When several rings or circles were combined representing the great circles of the heavens, the instrument became an armillary sphere.
Eratosthenes (276-196 B.C.) used most probably a solstitial armilla for measuring the obliquity of the ecliptic. Hipparchus (160-125 B.C.) probably used an armillary sphere of four rings.
Chap. i.), and it is of great interest as an example of the armillary sphere passing into the spherical astrolabe.
No material advance was made on Ptolemy's instrument until Tycho Brahe, whose elaborate armillary spheres passing into astrolabes are figured in his Astronjmiae Instauratae Mechanica.
Armillary spheres occur in many old sculptures, paintings and engravings; and from these sources we know that they were made for suspension, for resting on the ground or on a table, for holding by a short handle, or either for holding or for resting on a stand.
A collection of circles such as is the armillary sphere, if each circle were fitted with a view-tube, might be considered a complete astrolabe.
They were, on the other hand, probably acquainted, a couple of millenniums before Meton gave it his name, with the nineteen-year cycle, by which solar and lunar years were harmonized; 1 they immemorially made observations in the meridian; regulated time by water-clocks, and used measuring instruments of the nature of armillary spheres and quadrants.
He invented, or improved armillary spheres, the chief implements of ancient astrometry, determined the obliquity of the ecliptic at 23° 51' (a value 5' too great), and introduced an effective mode of arc-measurement.