How to use Armies in a sentence
He led his armies through many countries.
The vice-president is the destined commander-in-chief of the field armies and is styled the generalissimo.
The Eastern Command Center had served as the headquarters for the Eastern armies during the East-West Civil War.
We can still break through those in the north provided we alert our allies and pull in the southern armies, Hilden explained.
We'll see them coming before they arrive, but the forest hides the armies south and north of the city too well.Advertisement
Played in double time the tune was a favourite march in the Revolutionary armies, until it was forbidden by Napoleon, on becoming First Consul.
They're with the armies.
The civilians were off the planet while his armies remained.
You did not choose her title, her armies, her gold, her influence, her banishment, her death.
He switched to the ground battle and hastened through the size, position, and make-up of each of the major ground armies.Advertisement
He controls the ground armies.
I alone know the locations of all our armies.
My father comes tomorrow with your mate and his armies.
If his plan failed, he'd send the remaining members of the army with the people north, until they met Dierdirien's armies.
Vara didn't send word, and only pages ran between their group and the main hold or Memon's armies.Advertisement
He took part in the nomination of the counts and dukes; in the king's absence he presided over the royal tribunal; and he often commanded the armies.
But his measures speedily gave dissatisfaction to the Argentine or Creole party, who had long chafed under the disabilities of Spanish rule, and who now felt themselves no longer bound by ties of loyalty to a country which was in the possession of the French armies.
From 1816, however, the independence of the Argentine Republic was assured, and success attended the South Americans in their contest with the royal armies.
While Ferdinand was occupied with the Bohemian rebels, Bethlen led his armies into Hungary (1619), and soon won over the whole of the northern counties, even securing Pressburg and the Holy Crown.
He showed, while making the Suez Canal, what a gift he possessed for levying the pacific armies he conducted.Advertisement
Their land became a recruiting ground for the Roman armies, and a base for expeditions across the Rhine.
At one time, as in the case of Blechingdon, they would perform strange exploits worthy of the most daring hussars; at another their speed and tenacity paralyses armies.
At a time when throughout the rest of Europe armies were manoeuvring against one another with no more than a formal result, the English and Scots were fighting decisive battles; and Cromwell's battles were more decisive than those of any other leader.
It faded away in the great Church, and probably Celsus was describing Montanist circles (though Origen assumed that they were ordinary believers) when he wrote 3 of the many Christians of no repute who at the least provocation, whether within or without their temples, threw themselves about like inspired persons; while others did the same in cities or among armies in order to collect alms, roaming about cities or camps.
They were published after his death by his son, William Theobald Wolfe Tone (1791-1828), who was educated by the French government and served with some distinction in the armies of Napoleon, emigrating after Waterloo to America, where he died, in New York City, on the 10th of October 1828.Advertisement
He came to supersede self-government by consuls, to deprive the cities of the privilege of making war on their own account and to extort his regalian rights of forage, food and lodging for his armies.
During the next four years the Franco-Spanish war dragged on in Lombardy until the decisive battle of Pavia in 1525, when Francis was taken prisoner, and Italy lay open to the Spanish armies.
But these wars were fought for the most part by alien armies; the points at issue were decided beyond the Alps; the gains accrued to royal families whose names were unpronounceable by southern tongues.
The French armies were more than once defeated by Prince Eugene of Savoy, who drove them out of Italy in 1707.
On the other hand, they suffered from the rigorous measures of the continental system, which seriously crippled trade at the ports and were not compensated by the increased facilities for trade with France which Napoleon opened up. The drain of men to supply his armies in Germany, Spain and Russia was also a serious loss.Advertisement
Constituent assemblies met and voted for unity under Victor Emmanuel, but the king could not openly accept the proposal owing to the emperors opposition, backed by the presence of French armies in Lombardy; at a word from Napoleon there might have been an Austrian, and perhaps a Franco-Austrian, invasion of central Italy.
The Italian General Staff is said to have undertaken, in the event of war against France, to operate with two armies on the north-western frontier against the French arme des Alpes, of which the war strength is about 250,000 men.
They numbered 40,000 to 50,000 infantry, and formed the greater part of the Russian armies in the wars of the 16th and 17th centuries.
How severely strict medieval abstinence was may be gauged from the fact that armies and garrisons were sometimes, in default of dispensations, as in the case of the siege of Orleans in 1429, reduced to starvation for want of Lenten food, though in full possession of meat and other supplies.
The armies of Wessex and Mercia did no serious fighting, and the Danes were allowed to remain through the winter.Advertisement
The hieroglyphic inscriptions of Egypt and the cuneiform inscriptions of Assyria are rich in records of the movements and achievements of armies, the conquest of towns and the subjugation of peoples; but though many of the recorded sites have been identified, their discovery by wandering armies was isolated from their subsequent history and need not concern us here.
His armies crossed the plains beyond the Caspian, penetrated the wild mountain passes northwest of India, and did not turn back until they had entered on the Indo-Gangetic plain.
Sulla, leaving things quiet at Rome, quitted Italy in 87, and for the next four years he was winning victory after victory against the armies of Mithradates and accumulating boundless plunder.
The rival armies met at the Sauchieburn near Bannockburn, and James soon fled.
Roman armies began to enter it about 218 B.C. In 121 B.C. the coast from 1 When Cisalpine Gaul became completely Romanized, it was often known as "Gallia Togata," while the Province was distinguished as "Gallia Bracata" (bracae, incorrectly braccae, " trousers"), from the long trousers worn by the inhabitants, and the rest of Gaul as "Gallia Comata," from the inhabitants wearing their hair long.Advertisement
The armies in these districts formed the defence of Gaul against German invaders.
In March 1814 he was one of the band of students who, on the heights of Montmartre and Saint-Chaumont, attempted resistance to the armies of the allies then engaged in the investment of Paris.
In July the siege of Silistria was raised, and the Russian armies recrossed the Danube; in August they withdrew to Russia.
At the same time Napoleon threatened openly to crush Austria, and in 180 9 he carried out his threat by defeating the Austrian armies at Wagram and elsewhere, and dictating the treaty of Schonbrunn (October 14).
In this way Yahweh came to be called the Baal or " lord " of any sacred place where the armies of Israel by their victories attested " his mighty hand and outstretched arm."Advertisement
In Wellhausen's words, each petty state " revolved on its own axis " of social-religious life till the armies of Tiglath-Pileser III.
After some preliminary manoeuvres the two armies drew up face to face on the left bank of the Roneo, the Spanish left and the French right resting on this river.
The invasion of France by the German armies during the war of 1870-71 attracted his attention to the Germanic invasions under the Roman Empire.
It ends with the destruction of Jerusalem by the armies of the Roman Empire, which was, like Alexander, at once the masterful pupil and the docile patron of Hellenism.
The evil was wrought, not by the regular armies of the cross who were inspired by noble ideals, but by the undisciplined mobs which, for the sake of plunder, associated themselves with the genuine enthusiasts.Advertisement
The American Jews bore their share in the Civil War (7038 Jews were in the two armies), and have always identified themselves closely with national movements such as the emancipation of Cuba.
The total number of men supplied by Cleveland to the U.S. armies in the World War was 55,000; the total amount subscribed in the Liberty and Victory Loans $437,041,300.
He went through the wars of 1866 and 1870 as a spectator with the German armies, and in 1873 he started upon a famous journey through Khorassan.
The workers of these ants range over the country in large armies, killing and carrying off all the insects and spiders that they find and sometimes attacking 'vertebrates.
In 1879 he followed up the Urangi river to the Altai Mountains, and demonstrated to the world the extraordinary physical changes which have passed over the heart of the Asiatic continent since Jenghiz Khan massed his vast armies in those provinces.
Linguistically they can be divided into several groups such as Turks, Mongols and Huns, but they were from time to time united into states representing more than one group, and their armies were recruited, like the Janissaries, from all the military races in the neighbourhood.
At first this seemed not improbable; French armies marched south on Naples, and the pope sent Campeggio with full powers to pronounce the divorce in England.
Its armies drew soldiers from all parts of India.
Its nearness to Washington, the material and manufacturing resources concentrated in it, and the moral importance attached to its possession by both sides, caused it to be regarded as the centre of gravity of the military operations in the east to which the greatest leaders and the finest armies were devoted from 1861 to 1865.
During the war the principal iron foundry of the Confederacy (Tredegar Iron Works) was in Richmond, and here most of the cannon used by the Confederate armies were cast.
Amongst Orthoptera we find many noxious insects, notably the locusts, which travel in vast cloud-like armies, clearing the whole country before them of all vegetable life.
Large pits are dug across the line of advance of these great insect armies to stop them when in the larval or wingless stage, and even huge bonfires are lighted to check their flight when adult.
The autocrat and Lucien Bonaparte were almost alone in believing that by dissolving the chambers and declaring himself dictator, he could save France from the armies of the powers now converging on Paris.
As War Minister he had the gigantic task of demobilizing armies of between four and five millions who had been in the war, of providing armies of occupation and forces for immediate garrisoning of the Empire, of building up an after-war army, and of re-creating the territorial army.
The Prussians and a Saxon contingent, commanded by Frederick the Great and his brother Prince Henry, were opposed to two Austrian armies under Loudon and Lacy.
In 1628 he was in alliance with Spain in the war against France; the French invaded the duchy, which, being abandoned by Spain, was overrun by their armies.
Through these two men a military revolution was speedily accomplished, and early in 69 Vitellius was proclaimed emperor at Colonia Agrippinensis (Cologne), or, more accurately, emperor of the armies of Upper Germany and Lower Germany.
As soon as it was known that the armies of the East, Dalmatia and Illyricum had declared for Vespasian, Vitellius, deserted by many of his adherents, would have resigned the title of emperor.
A new career of ambition was opened to her citizens in the Roman honours that rewarded services to the imperial armies during their frequent expeditions in the East.
Jewish tradition had reason to remember these formidable Palmyrenes in the Roman armies; according to the Talmud 80,000 of them assisted at the destruction of the first temple, 8000 at that of the second !
During the Civil War Cairo was an important strategic point, and was a military centre and depot of supplies of considerable importance for the Federal armies in the west.
In 101 the Cimbri were defeated on the Raudine plain, near Vercellae, by the united armies of Catulus and Marius.
Before a battle they often throw themselves between two armies to bring about peace.
Before the battle of Culdremne (561) a Druid made an airbe druad (fence of protection?) round one of the armies, but what is precisely meant by the phrase is obscure.
The armies of Fulcher and Gottschalk were destroyed by the Hungarians in just revenge for their excesses (June); the third, after joining in a wild Judenhetze in the towns of the valley of the Rhine, during which some io,000 Jews perished as the first-fruits of crusading zeal, was scattered to the winds in Hungary (August).
There was thus a steady immigration into the kingdom, to strengthen its armies and recruit with new blood the vigour of its inhabitants.
Still more important perhaps was the fact that the ports of the kingdom attracted the Italian towns; and it was therefore to the kingdom that they lent the strength of their armies and the skill of their siege-artillery - in return, it is true, for concessions of privileges so considerable as to weaken the resources of the kingdom they helped to create.
Thus, although Alexius had been able, in the wake of the crusading armies, to recover a large belt of land round the whole coast of Asia Minor, - the interior remaining subject to the sultans of Konia (Iconium) and the princes of Sivas, - he left the territories to the east of the western boundary of Cilicia in the hands of the Latins when he died in 1118.
Thousands must have joined the Third Crusade in order to escape paying either their taxes or the interest on their debts; and the atmosphere of the gold-digger's camp (or of the cave of Adullam) must have begun more than ever to characterize the crusading armies.
Richard soon followed; but while Philip sailed straight for Acre, Richard occupied himself by the way in conquering Cyprus - partly out of knight-errantry, and in order to avenge an insult offered to his betrothed wife Berengaria by the despot of the island, partly perhaps out of policy, and in order to provide a basis of supplies and of operations for the armies attempting to recover Palestine.
He stayed in the Holy Land little more than a month after his coronation; and leaving in May he soon overcame the papal armies in Italy, and secured absolution from Gregory IX.
The south part of Syria was known to Sargon of Akkad (Agade) as Ammon and was visited by his armies.
They remained passive throughout the war and the neutrality of the country was respected by both armies.
Here Blucher crossed the Rhine with the Prussian and Russian armies, on New Year's night 1813-1814, in pursuit of the French.
Hood had to retire to Atlanta, with a loss of more than 4000 men, and the three Union armies gradually converged on the north and east sides of the city.
The armies of Alexander's successors were still in the main principles of their organization similar to the army with which Alexander had conquered Asia.
The Antigonid and Seleucid courts had much valuable material at hand for their armies in the barbarian races under their sway.
The other class of mercenaries were Gauls, and from the time of the Gallic invasion of Asia Minor in 279 Gauls or Galatians were a regular constituent in all armies.
The elephants which Alexander brought back from India were used in the armies of his successors, and in 302 Seleucus procured a new supply.
Thenceforward elephants, either brought fresh from India or bred in the royal stables at Apamea, regularly figured in the Seleucid armies.
The Hellenistic armies weredistinguished by their external magnificence.
They made a greater display of brilliant metal and gorgeous colour than the Roman armies, for instance.
But the feeling in Vespasian's favour quickly gathered strength, and the armies of Moesia, Pannonia and Illyricum soon declared for him, and made him in fact master of half of the Roman world.
There were also public slaves; of these some belonged to temples, to which they were presented as offerings, amongst them being the courtesans who acted as hieroduli at Corinth and at Eryx in Sicily; others were appropriated to the service of the magistrates or to public works; there were at Athens 1200 Scythian archers for the police of the city; slaves served, too, in the fleets, and were employed in the armies, - commonly as workmen, and exceptionally as soldiers.
During the Hundred Days he was vice-president of the chamber of deputies, and when the allied armies entered Paris he drew up the declaration in which the chamber asserted the necessity of maintaining the principles of government that had been established at the Revolution.
Butler occupied that city The navigation of the river being secured by this success and by later operations in the north ending in July 1863 with the capture of Vicksburg and Port Hudson, the state was wholly at the mercy of the Union armies.
In 1528 Jajce surrendered, after repelling every attack by the Turkish armies for 65 years.
In every important campaign of the Turkish armies, these descendants of the Bogomils were represented; they amassed considerable wealth from the spoils of war, and frequently rose to high military and administrative positions.
At Kossovo he was reinforced by 20,000 Albanians, led by the rebel Mustapha Pasha; and within a few weeks the united armies occupied the whole of Bulgaria, and a large part of Macedonia.
In 1799 it was taken of ter ten days' bombardment by the Austrian and Russian armies, and, in 1800, of ter the victory of Marengo, the French demolished the fortifications.
The conquerors were feudatories of the reigning prince or sultan, and their payments consisted principally in providing fighting forces to make up the armies of the prince.
After the disaster of Angora, from which it seemed impossible that the Ottoman fortunes could ever recover, the princes fled each with as many troops as he could induce to Inter- follow him, being hotly pursued by Timur's armies.
At last the armies of sultan and pretender met at Ulubad (Lopadion) on the Rhyndacus in Asia Minor; Mustafa's troops fled at the first onset; Lampsacus, where the pretender took refuge, was captured with the aid of the Genoese galleys under Adorno.
When, in the spring of 1769, the first serious campaign was opened by a simultaneous attack by three Russian armies on the principalities, the Crimea and the buffer state of Kabardia, the Turks, in spite of ample warning, were unprepared.
Here help was expected to arrive from England, and the tide might yet have turned, for the Russian armies were gathering in the east.
Before their advance, however, the Russian armies steadily retired, Barclay from Vilna via Drissa to Vitebsk, Bagration from Wolkowysk to Mohilev.
To disavow the acts and desires of the army and of the secret societies for defence with which all north Germany was honeycombed would be to imperil the very existence of the monarchy, whilst an attack on the wreck of the Grand Army meant the certainty of a terrible retribution from the new armies now rapidly forming on the Rhine.
Thanks to his having compelled his allies to fight his battles for him, he had not as yet drawn very heavily on the fighting resources of France, the actual percentage of men taken by the conscriptions during the years since 1806 being actually lower than that in force in continental armies of to-day.
This move on the 14th brought him into touch with Bernadotte, and now a single march forward of all three armies would have absolutely isolated Napoleon from France; but Bernadotte's nerve failed him, for on hearing of Napoleon's threat against Wittenberg he decided to retreat northward, and not all the persuasions of Blucher and Gneisenau could move him.
The operations of the British fleet were therefore divided between the work of patrolling the ocean roads and ancillary services to diplomacy, or to the armies serving in Italy, Denmark and, after 1808, in Spain.
Finally, many members were sent away either to the departments or to the armies, on missions which lasted sometimes for a considerable length of time.
Minnesota furnished more than 25,000 troops for the Federal armies during the Civil War.
The absence of a large proportion of the able-bodied young settlers in the northern armies was taken advantage of by the Indians, and in the summer of 1862 there was delay in paying them their yearly allowance.
The British government notified to Sir John Moore that some io,000 men were to be sent to Corunna under Sir David Baird; that he, with 20,000, was to join him, and then both act in concert with the Spanish armies.
To do so by sea at this season was to risk delay, while in moving by land he would have the Spanish armies between him and the French.
By this time, French armies, to a great extent controlled by Napoleon from a distance, had advanced - Soult from Galicia to capture Oporto and Lisbon (with General Lapisse from Salamanca moving on his left towards Abrantes) and Marshal Victor, still farther.
Henceforth he resisted all proposals for joint operations, on any large scale, with Spanish armies not under his own direct command.
By November 1812, Hill having joined him at Salamanca, Wellington once more had gone into cantonments near Ciudad Rodrigo, and the French armies had again scattered for convenience of supply.
On the 13th of April 1814 officers arrived with the announcement to both armies of the capture of Paris, the abdication of Napoleon, and the practical conclusion of peace; and on the 18th a convention, which included Suchet's force, was entered into between Wellington and Soult.
Yet this apparently incoherent aggregate held its ground successfully against the powerful armies often sent against the place both by the king of Dahomey from the west, and by the people of Ibadan from the north-east.
At Tippermuir and Aberdeen he routed Covenanting levies; at Inverlochy he crushed the Campbells, at Auldearn, Alford and Kilsyth his victories were obtained over well-led and disciplined armies.
Because light is accompanied by heat, he was the god of vegetation and increase; he sent prosperity to the good, and annihilated the bad; he was the god of armies and the champion of heroes; as the enemy of darkness and of all evil spirits, he protected souls, accompanying them on the way to paradise, and was thus a redeemer.
He committed the great mistake, too, of directing the movements of distant armies from the seat of government, though those armies were under able generals.
After the surrender of the armies of Lee and Johnston in April 1865, President Davis attempted to make his way, through Georgia, across the Mississippi, in the vain hope of continuing the war with the forces of Generals Smith and Magruder.
Occasionally vast armies of locusts or caterpillars advance over large tracts of country, devouring all vegetation in their line of march.
The disastrous invasion of the Turks, incessant civil wars and devastation by foreign armies and pestilence, caused a very heavy loss both of population and of prosperity.
The war opened disastrously for the French, but by 1642, when Richelieu died, his armies - risen from 12,000 men in 1621 to 150,000 in 1638 - had conquered Roussillon from Spain; they held Catalonia, which had revolted from Philip IV.
Very different was Valdemar's second conference with Barbarossa, on the banks of the Eider, in 1182, when the two monarchs met as equals in the presence of their respective armies, and a double marriage was arranged between two of Valdemar's daughters and two of the emperor's sons.
But the Jews are no longer the obedient slaves of the oppressing power; there has been a national rising and armies have gone forth to battle.
Both sides in the War of Independence drew upon these herds, and the llaneros were among the bravest in both armies.
The direction of the Prussian railways, not laid out primarily for strategic purposes, conditioned the first deployment of the whole army, with the result that at first the Prussians were distributed in three main groups or armies on a front of about 250 m.
By the morning of the 30th it was clear that the junction between the two armies could be completed, whenever desired, by a forward march of a few miles.
The convergence of the Prussian armies on the battlefield ended in the greatest confusion.
Moreover the little fortresses of Josephstadt and Koniggratz both refused to capitulate, and the whole Prussian armies were thus compelled to move down the Elbe to Pardubitz before they could receive any definite new direction.
In western Germany the Prussian forces, depleted to the utmost to furnish troops for the Bohemian campaign, were opposed to the armies of Hanover and Bavaria and the 8th Federal corps (the last consisting of Hessians, Wurttembergers, Badensers and Nassauers with an Austrian division drawn from the neutralized Federal fortresses), which were far superior in number.
Small armies moving freely within a large theatre of war, the occupation of hostile territory as a primary object of operations, the absence of a decision-compelling spirit on either side, the hostile political "view" over-riding the hostile "feeling" - all these conditions remind the student of those of 17th and 18th century warfare.
But the improved organization, better communications and supplies, superior moral, and once again the breech-loader versus a standing target, which caused the Prussian successes, at least give us an opportunity of comparing the old and the new systems under similar conditions, and even thus the principle of the "armed nation" achieved the decision in a period of time which, for the old armies, was wholly insufficient.
Serving with the French armies he distinguished himself in the campaigns of 1 74 2, 1 743 and 1744, and at the battle of Fontenoy in 1745, retiring to Bagnolet in 1 757, and occupying his time with theatrical performances and the society of men of letters.
Numerically, the contending armies would at this very critical juncture of the campaign be almost equal, the invaders rather the stronger; but the Turks were much dispersed, so that the result almost hinged upon the speed with which the attacking side should gain ground before the defenders had time to concentrate.
The night of the 24th of October was spent by the two armies on the ground, and the English had but little shelter from the heavy rain which fell.
He attempted to prevent the creation of the Revolutionary Tribunal, but when called to the first Committee of Public Safety he worked on it energetically to organize the armies.
In the armies and navies of all Christian countries chaplains are officially appointed, with the single exception of France, where the office was abolished on the separation of Church and State.
In the armies of Roman Catholic countries there are elaborate regulations.
A succession of Ninevite armies raided north Syria and even south-east Asia Minor, and gradually reduced the Hatti.
In the Wars of the Investitures Matilda was ever on the papal (afterwards called Guelph) side against the emperor and the faction afterwards known as Ghibelline, and she herself often led armies to battle.
His armies plundered Syria and Asia Minor, and in 608 advanced to Chalcedon.
It was not intended that Arabs should settle in the conquered lands except as armies of occupation.
On the 14th of October 1802 the amir Abdul Aziz, at the age of eighty-two years, was murdered by a Shia fanatic when at prayers in the mosque of Deraiya, and Salad, who had for many years led the Wahhabi armies, became the reigning amir.
During the 4th century they frequently served together with the Batavi in the Roman armies.
They were entirely devoted to warfare and served not only in the Roman armies, but also in those of all the surrounding nations.
The latter were indubitably the Ugrian nomads of the steppe, akin to the Tatar invaders of Europe, who filled the armies and convoyed the caravans of the ruling caste.
Their united armies then moved northward.
Between 1499 and 1505 they heroically withstood three sieges and repulsed three attacking armies.
In the grand advance of Halleck's armies which followed Shiloh, Grant was relieved of all important duties by his assignment as second in command of the whole force, and was thought by the army at large to 'be in disgrace.
Four armies were placed under his command, and three of these concentrated at Chattanooga.
At Cold Harbor six thousand men fell in one useless assault lasting an hour, and after two months the Union armies lay before Richmond and Petersburg indeed, but had lost no fewer than 72,000 men.
At a critical moment he actually left the Virginian armies to their own commanders, and started to take personal command in a threatened quarter, and throughout he was in close touch with Sherman and Thomas,.
The two armies bivouacked on their ground, and in Aspern the French and Austrians lay within pistol shot of each other.
All these plans failed at the critical moment, and the most effective work done by the order was in encouraging desertion from the Federal armies, preventing enlistments, and resisting the draft.
Later in 1863, when the battle of Chattanooga brought the Federals to the borders of Georgia, Johnston was assigned to command the Army of Tennessee at Dalton, and in the early days of May 1864 the combined armies of the North under Sherman advanced against his lines.
He played a conspicuous part in the year 1870-1871, being appointed to command the armies of the Southern States, General Blumenthal again being his chief of the staff; his troops won the victory of Worth, took an important part in the battle of Sedan, and later in the siege of Paris.
Soon after came the first Punic war, the principal scene of which was Sicily, where, from common hostility to the Carthaginian, Greek and Roman were brought into friendly relations, and the Roman armies must have become familiar with the spectacles and performances of the Greek theatre.
In the year after the war (240), when the armies had returned and the people were at leisure to enjoy the fruits of victory, Livius Andronicus substituted at one of the public festivals a regular drama, translated or adapted from the Greek, for the musical medleys (saturae) hitherto in use.
Under these circumstances the Bolshevist advance reached its culminating point in May 1919, when the Soviet armies occupied Telshi and Shavli in the north and Olita in the south, thus threatening Kovno itself.
The plain and the, road are crossed at right angles by the course of the Brocksburn, or Spott Burn, which at first separated the hostile armies.
After the defeat of the French by the Austro-Russian armies during Bonaparte's absence in Egypt, Charles Emmanuel landed at Leghorn, hoping to regain his kingdom; but Napoleon returned, and by his brilliant victory at Marengo he reaffirmed his position in Italy.
When Omar became caliph he made Khalid chief commander of the Syrian armies, `Amr remaining in Palestine to complete the submission of that province.
German Armies until they regained touch with the French railways to the south-west about Troyes.
This king, as appears from his own records, had a son named Belshazzar, who commanded Babylonian armies in outlying provinces, but who never came to the throne.
At this period, also, under its patesis, Ur-bau and Gudea, Lagash had extensive commercial communications with distant realms. According to his own records, Gudea brought cedars from the Amanus and Lebanon mountains in Syria, diorite or dolorite from eastern Arabia, copper and gold from central and southern Arabia and from Sinai, while his armies, presumably under his over-lord, Ur-Gur, were engaged in battles in Elam on the east.
In the series of operations, described above, the Third and Fourth British Armies had engaged 15 divisions against 29 of the German Second and Seventeenth Armies, and had taken from them close on 12,000 prisoners and 100 guns.
In view of the fact that the First and Third British Armies were faced with strong positions in the Canal du Nord and the Scheldt canal, which it was advisable to carry prior to the general attack on the Hindenburg line behind the latter obstacle, it was decided that these two armies should open their operations a day earlier than the Fourth Army, so as to draw off the German reserves from the front of that army, which had to deliver the main attack and was faced with the most formidable defences.
When in 399 war broke out between Sparta and Persia, the Persian troops in Asia Minor were quite unable to resist the Spartan armies.
His retreat from Jaroslau to Warsaw, with the fragments of his host, amidst three converging armies, in a marshy forest region, intersected in every direction by well-guarded rivers, was one of his most brilliant achievements.
Meanwhile the other French armies were fully employed.
But this was the last success of the French armies in the campaign.
The war in this quarter was memorable for Conde's last, and William's first, battle, the desperate and indecisive engagement of Seneffe (August 11th), in which the two armies lost one-seventh of their strength in killed alone.
The French general, however, determined to fight, as he had done at Sinsheim, to prevent the junction of the two hostile armies.
His reading in Livy taught him to admire the Roman system of employing armies raised from the body of the citizens; and Cesare Borgia's method of gradually substituting the troops of his own duchy for aliens and mercenaries showed him that this plan might be adopted with success by the Italians.
The emperor, who spent his life moving from one part of his wide dominions to another and in the camps of his armies, watched his heir's education from afar.
No longer leading his armies in person he entrusted the direction of campaigns in various parts of his empire to his sons and other lieutenants, and from his favourite residence at Aix watched their progress with a keen and sustained interest.
The War of Devolution (or the Queen's War) in 1667-68 to enforce the queen's claim to certain districts in the Spanish Netherlands, led to the Dutch War (1672-78), and in both these wars the supremacy of the French armies was clearly apparent.
Hancock was in many respects the ideal soldier of the Northern armies.
He served in the armies of Belgium, Portugal and Spain, distinguishing himself in many engagements.
Thus, a number of soldiers with firearms may occupy an extensive region to the exclusion of the enemy's armies, though the space filled by their bodies is but small.
The French and Bavarians were taken somewhat by surprise, and were arrayed in two separate armies, each with its cavalry on the wings and its foot in the centre.
Here was the only good ground for mounted troops, and Marlborough followed Tallard's example when forming up to attack, but it resulted from the dispositions of the French marshal that this weak point of junction of his two armies was exactly that at which decisive action was to be expected.
He was the ninth child of a carter, who wanted to make him a priest, but the lad at fifteen enlisted in a battalion of students to fight against the armies of Napoleon I.
Taking with him Kasagama, the rightful king of Toro, he traversed the north of Ankole, with which country he made a treaty, and passing thence through Unyoro, along the northern slopes of Ruwenzori, reached Kavali at the south end of Lake Albert, defeating the armies of Unyoro who opposed his progress.
The armies faced one another all night with their sentries fifty paces apart, but in the morning the Bavarians were found to have retreated.
Czarniecki raised partisan-warfare to the dignity of a science, and by his ubiquity and tenacity demoralized and exhausted the regular armies to which he was generally opposed.
In larger or smaller numbers of cognate kindred, for shorter or longer periods of time, near or far from home, the aborigines developed their legislatures, courts, armies, secret societies and priesthoods.
So, from the first, France was faced with another war against an affrighted and infuriated Europe, a war in which the big battalions would be on the side of the Seventh Coalition; and to oppose their vast armies, Napoleon only had in March the 150,000 men he had taken over from Louis XVIII when the Bourbon hurriedly quitted the throne.
Thereafter, whatever befell, the allied armies would resolutely press forward towards Paris, affording each other mutual support, and with the tremendous weight of troops at their disposal thrust back Napoleon upon his capital, force him to fight in front of it, and drive him when defeated within its works.
The opposing armies were of very different quality.
He was now planning to induce the crusading armies of the West to pass through his territories, and seemed about to play a leading part in the third Crusade.
His labours were incessant; practically every military document in the archives of the committee was Carnot's own work, and he was repeatedly in the field with the armies.
He continued to visit the armies at the front, and to inspire them with energy.
Throughout 1793, when he had been the soul of the national defence, and 1794, in which year he had "organized victory" in fourteen armies, he was a simple captain.
His chief work was, however, in reducing the expenses of the armies.
This brought on the battle of White Plains late in October, in which Howe gained no advantage; and from here both armies withdrew into New Jersey, the British capturing Fort Washington on the way, the Americans leaving behind garrisons to guard the Highlands of the Hudson.
With the exception of New York City the state was loyal to the Union cause during the war and furnished over a half million troops to the Federal armies.
The war was fought in two chief theatres of operations - the less important in Macedonia, against the Serbian, Greek and Montenegrin armies, assisted by two Bulgarian divisions; the more important in Eastern Thrace against the Bulgarians, later assisted by a considerable Serbian force.
The Bulgarian armies were on the Greek and Serbian frontiers; the force left in Thrace was weak, and the Turkish Government saw their opportunity.
In these districts the Armenian inhabitants were able to escape into Russian territory or were saved by the advance of Russian armies.
It is probable that the " hosts " were also identified with the armies of Israel.
The 2nd and 4th Armies were the left wing of a widespread converging movement on Liao-Yang.
The concentration of the various Japanese armies on one battlefield was to be made, not along the circumference of the long arc they occupied, but towards the centre.
The squadron nevertheless tamely returned to harbour, Togo resumed the blockade and Nogi began his advance from Nanshan, but the 2nd and 4th Armies came to a standstill at once (naval escort for their sea-borne supplies being no longer available), and the 1st Army, whose turn to advance had just arrived, only pushed ahead a few miles to cover a larger supply area.
The Japanese, too, had effected their object, and as they converged on their objective, the inner flanks of the three armies had connected and the supreme commander Marshal Oyama had taken command of the whole.
On the 25th of August the 2nd and 4th Armies from Haicheng and the 1st Army from the Yin-tsu-ling and Yu-shu-ling began the last stage of their convergent advance.
Kuropatkin having already drawn in his line of defence on the south side towards Liao-Yang, the 2nd and 4th Japanese Armies delivered what was practically a blow in the air.
But the remainder of the Manchurian campaign, like the second half of the war of 1859, was nothing more than a series of violent and resuitless encounters of huge armies - armies far larger than those which had fought out the real struggle for supremacy at Liao-Yang and Magenta.
Thus while the armies in Manchuria faced one another with every appearance of confidence, behind them the situation was exceedingly grave for both parties.
Even then, however, the results fell far short of anticipation, and the armies settled down into equilibrium again.
In the fighting of the 13th-16th of October the Russians gradually gave back as far as the line of the Sha-ho, the Japanese following until the armies faced roughly north and south on parallel fronts.
The positions of the rival armies from the 18th of October, the close of the battle of the Sha-ho, to the 26th of January 1905, the opening of the battle of Sandepu (Heikoutai)- a period almost entirely devoid of incident - may be described by the old-fashioned term " winter quarters."
The Russians, 300,000 strong, were now organized in three armies, commanded by Generals Linievich, Grippenberg and Kaulbars; the total strength of the Japanese 1st, 2nd and 4th Armies and reserve was estimated by the Russians at 220,000.
The entire front of both armies was heavily entrenched.
The Japanese 1st and 5th Armies were now engaged (25th February), and elsewhere all was quiet.
Thus the further pursuit of the Russians could only be undertaken after an interval of re-organization by the northernmost troops of the 5th and 3rd Armies.
Saxony at last seemed to be subdued, and Saxon warriors took service in the Frankish armies.
At first indeed, since the war was only expected to last a short time, there was little disposition to incur the heavy expenditure necessary in order to secure a share in the manufacture of war material; but this attitude was soon changed, and within six months factories everywhere had been adapted to the supply of munitions and all the variety of other things required by the Government for the armies.
Personal experience of the inconveniences and dangers of the prevailing system of preferment, the so-called myestnichestvo, or rank priority, which had paralysed the Russian armies for centuries, induced him to propose its abolition, which was accomplished by Tsar Theodore III.
Unsupported by shipping, the American armies fought toward the sea with the mountains at their back protecting them against Indians leagued with the British.
Through his generals Ardoburius and Aspar he waged two fairly successful wars against the Persians (421 and 441), and after the failure of one expedition (431) by means of a gigantic fleet put an end to the piracies of the Vandal Genseric. A Hunnish invasion in 408 was skilfully repelled, but from 441 the Balkan country was repeatedly overrun by the armies of Attila, whose incursions Theodosius feebly attempted to buy off with everincreasing payments of tribute.
Two Roman armies had been destroyed near the Lake of Geneva, and it seemed as if a repetition of the disaster of the Allia and the capture of Rome itself might not be impossible.
Joseph took this step in April 1811, and proceeded to Paris in order to extort better terms, or offer his abdication; but he had to return with a monthly subsidy of 50o,000 francs and the promise that the army of the centre (the smallest of the five French armies) should be under his control.
The excuse for the Terror that followed was the imminent peril of France, menaced on the east by the advance of the armies of the Coalition, on the west by the Royalist insurrection of La Vendee, and the need for preventing at all costs the outbreak of another civil war.
He had represented the Convention in the armies of Brest and of the Eastern Pyrenees in 1793, and in 1 795 he was sent to the armies of the Moselle and the Rhine.
The rival armies met at Sievershausen on the 9th of July 1553, where after a fierce encounter Albert was defeated.
In consideration of their efforts to achieve independence, Great Britain regards the Czechoslovaks as an Allied nation and recognizes the unity of the three Czechoslovak armies as an Allied and belligerent army waging a regular warfare against Austria-Hungary and Germany...
In 868 at Metz they agreed definitely to a partition; but when Lothair died in 869, Louis was lying seriously ill, and his armies were engaged with the Moravians.
Complications with the Turk were avoided by the adroit diplomacy of the king, while the superior discipline and efficiency of the Polish armies under the great Tarnowski (q.v.) and his pupils overawed the Tatars and extruded the Muscovites, neither of whom were so troublesome as they had been during the last reign.
Both Chodkiewicz and olkiewski frequently had to pay the expenses of their campaigns out of their own pockets, and were expected to conquer empires and defend hundreds of miles of frontier with armies of 3000 or 4000 men at most.
On the 23rd of September the two armies encountered near Pildawa, and after a stubborn three days' contest the gallant Polish pageant was scattered to the winds.
Three years after his defeat at Beresteczko, Chmielnicki, finding himself unable to cope with the Poles single-handed, very reluctantly transferred his allegiance to the tsar, and the same year the tsar's armies invaded Poland, still bleeding from the all but mortal wounds inflicted on her by the Cossacks.
Great Britain was represented by Lord Castlereagh, and under him were the British diplomats who had been attached to the foreign armies since 1813, Clancarty, Stewart and Cathcart.
It seemed by no means unlikely that the armies which had conquered Napoleon would soon be engaged in conflict with one another.
In this district there was much turbulence and plundering by the lawless elements of both Whigs and Tories and by bands of ill-disciplined soldiers from both armies.
His armies penetrated to Lake Van and Tarsus, the Hittites of Carchemish were compelled to pay tribute, and Hamath (Hamah) and Damascus were subdued.
In the following year the old king found it needful to hand over the command of his armies to the Tartan (commander-in-chief), and six years later Nineveh and other cities revolted against him under his rebel son Assur-danin-pal.
He lived in exile for eleven years, until on the death, in 1879, of Shere Ali, who had retired from Kabul when the British armies entered Afghanistan, the Russian governorgeneral at Tashkent sent for Abdur Rahman, and pressed him to try his fortunes once more across the Oxus.
The signal for a widespread rising was the introduction of conscription acts for the recruiting of the depleted armies on the eastern frontiers.
Fleury was driven by Chauvelin to more energetic measures; he concluded a close alliance with the Spanish Bourbons and sent two armies against the Austrians.
According to the priests, Atlantis had been a powerful kingdom nine thousand years before the birth of Solon, and its armies had overrun the lands which bordered the Mediterranean.
He was now but fifty-seven, but his strenuous life had aged him, and he was content to resign the command of fleets and armies to younger men, like Duke Valdemar, afterwards Valdemar and to confine himself to the administration of the empire which his genius had created.
The duration of the war was due to the nature of the country and the enormous distances to be traversed, not to any want of energy, for the armies were in deadly earnest and their battles and combats (of which two thousand four hundred can be named) sterner than those of almost any war in modern history.
Virginia, separating the two hostile capitals, Richmond and Washington, was the theatre of the great campaigns of the east, where the flower of both armies fought.
In the centre, the valleys of the Ohio, the Cumberland and the Tennessee were the battle-ground of large armies attacking and defending the south and south-eastern states of the Confederacy, while on and beyond the great waterway of the Mississippi was carried on the struggle for those interests, vital to either party, which depended on the mighty river and its affluents.
When that state was reduced to order, the Potomac became the front, and, later, the base, of the Northern armies.
This promptitude was not only dictated by the necessity of preserving West Virginia, but imposed by the necessity of holding the Baltimore & Ohio railway, which, as the great link between east and west, was essential to the Federal armies.
The Southerners undeniably rested on their laurels, and enabled McClellan, who was now called to the chief military command at Washington, to raise, organize and train the famous Army of the Potomac, which, in defeat and victory, won its reputation as one of the finest armies of modern history.
As against the civilian enemy the navy strangled commerce; its military preponderance nipped in the bud every successive attempt of the Confederates to create a fleet (for each new vessel as it emerged from the estuary or harbour in which it had been built, was destroyed or driven back), while at any given point a secure base was available for the far-ranging operations of the Union armies.
This success opened up the lower Mississippi at the same time as the armies of the west began to move down that river under Grant, who was always accompanied by the gunboat flotilla which had been created on the upper waters in 1861.
Some weeks afterwards, Halleck with the combined armies of Grant, Buell and Pope began the siege of Corinth, which Beauregard ultimately evacuated a month later.
Thus the first campaign of the western armies, completed by the victory of the gunboat flotilla at Memphis (June 6), cleared the Mississippi as far down as Vicksburg, and compelled the Confederates to evacuate the Cumberland and a large portion of the Tennessee basins.
McClellan, deprived of McDowell's corps, felt himself reduced to impotence, and three Federal armies were vainly marching up and down the Valley when Johnston fell with all his forces upon the Army of the Potomac. The Federals lay on both sides of the Chickahominy river, and at this moment Johnston heard that McDowell's arrival need not be feared.
Pursuit was not seriously undertaken, and the armies manoeuvred back to the old battle-grounds of the Rapidan and the Rappahannock.
Hooker defeated Longstreet at Wauhatchie and revictualled Chattanooga (q.v.), and on the 23rd, 24th and 25th of November the three armies attacked Bragg's position.
Meade was to "hammer" Lee, and Sherman, at the head of the armies which had been engaged at Chattanooga and Knoxville, was to deal with the other great field army of Confederates under Johnston, and as far as possible gain ground for the Union in the south-east.
Meanwhile the minor armies had come to close quarters all along the line.
A vast network of fortifications covered the front of both armies, whose flank extended far to the south-west, Grant seeking to capture, Lee to defend, the Danville railway by which the Confederates received their supplies.
General Johnston opposed him almost on the old Chickamauga battle-ground, where the Federal commander, after a brief campaign in Mississippi and Alabama, the result of which was to clear his right flank (February 3 - March 6, 1864), collected his armies - the Army of the Tennessee under McPherson, the Army of the Cumberland under Thomas (Hooker's troops had now become part of this army) and the Army of the Ohio under Schofield.
The main armies quickly regained contact, each edging away northwestwards towards the Tennessee and coming into contact at Gaylesville, Alabama, and again at Decatur.
But the "bummers" were no mere marauders, but picked men from the armies that had won Vicksburg and Chattanooga, and, though surrounded, held their ground stoutly and successfully.
There were no manifestations of triumph or exultation on the part of the victors, the lot of the vanquished was made as easy as possible, and after a short time the armies melted into the mass of the people without disturbance or disorder.
So much may be said of both armies.
In that position he won repute for his organizing capacity, great power of work and unswerving probity - the last of which qualities was none too common in the French armies at that time.
The story is apocryphal; but Napoleon's confidence in him was evinced by his being appointed to similar duties in the Grand Army, which in the autumn of 1805 overthrew the armies of Austria and Russia.
Thus the deeper feelings of religion were embodied in warlike patriotism, and these feelings the Philistine oppression had raised to extreme tension among all who loved liberty, while yet the want of a captain to lead forth the armies of Yahweh against his foemen deprived them of their natural outlet.
The town was built by the combined Theban and Argive armies and the exiled Messenians who had been invited to return and found a state which should be independent of Spartan rule.
The armies were very large, an expedition often consisting of several divisions, each numbering eight thousand men; but the tactics of the commanders were quite rudimentary, consisting merely of attack by arrows and javelins at a distance, gradually closing into a hand-to-hand fight with clubs and spears, with an occasional feigned retreat to draw the enemy into an ambuscade.
The Rev. John Campbell, one of the founders of the Bible Society, also travelled in southern Bechuanaland and the adjoining districts in 1812-1814 and 1819-1821, adding considerably to the knowledge of the river systems. About 1817 Mosilikatze, the founder of the Matabele nation, fleeing from the wrath of Chaka, the Zulu king, began his career of conquest, during which he ravaged a great part of Bechuanaland and enrolled large numbers of Bechuana in his armies.
Washington, who had passed the winter at Valley Forge, overtook him at Monmouth, N.J., and in an action on the 28th of June both armies suffered about equal loss.
On the 15th of March the two armies met at Guilford Court House (near the present Greensboro, N.C.), and a virtually drawn battle was fought.
About 1358, however, he came before the world as a leader of armies.
Notwithstanding this they espoused the cause of Hannibal during the Second Punic War (216 B.C.), and their territory during several campaigns was ravaged by both armies.
He tells us that Arthur was Dux bellorum, and led the armies of the British kings against the Saxon invaders, whom he defeated in twelve great battles.
Some of them served in the armies of the Ghaznavids Sabuktagin (Sebuktegin) and Mallmud (997-1030); but the Seljuks, a royal family among them, had various relations with the reigning princes of Transoxiana and Khwarizm, which cannot be narrated here.'
In Rum the feudal system was extended to Christian princes, who were acknowledged by the sultan on condition of paying tribute and serving in the armies.
On this occasion he was fortunate enough to take prisoner the'Comnenian prince (Alexius) who ruled the independent empire of Trebizond, and he compelled him to purchase his liberty by acknowledging the supremacy of the Seljuks, by paying tribute, and by serving in the armies of the sultan.
This unworthy son inherited from his father an empire embracing almost the whole of Asia Minor, with the exception of the countries governed by Vatatzes (Vataces) and the Christian princes of Trebizond and Lesser Armenia, who, however, were bound to pay tribute and to serve in the armies - an empire celebrated by contemporary reports for its wealth.'
He was now invested with the supreme command of the Spanish armies.
Both armies now rested for some weeks, during which interval Wellington gained the confidence of the inhabitants by his unsparing repression of marauding, his business-like payment for supplies, and the excellent discipline which he maintained.
In 1302-06 it was besieged and eventually taken by the armies of Florence and Lucca, and in 1325 it became subject to Castruccio of Lucca.
The French occupation was costly and aggressive; and the Hanoverians, many of whom were found in the allied armies, welcomed the fall of Napoleon and the return of the old order.
It is often stated, as if it were incontrovertible, that conscription and large standing armies are a menace to peace, and yet, although throughout the civilized world, except in the British Empire and the United States, conscription is the system employed for the recruiting of the national forces of both defence and offence, few of these countries show any particular disposition to make war.
The exceptional position of the United States, with a population about equal to that of the rest of the American continent, and of Great Britain, an island state but little exposed to military invasion, places both beyond absolute need of large standing armies, and renders an enlisting system feasible which would be quite inadequate for the recruitment of armies on the French or German scale.
Paradoxical as it may seem, it is the logical conclusion of such comparisons that militarism only exists in countries where there are no citizen armies, and that, where there are citizen armies, they are one of the elements which make for permanent peace.
As there are practically only three great armies available for the purpose of a war of aggression, the negotiation of contingent arrangements does not seem too remote for achievement by skilful and really well-meaning negotiation.
The armies met at Breisach on the 2nd of August, by which date Freiburg had surrendered.
A few hours after his arrival, therefore, without waiting for the rearmost troops of his columns, he set the combining armies in motion for Krozingen, a village on what was then the main road between Breisach and Freiburg.
Enghien had designed his battle even more carefully than before, but as the result of a series of accidents the two French armies attacked prematurely and straight to their front, one brigade after another, and though at one moment Enghien, sword in hand, broke the line of defence with his last intact reserve, a brilliant counterstroke, led by Mercy's brother Kaspar (who was killed), drove out the assailants.
For three days after this the armies lay in position without fighting, the French well supplied with provisions and comforts from Breisach, the Bavarians suffering somewhat severely from want of food, and especially forage, as all their supplies had to be hauled from Villingen over the rough roads of the Black Forest.
This, which was carried out by the united armies and by reinforcements from France, while Turenne's cavalry screened them by bold demonstrations on the Tauber, led to nothing less than the conquest of the Rhine Valley from Basel to Coblenz, a task which was achieved so rapidly that the Army of France and its victorious young leader were free to return to France in two months from the time of their appearance in Turenne's quarters at Breisach.
When the city was besieged in 1793 by the armies of the Republic, de Gerando took up arms, was made prisoner and with difficulty escaped with his life.
Hence, since the ceorls doubtless formed the bulk of the population, it has been thought that the Anglo-Saxon armies of early times were essentially peasant forces.
For some time before 341 he worked as a lector (reader of the Scriptures), probably among his own countrymen in Constantinople, or among those attached as foederati to the Imperial armies in Asia Minor.
It appears also in the tenure of land, and according to Tacitus the tribal armies were drawn up by kindreds.
In all such cases the tribes subject to the Romans, in the neighbourhood of the Rhine, were probably the chief channel by which Roman influence made its way, though account must also be taken of the fact that considerable numbers of warriors from remoter districts were attracted to serve in the Roman armies.
Like most of the papal armies of the last three centuries, Urban's troops distinguished themselves by wretched strategy, cowardice in rank and file, and a Fabian avoidance of fighting which, discreet as it may be in the field of diplomacy, has invariably failed to save Rome on the field of battle.
How Mesopotamia was affected by the passing of Persian armies on their way to suppress revolts in Syria or Egypt, or to conquer Greece, we do not know; on the whole it probably enjoyed unwonted peace.
Silesia remained a principal objective of the various contending armies and was occupied almost continuously by a succession of ill-disciplined mercenary forces whose depredations and exactions, accentuated at times by religious fanaticism, reduced the country to a state of helpless misery.
During the Napoleonic wars it was partly occupied by French troops (1806-1813), and at the beginning of the War of Liberation it was the chief scene of operations between the French and the allied armies.
No great armies have ever crossed Tibet to invade India; even those of Jenghiz Khan took the circuitous route via Bokhara and Afghanistan, not the direct route from Mongolia across Tibet.
His successful expedition against Nice in 1706 caused him to be made marshal of France, and in the same year he returned to Spain as commander-in-chief of the Franco-Spanish armies.
Night and day he laboured to levy armies and equip fleets.
In this way funds for war were placed at the free disposal of sovereigns, and, although the feudatories and their retainers still formed the most considerable portion of their armies, the conditions under which they served were altogether changed.
During the Crusades vast armies were set on foot in which feudal rights s Stubbs, Const.
But the necessary supplies were never forthcoming and the diet remained absolutely indifferent to the triumphs of Zolkiewski and the other great generals who performed Brobdingnagian feats with Lilliputian armies.
Little is known about the life of the Scottish king in France, except that Château Gaillard was given to him for a residence, and that he was present at the bloodless meeting of the English and French armies at Vironfosse in October 1339.
Tassilo appears to have done homage in 781, and again in 787, probably owing to the presence of Frankish armies.
In 1792 the revolutionary armies overran the Palatinate; in 1795 the French, under Moreau, invaded Bavaria itself, advanced to Munich - where they were received with joy by the long-suppressed Liberals - and laid siege to Ingolstadt.
Two armies under English leadership were now in the field against him, one under Marshal Wade, whom he had evaded by entering England by the west, and the other under William, duke of Cumberland, who had returned from the continent.
He and Spinola found themselves once more at the head of the armies in the field, but the health of the stadholder was undermined, and his military genius was under a cloud.
This important frontier town lying on both sides of the river Meuse was taken by the prince of Orange in the teeth of two relieving armies, Spanish headed by the pensionary Pauw, but with the aid of the diplomatic skill of Aarssens all opposition was overcome.
Town after town fell before the French armies, and to de Witt and his supporters there seemed to be nothing left but to make submission and accept the best terms that Louis XIV.
On land the combined armies fared ill.
This connexion with the declining fortunes of Spain was disastrous to the well-being of the Belgian people, for during many years a close alliance bound together France and the United Provinces, and the Southern Netherlands were exposed to attack from both sides, and constantly suffered from the ravages of hostile armies.
In 1792 the armies of revolutionary France assailed Austria at her weakest point by an invasion of Belgium.
The two armies met on the 9th of August.
The Vistula line of fortresses labours, however, under the great disadvantage of being easily turned from the rear by armies advancing from East Prussia or Galicia.
The conspiracy was defeated, and the armies of the Rhine and Moselle having been inspirited by success - Saint-Just himself taking a fearless part in the actual fighting - and having effected a junction, the frontier was delivered and Germany invaded.
He was a son of a certain Segimer, a prince of the tribe of the Cherusci, and in early life served with distinction as an officer in the Roman armies.
Other routes there are, open to trade, between Herat and northern India, either following the banks of the Hari Rud, or, more circuitously, through the valley of the Helmund to Kabul; or the line of hills between the Arghandab and the Tarnak may be crossed close to Kalat-i-Ghilzai; but of the two former it may be said that they are not ways open to the passage of Afghan armies owing to the hereditary hostility existing between the Aeimak and Hazara tribes and the Afghans generally, while the latter is not beyond striking distance from Kandahar.
Some general idea of the resources of the Kandahar district may be gathered from the fact that it supplied the British troops with everything except luxuries during the entire period of occupation in 1879-81; and that, in spite of the great strain thrown on those resources by the presence of the two armies of Ayub Khan and of General Roberts, and after the total failure of the autumn crops and only a partial harvest the previous spring, the army was fed without great difficulty until the final evacuation, at one-third of the prices paid in Quetta for supplies drawn from India.
But just as the Russian and Danish armies had come within striking distance, the tidings reached Copenhagen that Peter III.
Charles, after trying in vain to remain neutral in the wars between France and the emperor Charles V., had been forced to side with the latter, whereupon his duchy was overrun with foreign soldiery and became the battlefield of the rival armies.
These are totally different questions from those of police regulations in armies or camps."
By January 1863 the Union armies numbered near a million men, and were kept up to this strength till the end of the struggle.
In the unexpected prolongation of the war, volunteer enlistments became too slow to replenish the waste of armies, and in 1863 the government was forced to resort to a draft.