His arguments were concise, simple, and clear.
Then he attacks the arguments, one after another.
Then he attacks the arguments, one after another.
After reading my arguments, you may or may not believe the future I describe is inevitable, as I say it is.
But these differences between Dalton's views and our present ones do not impair the accuracy of the arguments which follow.
If we try to know the real world, we find ourselves distracted by opposite arguments (" ` Antithetic of Pure Reason "), plausible and resistless in attack, helpless in defence.
A member of the Hofkriegsrath from Vienna had come to Kutuzov the day before with proposals and demands for him to join up with the army of the Archduke Ferdinand and Mack, and Kutuzov, not considering this junction advisable, meant, among other arguments in support of his view, to show the Austrian general the wretched state in which the troops arrived from Russia.
All Moscow repeated Prince Dolgorukov's saying: "If you go on modeling and modeling you must get smeared with clay," suggesting consolation for our defeat by the memory of former victories; and the words of Rostopchin, that French soldiers have to be incited to battle by highfalutin words, and Germans by logical arguments to show them that it is more dangerous to run away than to advance, but that Russian soldiers only need to be restrained and held back!
Chicheley now became the subject of a leading case, the court of king's bench deciding, of ter arguments reheard in three successive terms, that he could not hold his previous benefices with the bishopric, and that, spite of the maxim Papa potest omnia, a papal bull could not supersede the law of the land (Year-book ii.
But Intuitionalism has further arguments for the doubter.
He teaches free will and immortality; and the design and cosmological arguments are both traceable in him.
It seems impossible to deny that the tendency of his principles and his arguments is mainly in the line of a metaphysical absolute, as the necessary completion and foundation of all being and knowledge.
In bringing about this " fall," however, Parsons the Jesuit appears to have had a considerable share; at least Lord Sheffield has recorded that on the only occasion on which Gibbon talked with him on the subject he imputed the change in his religious views principally to that vigorous writer, who, in his opinion, had urged all the best arguments in favour of Roman Catholicism.
Consequently, although small bodies of individuals no doubt came back to Judah from time to time, and some special mark of favour may have been shown by Cyrus, the opinion has gained ground since the early arguments of E.
All right then, not the cavalry, but a marshaling of arguments and observations that will show how the end of war is inevitable, or nearly so.
Her arguments seemed so wise and practical, that I could not but yield.
His son made no rejoinder, but it was evident that whatever arguments were presented he was as little able as his father to change his opinion.
Still I could not shut my eyes to the force and weight of their arguments, and I saw plainly that I must abandon--'s scheme as impracticable.
Arguments concerning contact with tip lines became heated as well.
In 1639 he published a series of arguments against atheism, in which the Cartesian views were not obscurely indicated as perilous for the faith, though no name was mentioned.
The doctrine of the circulation of the blood, which Descartes adopted from Harvey, supplied additional arguments in favour of his mechanical theory, and he probably did much to popularize the discovery.
Pascal and other members of Port Royal openly expressed their doubts about the place allowed to God in the system; the adherents of Gassendi met it by resuscitating atoms; and the Aristotelians maintained their substantial forms as of old; the Jesuits argued against the arguments for the being of God, and against the theory of innate ideas; whilst Pierre Daniel Huet (1630-1721), bishop of Avranches, once a Cartesian himself, made a vigorous onslaught on the contempt in which his former comrades held literature and history, and enlarged on the vanity of all human aspirations after rational truth.
A Latin abridgment of philosophy, dated 1784, tells us that the innate ideas of Descartes are founded on no arguments, and are now universally abandoned.
Before he left Paris he had thrown himself with ardour into the controversy raging between the university and the Friar-Preachers respecting the liberty of teaching, resisting both by speeches and pamphlets the authorities of the university; and when the dispute was referred to the pope, the youthful Aquinas was chosen to defend his order, which he did with such success as to overcome the arguments of Guillaume de St Amour, the champion of the university, and one of the most celebrated men of the day.
He is said to have convinced their king Sigeberht of the truth of Christianity by his arguments, and at his request sent Cedd, a brother of Ceadda, on a mission to Essex.
Modern criticism of the history of Sabbath observance among the Hebrews has done nothing more than follow out these arguments in detail, and show that the result is in agreement with what is known as to the dates of the several component parts of the Pentateuch.
This article is confined to summarizing the philosophical or scientific arguments for, and objections to, the doctrine of the persistence of the human soul after death.
Ritchie, " that, in the various dialogues in which Plato speaks of immortality, the arguments seem to be of different kinds, and most of them quite unconnected with one another.
Fairbairn, " Plato's arguments for immortality, isolated, modernized, may be feeble, even valueless, but allowed to stand where and as he himself puts them, they have an altogether different worth.
In stating constructively the doctrine of immortality we must assign altogether secondary importance to the metaphysical arguments from the nature of the soul.
Such arguments as the indivisibility of the soul and its persistence can at most indicate the possibility of immortality.
To this belief, many and good as are the arguments which can be advanced for it, a confident certainty is given by Christian faith in the Risen Lord, and the life and immortality which he has brought to light in his Gospel.
Furtwangler proposes to find in a statue of which the head is at Bologna, and the body at Dresden, a copy of the Lemnian Athena of Pheidias; but his arguments (Masterpieces, at the beginning) are anything but conclusive.
It is divided into three books, the first containing his proofs of the divine existence, and the remaining two the theological and philosophical arguments for immortality based on that postulate.
The country was flooded with Jesuits and friars, whose arguments were reinforced by quartering troops, veterans of the Indian wars in Mexico, on the refractory inhabitants.
In October of this last year, however, the duke of Savoy, who came then to assist in person at the great religious feasts which celebrated the return of the country to unity of faith, expatriated such of the leading men as obstinately refused even to listen to the Catholic arguments.
Fichte, in short, advocates an ethical theism, and his arguments might easily be turned to account by the apologist of Christianity.
It is characteristic of Fichte's almost excessive receptiveness that in his latest published work, Der neuere Spiritualismus (1878), he supports his position by arguments of a somewhat occult or theosophical cast, not unlike those adopted by F.
There was also the danger that Austria might join the allies first and Piedmont be, left isolated; but there were also strong arguments on the other side, for while the Radical party saw no obvious reason why Piedmont should fight other peoples battles, and therefore opposed the alliance, there was the risk that Austria might join the al]iance together with Piedmont, which would have constituted a disastrous situation.
He was to draw up a written treatise, stating the course he proposed, and defending it by arguments from scripture, the fathers and the decrees of general councils.
The fixed given points of intuitionalism furnish Hamilton with one of his arguments in his unexpected development towards a sceptical or " faith philosophy."
He will not have the Ontological argument; but he asserts Natural Law, and relies upon the cosmological and design arguments - with various refinements and distinctions, differently stated in his two Summae.
Rene Descartes, a faithful though not an unsuspected Roman Catholic, founded modern philosophy by his startingpoint of universal doubt and by his arguments in reply.
Whatever one may think of the cogency of such arguments, it seems safe to conclude that thinkers, who dislike constructive idealism, but accept time and space as boundless given quanta, reach in that way the thought of infinity, and if they are theists, necessarily connect their theism with reflexions on the nature of Time and Space.
Kant puts together, as belonging to " Rational Theology," three arguments - he is critic of fond of triads, though they have not the significance for him which they came to have for Hegel.
A more entirely novel and more general principle of Kant's attack upon theism is the challenge of our right to build up the idea of God bit by bit out of different arguments.
The arguments had been regarded as alternative or else as cumulative proofs, all pointing to one conclusion - God exists.
A great deal of popular theism is undoubtedly hard hit by it; for popular theism is apt to throw its arguments together in very random fashion.
Hegel inherits from Kant the three arguments, and takes them as stages in one developing process of argu- thought.
Finally the Ontological argument sums up the truth in the two previous arguments, and gives it worthier utterance in its vision of the philosophical Absolute.
- The arguments, as already noted, may be differently combined.
Apart from the weighty arguments which the development furnishes against the theories of Allman and Mechnikov, it may be pointed out that neither hypothesis gives a satisfactory explanation of a structure universally present in medusae of whatever class, namely the endoderm-lamella, discovered by the brothers O.
In fact, the strongest and most conclusive arguments in favour of evolution are those which are based upon the facts of geographical, taken in conjunction with those of geological, distribution.
Those have found little favour who brought to the debate only formal criticisms or amplifications of the Darwinian arguments, or re-marshallings of the Darwinian facts, however ably conducted.
earth by three arguments, two of which could be tested by observation.
The old arguments of Aristotle and the old measurements of Ptolemy were used by Toscanelli and Columbus in urging a westward voyage to India; and mainly on this account did the Revival of crossing of the Atlantic rank higher in the history of geography.
His great work, the forcing into common law of the principles of civil law, was unaccomplished; but Story says "he seemed about to accomplish [it]; for his arguments before the Supreme Court were crowded with the principles of the Roman Law, wrought into the texture of the Common Law with great success."
When such exclusively " external " arguments are urged, the contents of Christianity go for next to nothing.
Even when the visit to the Horde did not end so tragically, it involved a great deal of anxiety and expense, for the Mongol dignitaries had to be conciliated very liberally, and it was commonly believed that the judges were more influenced by the amount of the bribes than by the force of the arguments.
Besides the general arguments for supposing that the physical phenomena of spiritualism may be due to conjuring, there are two special reasons which gain in force as time goes on.
There are strong arguments against Robert Wedderburn's authorship, as maintained by Laing and others.
Pavilliard's description of the " thin little figure, with a large head, disputing and arguing, with the greatest ability, all the best arguments that had ever been used in favour of popery."
He continued to reside at Avignon despite the arguments of envoys and the verses of Petrarch, but threw a sop to the Romans by reducing the Jubilee term from one hundred years to fifty.
He had already, in 1859, as the result of a visit to Budapest, made certain modifications in the Bach system by way of concession to Magyar sentiment, and in 1861 he had had an interview with Dek, during which, though unconvinced by that statesmans arguments, he had at least assured himself of his loyalty.
Their concessions continue to become ever more significant, and all that follows from them should be carefully noticed by those who are impressed by their arguments.
The arguments of conservative writers involve concessions which, though often overlooked by their readers, are very detrimental to the position they endeavour to support, and the objections they bring against the theory of the introduction of new law-books (under a Josiah or an Ezra) apply with equal force to the promulgation of Mosaic teaching which had been admittedly ignored or forgotten.
He had read a pamphlet published in America attacking the proposed order, which was to form a bond of association between the officers who had fought in the American War of Independence against England; the arguments struck him as true and valuable, so he re-arranged them in his own fashion, and rewrote them in his own oratorical style.
On the last point, however, the case was carried to the Supreme Court of the United States, and there Webster, presenting principally arguments of his colleagues at the state trial and making a powerful appeal to the emotions of the court, won the case for the college and for himself the front rank at the American bar.
In the following year Webster delivered his oration in commemoration of the second and third presidents of the United States - John Adams and Thomas Jefferson - who died on the 4th of July 1826; it is particularly remarkable for Adams's imaginary reply in the Continental 'Congress to the arguments against a Declaration of Independence, beginning with the familiar quotation: "Sink or swim, live or die, survive or perish, I gave my hand and my heart to this vote."
In 1820 Webster took an important part in the convention called to revise the constitution of Massachusetts, his arguments in favour of removing the religious test, in favour of retaining property representation in the Senate, and in favour of increasing the independence of the judiciary, being especially notable.
It is not too much to say that the conviction of the justice of their cause that carried the northern states successfully through the Civil War was largely due to the arguments of Webster.
On the much agitated question about the employment of horses or oxen in labour, the most important arguments are distinctly stated.
Defects in their arguments have been exposed to view by those who are most concerned to defend their reputation.
The real state of the case is certainly unsuspected by Origen himself; but many of his opponent's arguments he is unable to meet except by a speculative reconstruction of the church doctrine in question.
i it was largely rebuilt, and arguments have been brought forward by DOrpfeld to show that features of the second type were then introduced.
In theology he followed Zwingli, and at the sacramentarian conferences of Heidelberg (1560) and Maulbronn (1564) he advocated by voice and pen the Zwinglian doctrine of the Lord's Supper, replying (1565) to the counter arguments of the Lutheran Johann Marbach, of Strassburg.
The cogent arguments against this view are set forth in the article on Arthropoda.
Muller, Facts and Arguments for Darwin (trans.
It must not, however, be forgotten that Justin is here speaking as the apologist of Christianity to an educated Pagan public, on whose philosophical view of life he had to base his arguments, and from whom he could not expect an intimate comprehension of the religious position of Christians.
Here, where he had to deal with the Judaism that believed in a Messiah, he was far better able to do justice to Christianity as a revelation; and so we find that the arguments of this work are much more completely in harmony with primitive Christian theology than those of the Apology.
Physical science, if there was anything deserving that name, was cultivated, not by experiment in the Aristotelian way, but by arguments deduced from premises resting on authority or custom.
In regard to both assizes, it, is most important to bear in mind that we possess not laws, but law-books or custumals - records made by lawyers for their fellows of what they conceived to be the law, and supported by legal arguments and citations of cases.
For the Heteronemertines arguments have been adduced to prove that here they have the physiological significance of a special respiratory apparatus for the central nervous tissue, which in all these forms is strongly charged with haemoglobin.
Berengar's belief was not shaken by their arguments and exhortations, and hearing that Lanfranc, the most celebrated theologian of that age, strongly approved the doctrine of Paschasius and condemned that of " Scotus " (really Ratramnus), he wrote to him a letter expressing his surprise and urging him to reconsider the question.
This last book contains a summary of the arguments on either side, a full bibliography of works on the subject, and facsimiles of the title pages, with full descriptions of the various extant copies.
His analogical arguments resemble those found in the Bampton Lectures of Dean Mansel.
Part of his numerous pamphlets and addresses were collected in his Speeches, Arguments and Miscellaneous Papers (3 vols., 1884-1890).
As a borough of the Palatinate Hartlepool was not represented in parliament until the 19th century, though strong arguments in its favour were advanced in the Commons in 1614.
This spirit gave way to the physicians, who regarded " chemistry as the art of preparing medicines," a denotation which in turn succumbed to the arguments of Boyle, who regarded it as the " science of the composition of substances," a definition which adequately fits the science to-day.
He assumed that if we have one atom 1 It is now established that ortho compounds do exist in isomeric forms, instances being provided by chlor-, brom-, and amino-toluene, chlorphenol, and chloraniline; but arguments, e.g.
The question as to whether copper really was first used in Egypt is not yet resolved, and many arguments can be brought against the theory of Egyptian origin and in favour of one in Syria or further north.26 Egypt has also recently been credited with being the inceptor of the whole " megalithic (or heliolithic, as the fashionable word now is) culture " of mankind, from Britain to China and (literally) Peru or at any rate Mexico via the Pacific Isles.27 The theory is that the achievements of the Egyptians in great stone architecture at the time of the pyramid-builders so impressed their contemporaries that they were imitated in the surrounding lands, by the Libyans and Syrians, that the fame of them was carried by the Phoenicians further afield, and that early Arab and Indian traders passed on the megalithic idea to Farther India, and thence to Polynesia and so on so that both the teocalli of Teotihuacan and Stonehenge are ultimately derived through cromlechs and dolmens innumerable from the stone pyramid of Saqqara, built by Imhotep, the architect of King Zoser, about 3100 B.C. (afterwards deified as the patron of science and architecture).
He accordingly raised the question of its apostolic origin; and by reviving old difficulties, with ingenious arguments of his own, he carried his point.
About 1607 Schoppe entered the service of Ferdinand, archduke of Styria, afterwards the emperor Ferdinand II., who found him very useful in rebutting the arguments of the Protestants, and who sent him on several diplomatic errands.
But these arguments have been shown to be shaky if not baseless, and the identification is now generally abandoned.
A similar theory holds for relations which arise from the consideration of propositional functions with two or more variable arguments.
But France's influence, backed by the strong personality of her ambassador, General Sebastiani, was sufficient to enable the sultan to withstand these arguments, and the British ambassador broke off relations and withdrew to the fleet at Tenedos (February 1807).
It is probable that the electrical effects constitute the strongest arguments in favour of the theory.
forma), in general, the external shape, appearance, configuration of an object, in contradistinction to the matter of which it is composed; thus a speech may contain excellent arguments, - the matter may be good, while the style, grammar, arrangement, - the form - is bad.
If the arguments chiefly relied on for an early date are so precarious or can even be turned against their inventors, there are others of an unambiguous kind which make for a date in the Persian period.
The arguments used were, however, of no avail with the regent, and the decree was promulgated on the r3th of May 1888.
Against the system of non-difference Abelard has a number of logical and traditional arguments to bring, but it is sufficiently condemned by his fundamental doctrine that only the individual exists in its own right.
But Aquinas, though he holds the fact of creation to be rationally demonstrable, regards the beginning of the world in time as only an article of faith, the philosophical arguments for and against being inconclusive.
The facts of the relationships of animals to one another, which had been treated as the outcome of an inscrutable law by most zoologists and glibly explained by the transcendental morphologists, were amongst the most powerful arguments in support of Darwin's theory, since they, together with all other vital phenomena, received a sufficient explanation through it.
Whilst simple evidence of the fact of the transmission of an acquired character is wanting, the a priori arguments in its favour break down one after another when discussed.
We need not, however, spend much time on the well-worn but inconclusive arguments of the older critics.
[True, there was not so much said about Babylon as we should have expected even in the first book; the paucity of references to the local characteristics of Babylonia is in fact one of the negative arguments urged by older scholars in favour of the Isaianic origin of the prophecy.] Israel himself, with all his inconsistent qualities, becomes the absorbing subject of the prophet's meditations.
In all the others, and especially in the last three, the continuity of the argument is frequently broken by passages which must have been inserted after the first draft of the arguments was written out.
Smith has, however, still stronger arguments, which he states as follows: " Throughout the entire line of the old bridge, the bed of the river was found to contain ancient wooden piles; and when these piles, subsequently to the erection of the new bridge, were pulled up to deepen the channel of the river, many thousands of Roman coins, with abundance of broken Roman tiles and pottery, were discovered, and immediately beneath some of the central piles brass medallions of Aurelius, Faustina and Commodus.
Further, it is certain that Hero used physical and mathematical writings by Posidonius, the Stoic, of Apamea, Cicero's teacher, who lived until about the middle of the 1st century B.C. The positive arguments for the more modern view of Hero's date are (1) the use by him of Latinisms from which Diels concluded that the 1st century A.D.
The totally unexpected AngloPrussian alliance had justified the arguments of his enemies that England was impossible, while his hatred of France prevented him from adopting the only alternative of an alliance with her.
It is not possible within the limits at our command to specify the facts and arguments by which these theories are respectively supported.
This, however, does not disturb the tenor of the following arguments.
The configurations of the pentaand tetra-aldoses have been determined by similar arguments; and those of the ketoses can be deduced from the aldoses.
By these and similar arguments he arrives at the fundamental principle of Scepticism, the radical and universal opposition of causes; panti logo logos antikeitai.
The two ministers of Delft, who had debated the point with him, had, the better to turn his arguments, descended from the supralapsarian to the infralapsarian position, i.e.
It is usually maintained that this work was written before the Old Testament poems. The arguments for this view are that the Heliand contains no allusion to any foregoing poetical treatment of the antecedent history, and that the Genesis fragments exhibit a higher degree of poetic skill.
The exegetical arguments are, in short, the final court of appeal, and their verdict tells rather in favour of the epistle's integrity.
The chief arguments to be urged against this late date are the character of the Hebrew style (Driver, op. cit., p. 233) and the alleged close of the prophetic canon by 200; but perhaps neither of these can be regarded as very convincing.
The angry tyrant, unable to refute her arguments himself, sent for pagan scholars to argue with her, but they were discomfited.
But in Lent his celebrated sermons upon Amos were delivered in the duomo, and again he urged the necessity of reforming the church, striving by ingenious arguments to reconcile rebellion against Alexander with unalterable fidelity to the Holy See.
The philosophic principles and religious deductions of Dean Mansel he disliked as much as those of Newman, but he respected his arguments more.
When this building of railways began in Japan, much discussion was taking place in England and India as to the relative advantages of the wide and narrow gauges, and so strongly did the arguments in favor of the latter appeal to the English advisers of the Japanese government that the metre gauge was chosen.
His arguments were felicitous, and his choice of language was the theme of constant admiration.
At the express request of Malesherbes he furnished some arguments to the materials collected for the defence of the king.
There the more liberal theology rapidly made way among a people who judged it more by its fruits than its arguments, and Macleod won many adherents by his practical schemes for the social improvement of the people.
While most of the "Broad Churchmen" were influenced by ethical and emotional considerations in their repudiation of the dogma of everlasting torment, he was swayed by purely intellectual and theological arguments, and in questions of a more general liberty he often opposed the proposed Liberal theologians, though he as often took their side if he saw them hard pressed.
It is evident from these arguments that no general answer can be given to the question.
Morin does not deal fully with the arguments from internal evidence which point back to the beginning of the 5th century as the date of the creed.
His arguments and exhortations may be gathered from many of his epistles and from his tract Adversus Helvidium, in which he defends the perpetual virginity of Mary against Helvidius, who maintained that she bore children to Joseph.
He had been chosen to meet Hamilton in controversy, with a view to convincing him of his errors, but the arguments of the Scottish proto-martyr, and above all the spectacle of his heroism at the stake, impressed Alesius so powerfully that he was entirely won over to the cause of the Reformers.
Hence all the elaborate arguments based on the supposition that Moses probably could not write fall to the ground.
In it he collected with great fulness and discussed with marked moderation the arguments against Johannine authorship. This called forth a number of replies.
After full hearing of arguments they gave their decision against both the practices in question.
The arguments of Dionysius were repeated by Eusebius, who ascribed the work to the presbyter John mentioned by Papias (Eus.
When, however, we combine the preceding arguments with that of the early church tradition, the evidence for the Domitian date outweighs that for any other.
His arguments, as summed up by Swete (op. cit., p. cxiv seq.), are as follows: "John the Evangelist abstains from mentioning his own name, but John the Apocalyptist names himself more than once at the very outset of his book, and again near its end.
The second part of the book is taken up with a number of metaphysical arguments to prove the impossibility of an external world.
Lightfoot, however, has proved that Polycarp's statements may equally well be directed against Corinthianism or any other form of Docetism, while some of his arguments are absolutely inapplicable to Marcionism.
But, as Gwatkin 13 has pointed out, Harnack's arguments are by no means decisive.
It is true that Harnack has adduced arguments which cannot be discussed here to prove that Irenaeus was not born till about 140; 15 but against this we may quote the decision of Lipsius, who puts the date of his birth at 130, 16 while Lightfoot argues for 120.17 The fact that Irenaeus never quotes Polycarp does not count for much.
To direct attention to the true nature of revolution, to demonstrate how inextricably the right of liberty is interwoven with the very existence of man as an intelligent agent, to point out the inherent progressiveness of state arrangements, and the consequent necessity of reform or amendment, such are the main objects of the Beitrage; and although, as is often the case with Fichte, the arguments are too formal and the distinctions too wiredrawn, yet the general idea is nobly conceived and carried out.
The arguments of the atomists, and their replies to the objections of Anaxagoras, are to be found in Lucretius.
This was the state of opinion when the celebrated arguments against the possibility of motion, of which that of Achilles and the tortoise is a specimen, were propounded by Zeno, and such, apparently, continued to be the state of opinion till Aristotle pointed out that time is divisible without limit, in precisely the same sense that space is.
" It was easy to attempt to apply similar arguments to matter.
The Aristotelian dialectic, however, deals with the universal laws (Kocval apxai) of reasoning, which can be applied to the particular arguments of all the sciences.
These arguments, reinforced by those of the royalist agent de Vitrolles, convinced the tsar; and Talleyrand, on the 1st of April, convened the French senate (only 64 members out of 1 4 0 attended), and that body pronounced that Napoleon had forfeited the crown.
From these three arguments he developed an elaborate theosophy which was a syncretism of oriental mysticism and pure Greek metaphysic, and may be regarded as representing the climax of Jewish philosophy.
The Latin doctors by arguments as good as those usually put forth in such controversies have no difficulty in proving that Christ instituted all seven.
The Manicheans' answer to such arguments was that miracles worked by Christ and the Apostles in the material world were only apparitional and not real, while those of the Old Testament were satanic.
Siricius (384-389), Leo the Great (440-461), and Gelasius (492-496) left little for their successors to add to the arguments in favour of the papal supremacy.
himself stoutly maintained the headship of the pope, and, as is well known, after examining the arguments of Luther, published his Defence of the Seven Sacraments in 1521, which won for him from the pope the glorious title of "Defender of the Faith."
But others were won over by the news that it had been ratified by New Hampshire and Virginia or by the telling arguments of Hamilton, and on the 26th of July the motion to ratify was carried by a vote of 30 to 27.
Sometimes quoting, sometimes paraphrasing, sometimes merely referring, he reproduces and replies to all Celsus's arguments.
It must be judged not only by theoretical but by practical arguments, in its relations either to the individual or to a society.
Shepard, meant to sell it for one cent, but under the arguments of Greeley he was persuaded to fix the price at two cents.
In 1902 her position was strengthened by the alliance with England; in 1903 her army, though in the event it proved almost too small, was considered by the military authorities as sufficiently numerous and well prepared, and the arguments of the Japanese diplomatists stiffened with menaces.
It is wrong, therefore, to impute to Kant, as is often done, the view that human reason is, on ultimate subjects, at war with itself, in the sense of being impelled by equally strong arguments towards alternatives contradictory of each other.
His strongest arguments are that the wind would easily develop into the messenger of the gods (Len oU pos), and that it was often thought to promote fertility in crops and cattle.
But many of Roscher's arguments are forced, and his method of interpretation is not altogether sound.
This gives certain of his arguments an air of pedantry, and seems to lead him to find evidences of continuity in institutions which in reality and spirit were different from what they once had been.
Ray adopted Grew's views, and states various arguments to prove their correctness in the preface to his work on European plants, published in 1694.
His views were not, however, adopted at once by all, for we find Charles Alston stating arguments against them in his Dissertation on the Sexes of Plants.
Valdemar's skilful diplomacy, reinforced by golden arguments, did indeed induce the dukes of Brunswick, Brandenburg and Pomerania to attack the confederates in the rear; but fortune was persistently unfriendly to the Danish king, 1 Rostock, Greifswald, Wismar and Stralsund.
Moreover, the arguments by which Heraclitus supported this theory of the universal flux are employed by Protagoras to undermine the possibility of objective truth, by dissolving all knowledge into the momentary sensation or persuasion of the individual.
His arguments were drawn from the dialectic which the Eleatics had directed against the existence of the phenomenal world.
Even Hume, in various passages of his Treatise, speaks of himself as recovering cheerfulness and mental tone only by forgetfulness of his own arguments.
The theological application and development of Hamilton's arguments in Mansel's Bampton Lectures On the Limits of Religious Thought marked a still more determined attack, in the interests of theology, upon the competency of reason.
Sceptical reflection rather than systematic scepticism is what meets us in Michel de Montaigne (1533-1592), though the elaborate presentation of sceptical and relativistic arguments in his " Apologie de Raimond-Sebond " (Essais, ii.
In his " tesmoynages de nostre imbecillite " he follows in the main the lines of the ancients, and he sums up with a lucid statement of the two great arguments in which the sceptical thought of every age resumes itself - the impossibility of verifying our faculties, and the relativity of all impressions.
No arguments can be brought against it, simply because the scepticism rests on nothing more than the empty possibility of doubting.
for two centuries, was peacefully accomplished by Jagiello within a single generation, the Lithuanians, for the most part, willingly yielding to the arguments of a prince of their own blood, who promptly rewarded his converts with peculiar and exclusive privileges.
Denying the existence of a deity, and refusing to admit as evidence all a priori arguments, Holbach saw in the universe nothing save matter in spontaneous movement.
In this table (93) sin 20=Ca, where a is a function tabulated for the two arguments, V the initial velocity, and R/C the reduced range in yards.
The stamp distributor was driven out, and the arguments of Daniel Dulany (1721-1797), the ablest lawyer in the province, against the act were quoted by speakers in parliament for its repeal.
For though the Reformers were critical of the authority of ecclesiastical tradition in the matter of 2 His arguments are stated briefly (and in order to be refuted) by Jerome in his commentary on Daniel.
So far back as it can be traced it is, therefore, an Alexandrian MS., and palaeographical arguments point in the same direction.
nearly] fifty years old ": but both his arguments are probably derived from a single source, Papias's interpretation of John viii.
It can be said confidently that the truth is between these two extremes (though in what exact year it is not easy to say), as will be evident from a consideration of the arguments urged, which in each case appear less to prove one extreme than to disprove its opposite.
The arguments, then, brought forward in favour of A.D.
Arguments for an Early Date, A.D.
Of these arguments, then, the first, so far as it is valid, is an argument for the summer, not of A.D.
In the result, then, the arguments brought forward in favour of each extreme fail to prove their case, but at the same time prove something against the opposite view.
16, where the argument rests upon the word " seed " (and not the plural " seeds ") in the proof-text, and the same word in Rabbinical writings is used to support other arguments.
Apropos of this law the Rabbinical arguments are worth noticing.
The latter observes (p. 203): " the arguments by which Paul tried to convince his opponents of the true meaning of the Old Testament as pointing forward to Christ, are those which they would themselves have employed for another purpose; and to some extent we need not doubt that they were selected for that very reason.
They were the arguments which were best calculated to appeal to them."
As an advocate his sharpness and rapidity of insight gave him a formidable advantage in the detection of the weaknesses of a witness and the vulnerable points of his opponent's case, while he grouped his own arguments with an admirable eye to effect, especially excelling in eloquent closing appeals to a jury.
Eberhard stated the arguments for the broader view with dignity, acuteness and learning, but the liberality of the reasoning gave great offence to the strictly orthodox divines, and is believed to have obstructed his preferment in the church.
arguments which were afterwards adopted by the Christian image-worshippers.
They both urged society towards the abolition of the previously prevailing industrial policy of European governments; and their arguments against that policy rested essentially on the same grounds.
The interval of the arguments is io", and the results are given to 8 places; in Napier's canon the interval is 1', and the number of places is 7.
The supreme court holds one general term each year at Concord and on the first Tuesday of every month except July and August sits to hear arguments, make orders and render decisions; the superior court holds one or two sessions a year in every county.
Because of Daniel Webster's arguments in the Dartmouth College Case, and because his party had favoured the support of the Congregational Church by public taxation, he became very unpopular in this his native state.
Luzio, whose account in Profili e bozzetti storici (Milan, 1906) gives the latest information on the subject, has demolished Amante's arguments.
In England this essay, which was regarded and treated as a plea for deism, made a great sensation, calling forth several replies, among others from William Whiston, Bishop Hare, Bishop Hoadly, and Richard Bentley, who, under the signature of Phileleutherus Lipsiensis, roughly handles certain arguments carelessly expressed by Collins, but triumphs chiefly by an attack on trivial points of scholarship, his own pamphlet being by no means faultless in this very respect.
One of his arguments, however, calls for special criticism, - his assertion that it is selfevident that nothing that has a beginning can be without a cause is an unwarranted assumption of the very point at issue.
But its general character may be gathered from the arguments addressed to the tribunal.
The arguments against the genuineness of some of the above writings do not seem to the present writer to have weight.
It divides (chap. 8) evidences (7r1aTEts) into two kinds (I) evidence from arguments, actions and men (ai j s v E air&v Tcev Xhywv cal Twv 7rpit aw cal TWV avOpcoirwv); (2) adventitious evidences (ai S' iIriOETOtTOLs X yo,u vots cal Tois rpm-To/lb/0a).
Now, from the outset of his Rhetoric Aristotle himself claims to be the first to distinguish between artificial evidences from arguments and other evidences which he regards as mere additions; and he complains that the composers of arts of speaking had neglected the former for the latter.
2, 372 b 9) quotes the De Sensu (c. 3), and therefore, on Zeller's arguments, ought to follow one of the Parva Naturalia.
I, 1 355 a 33-35); rhetoric, since its artificial evidences involve characters, passions and reasoning, is called a kind of offshoot of dialectic and morals, and a copy of dialectic, because neither is a science of anything definite, but both faculties (SvvItyas) of providing arguments (i.
2, 1356 a 33); and, since rhetorical arguments are examples and enthymemes analysed in the Analytics, rhetoric is finally regarded as a compound of analytic science and of morals, while it is like dialectical and sophistic arguments (i.
Rhetoric is a faculty on any subject of investigating what may be persuasive (acOavov), which is the work of no other art; its means are artificial and inartificial evidences (7riorecs), and, among artificial evidences, especially the logical arguments of example and enthymeme.
.l'archeveque de Malines (1869), containing a clear exposition of the historical arguments against the doctrine of papal infallibility.
The developed form of this idea is almost certainly a product of the polemic with Christianity, in which the Rabbins were hard pressed by arguments from passages (especially Isa.
He had specially prepared himself, as he thought, for "teaching imaginative men, and political men, and legal men, and scientific men who bear the world in hand"; and he did not attempt to win their attention to abstract and worn-out theological arguments, but discussed the opinions, the poetry, the politics, the manners and customs of the time, and this not with philosophical comprehensiveness, not in terms of warm eulogy or measured blame, but of severe satire varied by fierce denunciation, and with a specific minuteness which was concerned primarily with individuals.
The arguments that had weaned him from his Zwibiglian simplicity did not satisfy his unpromoted brethren, and Jewel had to refuse admission to a benefice to his friend Laurence Humphrey (q.v.), who would not wear a surplice.
On the strength of the consilience of arguments for evolution in the organic world, he carries back the process in the whole world, until he comes to a cosmology which recalls the rash hypotheses of the Presocratics.
Lange (q.v.) by his History of Materialism has exercised a profound influence, which is due partly to its apparent success in answering materialism by Kantian arguments, and partly to its ingenious attempt to give.
Ward on the whole follows this triple scheme, but modifies it by new arguments founded on later German phenomenalism.
He applies universal experience to explain how we come, falsely in his opinion, to believe that the object of experience is an independent thing; and he uses three arguments, which are respectively those of Schuppe, Avenarius and Wundt.
Hence his really valuable arguments from Nature to God sink to the problematic form - there may be Nature; if so, there is God.
Gellius describes his arguments as scita et teretia.
The close resemblance of the Tibetan characters " with heads " to the Gupta inscriptions of Allahabad shows them to have been derived from the monumental writing of the period; and various arguments appear to show that the other Tibetan letters came from the same Indian character in the style in which it was used in common life.
His arguments were marked by incisive humour and fertility of ideas.
He revived the old arguments of the Academy, and advanced them with much ingenuity against Malebranche's doctrine.
In spite of her first refusal to submit, she was induced by the arguments of the vice-chamberlain, Sir Christopher Hatton, to appear before this tribunal on condition that her protest should be registered against the legality of its jurisdiction over a sovereign, the next heir of the English crown.
One of the immediate results of this triumph of his policy was the increase of Oldenbarneveldt's influence and authority in the government of the Republic. But though Maurice and his other opponents had reluctantly yielded to the advocate's skilful diplomacy and persuasive arguments, a soreness remained between the statesman and the stadholder which was destined never to be healed.
Driver in Zechariah in Century Bible, pp. 259, 271), puts them forward as arguments.
Existence of any fact, not present as a perception, can only be proved by arguments from cause or effect.
Cleanthes, who maintains that the doctrine of the incomprehensibility of God is hardly distinguishable from atheism, is compelled by the arguments of Philo to reduce to a minimum the conclusion capable of being inferred from experience as regards the existence of God.
MacCosh published a short pamphlet (1884) containing interesting but perhaps not conclusive arguments on the Agnosticism of Hume and Huxley.
under the name of "Benoit Vaillant, Advocate of the Holy Faith," and also, in 1594, in his own name) Les Trois Verites, in which by methodical and orthodox arguments, he seeks to prove that there is a God and a true religion, that the true religion is the Christian, and that the true church is the Roman Catholic..
Harnack's theory is based upon the following arguments: (a) The silence of the genuine Epistles of St Paul and the Epistle to the Hebrews.
These arguments, however, are not absolutely decisive.
Arguments for a preMaccabean date may be derived (a) from the fact that the book contains apparently no reference to the Maccabean struggles, (b) from the eulogy of the priestly house of Zadok which fell into disrepute during these wars for independence.
Aristotle, who speaks highly of the sincerity of Eudoxus's convictions, while giving a qualified approval to his arguments, considers him wrong in not distinguishing the different kinds of pleasure and in making pleasure the summum bonum.
It is of the essence of an active mind like Pascal's to explore and state all the arguments which make for or make against the conclusion it is investigating.
It was necessary, therefore, for Epicurus to go back to nature to find a more enduring and a wider foundation for ethical doctrine, to go back from words to realities, to give up reasonings and get at feelings, to test conceptions and arguments by a final reference to the only touchstone of truth - to sensation.
He was generally furnished with notes, meagre indeed and inaccurate, of what had been said; but sometimes he had to find arguments and eloquence both for the ministry and for the opposition.
ii., entitled " The Relation of the Paschal Chronicle to Malalas," challenges Professor Carriere's arguments, and contends that the History of Moses is a late 5th-century work, much interpolated in the immediately succeeding centuries.
In arguments at the bar he was so fair to his opponent that he frequently appeared to concede away his client's case.
These arguments were reinforced by an appeal of Prince Billow to the traditions of Bismarck, and in spite of a strenuous and weighty opposition, the bill with certain modifications passed by 143 votes to III in the Upper House, and was accepted by the Lower House on the I3th of March.
What began as a great revolutionary movement became a dogmatic and academic school of thought; it often almost seemed as though the orthodox interpretation of I~Iarxs doctrine was of more importance than an improvement in the condition of the working men, and the discussions in the annual Socialist Congress resembled the arguments of theologians rather than the practical considerations of politicians.
That war was prevented was due partly to the timidity of French ministers, partly to the fact that at the last moment Herr von Holstein shrank from the responsibility of pressing his arguments to a practical conclusion.
Next we note that an extract in the Philocalia is introduced as follows: "Yea, and Clement the Roman, a disciple of Peter the Apostle, after using words in harmony with these on the present problem, in conversation with his father at Laodicea in the Circuits, speaks a very necessary word for the end of arguments touching this matter, viz.
The question whether he among Moslems, unfortunately more with dogmatic arguments and spurious traditions than authentic proofs.
Gruppe, we understand the air-goddess as a storm deity; some of the arguments in support of the two other theories will be examined in this article.
of the Rev. C. Plummer's edition of Two of the Saxon Chronicles Parallel (Clarendon Press, 1892, 1899); to which the student may be referred for detailed arguments.
But in the decapitated animal we have good arguments for belief that we get the reflex movement alone as response; the psychical touch drops out.
The arguments on the whole are in favour of 900.
The other works of Lord Hailes include Historical Memoirs concerning the Provincial Councils of the Scottish Clergy (1769); An Examination of some of the Arguments for the High Antiquity of Regiam Majestatem (1769); three volumes entitled Remains of Christian Antiquity (" Account of the Martyrs of Smyrna and Lyons in the Second Century," 1776; " The Trials of Justin Martyr, Cyprian, &c.," 1778; The History of the Martyrs of Palestine, translated from Eusebius," 1780); Disquisitions concerning the Antiquities of the Christian Church (1783); and editions or translations of portions of Lactantius, Tertullian and Minucius Felix.
Walker at first opposed the Compromise of 1850, but was won over later by the arguments of Stephen A.
He took rather a prominent part in the discussions at the council, associating himself with Felix Dupanloup and with Georges Darboy, archbishop of Paris, in his opposition to the doctrine of Infallibility, and supporting their arguments from his vast knowledge of ecclesiastical history.
Marignan questioned, on archaeological grounds, the date assigned to the tapestry, as the Abbe de la Rue had questioned it ninety years before; but his arguments were refuted by Gaston Paris and M.
It was easier to burn Anabaptists than to refute their arguments, and contemporary writers were struck with the intrepidity and number of their martyrs.
There is no direct evidence that this was practised in the worship of Cybele, but analogy and indirect arguments make it pretty certain.
He naturally referred the question to the cardinals about him; with whom Gardiner held long arguments, enforced, it would seem, by not a little browbeating of the College.
- Examinations may test (i.) knowledge, or, more exactly, the power of restating facts and arguments of a kind that may be learnt by rote; (ii.) the power i See E.
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