At the same time, if Matthew of Edessa may be trusted, he also carried his arms against the Armenians, and plundered in his avarice every Armenian of wealth and position.
In general the attitude of the Albanians in the north-eastern districts towards the Slavonic peasantry may be compared with that of the Kurds towards the Armenians.
On the 30th of November 1895 there was a massacre of Armenians, in which several Gregorian priests and Protestant pastors lost their lives.
Crete was constantly in turmoil, the Greeks were dissatisfied, and from about 1890 the Armenians began a violent agitation with a view to obtaining the reforms promised them at Berlin.
The Latinizing Armenians adopted it from Rome in the crusading epoch.
The vision at Valarshapat was invented later by the Armenians when they broke with the Greeks, in order to give to their church the semblance, if not of apostolic, at least of divine origin.
8) that the Armenians were ardent Christians, and ancient friends and allies of the Roman empire when Maximin attacked them about the year 308.
The Armenians of Venice maintain their traditional characteristics.
of Erzerum, in a large circular pool (altitude, 8625 ft.), which is venerated by Armenians and Moslems, and flows south-east to the plain of Erzerum (5750 ft.).
The Greeks inhabit chiefly the towns, where they are traders, as also do the Armenians, scattered through the towns of S.
When the British government seemed disposed to use coercive measures for the protection of the Armenians, he gave it clearly to be understood that any such proceeding would be opposed by Russia.
The earlier usage of the Armenians is expressed in the two following rules recorded against them by a renegade Armenian prelate named Isaac, who in the 8th century went over to the Byzantine church: "Christ did not hand down to us the teaching to celebrate the mystery of the offering of the bread in church, but in an ordinary house, and sitting at a common table.
He also carried on fruitless negotiations for church unity with the Armenians and with the Greek emperor, John Cantacuzenus.
In 1904-1905, in consequence of the general political anarchy, serious conflicts took place here between the Tatars and the Armenians, and two-thirds of the Balakhani and Bibi-Eybat oil-works were burned.
The commercial importance of the town dates from the second half of the r9th century; in 1870 its population had risen to 38,000, and after it was brought into railway connexion with Kharkov and Voronezh, and thus with the fertile provinces of south and south-east Russia, the increase was still more rapid, the number reaching 56,047 in 1885, and 58,928 in 1900 - Greeks, Jews, Armenians and West-Europeans being important elements.
The inhabitants of the Kura valley consist principally of Iranian Tates and Talyshes, of Armenians and Lesghians, with Russians, Jews and Arabs.
It is still inhabited chiefly by Georgian tribesGurians, Imeretians, Mingrelians, Svanetians - in the basin of the Rion, and by Georgians intermingled with Armenians in the valley of the Kura, while the steppes that stretch away from the lower course of the latter river are ranged over by Turko-Tatars.
The Armenians are Christians, mostly of the national Gregorian Church (979,566), though 34,000 are Roman Catholics.
This ferment of unrest, which was provoked in the years 1903-190 4, was exacerbated in the winters that followed by the renewed outbreak of the century-long racial feud between the Tatars and the Armenians at Baku and other places.
There are besides a few Armenians, some Germans, and 50,000 Moldavians.
a-, without; 0,un, leaven), a name given by the Orthodox Eastern to the Western or Latin Church, because of the latter's use of unleavened bread in the Eucharist, a practice which arose in the 9th century and is also observed by Armenians and Maronites following the Jewish passover custom.
Lying to the east of the Euphrates, at once in close contact with the Armenians, and in near proximity to the great route of trade which came up the Euphrates to Rakka, and thence diverged to Antioch and Damascus, the county of Edessa had an eventful if brief life.
Along with this paid cavalry went another branch of the army, the Turcopuli, a body of light cavalry, recruited from the Syrians and Mahommedans, and using the tactics of the Arabs; while an infantry was found among the Armenians, the best soldiers of the East, and the Maronites, who furnished the kingdom with archers.
The Armenians in the south-east of Asia Minor borrowed feudal institutions from the Franks and the feudal vocabulary itself.
From the upper Sajur northwards Turkish prevails, even among the Armenians; but many Kurdish communities retain their own tongue.
Mesopotamia and Assyria were given back to the Parthians, and the Armenians were allowed a king of their own.
Of the population (50,000) about half are Turkishspeaking Armenians.
The majority of these were Greeks, Italians, Syrians, Armenians and other Levantines, though almost every European and Oriental nation is represented.
Out of a population of 13,241,000 (1896) in Armenia, Kurdistan and Asia Minor, 10,030,000 were returned as Mahommedans, 1,144,000 as Armenians, 1,818,000 as other Christians, and 249,000 as Jews.
This is due partly to the Christian communities, notably the Maronites and others in Syria, the Anatolian and Rumelian Greeks, and the Armenians of the eastern province and of Constantinople.
Among the Christians, especially the Armenians, the Greeks of Smyrna and the Syrians of Beirut, it has long embraced a considerable range of subjects, such as classical Greek, Armenian and Syriac, as well as modern French, Italian and English, modern history, geography and medicine.
This was the result of the Armenian massacres, the wholesale emigration of Armenians of all classes, the accompanying profound political unrest throughout the country, and the great extension of contraband which ensued from it.
The troubles arising from this cause and from greater energy in the collection of taxes led the Armenians in outlying and mountainous districts to rise against the authorities.
Shortly before, a revolutionary attack by an Armenian band on the Ottoman bank r at Constantinople brought about a general massacre of Armenians in the capital (where a widespread revolutionary organization undoubtedly existed), in which at least 3000 victims fell, and the persecution of Armenians became the order of the day.
In Asia Minor the Kurdish troops under Ibrahim Pasha revolted, and, although they were defeated with the loss of their commander, the Kurds continued to attack indiscriminately the Turks, Nestorians and Armenians; disturbances also broke out among the other reactionary Moslems of this region, culminating in a massacre of the Armenians at Adana.
A veil is attached to the staff among the Greeks, Armenians and Copts.
The inhabitants are Greeks, Armenians and Turks.
Population about 9000 (700 Christians, mostly Armenians).
Pop. (1897), 8727, including Russians, Armenians, Turkomans, Persians and Jews.
Pop. 30,000; Moslems about 20,000, of whom a large proportion are Kizilbash (Shia); Christians (mostly Armenians), 10,000.
those of subdeacons and readers, and this holds good of the Oriental churches generally, with the single exception of the Armenians.'
The Latins, and Armenians who have borrowed from the Latins, have subdeacons, acolytes, exorcists, readers and doorkeepers.
Other races, wh i ch are not numerous, are Armenians, Greeks, Bulgars, Albanians and Italians.
The Seljuk invasion of Armenia was followed by an exodus of Armenians southwards, and in 1080 Rhupen, a relative of the last king of Ani, founded in the heart of the Cilician Taurus a small principality, which gradually expanded into the kingdom of Lesser Armenia.
The Arab geographers who knew the Khazars best connect them either with the Georgians (Ibn Athir) or with the Armenians (Dimishqi, ed.
In the printed text this document, entitled An Invective Against the Armenians, is dated 800 years after Constantine, but the author Isaac Catholicos almost certainly belonged to the earlier time.
For two years he ruled in Edessa (1098 - I zoo), marrying an Armenian wife, and acting generally as the intermediary between the crusaders and the Armenians.
Era of the Armenians.
- The epoch of the Armenian era is that of the council of Tiben, in which the Armenians consummated their schism from the Greek Church by condemning the acts of the council of Chalcedon; and it corresponds to Tuesday, the 9th of July of the year 552 of the Incarnation.
In their civil affairs the Armenians follow the ancient vague year of the Egyptians; but their ecclesiastical year, which begins on the 1 1th of August, is regulated in the same manner as the Julian year, every fourth year consisting of 366 days, so that Easter and the other festivals are retained at the same place in the seasons as well as in the civil year.
The Armenians also make use of the mundane era of Constantinople, and sometimes conjoin both methods of computation in the same documents.
To reduce the civil dates of the Armenians to the Christian era, proceed as follows.
- The chappell of the Abisines, over which the chappell of the Armenians."
Between the Armenians and the Copts they have been deprived of these, and even of the keys of their convent.
The chief traders are Abyssinians, Armenians and Greeks.
Nearly one-half of the population are Cossacks, the other ethnological groups being (1897) 2 7, 2 34 Armenians, 2255 Greeks, 1267 Albanians, 16,000 Jews and some 30,000 Kalmuck Tatars, who are Lamaists in religion.
m.; its population at 1 z to 2 millions, comprising various races, as Persians proper, Turks, Kurds, Syrians, Armenians, &c. The country is superior in fertility to most provinces of Persia, and consists of a regular succession of undulating eminences, partially cultivated and opening into extensive plains.
Pop. (1905), about 8000, of whom three-fourths are Turks and the remainder Greeks, Jews or Armenians.
Pop. (1900), 25,141, nearly one-half Jews; the remainder are Little Russians, Poles and a few Armenians.
The Jews and Armenians are engaged in a brisk trade with Odessa, to which they send corn, wine, spirits and timber, floated down from Galicia, as well as with the interior, to which they send manufactured wares imported from Austria.
Non-Turkish ethnical elements - Albanians, Macedonians, Armenians, Greeks, Arabs, Kurds, Druses - were to be moulded as far as possible into uniformity with the dominant Turkish element.
Racial hatred between Turks and Armenians there came to a head on April 9 in the so-called "Adana Massacres."
These soon ex tended over the whole of Cilicia and, before they had ceased, involved the death of some 20,000 Armenians and a lesser number of Moslems. Both the Government and the Sultan Abdul Hamid have been charged with responsibility for the outbreak; but instigation to the deed, though not perhaps directly from the Government, appears to have come from the Committee.
But "Turkification" was aimed chiefly against the Armenians, who were to be exterminated.
Hundreds of thousands were slaughtered; hundreds of thousands set marching for Syria and Mesopotamia perished on the way by hardship, disease, starvation; those who escaped became fugitives; from first to last at least three-quarters of a million Armenians perished in Asia Minor in a population of less than two millions.
Only the Copts and Armenians wear it scarf-wise.
The first class includes half-castes (who are numerous, for the Dutch are in closer relationship with the natives than is the case with most colonizing peoples), and also Armenians, Japanese, &c. The total number of this class in 1900 was 75, 8 33; 72,019 of these were called Dutch, but 61,022 of them were born in Netherlands India; there were also 1382 Germans, 441 British and 350 Belgians.
Eugenius signed an agreement with the Armenians on the 22nd of November 1439, and with a part of the Jacobites in 1443; and in 1445 he received the Nestorians and Maronites.
The population numbers about 15,000, of whom about half are Armenians living in a separate quarter.
Besides these there are Afghans, Persians, Jews, Arabs and Armenians.
Pop. (1905) about 80,000, of whom half are Turks, and half Jews, Greeks, Bulgars, Armenians, &c. Adrianople ranks, after Constantinople and Salonica, third in size and importance among the cities of European Turkey.
It has some 20,000 inhabitants, consisting of Tatars (75%), Armenians and Russians.
The liturgical vestments of the Armenians are derived, like their rite, from the Greek rite; so that in this case also there can be no doubt that the shurtshar was originally closed.
The population belongs almost entirely to the Kartvelian or Georgian group, and is distributed as follows: Imeretians, 41.2%; Mingrelians and Lazes, 2 2.5%; Gurians, 7.3%; Ajars, 5.8%; Svanetians, 1.3%; of other nationalities there are 6% of Abkhasians, 2.6% of Turks, 2.3% of Armenians, besides Russians, Jews, Greeks, Persians, Kurds, Ossetes and Germans.
The decree for the Armenians was published on the 2 2nd of November 1 439; they accepted the filioque and the Athanasian creed, rejected Monophysitism and Monothelitism, agreed to the developed scholastic doctrine concerning the seven sacraments, and conformed their calendar to the Western in certain points.
The Decretum pro Jacobitis, published on the 4th of February 1442, is, like that for the Armenians, of high dogmatic interest, as it summarizes the doctrine of the great medieval scholastics on the points in controversy.
As an office it appears to be of local origin, and is entirely unknown in the Eastern Church, with the exception of the Armenians who borrowed it from the West.
He ascended the throne the same year in which the Latin empire was established in Constantinople, a circumstance highly favourable to the Turks, who were the natural allies of the Greeks (Theodore Lascaris) and the enemies of the crusaders and their allies, the Armenians.
Elated by this great success and by his victories over the Armenians, Kaikaus was induced to attempt the capture of the important city of Aleppo, at this time governed by the descendants of Saladin; but the affair miscarried.
In its clean and broad streets there are many synagogues, mosques and churches, for half the inhabitants are Roman Catholics, Moslems, Armenians or Jews; the remainder being Orthodox Rumans and Greeks.
With the rise of the Medici came a rapid increase of prosperity; Cosmo, Francis and Ferdinand erected fortifications and harbour works, warehouses and churches, with equal liberality, and the last especially gave a stimulus to trade by inviting "men of the East and the West, Spanish and Portuguese, Greeks, Germans, Italians, Hebrews, Turks, Moors, Armenians, Persians and others," to settle and traffic in the city, as it became in 1606.
The population numbered 828,511 in 1897, of whom the major part were Tatars; other races were Russians, the Iranian tribes of the Tates (89,519) and Talysh (34994), Armenians (52,233) and the Caucasian mountaineers known as Kurins.
Settled along the Balkans as a kind of bulwark against the invading Bulgars, the Armenians on the contrary soon fraternized with the newcomers, whom they converted to their own views; even a prince of the Bulgarians adopted their teaching.
As there are considerable numbers of Greeks, Armenians and Jews among the inhabitants, there are a Greek cathedral, several churches and synagogues in addition to the fine Turkish mosques.
That the Armenians appropriated from the Syrians this, as well as the stories of Bartholomew and Thaddeus (the Syriac Addai), was merely an avowal on their part that Edessa was the centre from which the faith radiated over their land.
The Armenians must, like the Georgians a little later, have set store by the opinion of the bishop of Jerusalem, or they would not have sent to consult him.
But convincing proof of its authenticity lies in Macarius' reference to himself as merely archbishop of Jerusalem, and his avowal that he was unwilling to advise the Armenians, "being oppressed by the weakness of the authority conceded him by the weighty usages of the church."
The ties with Greek official Christendom were snapped for ever, and in subsequent ages the doctrinal preferences of the Armenians were usually determined more by antagonism to the Greeks than by reflection.
But later on, about 480, and throughout the following centuries, the Armenians rejected the decrees of Chalcedon and held that the assertion of two natures in Christ was a relapse into the heresy of Nestor.
From the close of the 5th century the Armenians have remained monophysite, like the Copts and Abyssinians, and have only broken the record with occasional short interludes of orthodoxy, as when in 633 the emperor Heraclius forced reunion on them, under a catholicus named Esdras, at a council held in Erzerum.
The march of Arab conquest kept the Armenians friendly to Byzantium for a few years; but in 718 the catholicus John of Odsun ascended the throne and at the council of Manazkert in 728 repeated and confirmed the anathemas against Chalcedon and the tome of Leo, that had been first pronounced by the catholicus Babken in 491 at a synod held in Valarshapat by the united Armenian, Georgian or Iberian, and Albanian churches.
The Armenians marked their complete disruption with the Greeks by starting an era of their own at the synod of Dvin.
The Iberians still reverence as saints the Armenian doctors of the 5th century, but as early as 552 they began to resent the dictatorial methods of the Armenians, as well might a proud race of mountaineers who never wholly lost their political independence; and they broke off their allegiance to the Armenian see very soon afterwards, accepted Chalcedon and joined the Byzantine church.
The Albanians of the Caucasus were also converted in the age of Gregory, early in the 4th century, and were loyal to the Armenians in the great struggle against Mazdaism in the 5th; but broke away for a time towards 600, and chose a patriarch without sending him to Armenia for ordination.
The feast of Anahite, the Armenian Venus and spouse of the chief god Aramazd, was in the same way rededicated to the Virgin Mary, who for long was not very clearly distinguished by the Armenians from the virgin mother church.
The Persian Armenians as late as the 6th century had not heard of the faith of Nicaea, and only then received it from the catholicus Babken.
The Armenians called them wanq, and out of them grew the monasteries.
This name the Armenians have used, at least since the year loo; before which date their fathers often speak of baptism into the death of Christ as the one essential.
As late as about 1300 a traveller hostile to the Armenians reported to the pope that he had witnessed baptisms without any trinitarian invocation in as many as three hundred parish churches.
The worship of images never seems to have taken root among Armenians; indeed they supplied the Greek world with iconoclast soldiers and emperors.
Neither could the Armenians keep on good terms even with the Syriac monophysites.
From the age of the crusades on, the Armenians of Cilicia, whose patriarch sat at Sis, improved their acquaintance with Rome; and more than one of their patriarchs adopted the Roman faith, at least in words.
The catholicus of Valarshapat is nominally chosen by all Armenians.
In the latter place the Armenians occupy a convent on Mount Sion, and keep up in the churches of the Sepulchre and of Bethlehem their own distinct rites .and feasts, the only ones there which at all resemble those of the 4th century.
The true (Nicene) faith was sent to the Armenians of the farther East (shortly afterwards a slightly different creed was adopted, identical with a pseudo-Athanasian symbol used by Evagrius of Pontus and given in Greek in Patr.
After the retaking of Jerusalem and recovery of the Cross from the Persians in the eighteenth year of his reign, Heraclius called a mixed council at Karin (Theodosiopolis) of Greeks and Armenians under Ezr (Esdras), catholicus, at which the preceding council of Dvin was cursed, its reforms repudiated and the confession of Chalcedon adopted.
The population numbers 38,000, nearly half being Christian, comprising Turks, Kurds, Arabs, Turkomans, Armenians, Chaldeans, Jacobites and a few Greeks.
The town has a population of about 43,000, including about 0,000 Armenians, 2000 Persians and a few Jews.
Czernowitz has a mixed population, which consists of Germans, Ruthenians, Rumanians, Poles, Jews, Armenians and Gypsies.
Farther east, on the borders of Turkey and Persia, the Roman and Russo-Greek Churches compete for the adhesion of the Nestorians, Chaldeans and Armenians.
Matthew Paris, in repeating the passage from Roger of Wendover, reported that other Armenians had confirmed the story on visiting St Albans in 1252, and regarded it as a great proof of the Christian religion.
Pop. (1861) 22,618; (1897) 24,811; mainly Tatars, with some Armenians.
The principal traders are Armenians and Hindus.
4 It is dedicated to Sahak Bagratuni (who was afterwards chosen to lead the revolted Armenians in the year 481), as the man under whose auspices the work had been undertaken.
This work, which in course of time acquired canonical authority among the Armenians, is partly compiled from sources which we yet possess, viz.
At the beginning of the 19th century the population was estimated at about 200,000, made up of 120,000 Moslems, 60,000 Copts, 4000 Jews and 16,000 Greeks, Armenians and " Franks."
Mostan~ir then summoned to his aid Badr a1-Jam~li, an Armenian who had displayed competence in various posts which he had held in Syria, and this person early in 1074 arrived in Cairo accompanied by a bodyguard of Armenians; he contrived to massacre the chiefs of the party at the time in possession of power, and with the title AmIr al-Juyush (prince of the armies) was given by Mostan~ir complete control of affairs.
The reign of Bibars was spent largely in successful wars against the Crusaders, from whom he took many cities, notably Safad, Caesarea and Antioch; the Armenians, whose territory he repeatedly invaded, burning their capital Sis; and the Seljukids of Asia Minor.
His short reign was marked by some fairly successful incursions into Armenia, and the recovery of the fortresses Marash and Tell Hamdn, which had been retaken by the Armenians.
Jews, Armenians, Bulgarians, Ruthenians and Greeks are also represented in the medley of peoples.
The remainder of the population is for the most part composed of Armenians, Jews and gipsies.
The Armenians, like the Greeks, congregate in the principal centres of trade, especially at Constantinople; their numbers were greatly reduced by the massacres of 1896.
The Armenians are divided between the Gregorian and Uniate-Armenian churches, each under a patriarch.
Pop. (1897), 12,961, consisting of Tatars, Armenians, Greeks, Qaraite Jews, and about 200 so-called Krymchaki, i.e.
Egin was settled by Armenians who emigrated from Van in the 11th century with Senekherim.
On the 8th of November 1895 and in the summer of 1896 many Armenians were massacred here.
Of the total population, civil and military, 578,458 were Magyars, 104,520 were Germans, 25,168 were Slovaks, and the remainder was composed of Croatians, Servians, Rumanians, Russians, Greeks, Armenians, Gypsies, &c. According to religion, there were 445,023 Roman Catholics, 5806 Greek Catholics, 4422 Greek Orthodox; 67,319 were Protestants of the Helvetic, and 38,811 were Protestants of the Augsburg Confessions; 168,985 were Jews, and the remainder belonged to various other creeds.
(For statistics see Somaliland, French.) The inhabitants are of many races - Somali, Danakil, Gallas, Armenians, Jews, Arabs, Indians, besides Greeks, Italians, French and other Europeans.
Commerce is mostly in the hands of the Jews and Armenians, and chiefly confined to raw products, such as agricultural produce, cattle, wool and wood.
According to nationality, over 40% were Ruthenians, 35% Rumanians, 13% Jews, and the remainder was composed of Germans, Poles, Hungarians, Russians and Armenians.
Five classes of rayahs existed under Turkish rule, - (i) the Greek, or Roum milleti; (2) the Armenian, or Emeni milleti; (3) the Catholic Armenians - eremeni gatoliki milleti; (4) the Latin Christians, or Roum gatoliki milleti; and (5) the Jews, or ichondi milleti.
Shortly after 645 B.C. the kingdom fell, possibly conquered by Cyaxares, and a way was thus opened for the immigration of the Aryan Armenians.
The name Ararat is unknown to the Armenians of the present day.
Pop. (1894) 10,796 (Moslems, 9642; Greeks, 758; Armenians, 396).
387, been divided between Persia and Byzantium, the greater part falling to the former, who discouraged Greek and favoured Syriac, which the Christian Armenians did not understand.
Armenians are most numerous in the eastern districts, where they have been settled since the great migration that preceded and followed the Seljuk invasion.
There are, however, Armenians in every large town.
Their strange sculptures and inscriptions have been found at Pteria, Euyuk, Fraktin, Kiz Hissar (Tyana), Ivriz, Bulgar, Muden and other places between Smyrna and the 1 The people, Moslem and Christian, are physically one and appear to be closely related to the modern Armenians.
But the support given by the Latin princes to the Armenians in Cilicia facilitated the growth of the small warlike state of Lesser Armenia, which fell in 1375 with the defeat and capture of Leo VI.
In addition to them the population includes nearly 44,000 Tatars, 4270 Armenians, with Poles and Jews.
About the year 728 six Jacobite bishops present at the council of Manazgert established communion with the Armenians, who equally rejected Chalcedon; they were sent by the patriarch of Antioch, and among them were the metropolitan of Urha (Edessa) and the bishops of Qarha,n, Gardman, Nferkert and Amasia.
Pop. 28,000, of whom 14,000 are Armenians, and the remainder Moslems, mostly of a mixed Kurdish race.
The attempts of Pius IX., who in 1862 established the Congregatio de propaganda fide pro negotiis ritus orientalis, to interfere in a Romanizing sense with the rites of the Armenians and Chaidaeans (by the bulls Reversurus of 1867 and Cum Ecclesiastica of 1869) led to a schism; and Leo XIII., who more than all his predecessors interested himself in the question of reunion, reverted to and developed the wiser 1 The Latin word ritus covers not only the ordinary meaning of the modern English word " rite," i.e.
the Greeks in Italy (Italograeci), the scattered Bulgarian Uniats, the Abyssinians, some of the Armenians and the " Christians of St Thomas "; (2)(2) those having their own bishops and sometimes their own metropolitans, as in Austria-Hungary; (3) the Eastern patriarchates.
It has an archbishopric at Lemberg, which has jurisdiction also over the Uniat Armenians at Venice.
There are not more than 10,000 to 15,000 Uniat Bulgarians, who have been ruled since 1883 by three vicars apostolic. The Uniat Armenians and Melchites in Constantinople belong to the Eastern patriarchates.
The Armenian patriarch, whose jurisdiction embraces the Catholic Armenians in the Balkan Peninsula, in Russian Armenia and in Asiatic Turkey, formerly resided in Lebanon, but has had his seat since 1867 at Constantinople.
The number of Catholic Armenians under his jurisdiction is, roughly, 100,000 (see Armenian Church).
Later the French-Canadians, Italians, Poles and Bohemians added notably to the number; an appreciable percentage of Oriental Catholics is also found, - Greeks, Syrians, Armenians, &c. Natural increase, especially among the first Catholic immigrants, and a certain percentage of conversions from Protestantism, are contributory sources.
But the government in Rome had a plan of its own, and a certain Tigranes, long resident in Rome, but a stranger to the Armenians, was sent out, and Corbulo was obliged reluctantly to seat him on the Armenian throne.
The population numbers 35,000, of whom about 12,000 are Armenians and the remainder are Kurds or of Kurdish descent.
There are some fine old mosques and medresses (colleges), and the Armenians have a large monastery and churches.
The Bitlis vilayet comprises a very varied section of Asiatic Turkey, as it includes the Mush plain and the plateau country west of Lake Van, as well as a large extent of wild mountain districts inhabited by turbulent Kurds and Armenians on either side of the central town of Bitlis, also some of the lower country about Sairt along the left bank of the main stream of the Tigris.
Pop. about 25,000, consisting of Armenians and Tatars.
Other religions are represented in Persia by about 80,000 to 90,000 Christians (Armenians, Nestorians, Greek Orthodox and Roman Catholics, Protestants), 36,000 Jews, and 9000 Zoroastrians.
The Armenians of Persia, in so far as regards their ecclesiastical state, are divided into the two dioceses of Azerbaijan and Isfahan, and, since the late troubles in Turkey, which caused many to take refuge in Persia, are said to number over 50,000.
About three-fifths of this number belong to the diocese of Azerbaijan, with a bishop at Tabriz, and reside in the cities of Tabriz, KhoI, Selmas, Urmia and Maragha, and in about thirty villages close to the north-western frontier; the other two-fifths, under the diocese of Isfahan, with a bishop in Julfa, reside in Teheran, Hamadan, Julfa, Shiraz, Bushire, Resht, Enzeli and other towns, and in some villages in the districts of Chahar Mahal, Feridan, Barbarud, Kamareh, Kazaz, Kharakan, &c. Many Persian Armenians are engaged in trade and commerce, and some of their merchants dispose of much capital, but the bulk live on the proceeds of agriculture and are poor.
The Roman Catholics in Persia, Europeans and natives (mostly Armenians), number about three or four thousand, and have churches in Teheran, Julfa and Azerbaijan, served by members of the French Lazarist Mission.
The Protestants, Europeans and natives (converted Armenians and Nestorians), number about 6500.
Much has been and is being done for education by the Armenians and the Protestant and Roman Catholic missions in Persia, and a large percentage of the pupils is composed of Mussulmans.
In 1907 the American Protestant mission had 129 schools with 3423 pupils, the English Protestant missions had 5 schools with 425 pupils, the Roman Catholic mission (Lazaristes) had 3 schools with 400 pupils, and the Armenians had 4 schools and 646 pupils.
It was, however, only natural that its adherents should be won, first and chiefly, among the countrymen of the prophet, and its further success in gaining over all the Iranian tribes gave it a national stamp. So the Susan translation of Darius Behistun inscrrption TThese ideas are strongly exposed in a polemic against the Christians contained in an official edict of the Persian creed to the Armenians by Mihr Narseh, the vizier of Yazdegerd IT.
Like Cyrus, all his successors welcomed members of the conquered nationalities to their service, employed them as administrators or generals and made them grants of land: and this not only in the case of Medes, but also of Armenians, Lydians, Jews and Greeks.
On his accession (1694) he displayed his attachment to religious observances by prohibiting the use of winecausing all winevessels to be brought out of the royal cellars and destroyed, and forbidding the Armenians to sell any more of their stock in Isfahan.
In the, 3th century, according to Yaqut, one of its quarters was exclusively inhabited by Armenians.
The population numbers some 10,000, principally Kurds, but including 1500 Armenians and loon Jews.
The permanent population includes 15,000 Jews, 5000 Armenians, with Tatars, Poles, Germans and others.
In Nakhichevan there are 20,500 Armenians.
The members of this Church were to constitute a millet or community, enjoying equal rights with the Greeks and Armenians; and its head, the Bulgarian exarch, was to reside at Constantinople.
It contains a Jewish synagogue, which was regarded in the 16th century as the first in Europe, and is the seat of an Armenian and of a Greek Catholic bishop; the former has authority over the Armenians throughout the whole country.
Among the motley population of Russians, Tatars, Armenians, Germans and Greeks are several hundred Qaraite Jews.
Accordingly, when Lord Salisbury proposed energetic action to protect the Armenians, the cabinet of St Petersburg suddenly assumed the role of protector of the sultan and vetoed the proposal.
They are certainly of a mixed origin, and present a variety of ethnological types, all the more so as all who are neither Armenians nor Russians,.
The English received £ 50o,000, the Hindus and Mahommedans £200,000, and the Armenians £70,000.
It consists of various races, nearly one-half (920,919 in 1897) being Moldavians, the others Little Russians, Jews (37% in the towns and 1 2% in the rural districts), Bulgarians (103,225), Germans (60, 206), with some Gypsies (Zigani), Greeks, Armenians, Tatars and Albanians.
Then, however, the Russian government held out inducements to settlers, and these have been responded to by Russians, Greeks, Armenians and Rumanians, but the process of repeopling the long deserted territory is slow and difficult.
Of non-African races the most numerous are Armenians, Indians, Jews and Greeks.
Pop. about 33,000, of whom 8000 are Moslems. There is a large British colony with a church, and also Greek and Armenian churches and schools, and a training college for Roman Catholic Armenians.
The result was that the population of Bombay increased rapidly; a special quarter was set apart for the banya, or capitalist, class of Hindus; while Parsees and Armenians flocked to a city where they were secure of freedom alike for their trade and their religion.
The population of foreign descent comprises many Jews, Armenians, gipsies, Greeks, Germans, Turks, Tatars and Magyars, Servians and Bulgarians.
The Jews increase more rapidly than any of these peoples except the Armenians.
The interior of the Dobrudja is occupied largely by Turks and Bulgarians, with Tatars, Russians and Armenians, but here the Ruman steadily gains ground at the expense of the alien.
Religious liberty is accorded to all churches, Jews, Moslems, Roman Catholics, Protestants, Armenians and Lipovans having their own places of worship. Education.
They cared little for letters, and were generally indolent, and their prejudice against mercantile pursuits left the commerce of the country in the hands of Armenians, Jews, Greeks and Turks.
Its trade, principally in the hands of Armenians, is still important, but is chiefly a transit trade between Russia and Persia by way of Astara, a port on the Caspian 30 m.
Pop. (1897) 11,810, chiefly Armenians (9000) and Georgians (2000).
The text of this history has been considerably altered, but it has always been in high favour with the Armenians.
In the Persian period the city is said to have had 40,000 inhabitants; the population now consists chiefly of Tatars and Armenians, who carry on gardening, make wine and produce silk, salt and millstones.
It afterwards suffered frequently during the wars between the Persians, Armenians and Turks, and it finally passed into Russian possession by the peace of Turkman-chai in 1828.
Those of the Armenians and Syrians who have retained adult baptism use rivers alone at any time of year.
Leo of Rome, Athanasius, Gregory of Nyssa, Theophylactus, Cyril of Jerusalem and others, trine immersion was regarded as being symbolic of the three days' entombment of Christ; and in the Armenian baptismal rubric this interpretation is enjoined, as also in an epistle of Macarius of Jerusalem addressed to the Armenians (c. 330).
In 1915 the official massacre of Armenians occurred, but evidence conclusively proves that, though there were cases of Kurdish participation, the greater portion of the nation not only held aloof, but, as in the case of the Dersim Kurds (who actually saved 25,000 Armenians), displayed their repugnance to the Turkish orders in a practical manner.
Throughout central and northern Kurdistan there were in 1919 numbers of Armenians who had lived as refugees among the Kurds.
This force was largely composed of Armenians and other Christian volunteers, calling themselves" the army of revenge,"and the atrocities committed by them in the destruction of Rawanduz upon Kurds who had till then known nothing of them were in every way equal to anything attributed to Kurds in former massacres of Armenians.
The Armenians are equally strict; but (adds Rycaut) " the times seem so confused and without rule that they can scarce be recounted, unless by those who live amongst them, and strictly observe them, it being the chief care of the priest, whose learning principally consists in knowing the appointed times of fasting and feasting, the which they never omit on Sundays to publish unto the people."
The Greek population 13 provided with excellent schools and gymnasia, and the Armenians also maintain schools of a high grade.
and 300 Armenians), has extensive and well-stocked bazaars and fourteen large and many small caravanserais.
The great majority of inhabitants are Great Russians and Little Russians; but there are also large numbers of Jews (133,000, exclusive of Karaites), as well as of Italians, Greeks, Germans and French (to which nationalities the chief merchants belong), as also of Rumanians, Servians, Bulgarians, Tatars, Armenians, Lazes, Georgians.
Their Uniat propaganda encountered the opposition of the Armenians and they were compelled to move to the Morea, at that time Venetian territory, and there built a monastery, 1706.
Their work has been fourfold: (i) they have brought out editions of important patristic works, some Armenian, others translated into Armenian from Greek and Syriac originals no longer extant; (2) they print and circulate Armenian literature among the Armenians, and thereby exercise a powerful educational influence; (3) they carry on schools both in Europe and Asia, in which Uniat Armenian boys receive a good secondary education; (4) they work as Uniat missioners in Armenia.
There are some 150 monks, all Armenians; they use the Armenian language and rite in the liturgy.
It is a heterogeneous mixture of all the nations and religions of the East - Turks, Arabs, Persians, Indians, Armenians, Chaldaeans and Jews.
On an isolated mass of rock, on the left bank, is the old castle, with extensive walls partly ruined, built originally by the Armenians.
The population numbers io,000, mostly Turkish with some Armenians.
The Poles are mostly Roman Catholics, the Ruthenians are Greek Catholics, and there are over 770,000 Jews, and about 2500 Armenians, who are Catholics and stand under the jurisdiction of an Armenian archbishop at Lemberg.
Pop. (1905) about 14,000, of whom the bulk are Turks and Greeks in about equal proportions, and the remainder (about 4000) Armenians, Roman Catholics or Jews.
Accurate statistics cannot be obtained; but it is estimated that in the nine vilayets, which include Turkish Armenia, there are 925,000 Gregorian, Roman Catholic and Protestant Armenians, 645,000 other Christians, ioo,000 Jews, Gypsies, &c., and 4,460,000 Moslems. The Armenians, taking the most favourable estimate, are in a majority in nine kazas or sub-districts only (seven near Van, and two near Mush) out of 159.
In Russian Armenia there are 960,000 Armenians, and in Persian Armenia 130,000.
xviii., Tiflis, 1896, with map), the population of the nine Turkish vilayets, Erzerum, Van, Bitlis, Kharput (Mamuret-el-Aziz), Diarbekr, Sivas, Aleppo, Adana and Trebizond, was 6,000,000 (Armenians, 913,875, or 15%; other Christians, 632,875, or 11%; and Moslems, 4,453,250, or 74%).
In the first five vilayets which contain most of the Armenians, the population was 2,642,000 (Armenians, 633,250, or 24%; other Christians, 1 79, 8 75, or 7%; and Moslems, 1,828,875, or 69%); and in the seven Armenian kazas the population was 282,375 (Armenians, 184,875, or 65%; other Christians, 1000, or o.3%; and Moslems, 96,500, or 34.7%).
In 1897 there were 970,656 Armenians in Russia, of whom 827,634 were in the provinces of Erivan, Elisavetpol and Tiflis.
The total number of Armenians is estimated at 2,900,000 (in Turkey, i,50o,000; Russia, 1,000,000; Persia, 150,000; Europe, America and East Indies, 250,000).
After the Arab and Seljuk invasions, there was a large emigration of Aryan and Semitic Armenians to Constantinople and Cilicia; and all that remained of the aristocracy was swept away by the Mongols and Tatars.
This perhaps explains the diversity of type and characteristics amongst the modern Armenians.
The Armenians are essentially an Oriental people, possessing, like the Jews, whom they resemble 'in their exclusiveness and widespread dispersion, a remarkable tenacity of race and faculty of adaptation to circumstances.
The fall of the Biainian kingdom, perhaps overthrown by Cyaxares; was apparently soon followed by an immigration of Aryan (Medo-Persian) races, including the progenitors of the Armenians» But they spread slowly, for the "Ten Thousand," when crossing the plateau to Trebizond, 401-400 B.C., met no Armenians after leaving the villages four days' march beyond the Teleboas, now Kara Su.
After the partition, the invention of the Armenian alphabet, and the translation of the Bible into the vernacular, 410, drew the Armenians together, and the discontinuance of Greek in the Holy Offices relaxed the ecclesiastical dependence on Constantinople, which ceased entirely when the Patriarch, 491, refused to accept the decrees of the council of Chalcedon.
Many Armenians fled to the mountains, where they embraced Islam, and intermarried with the Kurds, or purchased security by paying blackmail to Kurdish chiefs.
Armenia was invaded by the Persians in 1575, and again in 1604, when Shah Abbas transplanted many thousand Armenians from Julfa to his new capital Isfahan.
The Turko-Russian War of 1828-29, which advanced the Russian frontier to the Arpa Chai, was followed by a large emigration of Armenians from Turkish to Russian territory, and a smaller exodus took place after the war of 1877-78, which gave Batum, Ardahan and Kars to Russia.
He was assisted by a council of bishops and clergy, and was represented in each province by a bishop. This imperium in imperio secured to the Armenians a recognized position before the law, the free enjoyment of their religion, the possession of their churches and monasteries, and the right to educate their children and manage their municipal affairs.
In 1846 the patriarch anathematized all to the formation of the " Evangelical Church of the Armenians," which was made, after much opposition from France and Russia, a community (Protestant millet), at the instance of the British ambassador.
When Abd-ul-Hamid came to the throne of Turkey in 1876, the condition of the Armenians was better than it had ever been under the Osmanlis; but with the close of the war of 1877-78 came the " Armenian Question."
By the treaty of San Stefano, Turkey engaged to Russia to carry out reforms " in the provinces inhabited by the Armenians, and to guarantee their security against the Kurds and Circassians."
The Berlin treaty encouraged the Armenians to look to the powers, and not to Russia for protection; and the convention, which did not mention the Armenians, was regarded as placing them under the special protection of Great Britain.
In 1881 a circular note from the British ministry to the five powers was evasively answered, and in 1883 Prince Bismarck intimated to the British government that Germany cared nothing about Armenian reforms and that the matter had better be allowed to drop. Russia had changed her policy towards the Armenians, and the other powers were indifferent.
Russia began to interest herself in the Armenians when she acquired Georgia in 1801; but it was not until 1828-1829 that any appreciable number of them became her subjects.
The schools were closed, the use of the Armenian language was discouraged, and attempts were made to Russify the Armenians and bring them within the pale of the Russian Church.
All hope of practical self-government under Russian protection now ceased, and the Armenians of Tiflis turned their attention to Turkish Armenia.
Russia made no real effort to check the action of her Armenian subjects, and after 1884 she steadily opposed any active interference by Great Britain in favour of the Turkish Armenians.
During 1900 Russia showed renewed interest in Turkish Armenia by securing the right to construct all railways in it, and in the Armenians by pressing the Porte to restore order and introduce reforms.
The Berlin treaty was a disappointment to the Gregorian Armenians, who had hoped that Armenia and Cilicia would have been formed into an autonomous province administered by Christians.
The Turkish-speaking Armenians of the south could scarcely converse with the Armenian-speaking people of the north; and the ignorant mountaineers of the east had nothing in common, except religion, with the highly educated townsmen of Constantinople and Smyrna.
After the change in tiry u- Russian policy and the failure of the powers to secure reforms, the advanced party amongst the Armenians, some of whom had been educated in Europe and been deeply affected by the free thought and Nihilistic tendencies of the day, determined to secure their object by the production of disturbances such as those that had given birth to Bulgaria.
The Armenians drove off the Kurds,' and, when attacked in the spring of 1894, again held their own.
In November 1894 a Turkish commission of inquiry was sent to Armenia, and was accompanied by the consular delegates of Great Britain, France and Russia, who elicited the fact that there had been no attempt 1 The Armenians and Kurds have lived together from the earliest times.
The adoption of Islam by the latter, and by many Armenians, divided the people sharply into Christian and Moslem, and placed the Christian in a position of inferiority.
After 1829 the relations became less friendly; and later, when the Armenians attracted the sympathies of the European powers after the war of 1877-78, they became bitterly hostile.
Armenians with Protestant sympathies, and this led She found them necessary to the development of her policy.
Disturbances occurred at Tarsus; Armenians who did not espouse 'the " national " cause were murdered; the life of the patriarch was threatened; and a report was circulated that the British ambassador wished some Armenians killed to give him an excuse for bringing the fleet to Constantinople.
On the 1st of October 1895 a number of Armenians, some armed, went in procession with a petition to the Porte and were ordered by the police to disperse.
In the summer of 1896 (June 14-22) there were massacres at Van, Egin, and Niksar; and on the 26th of August the Imperial Ottoman Bank at Constantinople was seized by revolutionists as a demonstration against the Christian powers who had left the Armenians to their fate.
Two days' massacre followed, during which from 6000 to 7000 Gregorian Armenians perished.
They were confined to Gregorian and Protestant Armenians.
In some the slaughter commenced and ended by bugle-call, and in a few instances the Armenians were disarmed beforehand.
A large majority of the Moslems disapproved of the massacres, and many Armenians were saved by Moslem friends.
But the lower orders were excited by reports that the Armenians, supported by the European powers, were plotting the overthrow of the sultan; and their cupidity was aroused by the prospect of wiping out their heavy debts to Armenian pedlars and merchants.
Af ter the massacres the number of students in the American schools and colleges increased, and many Gregorian Armenians became Roman Catholics in order to obtain the protection of France.
Such was the only religious art permitted by the Christian sentiment of these countries, and also of the large enclaves of semi-Manichaean belief formed in the Balkans by the transportation thither of Armenians and Paulicians.
The soldiers and captains of the Byzantine garrisons were equally Armenians and Syrians, in whom the sight of a crucifix or image set up for worship inspired nothing but horror.
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