At the same time, if Matthew of Edessa may be trusted, he also carried his arms against the Armenians, and plundered in his avarice every Armenian of wealth and position.
Spurs from the Caucasus and from the Armenian highlands fill up the broad latitudinal depression between them.
While Pierre was running the few steps that separated him from the Frenchman, the tall marauder in the frieze gown was already tearing from her neck the necklace the young Armenian was wearing, and the young woman, clutching at her neck, screamed piercingly.
The equivalent of the alb in the ancient Churches of the East is the sticharion (art bpeov) of the Orthodox Church (Armenian shapik, Syrian Kutina, Coptic stoicharion or tuniah).
In the Armenian Church priests and archdeacons, as well as the bishops, wear a mitre.
includes a large Armenian community.
It is the seat of a Greek bishop, an Armenian archbishop and a Roman Catholic bishop, and there is a Jesuit school.
South of the city are the Armenian monastery of Mount Zion and Bishop Gobat's school.
His father Anak, head of the Parthian clan of Suren, was bribed about the time of his birth (c. 257) by the Sassanid king of Persia to assassinate the Armenian king, Chosroes, who was of the old Arsacid dynasty, and father of Tiridates or Trdat, first Christian king of Armenia.
Nino's story reads like that of such a female missionary, and something similar must underlie the story of her Armenian companions.
He set himself to Hellenize or Catholicize Armenian Christianity, and in furtherance of this aim set up a hierarchy officially dependent on the Cappadocian.
943 foil.; C. Fortescue, The Armenian Church (London, 1872); H.
In the Armenian question Italy seconded with energy the diplomacy of Austria and Germany, while the Italian fleet joined the British Mediterranean squadron in a demonstration off the Syrian.
He was buried in the great Armenian cemetery at Nicomedia, but in the course of 1906 his relics were transferred to Hungary.
(1886); for the Armenian campaigns see B.
TOKAT (Armenian Evtoghia, anc. Dazimon) the chief town of a sanjak of the same name in the Sivas vilayet of Asia Minor.
It stood on the river Iris (Tozanli Su or Yeshil Irmak), and from its central position was a favourite emporium of Armenian and other merchants.
The upper Euphrates consists of two arms, which, rising on the Armenian plateau, and flowing west in long shallow valleys parallel to Mount Taurus, eventually unite and force their way southward through that range to the level of Mesopotamia.
The northern or western and shorter arm, called by the Turks Kara Su, " black water," or Frat Su (Armenian, Ephrat or Yephrat; Arab.
Below Erzingan the Frat flows south-west through a rocky gorge to Kemakh (Kamacha; Armenian, Gamukh), where it is crossed by a bridge and receives the Kumur Su (right).
The southern or eastern and longer arm, called by the Turks Murad Su (Arsanias Fl.; Armenian, Aradzani; Arab.
to Rum-Kaleh, or " castle of the Romans " (Armenian, Hrhomgla).
In the east Syrian, the Armenian and the Georgian churches, respectively Nestorian, Monophysite and Greek Orthodox in their tenets, the agape was from the first a survival, under Christian and Jewish forms, of the old sacrificial systems of a pre-Christian age.
The earlier usage of the Armenians is expressed in the two following rules recorded against them by a renegade Armenian prelate named Isaac, who in the 8th century went over to the Byzantine church: "Christ did not hand down to us the teaching to celebrate the mystery of the offering of the bread in church, but in an ordinary house, and sitting at a common table.
The ambassadors at Constantinople urged peaceful counsels on the Porte, and the Sultan, alarmed at this juncture by an Armenian outbreak, began to display a conciliatory disposition.
- Mitre of is unknown, though it perhaps antedates the Armenian Priest.
The snow-clad peaks of the main Caucasus, descending by short, steep slopes, fringe the valley on the north, while an abrupt escarpment, having the characteristics of a border ridge of the Armenian highlands, fronts it on the south.
The slopes of the Armenian highlands are clothed with fine forests, and the vine is grown at their base, while on the wide-stretching steppes the Turko-Tatars pasture cattle, horses and sheep. The lower part of the Kura valley assumes the character of a dry steppe, the rainfall not reaching 54 in.
The Armenian highlands, which run generally parallel to the Caucasus, though at much lower elevations (5000-6000 ft.), are a plateau region, sometimes quite flat, sometimes gently undulating, clothed with luxuriant meadows and mostly cultivable.
Generally speaking, it may be characterized as a climate of extremes on the Armenian highlands, in the Kura valley and in northern Caucasia, and as maritime and genial in Lenkoran, on the Black Sea coastlands, and in the valley of the Rion.
fall as a rule at the northern foot of the Caucasus (Mozdok, Pyatigorsk) and in the Kura valley (Tiflis, Novo-bayazet), On the Armenian highlands and on the steppes north of Pyatigorsk the rainfall is less than 12 in.
About 50,000 tons of coal of very poor quality are, however, extracted annually, and the same quantity of salt in the Armenian highlands and in Kuban.
After acquiring the northern edge of the Armenian plateau, partly from Persia in 1828 and partly from Turkey in 1829, Russia crushed a rising which had broken out in the Caspian coast districts of Daghestan on the north of the Caucasus.
After a peaceful period of a quarter of a century the Armenian subjects of Russia in Transcaucasia were filled with bitterness and discontent by the confiscation of the properties of their national (Gregorian) church by the Russian treasury.
As early as the 5th century of the Christian era we find mention made of these historical traditions in the work of an Armenian author, Moses of Chorene (according to others, he lived in the 7th or 8th century).
He repelled attacks upon Syria and Egypt (452), and quelled disturbances on the Armenian frontier (456).
The Armenian synaxarium, called the synaxarium of Ter Israel was published at Constantinople in 1834.
In Arabic and Persian they are known as Haital and in Armenian as Haithal, Idal or Hepthal.
The title now survives, however, only as that of the head of the Armenian Church.
to the sister of the Armenian king, finally brought peace.
The main army turned to the N.E., in the direction of Caesarea (in order to bring itself into touch with the Armenian princes of this district), and then marched southward again to Antioch.
in 1148, Frederick marched by Philadelphia and Iconium, not without dust and heat, until he reached the river Salof, in Armenian territory.
The authorities for the Crusades have been collected in Bongars, Gesta Dei per Francos (Hanover, 1611) (incomplete); Michaud, Bibliotheque des croisades (Paris, 1829) (containing translations of select passages in the authorities); the Recueil des historiens des croisades, published by the Academie des Inscriptions (Paris, 1841 onwards) (the best general collection, containing many of the Latin, Greek, Arabic and Armenian authorities, and also the text of the assizes; but sometimes poorly edited and still .incomplete); and the publications of the Societe de l'Orient Latin (founded in 1875), especially the Archives, of which two volumes were published in 1881 and 1884, and the volumes of the Revue, published yearly from 1893 to 1902, and containing not only new texts, but articles and reviews of books which are of great service.
The Crusades - a movement which engaged all Europe and brought the East into contact with the West - must necessarily be studied not only in the Latin authorities of Europe and of Palestine, but also in Byzantine, Armenian and Arabic writers.
But the whole subject of the continuators of William of Tyre is dubious.] To the Western authorities for the First Crusade must be added the Eastern - Byzantine, Arabic and Armenian.
The Armenian view of the First Crusade and of Baldwin's principality of Edessa is presented in the Armenian Chronicle of Matthew of Edessa.
Among them in the Tauras and Amanus, and outnumbering them on the plains, are Armenian communities, the remains of the Rupenian invasion of the 10th century A.D.
Immediately after his accession, while he was engaged in a campaign against the Arabs, his brother-in-law, an Armenian named Artavasdus, a supporter of the image-worshippers, had been proclaimed emperor, and it was not till the end of 743 that Constantine re-entered Constantinople.
The sanjak lies almost wholly in Mt Taurus, and includes the Armenian town of Zeitun.
Ramsay; and it is borne out by the Armenian name Kermanig, which has been given to the place since at least the 12th century.
Since its reversion to Ottoman power (1840) the history of Marash has been varied only by Armenian troubles, largely connected with the fortunes of Zeitun, for the reduction of which place it has more than once been used as a base.
From 83 to 69 is the transient episode of Armenian conquest, and in 64 the last shadow of Seleucid rule vanished, when Syria was made a Roman province by Pompey.
The Greek version was in turn rendered into Armenian in the 5th or 6th century.
and AR, are represented, but for the most part the differences originated within the Armenian.
and Versions attest different texts, a standing generally in opposition to 0, A (= Armenian Version), and S (=Slavonic Version).
To Grabe, Schnapp and Conybeare belongs the credit of showing that the Christian elements were interpolations - to Conybeare especially of the three, since, whereas the two others showed the high probability of their contention on internal evidence, Conybeare proved by means of the Armenian Version that when it was made many of the interpolations had not yet found their way into the text.
Patriarchs from MSS., with the Variants from the Armenian and Slavonic Versions and tie Hebrew Fragments (1908).
They comprise the geographically distinct regions of the Anatolian plateau (Asia Minor), the Armenian and Kurdish highlands, the Mesopotamian lowlands, the hilly and partly mountainous territory of Syria and Palestine and the coast lands of west and north-east Arabia.
The communities now recognized are the Latin (or Catholic), Greek (or Orthodox), Armenian Catholic, Armenian Gregorians, Syrian, and United Chaldee, Maronite, Protestant and Jewish.
Among the Christians, especially the Armenians, the Greeks of Smyrna and the Syrians of Beirut, it has long embraced a considerable range of subjects, such as classical Greek, Armenian and Syriac, as well as modern French, Italian and English, modern history, geography and medicine.
This was the result of the Armenian massacres, the wholesale emigration of Armenians of all classes, the accompanying profound political unrest throughout the country, and the great extension of contraband which ensued from it.
His successor in the grand vizierate, Kiamil Pasha, was soon called upon to deal with Armenian unrest, consequent on the non-execution of the reforms provided for in the Treaty of Berlin and the Cyprus Convention, which first found vent about 1890.
Shortly before, a revolutionary attack by an Armenian band on the Ottoman bank r at Constantinople brought about a general massacre of Armenians in the capital (where a widespread revolutionary organization undoubtedly existed), in which at least 3000 victims fell, and the persecution of Armenians became the order of the day.
Otherwise the revolution was effected almost without bloodshed; for a time the insurgent bands disappeared in Macedonia, and the rival " nationalities " - Greek, Albanian, Turk, Armenian, Servian, Bulgarian and Jew - worked harmoniously together for the furtherance of common constitutional aims. On the 6th of August Kiamil Pasha, an advanced Liberal, became grand vizier, and a new cabinet was formed, including a Greek, Prince Mavrocordato, an Armenian, Noradounghian, and the Sheikh-ul-Islam.
These are too numerous for detailed mention, but the following periods may be cited as the most interesting:1833-1841(Egyptian question);1849-1859(Crimean War and the events by which it was preceded and followed);1868-1869(Cretan insurrection);1875-1881(Bosnian and Herzegovinian insurrection, Russo-Turkish War, Berlin treaty and subsequent events);1885-1887(union of Eastern Rumelia with Bulgaria);1889-1890(Cretan disturbances);1892-1899(Armenian and Cretan affairs);1902-1907(Macedonia);1908-1910(revolution and reform).
Church also by archimandrites and abbots, and in the Armenian Church also by the vartapeds (teachers).
The staff of Armenian bishops is reminiscent of that of the West, from which it is apparently derived; that of the vartapeds is encircled at the upper end by one or two snakes.
The sticharion answers to the Armenian shabik, the Nestorian kutina, the Coptic tuniah or stoicharion; the epimanikia to the Arm.
Armenian priests, besides, wear a mitre (see Mitre, fig.
The liturgical handkerchief, which in the Greek Church has become the epigonation, has retained its original form in the Armenian.
- This book has been preserved in Greek, Ethiopic, Armenian and Slavonic. The Greek was first printed at Venice in 1609, and next by Ceriani in 1868 under the title Paralipomena Jeremiae.
It bears the same name in the Armenian, but in Ethiopic it is known by the second title.
- Writings dealing with this subject are extant in Greek, Latin, Slavonic, Syriac, Armenian and Arabic. They go back undoubtedly to a Jewish basis, but in some of the forms in which they appear at present they are christianized throughout.
This work is found also in Armenian, and has been published by the Mechitharist community in Venice in their Collection of Uncanonical Writings of the Old Testament, and translated by Conybeare (Jewish Quarterly Review, vii.
(vi.) Armenian books on the Death of Adam (Uncanonical Writings of O.T.
The Christian legend, which is no doubt in the main based on the Jewish, is found in Greek, Syriac, Armenian, Slavonic and Medieval Latin.
are extant in the Greek, Coptic, and two Armenian versions.
The Greek and Latin versions of these letters have for the most part disappeared, but they have been preserved in Syriac, and through Syriac they obtained for the time being a place in the Armenian Bible immediately after 2 Corinthians.
From the Syriac Bible they made their way into the Armenian and maintained their place without opposition to the 7th century.
The Coptic version (C. Schmidt, Acta Pauli, pp. 74-82), which is here imperfect, is clearly from a Greek original, while the Latin and Armenian are from the Syriac. (c) The Acts of Paul and Thecla.
Modified though never essentially changed, (1) by contact with the star-worship of the Chaldaeans, who identified Mithras with Shamash, god of the sun,(2) by the indigenous Armenian religion and other local Asiatic faiths and (3) by the Greeks of Asia Minor, who identified Mithras with Helios, and contributed to the success of his cult by equipping it for the first time with artistic representations (the famous Mithras relief originated in the Pergamene school towards the 2nd century B.C.), Mithraism was first transmitted to the Roman world during the 1st century B.C. by the Cilician pirates captured by Pompey.
The Americans and the Jesuits have missionary schools for the Armenian population.
Aleppo is an important consular station for all European powers, the residence of the Greek and Armenian Patriarchs of Antioch, and of Jacobite and Maronite bishops, and a station of Roman Catholic and Protestant missions.
The Armenian Uniat Church is partly under the jurisdiction of the Roman Catholic bishop of Transylvania, and partly under that of the Roman Catholic archbishop of Kalocsa.
Lemberg is the residence of Roman Catholic, Greek Catholic and Armenian archbishops, and contains three cathedrals.
The Armenian cathedral was built in 1437 in the ArmenianByzantine style.
to See especially The Story of Ahikar from the Syriac, Arabic, Armenian, Ethiopic, Greek and Slavonic Versions, by F.
Till recently it was known only in an abridged Armenian version which was translated into French by V.
The first Armenian writer who notices them is the patriarch Nerses II.
In his 31st canon John identifies them with the Messalians, as does the Armenian Gregory of Narek (c. 950).
He based his teaching on the Gospels and the Epistles of Paul, repudiating other scriptures; and taking the Pauline name of Silvanus, organized churches in Castrum Colonias and Cibossa, which he called Macedonia, after Paul's congregation of that 1 In the Armenian Letterbook of the Patriarchs (Tiflis, 1901), p. 73.
His successors were Simeon, called Titus; Gegnesius, an Armenian, called Timotheus; Joseph, called Epaphroditus; Zachariah, rejected by some; Baanes, accused of immoral teaching; lastly Sergius, called Tychicus.
About 702 Paul the Armenian, who had fled to Episparis, became head of the church.
The iconoclast emperor Leo V., an Armenian, persecuted the sect afresh, and provoked a rising at Cynoschora, whence many fled into Saracen territory to Argaeum near Melitene.
Fifty years later they were numerous in Syria and Cilicia, according to the Armenian bishops Nerses the Graceful and Nerses of Lambron.
In the Loth century Gregory of Narek wrote against them in Armenian, and in the 11th Aristaces of Lastivert and Paul of Taron in the same tongue.
After 1200 we can find no notice of them in Armenian writers until the 18th century, when they reappear in their old haunts.
Similarly the Armenian writer Gregory Magistros (c. 1040) accuses the Thonraki of teaching that "Moses saw not God, but the devil," and infers thence that they held Satan to be creator of heaven and earth, as well as of mankind.
Except Gregory Magistros none of the Armenian sources lays stress on the dualism of the Paulicians.
records that in the orthodox Armenian Church of the 7th century many held Christ to have been made flesh in, but not of, the Virgin; and Armenian hymns call the Virgin mother church at once Theotokos and heavenly Jerusalem.
and other Armenian writers report the same of the Armenian Paulicians or Thonraki, and add that they smashed up crosses when they could.
The main difference then between the Greek and Armenian accounts of the Paulicians is that the former make more of their dualism.
And this view we also meet with in Armenian fathers accounted orthodox.
The Armenian fathers held that Jesus, unlike other men, possessed incorruptible flesh, made of ethereal fire, and so far they shared the main heresy of the Paulicians.
The word is of Armenian formation and signifies a son of Paulik or of little Paul; the termination -ik must here have originally expressed scorn and contempt.
It was because they believed themselves to have living christs among them that the Paulicians rejected the fetish worship of a material cross, in which orthodox Armenian priests imagined they had by prayers and anointings confined the Spirit of Christ.
6, 8., The title "elect one," used by the Armenian Paulicians also has a Manichean ring.
It is then on the whole probable that the Paulicians who appear in Armenian records as early as 550, and were afterwards= called Thonraki, by the Greeks by the Armenian name Paulikiani, were the remains of a primitive adoptionist Christianity, widely dispersed in the east and already condemned under the name of Pauliani by the council of Nice in 325.
A renegade Armenian Catholicos of the 7th century named Isaac has preserved to us a document which sums up their tenets.
- iii.; Karapet Ter-Mkhrttschian, Die Paulikianer (Leipzig, 1893); Arsak Ter Mikelian, Die armenische Kirche (Leipzig, 1892); Basil Sarkisean, A Study of the Manicheo-Paulician Heresy of the Thonraki (Venice, San Lazaro, 1893, in Armenian); F.
After his father's death he set out for Sicily, where an Armenian named Mizizius had been declared emperor.
The Armenian liturgy, in its benediction of the incense, speaks of "this perfume prepared from myrrh and cinnamon."
slope of the extinct volcano Ala-geuz, according to legend, built by Armais, a grandson of Haik, in 1980 B.C., and the capital of the Armenian kings till the and century A.D.
by rail west of Stavropol, built in 1848 for the settlement of Armenian mountaineers, and now a well-built, growing town with 80co inhabitants, the merchants of which carry on a lively trade.
But the Armenian army was utterly defeated near Malatia on the 12th of Iyyar, and at the end of the day Esar-haddon was saluted by his soldiers as king.
A few years later, probably 514 B.C., Babylon again revolted under the Armenian Arakha; on this occasion, after its capture by the Persians, the walls were partly destroyed.
Now it is acknowledged by Christian and Jewish scholars alike to have been written in Hebrew in the 2nd century B.C. From Hebrew it was translated into Greek and from Greek into Armenian and Slavonic. The versions have come down in their entirety, and small portions of the Hebrew text have been recovered from later Jewish writings.
and in the English authorized version it is 2 Ezra, and in the Armenian 3 Ezra.
There are Latin, Syriac, Ethiopic, Arabic (two), and Armenian versions.
So the Armenian Geography ascribed to Moses of Chorene (q.v.
His proper name, which indicates his Armenian origin, was Bardanes.
He welcomed the Armenian bishops who came to England in 1713, and corresponded with the Prussian court on the possibility of the Anglican liturgy as a means of reconciliation between Lutherans and Calvinists.
apoc in Byzantine writers, as Khazirs in Armenian and Khwalisses in Russian chronicles, and Ugri Bielii in Nestor), an ancient people who occupied a prominent place amongst the secondary powers of the Byzantine state-system.
Armenian: Moses of Chorene; cf.
It occupies a site of great antiquity, as the cuneiform inscriptions on the neighbouring rocks testify; it stands on the site of the old Armenian town of Pakovan.
An Armenian translation, belonging to the 4th or 5th century, containing five additional chapters, was published with the Greek text and a French version, by M.
In the city there is a branch of the Ottoman bank, a government technical school, a French Catholic mission and a school, an Armenian Protestant school for boys, an American mission school for girls, mainly Armenian, and other educational establishments.
The Armenian massacres in 1894 and 1895 revived all his ancient hostility to " the governing Turk."
Though deserted by the Khazars, with whom he had made an alliance upon entering into Pontus, he gained a decisive advantage by a brilliant march across the Armenian highlands into the Tigris plain, and a hard-fought victory over Chosroes' general, Shahrbaraz, in which Heraclius distinguished himself by his personal bravery.
After rejoining the main army at Marash, he received an invitation from an Armenian named Pakrad, and moved eastwards towards the Euphrates, where he occupied Tell-bashir.
For two years he ruled in Edessa (1098 - I zoo), marrying an Armenian wife, and acting generally as the intermediary between the crusaders and the Armenians.
- The epoch of the Armenian era is that of the council of Tiben, in which the Armenians consummated their schism from the Greek Church by condemning the acts of the council of Chalcedon; and it corresponds to Tuesday, the 9th of July of the year 552 of the Incarnation.
Since the epoch is the 9th of July, there were 176 days from the beginning of the Armenian era to the end of the year J52 of our era; and since 552 was a leap year, the year 553 began a Julian intercalary period.
Multiply, therefore, the number of Armenian years elapsed by 365; add the number of days from the commencement of the current year to the given date; subtract 176 from the sum, and the remainder will be the number of days from the 1st of January 553 to the given date.
The following are the Armenian ecclesiastical months with their correspondence with those of the Julian calendar: 1.
(c) The Armenian version.
In the Pilgerfahrt des Ritters Arnold von Harff (1496-1499: Cologne, 1860, p. 175), we find it stated that the Abyssinians had their chapel, &c., to the left of the Holy Sepulchre, between two pillars of the Temple, whilst the Armenian chapel was over theirs, reached by a stone staircase alongside of the Indians (or Abyssinians).
He despoiled the Armenian Church, and was credited with being accessory to the Kishinev massacres.
But there are still treasures of literature concealed in private libraries, and Afghan, Persian, Armenian and Turkish bibliophiles still repair to Bokhara to buy rare books.
the Porte found it necessary, in the absence of duly qualified countrymen of their own, to engage the services of natives, Greek, Armenian, or Levantine, more or less thoroughly acquainted with the language, laws and administration of the country.
The Breviarium was enlarged and continued down to the time of Justinian by Paulus Diaconus; the work of the latter was in turn enlarged by Landolfus Sagax (c. i 000), and taken down to the time of the emperor Leo the Armenian (813-820) in the Historia Miscella.
During 1915-6 organized massacres and deportations were carried out systematically, to the extent of almost uprooting the Armenian race from Asia Minor.
In these districts the Armenian inhabitants were able to escape into Russian territory or were saved by the advance of Russian armies.
The frontiers of an Armenian state, so far as the state should include Turkish territory, were referred to the delimitation of President Wilson, whose decision the Treaty bound the Turks to accept.
ANI (anc. Abnicum), an ancient and ruined Armenian city, in Russian Transcaucasia, government Erivan, situated at an altitude of 4390 ft., between the Arpa-chai (Harpasus) and a deep ravine.
hanging in two loose bands over the breast; at the present day, according to the Greek rite, the two bands are firmly sewn together, while in the Armenian, Syrian and Coptic rites they have even been amalgamated into a single broad strip with an opening at the top for the head.
Pop. about 15,000 including many Christians, Armenian, Greek and European.
In English we have Malan's translation of the Ethiopic Book of Adam (1882), and Issaverden's translation of another Book of Adam from the Armenian (Venice, 1901).
Translations from the original works of "Carmen Sylva" have appeared in all the principal languages of Europe and in Armenian.
In 1507 Matthew, or Matheus, an Armenian, had been sent as Abyssinian envoy to Portugal to ask aid against the Mussulmans, and in 1520 an embassy under Dom Rodrigo de Lima landed in Abyssinia.
The battle in which the sultan of Rum (1243) was defeated by the Mongols took place on the plain, and the celebrated Armenian monastery of St Gregory, "the Illuminator," lies on the hills 11 m.
In old Armenian histories the name is Tavresh, which means the same.
Of the remaining versions of the Old Testament the most important are the Egyptian, Ethiopic, Arabic, Gothic and Armenian, all of which, except a part of the Arabic, appear to have been made through the medium of the Septuagint.
For the latter purpose, however, we can use an Armenian translation of a commentary on the Diatessaron by Ephraem, and the quotations in Aphraates.
by Forbes Robinson.] (0) Among the secondary versions the only one of real importance is the Armenian.
pp. 148-154; Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible, article on " The Armenian Versions of the New Testament," by F.
1) attempts to interpret the evidence of Eusebius in favour of the later date for Festus as follows: Eusebius's date for Festus is to be found in Nero 1, by striking a mean between the Armenian, Claudius 12, and the Latin, Nero 2; it is really to be understood as reckoned, not by years of Nero, but by years of Agrippa; and as Eusebius erroneously antedated Agrippa's reign by five years, commencing it with A.D.
Nobles and ministers of state, with the chief ecclesiastics not only of the Russian Church but of the Roman, the Uniat, the Armenian, the Greek, the Georgian and the Lutheran Churches, found themselves constrained to serve on its committees.
Not a few noteworthy versions of the Bible, such as those in Arabic, 15 dialects of Chinese, Armenian, and Zulu, and many American Indian, Philippine, and African languages have appeared under the auspices of the American Bible Society.
The Coptic and Armenian churches also have what H.
It is the see of a Greek archbishop, and of one Armenian and two Bulgarian bishops.
Ransomed in 1103 by the generosity of an Armenian prince, Bohemund made it his first object to attack the neighbouring Mahommedan powers in order to gain supplies.
In the Armenian, Syrian, Chaldaean and Coptic rites it is copeshaped.
burros, felonion, kuklion) is confined to the priests in the Armenian, Syrian, Chaldaean and Coptic rites; in the Greek rite it is worn also by the lectors.
For the rest, it is obvious that if the Syrian phaina was still quite closed in the 13th century, and was only provided with a slit since that time, the same is very probable in the case of the Armenian chasuble.
along the shore of the Black Sea; (2) the southern slopes of the main Caucasus range; (3) the western slopes of the Suram mountains, which separate Kutais from Tiflis; and (4) the slopes of the Armenian highlands, as well as a portion of the highlands themselves, drained by the Chorokh and its tributary, the Ajaris-tskhali, which formerly constituted the Batum province.
In the Armenian church of the 12th century the idea of a reiterated sacrificial death of Christ still seemed bizarre and barbarous.'
This was exactly the position also of the Armenian church.
Kneeling with a view to adoration of the elements was unheard of in the primitive church, and the Armenian Fathers of the 12th century insist that the sacrament was intended by Christ to be eaten and not gazed at (Nerses, op. cit.
20, in an enumeration of angels, we hear of Narsus, who may be the Neryosang (Armenian Nerses or Narsai) of the Avesta.
The Armenian writer Eznik (c. 425) also attests that Mani's teaching was merely that of the Magi, plus an ascetic morality, for which they hated and slew him.
373), in various writings; the Armenian Esnik (German translation by J.
The history of the dynasty of the Danishmand is still very obscure, notwithstanding the efforts of Mordtmann, Schlumberger, Karabacek, Sallet and others to fix some chronological details, and it is almost impossible to harmonize the different statements of the Armenian, Syriac, Greek and Western chronicles with those of the Arabic, Persian and Turkish.
The town of Alaja was the creation of this sultan, as previously there existed on that site only the fortress of Candelor, at that epoch in the possession of an Armenian chief, who was expelled by Kaikobad, and shared the fate of the Armenian and Frankish knights who possessed the fortresses along the coast of the Mediterranean as far as Selefke (Seleucia).
Kaikobad extended his rule as far as this city, and desisted from further conquest only on condition that the Armenian princes would enter into the same kind of relation to the Seljuks as had been imposed on the Comnenians of Trebizond.
The Armenian population suffered severely during the massacres of 1895.
The early Moslem geographers knew it as Hisn Ziyad, but the Armenian name was Khartabirt or Kharbirt, whence Kharput.
In November 1895 Kurds looted and burned the Armenian villages on the plain; and in the same month Kharput was attacked and the American schools were burned down.
A large number of the Gregorian and Protestant Armenian clergy and people were massacred, and churches, monasteries and houses were looted.
4, which passages may have suggested that Armenian rite of founding a church, in which we witness the transition from a stonehenge to a church building.
In the rite of laying hands on an elect the bishop of the Armenian Paulicians blows three times in the face of the newly ordained.
Mexican peasants regularly paint or tattoo a cross on their foreheads, and the old Armenian equivalent for destiny or fate is cakatagir or forehead-writing.
Other buildings are the Orthodox Greek monastery of the Trinity, and the Catholic Armenian church (founded in 1398), possessing a 14th-century missal and an image of the Virgin Mary that saw the Mongol invasion of 12 3912 4 2.
In the middle of the 8th century the emperor Constantine Copronymus settled a number of Armenian Paulicians in Thracia.
It would thus include the country lying between Babylonia on the south and the Armenian Taurus highlands on the north, the maritime Syrian district on the west, and Assyria proper on the east.
The language is in most parts Arabic; but Turkish is spoken in Birejik and Urfa, Kurdish and Armenian south of Diarbekr, and some Syriac in Tar `Abdin.
Almost the earliest document revealing anything of the inner organization and condition of the Armenian church in the Nicene age is the epistle of Macarius, bishop of Jerusalem, to the Armenian bishop Verthanes, written between 325 and 335 and preserved in Armenian.
We can trace the presence of Armenian convents on the Mount of Olives as early as the 5th century.
Armenian tradition, confirmed by nearly contemporary Greek sources, answers the first question.
The earliest Armenian rituals contain ample services for the conduct of an agape or love feast held in the church off sacrificial meat.
The keenest spiritual weapon of the Armenian priest was ever a threat not to offer the matal for a man when he died.
Another survival in the Armenian church was the hereditary priesthood.
428, the Armenian catholicus became the symbol of national unity and the rallyingpoint of patriotism.
The line of Gregory was restored in 390 in the person of Isaac or Sahak, son of Nerses, and his patriarchate was the golden age of Armenian literature.
But by this time the autonomy of the Armenian church was thoroughly established.
On the death of Nerses the right of saying grace at the royal meals, which was the essence of the catholicate, was transferred by the king, in despite of the Greeks, to the priestly family of Albianus, and thenceforth no Armenian catholicus went to Caesarea for ordination.
The march of Arab conquest kept the Armenians friendly to Byzantium for a few years; but in 718 the catholicus John of Odsun ascended the throne and at the council of Manazkert in 728 repeated and confirmed the anathemas against Chalcedon and the tome of Leo, that had been first pronounced by the catholicus Babken in 491 at a synod held in Valarshapat by the united Armenian, Georgian or Iberian, and Albanian churches.
The two churches of Iberia and Albania at first depended on the Armenian for ordination of their primates or catholici, and in large part owed their first constitution to Armenian missionaries sent by Gregory the Illuminator.
The Iberians still reverence as saints the Armenian doctors of the 5th century, but as early as 552 they began to resent the dictatorial methods of the Armenians, as well might a proud race of mountaineers who never wholly lost their political independence; and they broke off their allegiance to the Armenian see very soon afterwards, accepted Chalcedon and joined the Byzantine church.
The mother church of Armenia was established by Gregory at Ashtishat in the province of Taron, on the site of the great temple of Wahagn, whose festival on the seventh of the month Sahmi was reconsecrated to John the Baptist and Athenogenes, an Armenian martyr and Greek hymn writer.
The first of Navasard, the Armenian new year's day, was the feast of a god Vanatur or Wanadur (who answered to Zeus EvLos) in the holy pilgrim city of Bagawan.
The feast of Anahite, the Armenian Venus and spouse of the chief god Aramazd, was in the same way rededicated to the Virgin Mary, who for long was not very clearly distinguished by the Armenians from the virgin mother church.
As late as 1165 their patriarch Nerses defends the Armenian custom of keeping Christmas on the 6th of January on the express ground that as he was born after the flesh from the Virgin, so he was born by way of baptism from the Jordan.
The Armenian doctors also taught that John by laying hands on Jesus and ordaining him at his baptism sacramentally transferred to him the three graces or charismata of kingship, prophecy and priesthood which had belonged to ancient Israel.
A few other peculiarities of Armenian church usage or belief deserve notice.
They retain their Armenian liturgies and rites, pruned to suit the Vatican standards of orthodoxy, and they recognize the pope as head of the church.
There are Armenian patriarchs, subject to the spiritual jurisdiction of Echmiadzin, in Constantinople and Jerusalem.
The following list of councils was compiled by John, catholicus about the year 728, and read at the council of Manazkert, when the dogmatic and disciplinary attitude of the Armenian church was defined once and for all: I.
At the beginning of the Armenian era, held by Nerses in Dvin, in the fourth year of his catholicate, in the fourteenth of Chosroes' reign and in the fourteenth of Justinian Caesar.
This remained the official attitude of the Armenian church until the catholicate of Elias (703-717).
Under John, catholicus, in Manazkert, in the one hundred and seventieth year of the Armenian era (= A.D.
All the Armenian bishops attended, as also the metropolitan of Urhha (Edessa), Jacobite bishops of Gartman, of Nfrkert, Amasia, by command of the archbishop of Antioch.
In general these rules have been observed in the Armenian church ever since.
For list of authorities on the Armenian church see the works enumerated at the end of ARMENIAN LANGUAGE AND LITERATURE.
For the relations of the Armenian church to the Persian kings see PERSIA: Ancient History, section viii.
Armenian language and literature >>
Gaza is an episcopal see both of the Greek and the Armenian church.
At last in the time of Tigranes, the Armenian holder of the kingdom of the Seleucids, or soon afterwards, the coins of Marathus cease; the city was levelled to the ground, and its land, with that of Simyra, was parcelled out among the Aradians (Strabo xvi.
From 83-69 B.C. the entire kingdom was held by the Armenian Tigranes.
There are Armenian and Catholic churches, but the most beautiful building is a medresse erected in the 12th century by the Seljuks, with ornamental doorway and two graceful minarets known as the Chifte Minare.
Erzerum is a town of great antiquity, and has been identified with the Armenian Garin Kalakh, the Arabic Kalikale, and the Byzantine Theodosiopolis of the 5th century, when it was a frontier fortress of the empire - hence its name Erzen-er-Rum.
It includes the highest portion of the Armenian plateau, and consists of bare undulating uplands varied by lofty ranges.
The population is largely Armenian and Kurd with some Turks (Moslems 500,000, Christians 140,000).
The list of Olympian victors, which begins in 776 B.C. with Coroebus of Elis, closes with the name of an Armenian, Varastad, who is said to have belonged to the race of the Arsacidae.
The principal buildings include the Greek Orthodox cathedral, finished in 1864 after the model of the church of St Isaac at St Petersburg; the Armenian church, in a mixed Gothic and Renaissance style, consecrated in 1875; a handsome new Jesuit church, and a new synagogue in Moorish style, built in 1877.
In the 4th and 5th centuries may be mentioned Gregory the Illuminator, the " apostle of Armenia " (about 300), Ulfilas, the " apostle of the Goths," about 325; Frumentius, 1 a bishop of Abyssinia, about 327; Nino, the Armenian girl who was the means of converting the kingdom of Iberia (now Georgia), about 33 0; 2 Chrysostom, who founded, at Constantinople in A.D.
The Alans, having gained knowledge of the district by a trick, invaded Lazica, and, probably in 712, a Roman and Armenian army laid siege to Archaeopolis.
According to Roger of Wendover in his Flores historiarum under the year 1228, an Armenian archbishop, then visiting England, was asked by the monks of St Albans about the well-known Joseph of Arimathaea, who had spoken to Jesus and was said to be still alive.
The Armenian Church does not use the "mixed chalice."
For the restoration of the Greek text we have, besides many Greek MSS., uncial and cursive, the old Latin, the Syro-Hexaplar, the Armenian, Sahidic and Ethiopic versions, as well as a considerable number of quotations in the Greek and Latin Fathers.
MOSES OF CHORENE, Armenian historian, was a native of Khor`ni in Taron, a district of the Armenian province of Turuberan.
According to the History of Armenia which bears his name he was a pupil of the two fathers of Armenian literature, the patriarch or catholicos Sahak the Great and the vartabed Mesrob.
Shortly after 431 he was sent by these men to Alexandria to study the Greek language and literature, and thus prepare himself for the task of translating Greek writings into Armenian.
In the later Armenian tradition we find other notices of this celebrated man' - such as, that he was the nephew of Mesrob, that he was publicly complimented by the emperor Marcian, that he had been ordained bishop of Bagrewand by the patriarch Giut, and that he was buried in the church of the Apostolic Cloister at Mush in the district of Taron; but these accounts must be received with great caution.
In particular, it is not a history of the people or of the country, but a history of the Armenian aristocracy, and, in opposition to the Mamikonian tendency which pervades the rest of the older Armenian historical literature, it is written in the interest of the rival Bagratunians.
Down to the 3rd century it is proved by the contemporary Graeco-Roman annals to be utterly untrustworthy - but even for the times of Armenian Christianity it must be used far more cautiously than has been done, for example, by Gibbon.
That is to say, the author of the History of Armenia is not the venerable translator of the 5th century, but some Armenian writing under his name during the years between 634 and 642.
On account of the divergence of its style from that of the History of Armenia, Armenian scholars have hesitated to ascribe the Rhetoric to Moses of Khor`ni; but, from what has been said above, this is rather to be regarded as a proof of its authenticity.
14, where the arrangement of Armenian provinces, I., II., III., IV., introduced in the year 536, is carried back to Aram, an older contemporary of Ninus; and in the passage iii.
It is so Christian in tone, he quaintly remarks elsewhere, that an inquisitor might have used it quite as well as a heretic. In it the Perfect addresses the postulant, as in the corresponding Armenian rite, by the name of Peter; and explains to him from Scripture the indwelling of the spirit in the Perfect, and his adoption as a son by God.
Abrahamovitch, an Armenian from Galicia, refused to call on Schonerer to speak.
Lazzaro at Venice published a fragment in Armenian 1 from the beginning of the apology; and in 1889 Dr Rendel Harris found the whole of it in a Syriac version on Mount Sinai.
For although its title there corresponds to that given by the Armenian fragment and by Eusebius, it begins with a formal inscription to "the emperor Titus Hadrianus Antoninus Augustus Pius"; and Dr R.
The Epistola ad omnes philosophos and the Homily on the Penitent Thief, ascribed by Armenian tradition to Aristides, are really of 5th-century origin.
In the Copt quarter are also Armenian, Syrian, Maronite, Greek and Roman Catholic churches.
Thanks to its presence the Armenian protestants are a large and rich community, which suffered less in the massacre of 1895 than the Gregorians.
Among other churches represented were the Greek Orthodox, the Armenian, Syrian and Maronite, the Roman Catholic and various Protestant bodies.
Mostan~ir then summoned to his aid Badr a1-Jam~li, an Armenian who had displayed competence in various posts which he had held in Syria, and this person early in 1074 arrived in Cairo accompanied by a bodyguard of Armenians; he contrived to massacre the chiefs of the party at the time in possession of power, and with the title AmIr al-Juyush (prince of the armies) was given by Mostan~ir complete control of affairs.
The emperor at last complied, and in 552 a powerful army was despatched under Narses, an Armenian eunuch now advanced in life, but reputed the most skilful general of the age, as Belisarius was the hottest soldier.
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