince Andrew or Dolgorukov again and remained for a while with the Ismaylov regiment.
I will confess to you, dear Mary, that in spite of his extreme youth his departure for the army was a great grief to me.
The gay triumphant shouting of the enemy army had a stimulating effect on him.
He had someone better than an army watching him.
He.d have the girl soon, and he.d create an army unlike any that preceded him.
If you keep buying 'opportunities' like Mr. Stanislaw's Salvation Army box, you'll be too broke to answer the door if a real opportunity does come knocking.
He explained how an army, ninety thousand strong, was to threaten Prussia so as to bring her out of her neutrality and draw her into the war; how part of that army was to join some Swedish forces at Stralsund; how two hundred and twenty thousand Austrians, with a hundred thousand Russians, were to operate in Italy and on the Rhine; how fifty thousand Russians and as many English were to land at Naples, and how a total force of five hundred thousand men was to attack the French from different sides.
On July 29, 1014, Byzantine emperor Basil II defeated the Bulgarian army in the Battle of Kleidion.
From politeness and to start conversation, they asked him a few questions about the army and the battle, and then the talk went off into merry jests and gossip.
Another emissary rode to the Russian line to announce the peace negotiations and to offer the Russian army the three days' truce.
The two Emperors, the Russian with his heir the Tsarevich, and the Austrian with the Archduke, inspected the allied army of eighty thousand men.
To the joy and pride of the whole army, a personal interview was refused, and instead of the Sovereign, Prince Dolgorukov, the victor at Wischau, was sent with Savary to negotiate with Napoleon if, contrary to expectations, these negotiations were actuated by a real desire for peace.
On the eighteenth and nineteenth of November, the army advanced two days' march and the enemy's outposts after a brief interchange of shots retreated.
To the great regret of myself and of the whole army it is still uncertain whether he is alive or not.
The gloom that enveloped the army was filled with their groans, which seemed to melt into one with the darkness of the night.
In spite of Prince Andrew's disagreeable, ironical tone, in spite of the contempt with which Rostov, from his fighting army point of view, regarded all these little adjutants on the staff of whom the newcomer was evidently one, Rostov felt confused, blushed, and became silent.
In the highest army circles from midday on the nineteenth, a great, excitedly bustling activity began which lasted till the morning of the twentieth, when the memorable battle of Austerlitz was fought.
The Twelfth Army is on its way back from Europe.
With the power of Hell behind him, Darkyn could raise an Army of Souls to wipe out the mortal realm.
Given his experience and lauding as one of the most capable strategic battle planners in the Five Galaxies-- the only reason he hadn't been driven out by the Yirkin despite his tiny army-- he found himself learning a tidbit here and there.
Weller squirmed his large frame around, reaching into his pocket, retrieving first a handkerchief, then a set of keys and eventually a red Swiss Army knife.
Clouds from the retreating storm looked like a triumphant army, hauling away its ordinance for another engagement—with only white-gray stragglers tagging behind.
By evening, the adjutants had spread it to all ends and parts of the army, and in the night from the nineteenth to the twentieth, the whole eighty thousand allied troops rose from their bivouacs to the hum of voices, and the army swayed and started in one enormous mass six miles long.
The shouting grew still louder and merged into a general roar that only an army of several thousand men could produce.
The fires and shouting in the enemy's army were occasioned by the fact that while Napoleon's proclamation was being read to the troops the Emperor himself rode round his bivouacs.
A member of the Hofkriegsrath from Vienna had come to Kutuzov the day before with proposals and demands for him to join up with the army of the Archduke Ferdinand and Mack, and Kutuzov, not considering this junction advisable, meant, among other arguments in support of his view, to show the Austrian general the wretched state in which the troops arrived from Russia.
Near Hetzelsdorf Prince Andrew struck the high road along which the Russian army was moving with great haste and in the greatest disorder.
This was one of the head army doctors.
"The Council is gathering an army to retake this galaxy," he said.
Larry—and most other regular army soldiers—either joined or quietly supported the PMF.
PMF has transports, army has supplies.
On the last day, the great army which Coriolanus had led from Antium was drawn up in battle array.
Then he commanded his army to march back to the city of Antium.
Destroying the army, destroying the men!
I have no planet, half an army, no food or water for my people, and I must broker a peace deal.
The standing army is only an arm of the standing government.
An army of Gabriels.
At the same time you'd be leading that greedy army who are chasing the million dollar reward.
She was reminded of a scene from a movie, where an army mobilized for war.
When I take over Death's domain and her army of souls, I'll be invincible. By my side is the only place anyone will be safe.
Her father was Maurice Dupin, a retired lieutenant in the army of the republic; her mother, Sophie Delaborde, the daughter of a Paris bird-fancier.
In the course of 1551 one of the factions of Kazan offered the whole khanate to the young tsar, and on the 20th of August 1552 he stood before its walls with an army of 150,000 men and 50 guns.
The siege was long and costly; the army suffered severely; and only the tenacity of the tsar kept it in camp for six weeks.
In 447 an Athenian army, which had marched into Boeotia to quell an insurrection, had to surrender in a body at Coronea, and the price of their ransom was the evacuation of Boeotia.
The Albanian leaders, however, soon displayed a spirit of independence, which proved embarrassing to Turkish diplomacy and caused alarm at Constantinople; their forces came into conflict with a Turkish army under Dervish Pasha near Dulcigno (November 1880), and eventually the league was suppressed.
In 1777 General Philip Schuyler established his headquarters on Van Schaick's Island in the Mohawk and Hudson, then the principal rendezvous of the army which later met Burgoyne at Saratoga.
The army consists of: (1) The Line, comprising the Active and Reserve, in which all citizens 20 to 28 years of age are obliged to serve; (2) the National Guard, comprising citizens of 28 to 40 years; (3) the Territorial Guard, comprising those 40 to 45 years.
In July 1807 another British force of eight thousand men under General Whitelock endeavoured to regain possession of Buenos Aires, but strenuous preparations had been made for resistance, and after fierce street fighting the invading army, after suffering severe losses, was compelled to capitulate.
The army of the portent's, commanded by Colonel Bartolome Mitre, was defeated at Cepeda by the confederate forces under Urquiza, and Buenos Aires agreed to re-enter the confederation (November 11, 1859).
In 1904, under the old system of three-years service with numerous total and partial exemptions, 324,253 men became liable to incorporation, of whom 25,432 were rejected as unfit, 55,265 were admitted as one-year volunteers, 62,160 were put back, 27,825 had already enlisted with a view to making the army a career, 5257 were taken for the navy, and thus, with a few extra details and casualties, the contingent for full service dwindled to 147,549 recruits.
The active army, then, at a given moment, say November 1, 1908, is composed of all the young men, not legally exempted, who have reached the age of twenty in the years 1906 and 1907.
The active army and its reserve are not localized, but drawn from and distributed over the whole of France.
The soldier spends six years in the Territorial Army, and six in the reserve of the Territorial Army.
He presented a famous report in the Constituent Assembly on the organization of the army, but is better known by his eloquent speech on the 28th of February 1791, at the Jacobin Club, against Mirabeau, whose relations with the court were beginning to be suspected, and who was a personal enemy of Lameth.
Orders were given to raise recruits, ten men in every thousand for the regular army, and besides this, nine men in every thousand for the militia.
Prince Mikhail Dmitrievich (1795-1861), brother of the last named, entered the Russian army in 1807 and took part in the campaigns against Persia in 1810, and in 1812-1815 against France.
Having annihilated at Poltava the army of Charles XII., Peter was not at all indisposed to renew the struggle with Turkey, and began the campaign in the confident hope of making extensive conquests; but he had only got as far as the Pruth when he found himself surrounded by a great Turkish army, and, in order to extricate himself from his critical position, he had to sign a humiliating treaty by which Azov and other conquests were restored to the sultan.
On Kutuzov's staff, among his fellow officers and in the army generally, Prince Andrew had, as he had had in Petersburg society, two quite opposite reputations.
The nervous irritation aroused by the appearance of Mack, the news of his defeat, and the thought of what lay before the Russian army found vent in anger at Zherkov's untimely jest.
On the twenty-eighth of October Kutuzov with his army crossed to the left bank of the Danube and took up a position for the first time with the river between himself and the main body of the French.
Very sinister reports of the position of the army reached him as he went along, and the appearance of the troops in their disorderly flight confirmed these rumors.
Without boasting, you know, I may say that I know the Army Orders by heart and know the Regulations as well as I do the Lord's Prayer.
It looked as if by that slight motion the army itself was expressing its joy at the approach of the Emperors.
It seemed as though not the trumpeters were playing, but as if the army itself, rejoicing at the Emperors' approach, had naturally burst into music.
The day after the review, Boris, in his best uniform and with his comrade Berg's best wishes for success, rode to Olmutz to see Bolkonski, wishing to profit by his friendliness and obtain for himself the best post he could--preferably that of adjutant to some important personage, a position in the army which seemed to him most attractive.
The marshals, accompanied by adjutants, galloped off in different directions, and a few minutes later the chief forces of the French army moved rapidly toward those Pratzen Heights which were being more and more denuded by Russian troops moving down the valley to their left.
Give it them! he mentally exclaimed at these sounds, and again proceeded to gallop along the line, penetrating farther and farther into the region where the army was already in action.
"There are so many prisoners today, nearly the whole Russian army, that he is probably tired of them," said another officer.
On his return to Moscow from the army, Nicholas Rostov was welcomed by his home circle as the best of sons, a hero, and their darling Nikolenka; by his relations as a charming, attractive, and polite young man; by his acquaintances as a handsome lieutenant of hussars, a good dancer, and one of the best matches in the city.
The battle of Borodino was not fought on a chosen and entrenched position with forces only slightly weaker than those of the enemy, but, as a result of the loss of the Shevardino Redoubt, the Russians fought the battle of Borodino on an open and almost unentrenched position, with forces only half as numerous as the French; that is to say, under conditions in which it was not merely unthinkable to fight for ten hours and secure an indecisive result, but unthinkable to keep an army even from complete disintegration and flight.
He's building an Army of Souls to attack the human world.
What would Darkyn want with past-Deidre's soul, unless he intended to add it to the Army of Souls?
I won't subject you to Elise and her insubordinate rabble, but you'll remain with the other army seniors here as my advisors.
No sign of Corday and his army of storm troopers?
Behind her throne stood the twenty-eight officers of her army and many officials of the royal household.
And he was not the only man to experience that feeling during those memorable days preceding the battle of Austerlitz: nine tenths of the men in the Russian army were then in love, though less ecstatically, with their Tsar and the glory of the Russian arms.
From information he had received the evening before, from the sound of wheels and footsteps heard by the outposts during the night, by the disorderly movement of the Russian columns, and from all indications, he saw clearly that the allies believed him to be far away in front of them, and that the columns moving near Pratzen constituted the center of the Russian army, and that that center was already sufficiently weakened to be successfully attacked.
No other regular army unit has a chance out here.
You used to be in the army?
When the steaks were grilled and the corn and green beans boiled, the table was leaden with food, enough for a small army.
They weren't relatives at all, but members of Romas's army.
As you can see, there is more than one way to build an army.
The regular army's got us running around between fed strongholds to assess damage to fed facilities and PMF HQ wants us helping refugees.
He was large, as were all the genetically engineered, secretive counter-insurgency special forces in the regular army.
We formed our own networks along the river and joined forces with the Twelfth Army.
The super-demon bowed his head and left. Darkyn watched him go then looked again at the hourglass. He hadn't expected Death to quit, but she was about to give him a new window of opportunity, one that might be more powerful. He might soon take over the underworld and its army of souls.
They shouldn't be. I heard a story once about the Army of Souls. I'm wondering if they are what Darkyn was after, not killing Death.
Never heard of the Army of Souls.
During those years no man had shared her life, but just before Dean was released from the Army, he received surprising word of his mother's second marriage.
He had simply evolved into the profession from his duties in the Army.
Except for his army hitch and a few late night military flights, Dean had never been west of the Mississippi and he'd never seen scenery as spectacular as Colorado in late spring.
"So, give it to something like the Salvation Army afterward," he suggested.
"I seem to be the only thing standing between you and an army of angry vamps you can't control," Xander pointed out.
He no longer questioned the need for such a trained, disciplined army, or the absence of able-bodied men within the city's walls.
His attention - -traditionally reserved for the army and its battles - -had shifted to her until he monitored everything she did.
The northern territories had been all but cut off, but the southern routes - -where most of her army was ineffectively positioned - -were open.
It's also covered by the majority of Memon's army.
Our numbers have plummeted the past year, and I don't understand the placement of our army.
If Memon succeeds in raising an army of his allies, he will be able to trap us here on the cliffs, against the ocean here.
The army is well trained.
Once again, he was the Sirian she remembered, the man she worshipped as a child as he belted orders to the army.
Memon has called in no more of his army.
He's moved his army from the border with Corcoran and is sending it directly to our east.
He turned to modify the army placement on the map.
Most of the army has been in the south and are beyond our ability to recall in time.
Taran saw Sirian's shrewd manipulations in the convenient location of the army.
There was no trail indicating the extent of Sirian's betrayal, no one to reveal his plans but him and the small army holed up near the northern wall.
I cannot command an army, Taran.
If his plan failed, he'd send the remaining members of the army with the people north, until they met Dierdirien's armies.
My army is on its way home!
She pulled her pants leg up to reveal an army of tiny brown insects.
Once, long ago, her father had entertained a friend from the mountains - an old army buddy from northern Arizona.
We will build an army unlike any that has ever existed, and we will use it to seek revenge on your father for betraying you and her.
The stranger spoke of a land where he was accepted and never hungry, where they'd build an army to kill his father.
We will conquer them and return here, once we have created an army.
The next time we stand here, you will have marched through his streets with my army at your back and claimed his life.
It let her amass an army unlike any that had ever existed and showed her the key to victory.
You have the ability and the army to protect your realm and seize them both, if you desire.
It was the only way to build the army she needed to protect her world.
The vamp army I created is gathering at the bridge on the western edge of the city.
His army is made up of vamps.
Maybe the teen god was figuring things out on his own, after the godslayer floundered for months with the responsibilities that came with leading his army of vamps.
The only vamp that could change someone without them following the normal rite requiring human sacrifice, Xander had once created an army in months.
I created an army of vamps Eden used to overthrow her enemies while I overthrew mine.
She wanted him safe and hoped he was angry enough to stay away or at least, he brought an army of people to kill the dozens of Others around her.
corps of the German army, and contains a fairly large garrison for which accommodation is provided in the extensive barracks in and around the city.
In 937 a great fleet and army were brought together by Constantine and Anlaf, the son of Sihtric, another Norwegian chieftain who had allied himself with the Scots, helped by Anlaf Godfreyson from Ireland.
He had retired at an early age from the army and was living an idle life at home as a gentleman farmer.
In 1664 he was chosen one of the directors of the imperial army raised to fight the Turk; and after the peace which followed the Christian victory at St Gotthard in August 1664, he aided the English king Charles II.
He was the son of a general officer in the Sardinian army who was killed at the battle of Mondovi in 1796.
In 1627 he commanded the large forces assembled at the siege of La Rochelle; and some years after in 1635, during the Thirty Years' War, he was general of the French army in Lorraine.
In 1636 he was made lieutenantgeneral of the army.
Landing at Nice on the 24th of June 1848, he placed his sword at the disposal of Charles Albert, and, after various difficulties with the Piedmontese war office, formed a volunteer army 3000 strong, but shortly after taking the field was obliged, by the defeat of Custozza, to flee to Switzerland.
Once established at Palermo, Garibaldi organized an army to liberate Naples and march upon Rome, a plan opposed by the emissaries of Cavour, who desired the immediate annexation of Sicily to the Italian kingdom.
On the 1st of October he routed the remnant of the Bourbon army 40,000 strong on the Volturno.
On the 7th of November Garibaldi accompanied Victor Emmanuel during his solemn entry into Naples, and on the morrow returned to Caprera, after disbanding his volunteers and recommending their enrolment in the regular army.
On the outbreak of war in 1866 he assumed command of a volunteer army and, after the defeat of the Italian troops at Custozza, took the offensive in order to cover Brescia.
In 1703 Alexius was ordered to follow the army to the field as a private in a bombardier regiment.
On the 26th of August 1716 he wrote to Alexius from abroad urging him, if he desired to remain tsarevich, to join him and the army without delay.
During the war the settlers in Western Virginia were generally active Whigs and many served in the Continental army.
The absence in the army of the Confederate sympathizers helps to explain the small vote against the formation of the new state.
army corps; it has tribunals of first instance and of commerce, a board of trade-arbitrators, a chamber of commerce, an exchange and a branch of the Bank of France.
In the summer of 1792 he was present for a short time with the army of the north, with his two sons, the duke of Chartres and the duke of Montpensier, but had returned to Paris before the 10th of August.
The wazir now bethought him that he had a good opportunity for satisfying an old quarrel against the adjoining tribe of Rohillas, who had played fast and loose with him while the Mahratta army was at hand.
Colonel Goddard with a Bengal army marched across the breadth of the peninsula from the valley of the Ganges to the western sea, and achieved almost without a blow the conquest of Gujarat.
On the arrival of the news that Hyder had descended from the highlands of Mysore, cut to pieces the only British army in the field, and swept the Carnatic up to the gates of Madras, he at once adopted a policy of extraordinary boldness.
Good cattle for breeding purposes are being imported from Switzerland and Sicily, and efforts are likewise being made to improve the breed of horses, which are bought mainly for the army.
On the failure of this attempt he left Austria and joined the headquarters of the Prussian army (1813), and became a member of the board of administration for north Germany.
He entered the university of GÃ¶ttingen, but soon left, and, taking service in the Austrian army, took part in the Russian campaign of 1812, and fought in the following year at Dresden, Kulm and Leipzig.
He too entered the ministry (1864) and during the Franco-German War served as army chaplain, an experience described in his Erlebnisse eines Feldgeistlichen (1890).
Upon the replacing of the Rump by the army, after the breaking up of Richard's parliament, Cooper endeavoured unsuccessfully to take his seat on the ground of his former disputed election for Downton.
Upon the restoration of the parliament on the 26th of December Cooper was one of the commissioners to command the army, and on the 2nd of January was made one of the new council of state.
In pursuance of his patronage of Monmouth, Shaftesbury now secured for him the command of the army sent to suppress the insurrection in Scotland, which he is supposed to have fomented.
Finally he was sent with a mercenary army to Italy to protect the Tarentines against the attacks of Lucanians or Messapians: he fell together with the greater part of his force at Mandonion 1 on the same day as that on which the battle of Chaeronea was fought.
With this army, consisting of about 9000 men, he marched in 1448 from Kutna Hora to Prague, and obtained possession of the capital almost without resistance.
269 the great battle in which Emperor Claudius destroyed the army of the Goths.
In the RussoTurkish War the Servian army, under the personal command of King Milan, besieged Nish, and forced it to capitulate on the 10th January 1878.
For two years more the fighting continued with varying success, until Charles of Valois, who had been sent by Boniface to invade Sicily, was forced to sue for peace, his army being decimated by the plague, and in August 1302 the treaty of Caltabellotta was signed, by which Frederick was recognized king of Trinacria (the name Sicily was not to be used) for his lifetime, and was to marry Eleonora, the daughter of Charles II.; at his death the kingdom was to revert to the Angevins (this clause was inserted chiefly to save Charles's face), and his children would receive compensation elsewhere.
An Angevin fleet and army, under Robert's son Charles, was defeated at Palermo by Giovanni da Chiaramonte in 1325, and in 1326 and 1327 there were further Angevin raids on the island, until the descent into Italy of the emperor Louis the Bavarian distracted their attention.
The relations were now very strained between the reforming princes and Maximilian, who, unable to raise an army, refused to attend the meetings of the council at Nuremberg, while both parties treated for peace with France.
In April 1831 William took the command of a Dutch army for the invasion of Belgium, and in a ten-days' campaign defeated and dispersed the Belgian forces under Leopold I.
In 1138 he made a truce at Roxburgh between England and Scotland, and took active part in gathering together the army which defeated the Scots at the Battle of the Standard in August 1138.
The "cat" was the regular instrument with which floggings were performed in the British army and navy.
Since the abolition of flogging in the services, the use of the cat is now restricted to certain classes of offenders in military prisons (Army Act 1881, § 133).
A fort had already been placed there during the Roman siege of Capua, in order, with Puteoli, to serve for the provisioning of the army.
In 1719 he sent an army into Spain, and forced Philip V.
Accordingly, in May 1617, Descartes set out for the Netherlands and took service in the army of Prince Maurice of Orange.
He was present at the battle of Weisser Berg (near Prague), where the hopes of the elector palatine were blasted (November 8, 1620), passed the winter with the army in southern Bohemia, and next year served in Hungary under Karl Bonaventura de Longueval, Graf von Buquoy or Boucquoi (1571-1621).
he returned home by Mont Cenis, observing the avalanches,2 instead of, as his relatives hoped, securing a post in the French army in Piedmont.
He entered the army, merely because the position gave a vantage-ground from which to make his observations.
Upon news of this disaster Phocis, Locris and Euboea revolted, and the Megarians massacred their Athenian garrison, while a Spartan army penetrated into Attica as far as Eleusis.
Army under General-Oberst von Hindenburg destroyed the Russian II.
Army commanded by General Samsonov.
It forms part of the educational division (academie) of Douai and of the region of the second army corps, its military centre being at Amiens, where also is its court of appeal.
In 1799 Alkmaar gave its name to a convention signed by the duke of York and the French general Brune, in accordance with which the Russo-British army of 23,000 men, which was defeated at Bergen, evacuated Holland.
Alexander was not the only claimant to the vacant throne, but, recognized by the army, he soon swept all rivals from his path.
That work was on the point of opening its most brilliant chapter by an invasion of the great king's dominions; the army was concentrated and certain forces had already been sent on to occupy the opposite shore of the Hellespont.
To gratify his own imagination or strike the imagination of the world he took his army over the Danube and burnt a settlement of the Getae upon the other side.
In the spring of 334, Alexander crossed with an army of between 30,000 and 40,000 men, Macedonians, Illyrians, Thracians and the contingents of the Greek states, into Asia.
To meet the invader the great king had in Asia Minor an army slightly larger, it would seem, than Alexander's, gathered under the satraps of the western provinces at Zeleia.
It was a cavalry melee, in which the common code of honour caused Macedonian and Persian chieftains to engage hand to hand, and at the end of the day the relics of the Persian army were in flight, leaving the high-roads of Asia Minor clear for the invader.
His passage through Cilicia was marked by a violent fever that arrested him for a while in Tarsus, and meantime a great Persian army was waiting for him in northern Syria under the command of Darius himself.
Alexander turned, and near the town of Issus fought his second pitched battle, sending Darius and the relic of his army in wild flight back to the east.'
The happy coincidence of a lunar eclipse gives us the 20th of September 331 as the exact day upon which the Macedonian army crossed the Tigris.
But the day showed the ' B attle of Macedonian army equal to the task.
The last army Arbela.
Macedonians, and at Prophthasia the commander of the Macedonian cavalry Philotas, the son of Parmenio, and certain others were arraigned before the army on the charge of conspiring against the king's life.
Porus held the opposite bank with a powerful army, including 200 elephants.
Then the Hyphasis (Beas) was reached, and here the Macedonian army refused to go any farther.
The fleet prepared on the Hydaspes sailed in October, while a land army moved along the bank.
He leapt from the wall with only three companions into the hostile town, and, before the army behind him could effect an entrance, lay wounded almost to death.'
This policy did not allay the discontent of the Macedonian army, and when Alexander in the summer of 324 moved to the cooler region of Media, an actual mutiny of the Macedonians broke out on the way at Opis on the Tigris.
Innovations were carried out in the tactical system of the army which were to modify considerably the methods of future battle-fields.
166 a verse from the oracle was used as an amulet and was inscribed over the doors of houses as a protection, and an oracle was sent, at Marcus Aurelius' request, by Alexander to the Roman army on the Danube during the war with the Marcomanni, declaring that victory would follow on the throwing of two lions alive into the river.
The British army is bound by His Majesty's Rules and Regulations to play at the Philharmonic pitch, and a fork tuned to a' 452.5 in 1890 is preserved as the standard for the Military Training School at Kneller Hall.
Larissa was the headquarters of Ali Pasha during the Greek War of Independence, and of the crown prince Constantine during the Greco-Turkish War; the flight of the Greek army from this place to Pharsala took place on the 23rd of April 1897.
394), a barbarian officer in the Roman army, at the end of the 4th century.
In 1745 he entered the 1 He succeeded his cousin, Solomon Van Rensselaer (1744-1852), who was in the regular army in 1792-1800, who had fought under General Anthony Wayne at Maumee Rapids in 1794 and under Stephen Van Rensselaer at Queenston Heights in 1812, and who was in the House of Representatives in 1819-1822.
His bouts of pleasure gradually weakened his constitution; a severe colic, which seized him on the march of the army against Hamadan, was checked by remedies so violent that Avicenna could scarcely stand.
They played a brilliant part in the War of Independence (1821-1829), and to-day supply the Greek army with its best soldiers.
Eventually he renounced his allegiance to the sultan, but was overthrown by a Turkish army in 1822.
Fenwick Williams. In 1861 he became director-general of engineers at the War Office, assisting General Milutin in the reorganization of the army.
Having served in the army in Spain and Sardinia, he became curule aedile, praetor and (after an unsuccessful attempt in 117) consul in 115.
Troy benefited financially by the War of 1812, during which contracts for army beef were filled here.
During the Civil War army supplies, ammunition and cannon, and the armour-plate and parts of the machinery for the "Monitor" were made here.
His name is supposed to be Slavonic. As a youth he served in the bodyguard ofJustinian, who appointed him commander of the Eastern army.
The president, with the advice and consent of the senate, appoints judges, diplomatic agents, governors of territories, and officers of the army and navy above the rank of colonel.
The active or standing army comprises 18 battalions of infantry, 12 regiments of cavalry, 8 regiments of artillery, and 4 battalions of engineers.
In 1906 the president announced that permission had been given by the German emperor for 30 Argentine officers to enter the German army each year and to serve eighteen months, and also for five officers to attend the Berlin Military Academy.
The equipment of the standing army is thoroughly modern, the infantry being provided with Mauser rifles and the artillery with Krupp batteries.
A large army of twenty-four thousand men was collected at Montevideo, and on the 8th of January 1852 the allied forces crossed the Parana and the road to Buenos Aires lay open before them.
On the 13th of February 1880, the minister of war, Dr Carlos Pellegrini, summoned the principal officers connected with the Tiro Nacional, General Bartolome Mitre, his brother Emilio, Colonel Julio Campos, Colonel Hilario Lagos and others, and warned them that as officers of the national army they owed obedience to the national government, and would be severely punished if concerned in any revolutionary outbreak against the constituted authorities.
In the city and province of Buenos Aires, plenty of volunteers offered their services, and an army of some twenty-five thousand men was quickly raised, but they were armed with old-fashioned weapons and there was only a limited supply of ammunition.
After several skirmishes, the national army commanded by General Roca, containing many troops seasoned in Indian campaigns, assaulted the portenos posted before Buenos Aires, and after two days' hard fighting (20th and 21st July) forced its way into the town.
On the night of the 26th of July 18go the Union Civica called its members to arms. It was joined by some regiments of the regular army and received the support of the fleet.
A number of officers of the army and navy agreed to lend assistance to a revolutionary outbreak, and towards the end of July 1893 matters came to a head.
Compulsory service with the colors is in Germany no longer universal, as there are twice as many able-bodied men presented by the recruiting commissions as the active army can absorb.
The reserves of the active army are composed of those who have served the legal period in the active army.
The Territorial Army and its reserve (members of which undergo two short periods of training) are, however, allocated to local service.
The reserves of the active army and the Territorial Army and its reserve can only be recalled to active service in case of emergency and by decree of the head of the state.
On November I, 1908, then the active army was composed of the classes registered 1906 and 1907, the reserve of the classes 1895I905, the Territorial Army of those of 1889-1894 and the Territorial Army reserve of those of 1883-1888.
In 1906 the peace strength of the army in France was estimated at 532,593 officers and men; in Algeria 54,580; in Tunis 20,320; total 607,493.
Deducting vacancies, sick and absent, the effective strength of the active army in 1906 was 540,563; of the gendarmerie and Garde Rpublicaine 24,512; of colonial troops in the colonies 58,568.
The full number of persons liable to be called upon for military service and engaged in such service is calculated (1908) as 4,800,000, of whom 1,350,000 of the active army and the younger classes of army reserve would constitute the field armies set on foot at the outbreak of war.
Organization.The general organization of the French army at home is based on the system of permanent army corps, the headquarters of which are as follows: I.
Each army corps consists in principle of two infantry divisions, one cavalry brigade, one brigade of horse and field artillery, one engineer battalion and one squadron of train.
But certain army corps have a special organization.
army corps and the 6th cavalry division.
Colonial Troops.These form an expeditionary army corps in France to which are attached the actual corps of occupation to the various colonies, part white, part natives.
The colonial army corps, headquarters at Paris, has three divisions, at Paris, Toulon and Brest.
The strength of this army corps is 28,700 in France and 61,300 in the colonies.
The chief of staff of the army is also a member of the council.
The officers of the army are obtained partly from the oldestablished military schools, partly from the ranks of the noncommissioned officers, the proportion of the latter being about one-third of the total number of officers.
Voluntary enlistments in the French army are permissible, within certain limits, at the age of eighteen, and the engages serve for at least three years.
The French navy is manned partly by voluntary enlistment, partly by the transference to the navy of a certain proportion of each years recruits for the army, but mainly by a system known as inscription maritime.
In battle the carroccio was surrounded by the bravest warriors in the army and it served both as a rallying-point and as the palladium of the city's honour; its capture by the enemy was regarded as an irretrievable defeat and humiliation.
He rallied the Bulgarian army, now deprived of its Russian officers, to resist the Servian invasion, and after a brilliant victory at Slivnitza (November 19) pursued King Milan into Servian territory as far as Pirot, which he captured (November 27).
The last years of his life were spent principally at Gratz, where he held a local command in the Austrian army.
When Titus and his army withdrew from Jerusalem, the 10th legion was left as a permanent Roman garrison, and a fortified camp for their occupation was established on the western hill.
It is an important military cantonment and sanatorium, being the headquarters of a brigade in the second division of the northern army corps.
He entered the Austrian army as an infantry officer in 1801, and saw much service in the Napoleonic wars.
He has command of the army and navy, and appoints federal ministers and judges.
On the 16th of July 1893 the first little army of " New Australians " left Sydney in the " Royal Tar," which arrived at Montevideo on the 31st of August.
Tiridates, who was proclaimed king, could no longer maintain himself, because he appeared to be a vassal of the Romans; Artabanus returned from Hyrcania with a strong army of Scythian (Dahan) auxiliaries, and was again acknowledged by the Parthians.
He crossed the Tigris, destroyed the towns and spoiled the tombs of Arbela; but when Artabanus advanced at the head of an army, he retired to Carrhae.
of Denmark, who also commanded his army in person.
From the age of 18 years to 20 he was employed in the commissary department of the army.
Youssouff acknowledged this protection given by a Frenchman by distinguishing himself in the ranks of the French army at the time of the conquest of Algeria.
Ferdinand de Lesseps was also entrusted by his father with missions to Marshal Count Clausel, general-in-chief of the army of occupation in Algeria.
Rome, attacked by the French army, was taken by assault after a month's sanguinary siege.
The emperor, Charles the Fat, was roused to collect a large army, with which he surrounded the main body of the Northmen under their leader Godfrey in the camp at Elsloo.
On the 14th of February 1540 he entered Ghent at the head of a large army and visited the city with severe punishment.
A few months after the disaster of Jemmingen, Orange, who had now become a Lutheran, himself led a large army into Brabant.
Alva was triumphant; but though Alva's master had supplied him with an invincible army, he was unable to furnish him with the funds to pay for it.
Here he was shut in by a superior force of Spaniards, and made preparations to defend himself until relieved by the army which Orange was collecting on the eastern frontier.
On the 9th of July William crossed the Rhine, and captured Malines, Termonde and Oudenarde, and was advancing southwards when the news reached him of the massacre of St Bartholomew, which deprived him of the promised aid of Coligny and his army of 12,000 men.
Then the army under Alva's son, Don Frederick of Toledo, marched northwards, and the sack of Zutphen and the inhuman butchery of Naarden are among the blackest records of history.
This triumph was however far more than counterbalanced by the complete defeat of the army, led by Count Louis of Nassau, at Mookerheide near Nijmwegen (14th March).
Strengthened by this powerful reinforcement, Don John fell upon the patriot army at Gemblours near Namur on the 31st of January 1578, and with scarcely any loss completely routed the Netherlanders.
The " malcontent " Catholics now turned for help from Matthias to the duke of Anjou, who had invaded the Netherlands with a French army and seized Mons.
He was entrusted with the defence of Transylvania at the end of 1848, and in 1849, as the general of the Szeklers, he performed miracles with his little army, notably at the bridge of Piski (February 9), where, after fighting all day, he drove back an immense force of pursuers.
From the 12th to 22nd of July he was fighting continually, but finally, on the 31st of July, his army was annihilated by overwhelming numbers near Segesvár (Schassburg), Bem only escaping by feigning death.
If, for example, the porta hepatis was long on the right side and short on the left side, it was a good sign for the king's army, but if short on the right side and long on the left, it was unfavourable; and similarly for a whole series of phenomena connected with any one of the various subdivisions of the liver.
The German army invaded Italy in August 1132, and occupied Rome, all except St Peter's church and the castle of St Angelo which held out against them.
In Mesopotamia and Yemen disturbance was endemic; nearer home, a semblance of loyalty was maintained in the army and among the Mussulman population by a system of delation and espionage, and by wholesale arrests; while, obsessed by terror of assassination, the sultan withdrew himself into fortified seclusion in the palace of Yildiz.
The national humiliation of the situation in Macedonia, together with the resentment in the army against the palace spies and informers, at last brought matters to a crisis.
The tonnage of the commerce of this port amounted, according to the reports of the United States army engineers, to 107,421 tons in 1904 and to 249,174 tons in 1908, of which in the latter year nearly 80% was lumber.
sought to capture the city, but a storm destroyed a great number of his ships, and his army of some 30,000, chiefly Spaniards, was defeated by the Algerians under their pasha, Hassan.
On the 4th of July in that year a French army under General de Bourmont attacked the city, which capitulated on the following day.
In 1689 battles were fought between William III.'s army and the Irish under Macarthy (for James II.), Lisnaskea (26th July) and Newtownbutler (30th July).
He remained at Lincoln, did nothing to prevent the defeat of Essex's army in the west, and when he at last advanced south to join Essex's and Waller's troops his management of the army led to the failure of the attack upon the king at Newbury on the 27th of October 1644.
He delayed supporting the infantry till too late, and was repulsed; he allowed the royal army to march past his outposts; and a fortnight afterwards, without any attempt to prevent it, and greatly to Cromwell's vexation, permitted the moving of the king's artillery and the relief of Donnington Castle by Prince Rupert.
On the 25th of November Cromwell charged Manchester with "unwillingness to have the war prosecuted to a full victory"; which Manchester answered by accusing Cromwell of having used expressions against the nobility, the Scots and Presbyterianism; of desiring to fill the army of the Eastern Association with Independents to prevent any accommodation; and of having vowed if he met the king in battle he would as lief fire his pistol at him as at anybody else.
The lords and the Scots vehemently took Manchester's part; but the Commons eventually sided with Cromwell, appointed Sir Thomas Fairfax general of the New Model Army, and passed two self-denying ordinances, the second of which, ordering all members of both houses to lay down their commissions within forty days, was accepted by the lords on the 3rd of April 1645.
As the king had no longer a field army, the war after Naseby resolved itself into a series of sieges which Charles had no means of raising.
against those to whom you can object little but that they square not with you in every opinion concerning matters of religion."He had patronized Lilburne and welcomed all into his regiment, and the Independents had spread from his troops throughout the whole army.
The petition from the army to the parliament for arrears of pay was suppressed and the petitioners declared enemies of the state.
In consequence the army organized a systematic opposition, and elected representatives styled Agitators or Agents to urge their claims.
Cromwell, though greatly disliking the policy of the Presbyterians, yet gave little support at first to the army in resisting parliament.
If that authority falls to nothing,"he said," nothing can follow but confusion."The Presbyterians, however, now engaged in a plan for restoring the king under their own control, and by the means of a Scottish army, forced on their policy, and on the 27th of May ordered the immediate disbandment of the army, without any guarantee for the payment of arrears.
The soldiers refused to disband, and on the 3rd of June Cromwell, whom, it was believed, the parliament intended to arrest, joined the army."
If he would not forthwith come and lead them,"they had told him," they would go their own way without him."The supremacy of the army without a guiding hand meant anarchy, that of the Presbyterians the outbreak of another civil war.
On the 31st of May 1647 Cromwell had ordered Cornet Joyce to prevent the king's removal by the parliament or the Scots from Holmby, and Joyce by his own authority and with the king's consent brought him to Newmarket to the headquarters of the army.
The army with Cromwell then advanced towards London.
It will be conveyed over to posterity."The army faction gradually gathered strength in the parliament.
Eleven Presbyterian leaders impeached by the army withdrew of their own accord on the 26th of June, and the parliament finally yielded.
Fairfax was appointed sole commander-in-chief on the 19th of July, the soldiers levied to oppose the army were dismissed, and the command of the city militia was again restored to the committee approved by the army.
These votes, however, were cancelled later, on the 26th of July, under the pressure of the royalist city mob which invaded the two Houses; but the two speakers, with eight peers and fifty-seven members of the Commons, themselves joined the army, which now advanced to London, overawing all resistance, escorting the fugitive members in triumph to Westminster on the 6th of August, and obliging the parliament on the 10th to cancel the last votes, with the threat of a regiment of cavalry drawn up by Cromwell in Hyde Park.
Cromwell and the army now turned with hopes of a settlement to Charles.
by negotiating simultaneously with army and parliament, by inflaming their jealousies and differences, and finally by these means securing his restoration with his full prerogatives unimpaired.
The agitators demanded immediate settlement by force by the army.
He reproached the soldiers for their insubordination against their officers, and the army for its rebellion against the parliament.
Meanwhile all hopes of an accommodation with Charles were dispelled by his flight on the 11th of November from Hampton Court to Carisbroke Castle in the Isle of Wight, his Flight object being to negotiate independently with the Scots, the parliament and the army.
Both the army and the parliament gave cold replies to his offers to negotiate; and Charles, on the 27th of December 1647, entered into the Engagement with the Scots by which he promised the establishment of Presbyterianism for three years, the suppression of the Independents and their sects, together with privileges for the Scottish nobles, while the Scots undertook to invade England and restore him to his throne.
Meanwhile behind his back the royalists had risen all over England, the fleet in the Downs had declared for Charles, and the Scottish army under Hamilton had invaded the north.
Cromwell therefore did not hesitate to join the army in its opposition to the parliament, and supported the Remonstrance of the troops (loth of November 1648), which included the demand for the king's punishment as "the grand author of all our troubles," and justified the use of force by the army if other means failed.
The ordinance establishing the special tribunal for the trial was passed by a remnant of the House of Commons alone, from which all dissentients were excluded by the army.
Equally characteristic was his treatment of the mutinous army, in which he suppressed a rebellion in May.
But as in Ireland so Cromwell's policy in Scotland was unpopular and was only upheld by the maintenance of a large army, necessitating heavy taxation and implying the loss of the national independence.
Although the idol of his victorious army, and in a position enabling him to exercise autocratic power, he laboured unostentatiously for more than a year and a half as a member of the parliament, whose authority he supported to the best of his ability.
This assembly, however, soon showed itself impracticable and incapable, and on the 12th of December the speaker, followed by the more moderate members, marched to Whitehall and returned their powers to Cromwell, while the rest were expelled by the army.
The Protector and the council together were given a life tenure of office, with a large army and a settled revenue sufficient for public needs in time of peace; while the clauses relating to religion "are remarkable as laying down for the first time with authority a principle of toleration," 2 though this toleration did not apply to Roman Catholics and Anglicans.
Cromwell's religious policy included the maintenance of a national church, a policy acceptable to the army but much disliked by the Scots, who wanted the church to control the state, not the state the church.
On the 23rd of February 1657 the Remonstrance offering Cromwell the crown was moved by Sir Christopher Packe in the parliament and violently resisted by the officers and the army party, one hundred officers waiting upon Cromwell on the 27th to petition against his acceptance of it.
The rest sat on, discussing the constitution, drawing up lists of damnable heresies and of incontrovertible articles of faith, producing plans for the reduction of the army and demanding - consolidating his rule and power.
Until his fiery energy made itself felt, hardly any army on either side actually suffered rout; but at Marston Moor and Naseby the troops of the defeated party were completely dissolved, while at Worcester the royalist army was annihilated.
Cromwell's strategic manoeuvres, if less adroit than those of Turenne or Montecucculi, were, in accordance with his own genius and the temper of his army, directed always to forcing a decisive battle.
Baldock (1899); Cromwell's Army, by C. H.
Returning to France without having effected anything, Tone served for some months in the French army under Hoche; and in June 17 9 7 he took part in preparations for a Dutch expedition to Ireland, which was to be supported by the French.
He was still but a centurion when chosen by the army of the Danube to lead it against Constantinople.
Alva then advanced to meet the invaders with a large army, and at Jemmingen (July 21), with very slight loss, annihilated the levies of Louis, who himself escaped by swimming from the field across an estuary of the Ems. He now joined the army of his brother William, which had in October to beat a hasty retreat before Alva's superior skill.
He was scarcely more popular among the sans-culottes of his army.
He was chosen emperor in his forty-third year by the officers of the army at Nicaea in Bithynia in 364, and shortly afterwards named his brother Valens colleague with him in the empire.
Valentinian attacked them at Solicinium (Sulz in the Neckar valley or Schwetzingen) with a large army, and defeated them with great slaughter, but his own losses were so considerable that he abandoned the idea of following up his success.
In 387 Magnus Maximus, who had commanded a Roman army in Britain, and had in 383 (the year of Gratian's death) made himself master of the northern provinces, crossed the Alps into the valley of the Po and threatened Milan.
The state demanded men for the army and the corvee as well as dues in kind.
In 210 B.C. this important place, the headquarters and treasure city of the Punic army, was stormed and taken with great slaughter by P. Scipio.
A British army, commanded by Marshal Beresford, endeavoured to retake it, and on the 16th of May defeated a relieving force at Albuera, but the siege was abandoned in June.
of Poland and Matthias, were commanded in turn to execute the papal decree of deposition, and Matthias gladly placed his army at the disposal of the Holy See.
Thus in 1479 a huge Turkish army, on its return home from ravaging Transylvania, was annihilated at Szaszvaros (Oct.
Budapest 1879); Karl Schober, Die Eroberung Niederosterreichs durch Matthias Corvinus (Vienna, 1879); Janos Huszar, Matthias's Black Army (Hung.
All salaried 220,479 165,144 government officials (except minis ters, under-secretaries of state and other high functionaries, and officers 210,020 347,940 in the army or navy), and ecclesiastics, -, are disqualified for election.
The Italian army grew o~it of the old Piedmontese army with which in the main the unification of Italy was brought about.
This unification meant for the army the absorption of contingents from all parts of Italy and presenting serious differences in physical and moral aptitudes, political opinions and education.
Moreover the strategic geography of the country required the greater part of the army to be stationed permanently within reach of the north-eastern and north-western frontiers.
Thus in Italy the universal service system, though probably the best organization both for the army and the nation, works with a maximum of friction.
By this law, every man liable and accepted for service served for eight or nine years on the Active Army and its Reserve (of which three to five were spent with the colors), four or, five in the Mobile Militia, and the rest of the service period of nineteen years in the Territorial Militia.
Under present regulations the term of liability is divided into nine years in the Active Army and Reserve (three or two years with the colors) four in the Mobile MilitIa and six in the Territorial Militia.
Like almost all Universal Service countries, Italy only drafts a small proportion of the available recruits into the army.
Thus, on the 30th of September 1871 the various categories of the army included only 2% of the population, but on the 30th of June 1898 they included 10%.
But in 1901 the strength of the active army and reserve shows a marked diminution, which became accentuated in the year following.
The table below indicates that up to 1907 the army, though always below its nominal strength, never absorbed more than a quarter of the available contingent.
Assigned to active army 102,204 102,141 97,132 87,493
Joined active army.
One specially difficult point concerned the effectives of the peacestrength army.
The army is always maintained at a low peace effective (about one-quarter of war establishment) and even this was reduced, by the absence of the recruits, until there were often only i~ rank and file with a company, whose war strength is about 230.
Even in the summer and autumn a large proportion of the army consisted of men with but a few months servicea highly dangerous state of things considering the peculiar mobilization conditioss of the country.
The army is organized in 12 army corps (each of 2 divisions), 6 of which are quartered on the plain of Lombardy and Venetia and on the frontiers, and 2 more in northern Central Italy.
The war strength was estimated in 1901 as, Active Army (md.
These figures are, with a fractional increase in the Regular Army, applicable to-day.
When the 1907 scheme takes full effect, however, the Active Army and the Mobile Militia will each be augmented by about one-third.
In 1915 the field army should, including officers and permanent cadres, be about 1,012,000 strong.
The army consists of 96 three-battalion regiments of infantry of the line and 12 of bersaglieri (riflemen), each of the latter having a cyclist company (Bersaglieri cyclist battalions are being (1909) provisionally formed); 26 regiments of cavalry, of which 10 are lancers, each of 6 squadrons; 24 regiments of artillery, each of 8 batteries; I I regiment of horse artillery of 6 batteries; I of mountain artillery of 12 batteries, and 3 independent mountain batteries.
The carabinieri or gendarmerie, some 26,500 in number, are part of the standing army; they are recruited from selected volunteers from the army.
The Italian Chamber decided that from the 1st of July 1901 until the 30th of June 1907 Italian military expenditure proper should not exceed the maximum of 1/29,560,000 per annum fixed by the Army Bill of May 1897, and that, military pensions should not exceed 1/21,440,000.
The Goths, except in the valley of the P0, resembled an army of occupation rather than a people numerous enough to blend with the Italic stock.
In Milan the archbishop organizes the hitherto voiceless, defenceless population into a community capable of expressing its needs, and an army ready to maintain its rights.
He came in 1158 with a large army, overran Lombardy, raised his imperial allies, and sat down before the walls of Milan.
His army found itself a little to the north of the town near the village of Legnano, when the troops of the city, assisted only by a few allies from Piacenza, Verona, Brescia, Novara and Vercelli, met and overwhelmed it.
An army of mixed German and Spanish troops, pretending to act for the emperor, but which may rather be regarded as a vast marauding party, entered Italy under their leader Frundsberg.
As an immediate result of this catastrophe, Florence shook off the Medici, and established a republic. But Clement, having made peace with the emperor, turned the remnants of the army which had sacked Rome against his native city.
But Francis of Lorraine, elected emperor in that year, sent an army to the kings support, which in 1746 obtained a signal victory over the Bourbons at Piacenza.
of an Austro-Russian army, led by that strange but magnetic being, Suvarov, decided the campaign in northern Italy.
A month later the ambitious young general, Joubert, who took over Moreaus command and raffled part of Macdonalds following, was utterly routed by the Austro-Russian army at Novi (August 15) with the loss of 12,000 men.
The Austriai general, Melas, signed an armistice whereby he was to retir with his army beyond the river Mincio.
The Bourbon courl sailed away to Palermo, where it remained for eight years under the protection afforded by the British fleet and a British army of occupation.
Murat, left in command of the Grand Army at of ?VapoVilna, abandoned his charge and in the next year made Icons overtures to the allies who coalesced against Napoleon.
Not only did she govern Lombardy and Venetia directly, but Austrian princes ruled in Modena, Parma and Tuscany; Piacenza, Ferrara and Comacchio had Austrian garrisons; Prince Metternich, the Austrian chancellor, believed that he could always secure the election of an Austrophil pope, and Ferdinand of Naples, reinstated by an Austrian army, had bound himself, by a secret article of the treaty of June 12, 1815, not to introduce methods of government incompatible with those adopted in Austrias Italian possessions.
The French system of taxation was maintained because it brought in ampler revenues; but feudalism, the antiquated legislation and bureaucracy were revived, and all the officers and officials still living who had served the state before the Revolution, many of them now in their dotage, were restored to their posts; only nobles were eligible for the higher government appointments; all who had served under the French administration were dismissed pr reduced in rank, and in the army beardless scions of the aristocracy were placed over the, heads of war-worn veterans who had commanded regiments in Spain and Russia.
When Ferdinand returned to Naples in 1815 he found the kingdom, and especially the army, honeycombed with CarbonarQevolu- ism, to which many noblemen and officers were tiot, if, affiliated; and although the police instituted prosecuNaples, tions and organized the counter-movement of the 1820.
The troops sent against them commanded by General Guglielmo Pepe, himself a Carbonaro, hesitated to act, and the king, finding that he could not count on the army, granted the constitution (July 13, 1820), and appointed his son Francis regent.
The latter immediately proclaimed the constitution, but the new king, Charles Felix, who was at Modena at the time, repudiated the regents acts and exiled him to Tuscany; and, with his consent, an Austrian army invaded Piedmont and crushed the constitutionalists at Novara.
Though eventually this activity of the Giovane Italia supplanted that of the older societies, in practice it met with no better success; the two attempts to invade Savoy in the hope of seducing the army from its allegiance failed miserably, and only resulted in a series of barbarous sentences of death and imprisonment which made most Liberals despair of Charles Albert, while they called down much criticism on Mazzini as the organizer of raids in which he himself took no part.
Charles Albert, although mahftaining his reactionary policy, had introduced administrative reforms, built railways, reorganized the army and developed the resources of the country.
Then came the news of the Five Days of Milan, which produced the wildest excitement in Turin; unless First war the army were sent to assist the struggling Lombards of Italy at once the dynasty was in jeopardy.
But much precious time had been lost, and even then the army was not ready.
Tuscany and Naples had both joined the Italian league; a Tuscan army started for Lombardy on the 3oth of April, and 17,000 Neapolitans commanded by Pepe (who had returned after 28 years of exile) went to assist Durando in intercepting the Austrian reinforce1irnts under Nugent.
the 17th Ferdinand dissolved parliament and recalled the army.
The whole Austrian army now turned on Vicenza, which after a brave resistance surrendered on the Ioth of June.
The mob, egged on by the republicans, attacked the palace where the king was lodged, and he escaped with difficulty, returning to Piedmont with the remnants of his army.
But so long as Piedmont was not completely crushed none of the princes dared to take decisive measures against their subjects; in spite of Custozza, Charles Albert still had an army, and Austria, with revolutions in Vienna, Hungary and Bohemia on her hands, could not intervene.
But Charles Charles Albert, who, whatever his faults, had a generous Albertre- nature, was determined that so long as be had an news the army in being he could not abandon the Lombards War, and the Venetians, whom he had encouraged in their resistance, without one more effort, though he knew full well that he was staking all on a desperate chance.
But the discipline and moral of the army were shaken and its organization faulty.
At the same time an Austrian army was marching through the Legations, and Neapolitan and Spanish troops were advancing from the south.
The Roman army (20,000 men) was commanded by General Rosselli, and included, besides Garibaldis red-shirted legionaries, volunteers from all parts of Italy, mostly very young men, many of them wealthy and of noble family.
It was now evident that the federal idea was impossible, for none of the princes except Victor Emmanuel could be trusted, and that unity and freedom could not be achieved under a republic, for nothing could be done without the Piedmontese army, which was royalist to the core.
The situation in Piedmont was far from promising, the exchequer was empty, the army disorganized, the country despondent and suspicious of the king.
Piedmontese finances had been strained to breaking-point to organize an army obviously intended for other than merely defensive purposes.
When war seemed imminent volunteers from all parts of Italy, especially from Lombardy, had come pouring into Piedmont to enrol themselves in the army or in the specially raised volunteer corps (the cornrnand of which was given to Garibaldi), and to go to Piedmont became a test of patriotism throughout the country.
Urged by a peremptory message from Napoleon, Cavour saw the necessity of bowing to the will of Europe, of disbanding the volunteers and reducing the army to a peace footing.
But the king and Cavour were terribly upset by this move, which meant peace without Venetia; Cavour hurried to the kings headquarters at Monzambano Armistice and in excited, almost disrespectful, language implored ~0ranca~ him not to agree to peace and to continue the war alone, relying on the Piedmontese army and a general Italian revolution.
On the 23rd of May Prince Napoleon, with a French army corps, landed at Leghorn, his avowed object being to threaten the Austrian flank; and in June these troops, together with a Tuscan contingent, departed for Lombardy.
In the duchy of Modena an insurrection had broken out, and after Magenta Duke Francis joined the Austrian army in Lombardy, leaving a regency in charge.
But to Napoleons statement that he could not agree to the unification of Italy, as he was bound by his promises to Austria at Villafranca, Victor Emmanuel replied that he himself, after Magenta and Solferino, was bound in honor to link his fate with that of the Italian people; and Genetal Manfredo Fanti was sent by the Turin government to organize the army of the Central League, with Garibaldi under him.
~ the 11th of September a Piedmontese army of 35,000 men of ~ ssed the frontier at La Cattolica,; on the 18th the pontifical Th ny was crushed at Castelfidardo; and when, on the 29th, sep coria fell, TJmbria and the Marches were in the power of we!
first caused no difficulty; the rank and file of the nd were mostly disbanded, but a number of the officers tee: 1 taken into the Italian army; the third offered a more)Us problem.
Garibaldi demanded that all his officers should be n equivalent rank in the Italian army, and in this he had the port of Fanti.
~er his immediate command, to operate on the ncio, while Cialdini with 80,000 men was to operate on the The Austrian southern army consisting of 95,000 men was amanded by the archduke Albert, with General von John chief of the staff.
Custozza might have been afterwards retrieved,, for Italians had plenty of fresh troops besides Cialdinis army; nothing was done, as both the king and La Marraora believed situation to be much worse than it actually wa,s.
army of 350,000 men was now free to fall on Italy.
The French regular troops were withdrawn from Rome in December 1866; but the pontifical forces were largely recruited in France and commanded by officers of the imperial army, and service under the pope was considered by the French war office as equivalent to service in France.
General Ricotti Magnani, minister of war, therefore framed an Army Reform Bill designed to bring the Italian army as nearly as possible up to the Prussian standard.
Under the stress of the appalling financial conditions represented by chronic deficit, crushing taxation, the heavy expenditure necessary for the consolidation of the kingdom, the reform of the army and the interest on the pontifical debt, Sella, on the 11th of December 1871, exposed to parliament the financial situation in all its nakedness.
Outside the all-important domain of finance, the attention of Minghetti and his colleagues was principally absorbed by strife between church and state, army reform and railway redemption.
Simultaneously General Ricotti Magnani matured the army reform scheme which he had elaborated under the preceding administration.
His bill, adopted by parliament on the 7th of June 1875, still forms the ground plan of the Italian army.
At the same time the duke of Aosta, commander of the Rome army corps, ordered the troops to render royal honors to the pontiff should he officially appear in the capital.
Except in regard to an increase of the army estimates, urgently demanded by public opinion, the new ministry had practically no programme.
He, indeed, was not disposed to concede to public opinion anything beyond an increase of the army, a measure insistently demanded by Garibaldi and the Left.
both army and navy, but advocated cordial relations with Berlin and Vienna as a guarantee against French domineering, and as a pledge that Italy would be vouchsafed time to effect her armaments without disturbing financial equilibrium.
In Italy public opinion as a whole was favorable to the visit, especially as it was not considered an obstacle to the projected increase of the army and navy.
Garibaldi, who, since the French occupation of Tunis, had ardently worked for the increase of the army, had thus the satisfaction of seeing his desire realized before his death at Caprera, on the 2nd of June 1882.
Before his death, and almost contemporaneously with the passing of the Army Bill, negotiations for the alliance were renewed.
A third Italian army would, if expedient, pass into Germany, to operate against either France or Russia.
Italian army and navy, but, in virtue of the AngloItalian understanding, assured the practical adhesion of Great Britain to the European policy of the central powers, a triumph probably greater than any registered by Italian diplomacy since the completion.
Portal returned to Massawa on the 25th of December 1887, and warned the Italians that John was preparing to attack them in the following spring with an army of 100,000 men.
Extravagant expenditure on railways and public works, loose administration of finance, the cost of colonial enterprise, the growing demands for the army and navy, the impending tariff war with France, and the overspeculation in building and in industrial ventures, which had absorbed all the floating capital of the country, had combined to produce a state of affairs calling for firm and radical treatment.
Concentrating a little army of 2600 men, Baratieri surprised and captured Kassala on.
At Makall, however, he left a small garrison in the fort, which on the 7th of January 1896 was invested by the Abyssinian army.