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areas

areas Sentence Examples

  • His gaze probed at the remote areas of her mind.

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  • Past elevations of land, however (and doubtless equally great subsidences) have taken place in South America since the Eocene, and the conclusion that extensive areas of land have subsided in the Indian Ocean has long been based on a somewhat similar distribution of giant tortoises in the Mascarene region.

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  • Having been raised as rivals in all areas, A'Ran took a very unwarrior-like satisfaction out of having bested Kisolm finally.

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  • In areas where Jenner's techniques were available, infections fell, and when inoculation became mandatory, they plummeted.

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  • She watched for soft areas where a wagon might get stuck.

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  • The reactor area, the storage and logistical areas, and the hazardous waste areas appeared untouched.

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  • Just the barracks and office areas had been attacked.

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  • In the rural areas, there was less concern with traffic, although an occasional farm dog forced him to practice his sprints.

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  • We will be able to examine all kinds of social issues: Why are some areas poorer than others?

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  • Jackson said, I think we should stay away from populated areas, the forest is our best chance to stay hidden.

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  • Standing partitions broke up areas of the expanse.

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  • There were a dozen such places, and the snow had melted over part of the rocky areas, making tracking almost impossible.

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  • None of the names sounded familiar, nor were the addresses in areas where Byrne was thought to have traveled.

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  • But to the west of this, except in the Rocky Mountain region where storms are numerous, the frequency steadily diminishes, and along the Pacific coast there are large areas where thunder occurs only once or twice a year.

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  • The plateau portion of West Virginia is largely covered by hardwood forests, but along the Ohio river and its principal tributaries the valuable timber has been removed and considerable areas have been wholly cleared for farming and pasture lands.

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  • Loring has unique architecture which divides the dining areas into sections, creating cozy private spaces for groups.

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  • Two were in outlying areas north of town and two in the city of Keene.

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  • The world was flooded in some areas and on fire in others with still other parts blanketed in outright war.

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  • He cannot enter Death's domain or other areas of the Immortal world without invitation.

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  • The main floor consisted of common areas and wide halls lined with massive windows.

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  • In rural areas, first responders were often neighbors, which was the fortunate case with them.

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  • You see houses a hundred years old standing in areas where tornadoes occur a number of times a year.

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  • She peered at the areas where there was bruising.

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  • The cover was partially complete, with a few areas marked along one side and the bottom as being reserved for additional stories.

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  • One of these areas is defined by the three fortresses, La Fre, Laon and Reims, the other by the triangle, LangresDijonBesancon.

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  • Together they dusted and vacuumed the downstairs areas.

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  • She made her way through the common areas to the dorms and cautiously opened the door to the room that had been hers.

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  • Women were packed even in the luxurious bathrooms with their sitting areas decorated with couches and a gilded fountain.

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  • I'm sending a list of trouble areas.

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  • I'll do some digging in the surrounding areas.

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  • The comms have gone up and down, depending on how close we are to the nuked areas.

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  • They walked into the camp from the designated exercise areas.

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  • You've already got new grass coming up in some areas.

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  • She pulled onto the crowded street and drove with barely contained patience through the residential areas before flooring the car when she reached the highway.

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  • The ground floor consisted of formal dining and living areas, to include a hearth whose chimney stretched all the way to the top of the condo, two stories up.

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  • It too, held the welcoming atmosphere of a hospital waiting room, with a living room, expansive kitchen, informal dining area and hallways leading off each side of the common areas.

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  • Although the valleys between the ridges are not always easy of access, they give broad areas of nearly level agricultural land.

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  • In the area of the Newer Appalachian Mountains, the eastern Panhandle region has a forest similar to that of the plateau district; but between these two areas of hardwood there is a long belt where spruce and white pine cover the mountain ridges.

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  • Wild ginger, elder and sumach are common, and in the mountain areas, rhododendrons, mountain laurel and azaleas.

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  • The general elevation in the south part of the state is much lower, and large areas bordering the Paraguay are swampy, partially submerged plains which the sluggish rivers are unable to drain.

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  • The Mesozoic beds are limited in extent, the most extensive areas lying around the Gulf of Orosei on the east and west of Sassari in the north.

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  • Frequent political changes in Venezuela have led to various modifications in the size and outlines of this state, which comprises large areas of uninhabited territory.

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  • Windows have a chilling effect on a room, and in calculations extra allowance should be made for window areas.

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  • The northern part of the Gran Chaco is partly wooded and swampy, and as the slope eastward is very gentle and the rivers much obstructed by sand bars, floating trees and vegetation, large areas are regularly flooded during rainy seasons.

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  • Still farther south and south-west there are open grassy plains and large areas covered with salt-pans.

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  • The provinces of Santa Fe, Cordoba and Santiago del Estero are only partially wooded; large areas of plains are intermingled with scrubby forests of algarrobo (Prosopis), quebracho-blanco (Aspido-sperma quebracho), tala (Celtis tala, Sellowiana, acuminata), acacias and other genera.

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  • The chestnut covers considerable areas in Prigord, Limousin and Beam; resinotis trees (firs, pines, larches, &c.) form fine forests in the Vosges and The indigenous fauna include the bear, now very rare but still found in the Alps and Pyrenees, the wolf, harbouring chiefly in the Cvennes and Vosges, but in continually decreasing areas; the fox, marten, badger, weasel, otter, the beaver in the extreme south of the Rhne valley, and in the Alps the marmot; the red deer and roe deer are preserved in many of the forests, and the wild boar is found in several districts; the chamois and wild goat survive in the Pyrenees and Alps.

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  • There were, moreover, other and broader oscillations which raised or lowered extensive areas withbut much crumpling of the strata, and to these are due some of the most important breaks in the geological series.

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  • For the production of wheat, in respect of which France is self-supporting, French Flanders, the Seine basin, notably the Beauce and the Brie, and the regions bordering on the lower course of the Loire and the upper course of the Garonne, are the chief areas.

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  • Maize covers considerable areas in Landes, Basses-Pyrnes and other south-western departments.

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  • West, west-central and eastern France outside these areas, where meadows are predominant and both dairying and fattening are general.

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  • - The states of Australia are divided by natural boundaries, which separate geographical areas having different characters, owing, mainly, to their different geological structures.

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  • These areas of Archean rocks were doubtless once continuous.

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  • But they have been separated by the foundering of the Coral Sea and the Tasman Sea, which divided the continent of Australia from the islands of the Australasian festoon; and the foundering of the band across Australia, from the Gulf of Carpentaria, through western Queensland and western New South Wales, to the lower basin of the Murray, has separated the Archean areas of eastern and western Australia.

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  • The following are the areas subject to the various average The temperature in December ranges from 60° to above 95° Fahr., half of Australia having a mean temperature below 84°.

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  • Dividing the land into zones of average summer temperature, the following are the areas which would fall to each: - Judging from the figures just given, it must be conceded that a considerable area of the continent is not adapted for colonization by European races.

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  • "Mulga" scrub is a somewhat similar thicket, covering large areas.

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  • rainfall areas.

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  • The chief wheat lands are in Victoria, South Australia and New South Wales; the yield averages about 9 bushels to the acre; this low average is due to the endeavour of settlers on new lands to cultivate larger areas than their resources can effectively deal with; the introduction of scientific farming should almost double the yield.

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  • The search for gold and the quest for unoccupied pasturage daily diminish the extent of these areas.

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  • boundary is in part the river Thames, but it includes two separate small areas on the N.

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  • high, considerable areas are above 2500 ft., and the following summits exceed 4000 ft.: Mount Mansfield, 4364 ft.; Killington Peak, 4241 ft.; Camel's Hump, 4088 ft.; Mount Lincoln, 4078 ft.; and Jay Peak, 4018 ft.

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  • Among deciduous trees the state is noted for its sugar maples; birch and beech are common on the hills, and oaks, elm, hickory, ash, poplar, basswood, willow, chestnut and butternut on the less elevated areas.

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  • In the shallower tropical waters, especially on the central ridge, considerable areas are covered by Pteropod ooze, a deposit consisting largely of the shells of pelagic molluscs.

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  • Our knowledge of the salinity of waters below the surface is as yet very defective, large areas being still unrepresented by a single observation.

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  • In the North Atlantic the distribution of pressure and resulting wind circulation are very largely modified by the enormous areas of land and frozen sea which surround the ocean on three sides.

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  • In the intermediate belt between the two high-pressure areas the meteorological equator remains permanently north of the geographical equator, moving between it and about i r° N.

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  • In the central parts of the two high-pressure areas there is practically no surface circulation.

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  • The claims made by Germany to large areas of the hinterland gave rise to considerable negotiation with France and Great Britain, and it was not until 1899 that the frontiers were fixed on all sides.

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  • Beneath the epidermis is a longitudinal layer of muscle-fibres which are separated into four distinct groups by the dorsal, ventral and lateral areas; these are occupied by a continuation of the epidermic layer; in the lateral areas run two thin-walled tubes with clear contents, which unite in the anterior part of the body and open by a pore situated on the ventral surface usually about a quarter or a third of the body length from the anterior end.

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  • Later, a horseman was due from certain areas.

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  • The territory in which a telephone administration operates is usually divided into a number of local areas, in each of which one or more exchanges are placed.

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  • A system of wires, similar to that which connects the district exchanges in an area, links together the various local areas in the territory, and sometimes the territory of one administration with that of another.

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  • The company's appeal against the decision was withdrawn, the Postmaster-General agreeing to grant licences for restricted areas of about 5 m.

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  • The licences within restricted areas having proved unsuitable for the growing business, public opinion appealed to the Post Office to issue new licences applicable to the whole country.

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  • All limitations of areas were removed and licensees were allowed to open public call offices but not to receive or deliver written messages, and they were allowed to erect trunk wires.

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  • The Postmaster-General also agreed to lay underground wires for the company at an annual rental of L1 per mile of double wire in any local area in which the company was operating, but not in areas in which the municipalities had established exchanges.

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  • The following table indicates the areas of the several provinces (sixty-nine in number), and the population of each according to the censuses of the 31st of December 1881 and the 9th of February 1901.

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  • John and his friends feared lest the inquiry promised into the extent of the hated forest areas would be carried out too rigorously, and that these would be seriously curtailed, if not abolished altogether.

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  • By denouncing the evil deeds of John and the innovations practised by him, it shows what these were and how they were hated; how money had been raised, how forest areas had been extended, how minors and widows had been cheated and oppressed.

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  • The only Latin countries in which conflict has not arisen appear to be the principality of Andorra and the republic of San Marino (Giron y Areas, SituaciOn juridica de la Iglesia Catolica, Madrid, 1905, p. 173 et seq.).

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  • A large part of this has been reclaimed and the sandy soil laid bare, but on the Drente and Prussian borders areas of fen still remain.

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  • By the multiplication of the protoplasts in these merismatic areas the substance of the plant is increased.

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  • miners) tunnel into the leaf parenchyma, and so put the assimilating areas out of action in another way.

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  • Remote regions which are floristicafly distinct ~ may possess areas physically almost identical and yet be iered by different formations (Clements,I 1905: 203).

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  • Finally, within any district of constant or fairly constant climatic conditions, it is possible to distinguish plant communities which are related chiefly to edaphic or soil conditions; and the vegetation units of these definite edaphic areas are the plant formations of some writers, and, in part, the edaphic formations of Schimper.

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  • When a district like England is divided into edaphic areas, a general classification such as the following may be obtained:

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  • The problem, then, which plantdistribution presents is twofold: it has first to map out the earths surface into regions or areas of vegetation, and secondly to trace the causes which have brought them about and led to their restriction and to their mutual relations.

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  • SouTH TEMPERATE REGI0N.This occupies widely separated areas in South Africa, Australia, New Zealand and South America.

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  • Its extreme richness in number of species (it comprises six-sevenths of the European flora) and the extremely restricted areas of many of them point to a great antiquity.

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  • species are known out of a probable total of not less than 12,000, and of these more than half are endemic. The number of species to a genus, 3, is only half that found in other large areas.

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  • The western dry areas have the old-world leguminous Astragalus and Prosopis (Mesquit), but are especially characterized by the northward extension of the new-world tropical Cactaceae, Mgmmillaria, Cereus and Opuntia, by succulent Amar llideae such as A gave (of which the so-called American aloe is a type), and by arborescent Liliaceae (Yucca).

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  • Instead of large continuous areas, in which local characteristics sometimes blend, it occupies widely dissevered territories in which specialization, intensified by long se1/2aration, hai mostly effaced the possibility of comparing species hnd even genera and compels us to seek for points of contact in groups of a higher order.

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  • The tropics eventually became, what they are now, great areas of preservation.

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  • But in the 19th century and after exploring work was so generally and steadily maintained in all directions, and was in so many cases narrowed down from long journeys to detailed surveys within relatively small areas, that i t becomes desirable to cover the whole period at one view for certain great divisions of the world.

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  • Granting that the geoid or mean surface of the ocean is a uniform spheroid, the distribution of land and water approximately indicates a division of the surface of the globe into two areas, one of elevation and one of depression.

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  • area containing all dry land, the transitional area including the submarine slopes down to 1000 fathoms, and the abysmal area consisting of the floor of the ocean beyond that depth; and Mill proposed to take the line of mean-sphere level, instead of the empirical depth of moo fathoms, as the boundary between the transitional and abysmal areas.

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  • above sea-level, the mean depth Areas or of the sea 11,500 ft.

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  • By the device of a hypsographic curve co-ordinating the vertical relief and the areas of the earth's surface occupied by each zone of elevation, according to the system introduced by Supan, 2 Wagner showed his results graphically.

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  • wide areas, giving rise to oceanic depressions and leaving the continents protuberant; the other, folding along comparatively narrow belts, giving rise to mountain ranges.

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  • Murray, " Drainage Areas of the Continents," Scot.

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  • The classification of the land surface into areas inhabited by distinctive groups of plants has been attempted by many phytogeographers, but without resulting in any scheme of general acceptance.

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  • The minor subdivisions into provinces, counties and parishes, or analogous areas, may also be related in many cases to natural features or racial differences perpetuated by historical causes.

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  • Faunistically, although not geographically, the Nearctic and Palaearctic areas must form the two subdivisions of one great unit, for which the " Holarctic region " is now the generally accepted term.

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  • If we take the number of Nearctic species at 700, which is perhaps an exaggeration, and that of the Palaearctic at 850, we find that, exclusive of stragglers, there are about 120 common to the two areas.

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  • The first of these supports Newton's contention of the essential unity of the Nearctic and Palaearctic areas.

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  • This region naturally comprises the African and Indian areas, conformably to be called subregions.

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  • The Oriental Subregion comprises all the countries and numerous islands between the Palaearctic and Australian areas; it possesses upwards of seventy families, of which, however, only one is peculiar, but this family, the Eurylaemidae or broadbills, is of great importance since it represents all the Subclamatores.

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  • Southwards from the last-named, however, at the foot of the mountains and at the entrance to the valleys, there are rich areas of fertile land, which are being rapidly colonized by Russian immigrants, who have also penetrated into the Tian-shan, to the east of Lake Issyk-kul.

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  • As settled by him, and in part perhaps also by his successor Tiberius, it fell into the following five administrative areas.

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  • Or ridged areas on the sides of the prothorax may be scraped by "files" on the front thighs, as in some ground-beetles.

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  • In a large number of beetles of different families, stridulating areas occur on various segments of the abdomen, and are scraped by the elytra.

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  • Recently emerged from the Post-Pliocene sea, or freed from their mantle of ice, they persistently maintain the self-same features over immense areas; and the few portions that rise above the general elevation have more the character of broad and gentle swellings than of mountain-chains.

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  • The Tertiary formations occupy large areas in S.

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  • Taking their origin from a series of lacustrine basins scattered over the plateaus and differing slightly in elevation, the Russian rivers describe immense curves before reaching the sea, and flow with a very gentle gradient, while numerous large tributaries collect their waters from over vast areas.

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  • Vast areas in Russia are quite unfit for cultivation, 19% of the aggregate surface of European Russia (apart from Poland and Finland) being occupied by lakes, marshes, sand, &c., 39% by forests, 16% by prairies, and only 26% being under cultivation.

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  • winds - prevail over extensive areas, and sweep across the flat plains without hindrance.

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  • Save where irrigation has reclaimed small areas, the whole region is a vast desert, though locally only some of the interior plains are known as "deserts."

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  • Thus it appears that the gift theory may after all be primitive; the worship of, or care for, the dead may have supplied in other areas the motive for the transition from offering to sacrifice or the evolution may have been due to the spiritualization of the gods.

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  • For other areas we have often no description of the procedure at all, but merely the briefest outline of the actual process of slaughter, and we are ignorant whether the form of the rite is in reality simple (either from a loss of primitive elements or from never having advanced beyond the stage at which we find it), or whether the absence of detail is due to the inattention or lack of interest of the observer.

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  • How far this scheme of sacrifice holds good for other areas, and in particular for more primitive peoples, is an open question.

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  • If tradition is any guide, human sacrifice seems in many important areas to be of secondary character; in spite of the great development of the rite among the Aztecs, tradition says that it was unknown till two hundred years before the conquest; in Polynesia human sacrifices seem to be comparatively modern; and in India they appear to have been rare among the Vedic peoples.

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  • The combined areas of the valleys and the area occupied by the mountains are about equal.

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  • Many of the block mountains of the Great Basin are of complicated internal structure, showing rocks of all ages - slate, limestone, quartzites, granite, multi-coloured volcanic rocks, and large areas of lava overflow.

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  • The three principal areas in which irrigation is practicable are along the Humboldt river, in the plains watered by the Carson, Truckee and Walker rivers, and at the foot of the mountains along the western edge of the state.

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  • They brought to the support of that instrument "the areas of intercourse and wealth" (Libby), the influence of the commercial towns, the greater planters, the army officers, creditors and property-holders generally, - in short, of interests that had felt the evils of the weak government of the Confederation, - and alsc of some few true nationalists (few, because there was as yet no general national feeling), actuated by political principles of centralization independently of motives of expediency and self-interest.

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  • For instance, the swampy character of malarial areas is explained by their breeding in stagnant water; the effect of drainage, and the general immunity of high-lying, dry localities, by the lack of breeding facilities; the danger of the night air, by their nocturnal habits; the comparative immunity of the upper storeys of houses, by the fact that they fly low; the confinement of malaria to well-marked areas and the diminution of danger with distance, by their habit of clinging to the breeding-grounds and not flying far.

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  • be equivalent to the addition of vast and valuable areas to the empire.

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  • He has pointed out that certain areas and certain islands are entirely free from the disease, while neighbouring areas and islands are devastated.

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  • The state has two small areas in which bituminous coal occurs; one in the basin of the Dan and one in the basin of the Deep. Very little coal was produced in the state until the Civil War, when, in 1862 and again in 1863, 30,000 short tons were obtained for the relief of the Confederate government, an amount which up to 1905, when the yield was only 1557 short tons (falling off from 7000 short tons in 1904), had not since been equalled; in 1906, in 1907 and in 1908 no coal was mined in the state.

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  • Others are relics of an earlier geological period, when land areas 1 Authorities differ in their methods and results of computation of these and other similar measurements.

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  • 3,641,000 2,873,000 large spherical areas on a flat surface being necessarily continent.

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  • The kavirs, or salt depressions, of the Persian desert are more frequently widespread deposits of mud and salt than water-covered areas.

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  • in its different parts, and broken up into several branches, enclosing among them many isolated drainage areas, from which there is no outflow, and within which numerous lakes are formed.

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  • The surface is for the most part a hard stony desert, areas of blown sand occurring but exceptionally.

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  • E Arabian Sea Ba Of G A L e Geological information incomplete Desert Deposits Quaternary Tertiary Mesozoic Palaeozoic Archaean and Metamorphic Younger Volcanic Rocks English Miles b iuHi iiiiuiiiiii after llargl,aua Geology The geology of Asia is so complex and over wide areas so little known that it is difficult to give a connected account of either the structure or the development of the continent, and only the broader features can be dealt with here.

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  • A distinct connexion between the flora of the peninsula and Ceylon and that of eastern tropical Africa is observable not only in the great similarity of many of the more truly tropical forms, and the identity of families and genera found in both regions, but in a more remarkable manner in the likeness of the mountain flora of this part of Africa to that of the peninsula, in which several species occur believed to be identical with Abyssinian forms. This connexion is further established by the absence from both areas of oaks, conifers and cycads, which, as regards the first two families, is a remarkable feature of the flora of the peninsula and Ceylon, as the mountains rise to elevations in which both of them are abundant to the north and east.

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  • West of the Sutlej the population of Asia may be said to be wholly Mahommedan with the exception of certain relatively small areas in Asia Minor and Syria, where Christians predominate.

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  • Clearly such alterations as the construction of railways in nearly all parts of the continent, and the establishment of peace over formerly disturbed areas like India, are of enormous importance, and must change the life of the people.

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  • Large areas are overlain with trachyte, basalt, obsidian, tuff and pumice.

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  • caused by Taphrina bullata, which forms swollen areas on 1, Leaf showing diseased areas.

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  • From Table I., showing the acreages at intervals of five years, it will be learnt that the loss fell chiefly upon the wheat crop, which at the close of the period Table - Areas of Cereal Crops in the United Kingdom - Acres.

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  • The highest and lowest areas of wheat, barley and oats in the United Kingdom during the period 1875-1905 were the following: Wheat.

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  • The acreage of rye grown in the United Kingdom as a grain crop is small, the respective maximum and minimum areas during the period 1875-1905 having been 102,676 acres in 1894 and 47,937 acres in 1880.

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  • Taking cereals and pulse corn together, the aggregate areas of wheat, barley, oats, rye, beans and peas in the United Kingdom varied as follows over the six quinquennial intervals embraced in the period 1875-1905: - Year.

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  • 186,082 The extreme aggregate areas of these crops during the thirty years were 5,057,029 acres in 1875 and 4, 1 09,394 acres in 1904.

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  • At five-year intervals the areas were: - These crops, therefore, which, except potatoes, are used mainly for stock-feeding, have like the corn crops been grown on gradually diminishing areas.

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  • The areas of five-year intervals are given in Table IV.

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  • Whilst much grass land has been laid down with the intention from the outset that it should be permanent, at the same time some considerable areas have through stress of circumstances been allowed to drift from the temporary or rotation grass area to the permanent list, and have thus still further diminished the area formerly under the dominion of the plough.

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  • In the period 18 751905 the extreme areas returned as " permanent pasture "-a term which, it should be clearly understood, does not include heath or mountain land, of which there are in Great Britain alone about 13 million acres used for grazing-were 23,772,602 acres in 1875, and 28,865,373 acres in 1905.

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  • In this capacity it is capable of rendering most valuable assistance, for it can be utilized in moving extensive areas of land in a very short time.

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  • Vast areas of the country were in fact under the single control of a territorial lord or an ecclesiastical foundation.

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  • Materials for forming such an estimate no doubt exist, but before doing so we have to study in infinite detail a vast number of separate manors, municipalities or other separate economic areas.

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  • This may be, in the historical sense, merely a passing phase of human progress, due to the rapid extension of the industrial revolution to all the civilized and many of the uncivilized nations of the world, bringing in its train the consolidation of large areas, a similarity of conditions within them, and amongst peoples and governments a great increase in the strength of economic motives.

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  • The conditions which are peculiar to the modern world are the large numbers we have to deal with, the vast and fairly homogeneous areas in which justice is administered and property secured, and the enormously increased facilities for transport and communication.

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  • areas are found on the foot of the embryo Pulmonate Limax and on the yolk-sac (distended foot-surface) of the Cephalopod Loligo.

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  • The aim of the constituent assembly in its departmental system (1789-1790) had been to vest local affairs ultimately in councils elected by universal suffrage, alike in the department and in the three smaller areas within it.

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  • The elective councils for the department and for the arrondissement (a new area which replaced the "districts" of the year 1795) continued to exist, but they sat only for a fortnight in the year and had to deal mainly with the assessment of taxes for their respective areas.

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  • He developed this line of argument when moving the second reading of the Home Rule bill in April, and at Dundee in the autumn outlined a general policy under which England would be cut up into self-governing areas.

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  • The chitinous layer is usually strengthened by thread like thickenings which, in the region close to the outer opening of the tube, form a network enclosing polygonal areas, but which, through most of the tracheal system, are arranged spirally, the strengthening thread not forming a continuous spiral, but being interrupted after a few turns around the tube.

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  • - Morphology of an Insect: the embryo of Gryllotalpa, somewhat diagrammatic. The longitudinal segmented band along the middle line represents the early segmentation of the nervous system and the subsequent median field of each sternite; the lateral transverse unshaded bands are the lateral fields of each segment; the shaded areas indicate the more internally placed mesoderm layer.

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  • Hence we are inclined to look on the imaginal disks as cellular areas that possess in a latent condition the powers of growth and development that exist in the embryo, powers that only become evident in certain special conditions of the organism.

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  • Interesting relationships between the Ethiopian and Oriental, the Neotropical and West African, the Patagonian and New Zealand faunas suggest great changes in the distribution of land and water, and throw doubt on the doctrine of the permanence of continental areas and oceanic basins.

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  • The disturbances among the underlying rocks of Ohio have been slight, and originally the surface was a plain only slightly undulating; stream dissection changed the region to one of numberless hills and valleys; glacial drift then filled up the valleys over large broken areas, forming the remarkably level till plains of northwestern Ohio; but at the same time other areas were broken by the uneven distribution of the drift, and south-eastern Ohio, which was unglaciated, retains its rugged hilly character, gradually merging with the typical plateau country farther S.E.

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  • It is deeper and more fertile, however, in the basins of the Great Miami and Little Miami rivers, where there is a liberal mixture of decomposed limestone and where extensive areas with a clay subsoil are covered with alluvial deposits.

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  • Generally the ethnic term, Syrians, came to mean in antiquity the Semiti peoples domiciled outside the Mesopotamian and Arabian areas: but neither in pre-Greek nor in Greek times had the word Syria any very precise geographical significance, various lands, which we include under it, retaining their distinctive status, e.g.

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  • There is historic evidence of mud eruptions in some of the volcanic areas.

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  • They may be divided into three classes: the pine lands, which often have a surface of dark vegetable mould, under which is a sandy loam resting on a substratum of clay, marl or limestone - areas of such soil are found throughout the state; the " hammocks," which have soil of similar ingredients and are interspersed with the pine lands - large areas of this soil occur in Levy, Alachua, Citrus, Hernando, Pasco, Gadsden, Leon, Madison, Jefferson and Jackson counties; and the alluvial swamp lands, chiefly in E.

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  • In planting rice three methods are in use: the cultivation of swamp-rice in irrigated fields; the planting of ploughed areas; and the planting of hill-rice by sowing each grain separately in holes bored for the purpose.

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  • By Kepler's second law the radius vector, FP, sweeps over equal areas in equal times.

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  • Since the area of the triangle FPP' is one half the product of FP into the perpendicular p from P on FP', it follows that if these perpendiculars were equal all round the orbit, the areas described during the infinitesimal time would be smallest at the pericentre and continually increase during the passage of the body to B.

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  • To the south of the Nerbudda the Satpura range stretches across the province, containing the greater part of five districts, its crystalline and sandstone rocks rising in places through the superficial stratum of trap, and with large areas of shallow stony land still covered to a great extent with forest interspersed by black-soil valleys of great fertility.

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  • The name of Hesse, now used principally for the grand duchy formerly known as Hesse-Darmstadt, refers to a country which has had different boundaries and areas at different times.

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  • Herodotus says nothing of a difference in shape, but most authorities regard the form M, which with the value of s is practically confined to Doric areas, as being san.

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  • The indiscriminate use of Mercator's projection, for maps of the world, is to be deprecated owing to the inordinate exaggeration of areas in high latitudes.

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  • The Measurement of Areas is easily effected if the map at our disposal is drawn on an equal area projection.

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  • When dealing with maps not drawn on an equal area projection we substitute quadrilaterals bounded by meridians and parallels, the areas for which are given in the " Smithsonian Geographical Tables " (1894), in Professor H.

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  • On the other hand a map drawn on the surface of a sphere representing a terrestrial globe will prove true to nature, for it possesses, in combination, the qualities which the ingenuity of no mathematician has hitherto succeeded in imparting to a projection intended for a map of some extent, namely, equivalence of areas of distances and angles.

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  • Somali also inhabit the coast region and considerable areas inland, as far south as the Tana river.

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  • Almost without exception, they had their origin in small burial areas, the property of private persons or of families, gradually ramifying and receiving additions of one subterranean storey after another as each was required for interments.

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  • When adjacent burial areas belonged to members of the same Christian confraternity, or by gift or purchase fell into the same hands, communications were opened between the respective cemeteries, which thus spread laterally, and gradually acquired that enormous extent which, " even when their fabulous dimensions are reduced to their right measure, form an immense work."' This could only be executed by a large and powerful Christian community unimpeded by legal enactments or police regulations, " a living witness of its immense development corresponding to the importance of the capital."

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  • Below this river prairie areas become increasingly common, constituting the entire S.W.

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  • Nearly all of this vast flood-plain lies below the level of high water in the Mississippi, and, but for the protection afforded by the levees, every considerable rise of its waters would inundate vast areas of fertile and cultivated land.

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  • The climate is semi-tropical and exceptionally equable over large areas.

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  • Nevertheless, in 1900 the cypress forests remained practically untouched, only slight impression had been made upon the pine areas, and the hard-wood forests, except that they had been culled of their choicest oak, remained in their primal state (U.S. census).

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  • Of these all except points are quantities: lines involve lengths, planes involve areas, and cubic contents involve volumes.

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  • So far as geographical description is concerned, the separate articles on Asia Minor, Albania, Armenia, and other areas mentioned below - constituting the Turkish Empire - may be consulted.

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  • Large areas of swamp lands in the central and north central parts of the state once counted non-arable have been drained and reclaimed.

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  • THRACE, a name which was applied at various periods to areas of different extent.

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  • In the polar areas the melting of sea-ice and of ice formed by precipitation lowers the density of the seawater and causes a difference of level which sets up streaming movements towards the equator.

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  • An effect of the greater tide-generating force will also be instability of the liquid magmas underlying volcanic areas, leading to violent eruptions and earthquakes.

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  • The fully authenticated remains of palaeolithic man are few, and discoveries are confined to certain areas, e.g.

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  • This has led to restrictive measures, the vines being tapped under definite regulations as to the manner and time of tapping, and also to requirements as to replanting vines to take the place of those which have been injured or destroyed, certain areas being periodically closed.

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  • Although the cost of transport from the remote forest regions of some districts is a serious consideration, this is not likely to be operative in reducing production until there has been a considerable and permanent fall in price, by which time new areas in those countries in which planting is now taking place will probably have come into bearing.

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  • These vines are less satisfactory than trees as rubber producers, owing to the readiness with which they are injured and destroyed by careless tapping, and to the difficulty of regulating these methods in the case of vines distributed over enormous areas of forest.

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  • The inhabited districts are well laid down on the best maps; but the immense areas between and beyond them are mapped only along a few routes hundreds of miles apart.

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  • Ejections of basaltic lava have been observed on the southern slope vo of this range, extending over wide areas on the plateau itself, over a stretch of more than 600 m.

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  • There are wide areas on the plains of West Siberia and on the high plateau of East Siberia, which, virtually, are still passing through the Lacustrine period; but the total area now under water bears but a trifling proportion to the vast surface .which the lakes covered even at a very recent period, when Neolithic man inhabited Siberia.

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  • The soil freezes many feet deep over immense areas even in southern Siberia.

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  • But all these trades are sporadic, and are confined to limited areas, and often only to a few separate villages.

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  • Their bronze ornaments and implements, often polished, evince considerable artistic taste; and their irrigated fields covered wide areas in the fertile tracts.

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  • Steinmetz's formula may be tested by taking a series of hysteresis curves between different limits of B,' measuring their areas by a pianimeter, and plotting the logarithms of these divided by 47r as ordinates against logarithms of the corresponding maximum values of B as abscissae.

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  • The form of the middle and lateral regions of the prosomatic shield has been used, and an excessive importance attached to the demarcation of certain areas in that structure.

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  • (From Korschelt and Heider.) quently take place (as in all Arthropoda) at the posterior extremity of the body, whilst excalation of somites may occur at the constricted areas which often separate adjacent " regions," though there are very few instances in which it has been recognized.

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  • To Neolithic man, still perhaps represented by some of the more light-coloured and more regularfeatured Polynesian groups, may therefore not unreasonably be attributed these astonishing remains, which assume so many different forms according to the nature of the locality, but seem generally so out of proportion with the present restricted areas on which they stand.

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  • for "closed sea" and "free sea"), in international law, terms associated with the historic controversy which arose out of demands on the part of different states to assert exclusive dominion over areas of the open or high sea.

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  • It became the capital of a quasi-independent Boer state, which included considerable areas north of the Vaal.

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    0
  • The coastal plain consists in great part of sandy beaches, detritus formations, and partially submerged areas caused by uplifted beaches and obstructed river channels.

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  • In the larger depressions, like that of the Reconcavo of Bahia, there are large alluvial areas celebrated for their fertility.

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  • Large areas of these great river plains are annually flooded, the flood-plains of the Amazon extending nearly across the whole country and comprising thousands of square miles.

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  • The great part of this immense region consists of chapadoes, as the larger table-land areas are called, chapadas or smaller sections of the same, and broadly excavated river valleys.

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  • This great chapadao is in many respects the best part of Brazil, having a temperate climate,- extensive areas of fertile soil, rich forests and a regular rainfall.

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  • It has extensive campos and large areas of exposed rock and stony steppes, but is richly provided with mineral deposits.

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  • It resembles the Sao Francisco region in its uncertain rainfall and exposure to droughts, and in having large areas of campos suitable for grazing purposes.

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  • hares gencia Victoria do Brazil, having an abundant rainfall, extensive forests of valuable timber, and large areas of fertile soil.

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  • There are a number of lakes in the lowland region of the Amazon valley, but these are mainly overflow reservoirs whose areas expand and contract with the rise and fall of the great river.

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  • In general terms, it is a tropical country, with sub-tropical and temperate areas covering its three southern states and a great part of the elevated central plateau.

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  • A great part of the river systems of the country with their flooded areas are highly favourable to the development of reptilian life.

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  • The development of railway construction in Brazil has been impeded to a great extent by two unfavourable conditions-by the chain of mountains or plateau escarpments which follow the coast line and obstruct communication with the interior, and by the detached positions of the settlements along the Atlantic, which compel 1 The areas are reduced from the planimetrical calculations made at Gotha and used by A.

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  • The series covers considerable areas in the lowest parts of the valleys and near the coast.

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  • The widest areas are in Zululand.

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  • The midland region is characterized by grass lands (the Natal grasses are long and coarse) and by considerable areas of flat-topped thorn bush mimosa.

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  • Of the total population 985,167 live in rural areas, the average density for the whole country being 31.34 per sq.

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  • Extensive areas in the midland and upland districts are devoted to the raising of stock.

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  • There are several highly mineralized areas in the country.

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  • There are extensive copper and goldyielding areas, and in some districts these metals are mined.

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  • The population was greatly reduced and large areas left without a single XIX.

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  • It is only in certain areas that straw suitable for making plaits is produced.

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  • The corolla is generally funnelshaped, more rarely bell-shaped or tubular; the outer face is often marked out in longitudinal areas, five well-defined areas tapering from base to apex, and marked with longitudinal striae corresponding to the middle of the petals, and alternating with five non-striated weaker triangular areas; in the bud the latter are folded inwards, the stronger areas being exposed and showing a twist to the right.

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  • It may be added that he first examined the conditions of stability of the system formed by Saturn's rings, pointed out the necessity for their rotation, and fixed for it a period (Io h 33 m) virtually identical with that established by the observations of Herschel; that he detected the existence in the solar system of an invariable plane such that the sum of the products of the planetary masses by the projections upon it of the areas described by their radii vectores in a given time is a maximum; and made notable advances in the theory of astronomical refraction (Mec. cel.

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  • Laplace treated the subject from the point of view of the gradual aggregation and cooling of a mass of matter, and demonstrated that the form which such a mass would ultimately assume must be an ellipsoid of revolution whose equator was determined by the primitive plane of maximum areas.

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  • It is remarkable that Mobius employs the symbols AB, ABC, Abcd In Their Ordinary Geometrical Sense As Lengths, Areas And Volumes, Except That He Distinguishes Their Sign; Thus Ab = Ba, Abc= Acb, And So On.

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  • The rest of the country is divided between the drainage areas of the Vaal and Limpopo.

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  • Compared with other formations they occupy restricted areas, being only met with south of Johannesburg, around Wolmaransstad, Lichtenburg and east of Marico.

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  • This is a very definite sequence of rocks covering immense areas in the centre of the country.

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  • They occur to the northeast of Pretoria and occupy still wide areas in the Waterberg district.

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  • A complex of igneous rocks of different ages covers immense areas in the central Transvaal.

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  • The largest forest areas are in the Pongola district and the Haenertsburg and 1 For geology see: F.

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  • m., occupy the north and north-eastern parts of the country and include most of the low veld areas.

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  • Each district is sub-divided into field-cornetcies, the cornetcies being themselves divided, where necessary, into urban and rural areas.

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  • Besides the Pretoria fields there are diamondiferous areas (alluvial diggings) in the Bloemhof district on the Vaal river north-east of Kimberley, and in other regions.

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  • Moreover while large areas on the high veld are suitable for the raising of crops of a very varied character, in other districts, including a great part of the low veld, arable farming is impossible or unprofitable.

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  • Large areas of these lands, especially in the northern districts, are used as native reserves.

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  • The semi-military organization of these divisions, which existed under the South African republic, has been abolished, and field-cornets, who are nominated by the provincial government, are purely civil officials charged with the registration of voters, births and deaths, the maintenance of public roads, &c. The chief local authorities are the municipal bodies, many " municipalities " being rural areas centred round a small town.

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  • The inhabitants were unable to withstand the attacks of the disciplined Zulu warriors - or Matabele, as they were henceforth called - by whom large areas of central and western Transvaal were swept bare.

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  • Into these depopulated areas there was also a considerable immigration of Basuto, Bechuana and other Bantu tribes.

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  • Whatever their internal dissensions the Boers were united in regard to what they considered their territorial rights, and in the interval between the signing of the Sand River Convention and the death of Pretorius an incident occurred significant alike of their claims to jurisdiction over enormous areas and of their manner of treating the natives.

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  • The fifth, and last period - which, after all other expedients had failed, finally brought the residue of uncaptured and unsurrendered burghers to submission - was the final development of the blockhouse system, wedded to the institution of systematic. " driving " of given areas, which operations were in force until the 31st of May 1902, when peace was ratified at Pretoria.

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  • The army corps was about to arrive, practically as a whole unit, in South Africa; but it was evident that the exigencies of the situation, and the widely divided areas of invasion, would at least defer the execution of the plan which had been formed for an invasion of the Orange Free State from Cape Colony.

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  • K i tchener an idea, and he resolved upon the scheme of fencing in areas by chains of blockhouses such as those already constructed for the protection of the railways.

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  • 1 Hostilities were still proceeding, but in the areas under control Lord Milner (who was raised to the peerage in May) speedily set the machinery of government in motion.

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  • While thus caring for the urban areas the administration was equally alive to the needs of the country districts.

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  • A native governor (tong-doc or tuan-phu), assisted by a native staff, administers each of the provinces into which the country is divided, and native officials of lower rank govern the areas into which these provinces are subdivided.

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  • and N.; (2) the Orinoco basin with the llanos on its northern border and great forested areas in the S.

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  • The lower level has extensive lagoons and swampy areas and suffers less from the long periodical drought.

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  • Where pigment was present within the cells (sarcoma), the attraction-spheres were represented by quite clear unpigmented areas, sometimes with a centrosome in their midst.

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  • Then we have Beard's " germ-cell " hypothesis, in which he holds that many of the germ-cells in the growing embryo fail to reach their proper position - the generative areas - and settle down and become quiescent in some somatic tissue of the embryo.

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  • In the wasting of the thyroid gland in myxoedema, or when the gland is completely removed by operation, myxomatous areas are found in the subcutaneous tissue of the skin, nerve-sheaths, &c.

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  • Adiposity or obesity occurs when we have an excessive amount of fat stored in the normal connective-tissue areas of adipose tissue.

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  • The old idea of the circulating blood being supersaturated with lime salts which in some way had first become liberated from atrophying bones, and then deposited, to form calcified areas in different tissues will have to be given up, as there is no evidence that this " metastatic " calcification ever takes place.

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  • Trophic and nervous conditions sometimes cause localized deficiency of pigment which produces white areas in the skin.

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  • - Pudic artery showing calcified areas which have taken into their protoin the muscular coat of the vessel.

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  • The local oedema seen in some nervous affections might be explained on the hypothesis of increased metabolic activity in these areas due to some local nervous stimulation.

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  • Some plagues, such as typhus fever, have been dispelled; others, such as enteric fever, have been almost banished from large areas; and there is much reason to hope that cholera and plague, if introduced, could not get a footing in western Europe, or in any case could be combated on scientific principles, and greatly reduced.

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  • A study of the changes going on in the rif tvalley in which the lakes lie leads, however, to the belief that the Albert Edward and Albert Nyanzas are drying up, a process which the nature of the drainage areas is helping to bring about.

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  • But even in the midst of the richest quarters, in Westminster and elsewhere, small but well-defined areas of the poorest dwellings occur.

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  • The postal area excludes part of Woolwich within the county; but includes considerable areas outside the county in other directions, as West Ham, Leyton, &c., on the east; Woodford, Chingford, &c., on the north-east; Wood Green, Southgate and Finchley on the north; Hendon and Willesden on the north-west; Acton and Ealing, Barnes and Wimbledon on the west; and Penge and Beckenham on the south, wholly or in part.

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  • The National Telephone Company, working under licence expiring on the 31st of December 1911, had until 1901 practically a monopoly of telephonic communication within London, though the Post Office owned all the trunk lines connecting the various telephone areas of the company.

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  • All the figures before those of 1901 are adjusted to these areas.

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  • The reason for the decrease in the resident City population is to be found in the rapid extension of business premises, while the widening ramifications of the outer residential areas are illustrated by the increase in the later years of the population of the Outer Ring.

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  • Large areas of the plateau are covered with grass and occasional thorn trees.

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  • The distribution of the workable areas of mineral in the deposit; 3.

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  • in thickness and the extent and distribution of the rich and barren areas by outcrop measurements.

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  • If the workable areas are poor, and appear only at long intervals along the outcrop, the chances of discovering richer areas by a shaft are very small.

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  • The stippled areas represent the ore shoots and the white areas the barren portions of the lode.

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  • In metal mining, when the workable portions of the deposit are small and separated by unworkable areas, the levels serve also the purpose of exploration, and in such cases must not be so far apart as to risk missing valuable mineral.

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  • In some cases, where the barren areas are large, it may be necessary to have two or three years' supply of ore thus blocked out in advance.

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  • In the systematic mining of larger deposits, the simplest plan consists in mining large areas by means of numerous working-places under the protection of pillars of mineral left for the purpose, and later mining these pillars systematically, allowing the overlying rock beds to fall and fill the abandoned workings.

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  • It is not desirable to leave large areas standing upon pillars in the mine, and as soon as the work on any level is completed the pillar below should be mined out as far as is safe, and the abandoned portion of the mine allowed to cave in and lessen the weight on the pillars elsewhere.

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  • Haulage roads are driven in the ore so as to divide the floor into areas of convenient size.

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  • These separate areas are then mined in small rooms, each room being timbered as in mining under a weak roof rock.

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  • If the deposit is regular and uniform, the value of undeveloped areas may sometimes be predicted with confidence.

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  • When large areas are undermined, as in submarine coal mining, it is best to have several hundred feet of protecting rock.

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  • The caving in of mine workings results from the excavation of large areas supported upon pillars of insufficient size.

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  • At first a fall of the roof occurs locally, here and there throughout the mine, and these falls may succeed one another until the settlement of portions of the roof has so far relieved the strain that the remaining areas are supported by the stronger pillars, and by the fallen rock masses.

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  • But, fortunately for the Allies, their .dispositions had been so skilful that the Ottoman staff had not ascertained that the Anzac and Suvla areas had been almost vacated.

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  • The casualties in the two areas on the final night had amounted to two.

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  • They moreover enjoyed an even more marked superiority in respect to artillery, and this the Ottoman commander-in-chief hastened to turn to account; the heavier guns which had been sweeping the Anzac and Suvla areas for months past were promptly transferred to the high ground overlooking the extremity of the peninsula or to positions on the Asiatic side of the Straits from which the extremity of the peninsula could be effectively taken in flank.

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  • The same principles as those which had been so successfully applied during the evacuation of the northern areas, were put in force at Helles.

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  • As the staff fully foresaw, the enemy would exert greater vigilance than had been the case while the withdrawals had been in progress from the northern areas, these having given the Ottoman authorities warning of what was likely to happen.

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    0
  • These books, except the Definitiones, mostly consist of directions for obtaining, from given parts, the areas or volumes, and other parts, of plane or solid figures.

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  • Hero's expressions for the areas of regular polygons of from 5 to 12 sides in terms of the squares of the sides show interesting approximations to the values of trigonometrical ratios.

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    0
  • Large areas of cultivable waste have been brought under cultivation, and the general result has been a contented people.

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  • Ruanda and Urundi are healthy, fertile, highlying regions, thickly populated and great cattle-raising areas.

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  • As gravity and the fluid pressure on the sides of the prism act at right angles to AB, the equilibrium requires the equality of thrust on the ends A and B; and as the areas are equal, the pressure must be equal at A and B; and so the pressure is the same at all points in the same horizontal plane.

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  • There are transported or drift soils, the particles of which have been brought from other areas and deposited over the rocks below.

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    0
  • Good crops, however, can often be grown in such areas without irrigation if attention is paid to the proper circulation of water in the soil and means for retaining it or preventing excessive loss by evaporation.

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  • It is best adapted for application to clays and fen lands and should not be practised on shallow light sands or gravelly soils, since the humus so necessary for the fertility of such areas is reduced too much and the soil rendered too porous and liable to suffer from drought.

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  • Sir Charles Cameron attributes the prevalence of typhoid in certain areas in Dublin to the soil becoming saturated with faecal matter and specifically infected.

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  • Chile saltpetre, cubic nitre or sodium nitrate, NaNO,, occurs under the same conditions as ordinary saltpetre in deposits covering immense areas in South America, which are known locally as caliche or terra salitrosa, and abound especially in the provinces of Tarapaca and Antofagasta in Chile.

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  • Steam is employed as motive power when it is necessary to plough large areas in a short time.

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  • The government looked on the practice with great disfavour, because it transferred large areas from the easy access of the state to an ownership beyond its reach.

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  • Barbados is one of the most densely populated areas in the world.

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  • especially in a country whose general character varies so little over wide areas.

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  • They are smooth depressed areas (in the case of the largest, the Shat el Jerid, lying a few feet below the level of the Mediterranean), which for more than half the year are expanses of dried mud covered with a thick incrustation of white or grey salt.

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  • There have been misunderstandings with Ecuador in regard to some small areas in the Chira valley, but it may be assumed that the line is fixed between Santa Rosa (3° 21' S.) on the Gulf of Guayaquil, and the Chinchipe river, a tributary of the Maranon.

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  • There are also considerable forest areas.

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  • Pastoral interests are largely in feeding cattle for the Chilean markets, for which large areas of alfalfa are grown in the irrigated valleys of the Andes.

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  • Coast-line.The following table shows the numbers, the lengths of coast-line, and the areas of the various groups of islands, only those being indicated that have a coast-line of at least I ri (23/4 m.), or that, though smaller, are inhabited; except in the case of Formosa and the Pescadores, where the whole numbers are given Length of Area Number.

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  • In 1884 the ejected dust and ashes devastated farmlands through large areas.

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  • He also supervised the compilation of a comprehensive series of volumes by various writers on Descriptive Sociology, of which by 1881 eight parts on different racial areas had been published (at a loss to him of £3250) as the result of fourteen years of labour.

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  • "In the beginning of my mathematical studies, when I was perusing the works of the celebrated Dr Wallis, and considering the series by the interpolation of which he exhibits the area of the circle and hyperbola (for instance, in this series of curves whose common base 0 or axis is x, and the ordinates respectively (I -xx)l, (i (I &c), I perceived that if the areas of the alternate curves, which are x, x 3x 3, x &c., could be interpolated, we should obtain the areas of the intermediate ones, the first of which (I -xx) 1 is the area of the circle.

    0
    0
  • But these in the alternate areas, which are given, were the same with the figures of which the several powers of II consist, viz., of 11 0, I I 1, II', I I 3, &c., that is, the first 1; the second, i, 1; the third, I, 2, I,; the fourth I, 3, 3, I; and so on.

    0
    0
  • And hence I found the required area of the circular segment 2 x3 A x5 il-A to be x - 5 - 7, &c. And in the same manner might be 3 produced the interpolated areas of other curves; as also the area of the hyperbola and the other alternates in this series (1 - (i+xx) 1, (1 --xx) I, &c....

    0
    0
  • Having proceeded so far, I considered that the terms (1 -xx) I, (I- (1 -xx) I, (i -xx)l, &c., that is I, I -x 2, I -2x 2 +x 4, I -3x 2 -} 3x 4 -x 6, &c., might be interpolated in the same manner as the areas generated by them, and for this, nothing more was required than to omit the denominators I, 3, 5, 7, &c., in the terms expressing the areas; that is, the coefficients of the terms of the quantity to be interpolated (1-xx) 4 or (1 - xx) 3/2, or generally (I -xx)"n will m m-n e.g.

    0
    0
  • The nitrate and borax deposits are extensive and productive, and common salt is a natural product of large areas in the elevated desert regions of the Andes.

    0
    0
  • The four polders with their areas of fertile soil would be: (I) North-west polder, area 53,599 acres; fertile soil, 46,189 acres.

    0
    0
  • Zeligowski's so-called mutineers, the matter was taken up by the League of Nations, which strove to establish the fate of Vilna and other dispute I areas by means of a plebis:ite.

    0
    0
  • The country is thickly wooded (the areas under timber comprising some 25.5% of the whole against 35% fifty years ago).

    0
    0
  • Suppose then that we have a conductor charged with electricity,we may imagine its surface to be divided up into small unequal areas, each of which carries a unit charge of electricity.

    0
    0
  • If we consider lines of electric force to be drawn from the boundaries of these areas, they will cut up the space round the conductor into tubular surfaces called tubes of electric force, and each tube will spring from an area of the conductor carrying a unit electric charge.

    0
    0
  • The electric density on the sphere being uniform, the quantities of electricity on these areas are proportional to the areas, and if the electric force varies inversely as the square of the distance, the forces exerted by these two surface charges at the point in question are proportional to the solid angle of the little cone.

    0
    0
  • Hence the forces due to the two areas at opposite ends of the chord are equal and opposed.

    0
    0
  • 3), and describe through it as centre a cone of small solid angle dw cutting out of the enclosing surface in two small areas dS and dS' at distances x and x'.

    0
    0
  • Hence, multiplying these normal forces by the areas of the corresponding faces, we have the total flux parallel to the x-axis given by - (d 2 V/dx 2)dxdydz, and similar expressions for the other sides.

    0
    0
  • Hence if dS and dS' are the areas of the ends, and +E and - E' the oppositely directed electric forces at the ends of the tube, the surface integral of normal force on the flux over the tube is EdS - E'dS' (20), and this by the theorem already given is equal to zero, since the tube includes no electricity.

    0
    0
  • It will be observed that the areas representing H and W both depend on the form of the path BC, but that the difference of the areas representing the change of intrinsic energy dE is independent of BC, which is a boundary common to both H and W.

    0
    0
  • Trachytes, rhyolites, andesites and basalts occur, and a definite order of succession has been made out in several areas; but this order is not the same throughout the chain.

    0
    0
  • This meant the opening up of the world to commerce and the extension of European civilization to vast areas formerly peopled by savages or half-civilized peoples.

    0
    0
  • In Europe there is a similar movement; but it is difficult to make comparisons, because of the differences in the administrative areas.

    0
    0
  • and N., extensive swamps along the river courses and large saline areas, especially in the S.W.

    0
    0
  • The fore-wings are sometimes membranous like the hind-wings, usually they are firmer in texture, but they never show the distinct areas that characterize the wings of Heteroptera.

    0
    0
  • It might be supposed that all possible methods had now been considered, and that a combination of the three methods which have established their validity in relation to the interpretation of the Apocalypse would be adequate to the solution of all the problems of the book, but this is not so; for even when each in turn has vindicated the provinces in the book that rightly belong to it, and brought intelligibility into these areas, there still remain outlying regions which they fail to illumine.

    0
    0
  • According to Kriimmel's calculation the areas of the ocean beyond various depths are as follows: - On the whole the floor of the ocean is very smooth in its contours, and great stretches can almost be called level.

    0
    0
  • The continental shelves include not only the oceanic border of the continents but also great areas of the enclosed seas and particularly of the fringing seas, the origin of which through secular subsidence is often very clearly apparent, as for instance in the North Sea and the tract lying off the mouth of the English Channel.

    0
    0
  • Blue mud prevails in large areas of the Pacific Ocean from the Galapagos Islands to Acapulco.

    0
    0
  • The total areas occupied by the various deposits according to the latest measurements of Kriimmel are as follows: - Area of Submarine Deposits.

    0
    0
  • The proportions of the salts of river and sea-water are quite different, as Julius Roth shows thus: - The salts of salt lakes which have been formed in the areas of internal drainage in the hearts of the continents by the evaporation of river water are entirely different in composition from those of the sea, as the existence of the numerous natron and bitter lakes shows.

    0
    0
  • Buchanan on the " Challenger " were vitiated by the incompleteness of the method employed, but they are none the less of value in showing clearly that the waters of the far south of the Indian Ocean are relatively rich in carbonic acid and the tropical areas deficient.

    0
    0
  • According to Kriimmel's calculation the proportional areas at a high temperature are as follows: Percentage of Ocean'Surface with Temperature.

    0
    0
  • These peculiarities of structure may vary very considerably within small areas; and the position of the divisional planes or cleats with reference to the mass, and the proportion of small coal or slack to the larger fragments when the coal is broken up by cutting-tools, are points of great importance in the working of coal on a large scale.

    0
    0
  • It has been variously attributed to metamorphism, consequent upon igneous intrusion, earth movements and other kinds of geothermic action, greater or less loss of volatile constituents during the period of coaly transformation, conditioned by differences of permeability in the enclosing rocks, which is greater for sandstones than for argillaceous strata, and other causes; but none of these appears to be applicable over more than limited areas.

    0
    0
  • p. 273), differences in composition are mainly original, the denser and more anthracitic varieties representing plant substance which has been more completely macerated and deprived of its putrescible constituents before submergence, or of which the deposition had taken place in shallow water, more readily accessible to atmospheric oxidizing influences than the deeper areas where conditions favourable to the elaboration of compounds richer in hydrogen prevailed.

    0
    0
  • The nature of the Coal Measures will be best understood by v1.19 considering in detail the areas within which they occur in Britain, together with the rocks with which they are most intimately associated.

    0
    0
  • The areas containing productive coal measures are usually known as coalfields or basins, within which coal occurs in more or less regular beds, also called seams or veins, which can often be followed over a considerable length of country without change of character, although, like all stratified rocks, their continuity may be interrupted by faults or dislocations, also known as slips, hitches, heaves or troubles.

    0
    0
  • Although in the years 1870-1903 the amount raised was 5,694,928,507 tons, this later estimate was higher by 10,707,382,769 tons than that of the previous commission, the excess being accounted for partly by the difference in the areas regarded as productive by the two commissions, and partly by new discoveries and more accurate knowledge of the coal seams. In addition it was estimated that in the proved coalfields at depths greater than 4000 ft.

    0
    0
  • The pine and hardwood areas occur chiefly in the north-eastern part of the state, and are bordered on the west by scattering growths of hardwood, extending as far westward as Austin.

    0
    0
  • Outside of these general areas, forest products are of relatively little value, the exceptions being the dense growths, in certain restricted areas, of live-oak, which is in demand for ship timbers; and scattering patches of hickory, which is requisite for certain manufactures.

    0
    0
  • Archean rocks - gneiss, schist and granite - cover large areas through which the Nile cuts its way in alternate narrow gorges and open reaches.

    0
    0
  • The volcanic series include the rhyolite of Nell Island, some obsidian, and the sheets of basalts which form the Cloudy Mountains, Mount Dayman and Mount Trafalgar (an active volcano), and also cover wide areas to the south and west of the Owen Stanley Range.

    0
    0
  • German New Guinea was annexed on the 16th of November 1884, when the German flag was raised in Friedrich Wilhelmshafen and a trading company was established on the north-east coast, and in 1885 the two countries agreed to fix their boundaries through the then neutral areas of the country.

    0
    0
  • Naivasha province contains much land suitable for colonization by white men, and large areas were leased to Europeans by the British authorities in 1903 and subsequent years.

    0
    0
  • Investigations started in 1920 by the British Government, in connexion with the production of alcohol for power purposes, have shown, however, that there are large areas of suitable land in the British Empire where the cost of production would be comparatively low, and where it might be possible to grow vegetable substances in excess of food requirements, and in sufficient quantities to produce alcohol for local consumption to replace expensive petrol.

    0
    0
  • Zoologists divide the earth into biological areas or regions, so both archaeologists and ethnologists may find it convenient to have in mind some such scheme of provinces as the following, partly after the dominant ethnic provinces.

    0
    0
  • That these areas had deep significance for the native races is shown by the results, both in biology and culture.

    0
    0
  • The presence or absence of useful minerals, plants and animals rendered some congenial, others unfriendly; some areas were the patrons of virile occupations, others of feminine pursuits.

    0
    0
  • The most favoured areas were those where corn and other plants could be artificially produced, and there barbaric cultures were elaborated.

    0
    0
  • Except in the boreal areas the breech-clout was nearly universal with men, and the cincture or short petticoat with women.

    0
    0
  • The efflorescence of aboriginal pottery is to be found in the Pueblo region of south-westernUnited States, in Mexico, Central America,Caribbean Islands, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru and restricted areas of eastern Brazil.

    0
    0
  • In the culture areas the environment gave specific characters to the religion.

    0
    0
  • rupicapra), broadly distinguished by its well-known hook-like horns, and the Asiatic gorals (Urotragus) and serows (Neinorhaedus), which are represented by numerous species ranging from Tibet, the Himalaya, and China, to the Malay Peninsula and islands, being in the two latter areas the sole representatives of both antelopes and goats.

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    0
  • Efforts have been almost unceasingly made since 1872 by statistical experts in periodical conference to bring about a general understanding, first, as to the subjects which may be considered most likely to be ascertained with approximate accuracy at a census, and secondly - a point of scarcely less importance - as to the form in which the results of the inquiry should be compiled in order to render comparison possible between the facts recorded in the different areas.

    0
    0
  • The census of 1871 obtained for the first time a return of persons of unsound mind not confined in asylums. During the next ten years, the separate areas for which population returns had to be prepared were seriously multiplied by the creation of sanitary districts, to the number of 966.

    0
    0
  • The necessity, for administrative or other purposes, of tabulating separately the returns for so many cross-divisions of the country constitutes one of the main difficulties of the English census operations, more particularly as the boundaries of these areas are frequently altered.

    0
    0
  • The complexity of administrative areas, though far less than in England, was simplified, and the census compilation proportionately facilitated, by the passing of the Local Government Act for Scotland, in 1889.

    0
    0
  • On each occasion new areas had to be brought within the sphere of enumeration, whilst the necessity for the use in the wilder tracts of a schedule simpler in its demands than the standard, grew less as the country got more accustomed to the inquiry, and the efficiency of the administrative agency increased.

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    0
  • Even in the second sense, the term is a very wide one, since it comprises the measurement of angles (plane and solid), lengths, areas and volumes.

    0
    0
  • The term " mensuration " is therefore ordinarily restricted to the measurement of areas and volumes, and of certain simple curved lengths, such as the circumference of a circle.

    0
    0
  • It might, therefore, be described as that branch of mathematics which deals with formulae for calculating the numerical measurements of curved lengths, areas and volumes, in terms of numerical data which determine these measurements.

    0
    0
  • It is also convenient to regard as coming under mensuration the consideration of certain derived magnitudes, such as the moment of a plane figure with regard to a straight line in its plane, the calculation of w]iich involves formulae which are closely related to formulae for determining areas and volumes.

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    0
  • It is in reference to the measurement of areas and volumes that it is of special importance to illustrate geometrical truths by means of concrete cases.

    0
    0
  • The difficulty is perhaps less for volumes than for areas, on account of the close relationship between solid and fluid measure.

    0
    0
  • The main object to be aimed at, therefore, in the study of elementary mensuration, is that the student should realize the possibility of the numerical expression of areas and volumes.

    0
    0
  • There are, indeed, certain advantages in preferring the latter to the former, and in proceeding from volumes to areas rather than from areas to volumes.

    0
    0
  • The most elementary stage is arithmetical mensuration, which comprises the measurement of the areas of rectangles and parallelepipeds.

    0
    0
  • This may be introduced very early; square tablets being used for the mensuration of areas, and cubical blocks for the mensuration of volumes.

    0
    0
  • The next stage is geometrical mensuration, where geometrical methods are applied to determine the areas of plane rectilinear figures and the volumes of solids with plane faces.

    0
    0
  • Areas of Plane Rectilinear Figures.

    0
    0
  • - The following are expressions for the areas of some simple figures; the expressions in (i) and (ii) are obtained arithmetically, while those in (iii) - (v) involve dissection and rearrangement.

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    0
  • If R and S are the ends of a prismoid, A and B their areas, h the perpendicular distance between them, and C the area of a section by a plane parallel to R and S and midway between them, the volume of the prismoid is *h(A+4C+B).

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    0
  • - The mensuration of the circle is founded on the property that the areas of different circles are proportional to the squares on their diameters.

    0
    0
  • The theorems are of use, not only for finding the volumes or areas of solids or surfaces of revolution, but also, conversely, for finding centroids or centres of gravity.

    0
    0
  • In elementary geometry we deal with lines and curves, while in mensuration we deal with areas bounded by these lines or curves.

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    0
  • Denoting the areas of the three strips by A, B, and C, and introducing the middle ordinate ug, we can express A + B; B -{- C; A + B -FC; and B in terms of uo, u 1, u 2; u 1, u2, u3; uo, u, u 3; and u 1, ug, u 2 respectively.

    0
    0
  • Then it may be shown that DE is parallel to AB, and that the area of the figure between chord DE and arc DE is half the sum of the areas DHA and EJB.

    0
    0
  • is therefore some intermediate position such that the two areas are equal; i.e.

    0
    0
  • Hence the areas of the trapezette and of the trapezium will be equal if I - 2=3,0=I/%/3.

    0
    0
  • If the areas of the two ends in the planes K and L are So and S2, and the area of the mid-section (i.e.

    0
    0
  • The areas of the sides for which 0 and x=xo+2h, and of the section by the plane x=xo+h, may be found by Simpson's second formula; call these Ao and A2, and Al.

    0
    0
  • u m _ 4, we can form a series of trapezia by drawing the tangents at the extremities of these ordinates; the sum of the areas of these trapezia will be h(u 4 .+u 2 +...

    0
    0
  • The - - 4X + g tangential area may be expressed in terms of chordal areas.

    0
    0
  • The method is then modified by replacing B by an expression which gives the areas of the substituted figures approximately.

    0
    0
  • Some of the formulae obtained by the above methods can be expressed more simply in terms of chordal or tangential areas taken in various ways.

    0
    0
  • The following are some examples of formulae of this kind, in terms of chordal areas.

    0
    0
  • There are similar formulae in terms of the tangential areas T1, Thus (iii) of § 68 may be written A -a -1-(9T 1 - T3).

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    0
  • The general method of constructing the formulae of § 7 0 for chordal areas is that, if p, q, r, ...

    0
    0
  • The same method applies for tangential areas, by taking A -2 PTp -}- QT 4 + RT r + ..

    0
    0
  • There is, however, a certain set of cases, occurring in statistics, in which the data are not a series of ordinates, but the areas A I, A I,.

    0
    0
  • The method adopted in these cases is to treat the areas A I, A I,.

    0
    0
  • The following are the results (for the formulae involving chordal areas), given in terms of differential coefficients and of central differences.

    0
    0
  • to find the areas of one set of parallel sections, and treat these as the ordinates of a trapezette whose area will be the volume of the briquette.

    0
    0
  • d The second and third expressions on the right-hand side represent areas of trapezettes, which can be calculated from the data; and the fourth expression represents the volume of a briquette, to be calculated in the same way as R above.

    0
    0
  • The following are some examples of cases in which the above methods may be applied to the calculation of areas and integrals.

    0
    0
  • To find the quantity of timber in a trunk with parallel ends, the areas of a few sections must be calculated as accurately as possible, and a formula applied.

    0
    0
  • Rules for calculation of areas are also given in such works as F.

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    0
  • For examples of measurement of areas by geometrical construction, see G.

    0
    0
  • For mechanical methods of calculating areas and moments see CALCULATING MACHINES.

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    0
  • This sacrifice of local autonomy was in a measure prepared for by an earlier centralizing movement proper to the churches themselves, whereby those in certain areas met in conference or " synod " to formulate a common policy on local problems. Such inter-church meetings cannot be traced back beyond the latter half of the 2nd century, and were purely ad hoc and informal, called to consider specific questions like Montanism and Easter observance.

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  • Naturally, however, as the areas represented increased, the more indirect and partial became the representation possible.

    0
    0
  • Large areas of moving sands exist near Enotayevsk, where high dunes or barkhans have been formed.

    0
    0
  • In the plateau province there are other areas known as mountains, of which the Helderberg mountains are the most conspicuous.

    0
    0
  • Between these cyclonic storms come areas of high pressure, or anticyclones, with dry cool air in summer, and dry cold air in winter, sometimes with such decided changes in temperature as to merit the name cold wave.

    0
    0
  • The soil is mostly glacial drift, but its depth and composition often vary greatly even within small areas.

    0
    0
  • The Dardanelles, Bosporus, the Sea of Marmora, and the adjoining coastal areas, both in Europe and Asia, were demilitarized, and, to the extent necessary to ensure the freedom of the Straits, were placed under the control of an International Commission.

    0
    0
  • In 1892 a new form of land tenure was introduced, under which large areas of crown lands were leased for 999 years, at an unchanging rent of 4% on the prairie value.

    0
    0
  • Let ABCD be drawn at such level that the areas above and below it are equal; then ABCD is the axis of the curve.

    0
    0
  • A remarkable feature of the western plains is the large number of salt pans and salt springs grouped together in extensive areas, especially in the Boshof district.

    0
    0
  • The Dwyka Conglomerate forms a narrow outcrop in the north-west, and is known from boreholes to extend over large areas beneath the Ecca Shales and to rest directly on rocks of older age.

    0
    0
  • There is a biennial registration of voters, and every five years the electoral areas are to be redivided, with the object of giving to each constituency an approximately equal number of voters.

    0
    0
  • In the urban areas the proportion of persons, of all races, able to read and write was 50 67%; in the rural areas the proportion was 26.43%.

    0
    0
  • Between i 8 i 7 and 1831 the country was devastated by the chief Mosilikatze and his Zulus, and large areas were depopulated.

    0
    0
  • or areas, could be defended in the last resort as a keep. In addition to this the terreplein was retrenched.

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    0
  • or more in the north-west, and over limited areas in the higher mountain region.

    0
    0
  • Coco-nuts are grown in considerable quantities along the seashore, and rice is cultivated at Balek Palau and in the interior, but the jungle still spreads over wide areas.

    0
    0
  • Within this circuit there are various open areas - the spacious Ippodromo in front of the citadel, the public gardens in the north-east of the city, the Piazza Grande in front of the cathedral, and the Piazza Reale to the south of the palace.

    0
    0
  • The eastern and larger part of the state belongs to the coastal plain, in great part low and swampy, with large areas of sand barrens, and broken by isolated groups and ranges of hills.

    0
    0
  • C,C', D,D', two types of medusa organization; C and D are composite sections, showing a radius (R) on one side, an interradius (IR) on the other; C' and D' are plans; the mouth and manubrium are indicated at the centre, leading into the gastral cavity subdivided by the four areas of concrescence in each interradius (IR).

    0
    0
  • The areas occupied vary from about 300 acres (New York) to about 8 acres (Bristol, England).

    0
    0
  • its trend when followed across the country) will be persistent over considerable areas.

    0
    0
  • On the East Shore to the north is a marly loam overlying a yellowish-red clay sub-soil, to the south is a soil quite stiff with light coloured clay, while here and there, especially in the middle and south, are considerable areas both of light sandy soils and tidal marsh loams. On the West Shore the soils range from a light sandy loam in the lower levels south from Baltimore to rather heavy loarns overlying a yellowish clay on the rolling uplands and on the terraces along the Potomac and Patuxent.

    0
    0
  • The Oligocene period consists of a marine phase confined to the littoral zone of Kabylia, and of a continental phase occupying vast areas composed of lacustrine, alluvial, gypsiferous marls, sandstones and conglomerates.

    0
    0
  • These communes are large areas, each containing several towns or villages.

    0
    0
  • Amongst the islands of the Malay Archipelago are a number of enclosed areas - the Sulu, Celebes, Java, Banda and Arafura seas.

    0
    0
  • Practically the whole of the north-east Pacific is therefore more than 2000 fathoms deep, and the south-east has two roughly triangular spaces, including the greater part of the area, between 2000 and 3000 fathoms. Notwithstanding this great average depth, the " deeps " or areas over 3000 fathoms are small in number and extent.

    0
    0
  • The most considerable areas over 3000 fathoms are the Aldrich deep, an irregular triangle nearly as large as Australia, situated to the east of New Zealand, in which a sounding of 5155 fathoms was obtained by H.M.S.

    0
    0
  • Between these two areas, almost on the equator, a strip of globigerina ooze was found, corresponding to the zone of globigerina in the equatorial region of the Atlantic. Globigerina ooze covers considerable areas in the intermediate depths of the west and south Pacific - west of New Zealand, and along the parallel of 40° S., between 80°-98° W.

    0
    0
  • Diatom ooze has been found in detached areas between the Philippine and Mariana islands, and near the Aleutian and Galapagos groups, forming an exception to the general rule of its occurrence only in high latitudes.

    0
    0
  • A narrow strip of cold water runs along the equator, widest to the east and narrowing westward, and separates two areas of maximum which have their greatest intensity in the western part of the ocean, and have their central portions in higher latitudes as depth increases, apparently tending constantly to a position in about latitude 30° to 35° N.

    0
    0
  • In other areas, however, there is still volcanic activity, and in many cases volcanoes to which only tradition attributes eruptions can hardly be classified as extinct.

    0
    0
  • Earthquakes are not uncommon in the volcanic areas.

    0
    0
  • Extensive forest areas still remain both in the east and the west, In the east oak, maple, beech, chestnut, elm, tulip-tree (locally " yellow poplar "), walnut, pine and cedar trees are the most numerous; in the west the forests are composed largely of cypress, ash, oak, hickory, chestnut, walnut, beech, tulip-tree, gum and sycamore trees.

    0
    0
  • The cathammal areas may remain very small, mere wedge-shaped partitions dividing up the coelenteron into a four-lobed stomach, the lobes of which communicate at the periphery of the body by a spacious ring-canal.

    0
    0
  • These lowland districts are densely forested in the south, except Yucatan, and large areas are covered with streams, swamps and lagoons, the abode of noxious insects, pestilential fevers and dysentery.

    0
    0
  • in the Huatusco district of Vera Cruz, causes the flooding of large areas of lowlands, and will make improvement very difficult.

    0
    0
  • Mexico has suffered much from the reckless destruction of her forests, not only for industrial purposes but through the careless burning of grassy areas.

    0
    0
  • The states and territories, with their areas, capitals and populations, are as follows: The area and population of Yucatan include those of the territory of Quintana Roo, which formed part of that state at the time of the census.

    0
    0
  • These drawbacks tend to restrict agriculture on the plateau to comparatively limited areas, and the country people are, in general, extremely poor and badly nourished.

    0
    0
  • A curious fact is that when a new and striking form is found first in one place it is shortly after collected from widely separated areas.

    0
    0
  • The surface is hilly and undulating with a general slope to the west, where the level falls in considerable areas to little over 2000 ft.

    0
    0
  • The oldest rocks, granites, gneisses and schistose sandstones, the Ngami series, rise to the surface in the east and south-east and doubtless immediately underlie much of the sand areas.

    0
    0
  • It is presumed that in the Glacial epoch the genus was exterminated except in the areas in western North America where it still persists.

    0
    0
  • in their higher areas.

    0
    0
  • The load of silt borne down stream by the river finally, after many halts on the way, reaches the waters of the Gulf, where the decrease of velocity, aided by the salinity of the sea water, causes the formation of a remarkable delta, leaving less aggraded areas as shallow lakes (Lake Pontchartrain on the east, and Grand Lake on the west of the river).

    0
    0
  • The northern plains are interrupted by several small mountain areas.

    0
    0
  • The central denuded area, east of the Llano, resembles the east-central section of the plains in exposing older rocks; between these two similar areas, in the space limited by the Canadian and Red rivers.

    0
    0
  • Here the streams that drain the higher areas descend to the plains through narrow canyons in the mountain border, impassable for ordinary roads and difficult of entrance even by railways; a well-known example is the gorge of Clear Creek east of the Georgetown mining district.

    0
    0
  • The intermont basins which so strongly characterize the Rocky Mountain system are areas which have been less uplifted than the enclosing ranges, and have therefore usually become the depositories of waste from the surrounding mountains.

    0
    0
  • A few intermont areas in the north-west part of the province have outlet westward by Kla1nath river through the Cascade range and by Pitt river (upper part of the Sacramento) through the Sierra Nevada: a few basins in the south-east have outlet by the Rio Grande to the Gulf of Mexico; a much larger but still narrow medial area is drained south-westward by the Colorado to the head of the Gulf of California, where this large and very turbid river has formed an extensive delta, north of which the former head of the gulf is now cut off from the sea and laid bare by evaporation as a plain below sea-level.

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  • C. Russell, have yielded evidence of past climatic changes second in importance only to those of the Pleistocene glaciated areas.

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  • The higher summits in the south are above the tree line and expose great areas of bare rock: mountaineering is here a delightful summer recreation, with camps in the highland forests and ascents to the lofty peaks.

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  • In some areas, indeed, it is diffictilt to say whether the schists are metasedimentary or meta-igneous.

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  • The Archean appears at the surface in many parts of the United States, and in still larger areas north of the national boundary.

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  • It appears in the cores of some of the western mountains, in some of the deep canyons of the west, as in the Grand Canyon of the Colorado in northern Arizona, and over considerable areas in northern Wiscpnsin and Minnesota, in New England and the piedmont plateau east of the Appalachian Mountains, and in a few other situations.

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  • The Proterozoic formations have been studied in detail in few great areas.

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  • They appear at the surface in great areas in the interior, in the south-west and about many of the western mountains.

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  • When deposition was renewed in the interior of the continent, the formations laid down were largely non-marine, and, over great areas, they rest upon the Mississippian unconformably.

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  • Permian Period.The Permian system appears in smaller areas in the United States than any other Palaeozoic system.

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  • Widespread changes at the end of the period exposed the areas where deposition has been in progress during the period to erosion, and the (Upper) Cretaceous formations rest upon the Comanchean unconformably in most parts of the country.

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  • The close of the period was marked by very profound changes which may be classed under three general headings: (1) the emergence of great areas which had been submerged until the closing stages of the period; (2) the beginning of the development of most of the great mountains of the west; (3) the inauguration of a protracted period of igneous activity, stimulated, no doubt, by the crustal and deeper-seated movements of the time.

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  • The brackish water formations occur in some parts of the same general areas, while the terrestrial formations are found in and about the western mountains.

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  • and 2 atlases, Washington, 1877-1879); and Reports of the U.S. Geological Survey (since 1880): (I) Monographs on special topics and areas, about 50 in number; (2) Professional Papersmonographic treatment of somewhat smaller areas and lesser topics, about 60 in number; (3) Bulletins, between 300 and 400 in number; and (4) Annual Reports (previous to 1903) containing many papers of importance, of the sort now published as Professional Papers.

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  • Two leading features, from which many others follow, are the intermediate value of the mean annual temperatures and the prevalence of westerly winds, with which drift the areas of high and low pressurecyclonic and anticyclonic areascontrolling the short-lived, non-periodic weather changes.

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  • Indeed the contrast between the moderate temperatures of the Pacific coast and the overheated areas of the next interior deserts is so great that the isotherms trend almost parallel to the coast, and are even overturned somewhat in southern California, where the most rapid increase of temperatures in July is found not by moving southward over the ocean toward the equator, but north-eastward over the land to the deserts of Nevada and Arizona.

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  • In January the northern water areas of the continent are frozen and snow-covered; Hudson Bay becomes unduly cold, and the greatest southward bending of the isotherms is somewhat east of the continental axis, with an extension of its effects out upon the Atlantic; but the southward bending isotherms are somewhat looped back about the unfrozen waters of the lower Great Lakes.

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  • Although of reduced strength in the summer, they still suffice to dominate weather changes; it is during the approach of a low pressure centre that hot southerly winds prevail; they sometimes reach so high a temperature as to wither and blight the grain crops; and it is almost exclusively in connection with the cloudy areas near and south-east of these cyclonic centres that violent thunderstorms, with their occasional destructive whirling tornadoes, are formed.

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  • In wintertime, the cyclonic and anticyclonic areas are of increased frequency and intensity; and it is partly for this reason that many meteorologists have been disposed to regard them as chiefly driven by the irregular flow of the westerly winds, rather than as due to convectional instability, which should have a maximum effect in summer.

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  • Fauna.Differences of temperature have produced in North America seven transcontinental life-zones or areas characterized by relative uniformity of both fauna and flora; they are the Arctic, Hudsonian and Canadian, which are divisions of the Boreal Region; the Transition, Upper Austral and Lower Austral, which are divisions of the Austral Region, and the Tropical.

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  • The larger animals are rare on these mountain-tops and the areas are too small for a distinct fauna.

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  • The Hudsonian zone covers the upper slopes of the higher mountains of New England, New York and North Carolina and larger areas on the elevated slopes of the Rocky and Cascade Mountains; and on the western mountains it is the home of the mountain goat, mountain sheep, Alpine flying-squirrel, nutcracker, evening grosbeak and Townsends solitaire.

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  • The Arid Transition life-zone comprises the western part of the Dakotas, north-eastern Montana, and irregular areas in Washington, Oregon, Idaho, Wyoming, California, Nevada, Utah, Colorado, Arizona, New Mexico and western Texas, covering for the most part the eastern base of the Cascade and Sierra Nevada Mountains and the higher parts of the Great Basin and the plateaus.

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  • Again, the forests of most of the eastern region embrace a variety of species, which, as a rule, are very much intermingled, and do not, unless quite exceptionally, occupy areas chiefly devoted to one species; while, on the other hand, the forests of the westincluding both Rocky Mountain and Pacific coast divisionsexhibit a small number of species, considering the vast area embraced in the region; and these species, in a number of instances, are extraordinarily limited in their range, although there are cases in which one or two species have almost exclusive possession of extensive areas.

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  • States, exclusive of Alaska, Areas (excluding water), in square miles.

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  • So rapid has been the extension of the yielding areas, so diverse the fate of many fields, so shifting their relative rank in output, that the otitlook from year to year as regards all these elements is too uncertain to admit of definite statements respecting the relative importance of the five fields already mentioned The total output of these, it may be stated, from 1901 to 1908uniting the yield of the Illinois to the Lima-Indiana field (since their statistics were long so united, until their industrial differences became apparent), and adding a sixth division for the production of scattered areas of productionwas as follows:

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  • Appalachian, 235,999,859; Lima-Indiana-Illinois, 219,609,347; Mid- Continent, 136,148,892; Gulf, 159,520,306; California, 27,931,687; and others, 3,367,666; the leading producers in1907-1908being the Mid-Continent and the California areas.

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  • Such gas is a more or less general concomitant of oil all through the petroleum-bearing areas of the country.

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  • the names, functions and powers of the houses of the legislature, the chief executive officials, and the courts of justice, with provisions regulating the electoral franchise; Provisions creating, or directing the creation of, a system of local government for cities and rural areas; Miscellaneous provisions relating to law and administration, including the militia, revenue and taxation, state prisons and hospitals, agriculture, banking and other corporations, railways, labor questions; Provisions for the amendment of the constitution; A schedule prescribing the method of submitting the draft constitution to the vote of the people, with temporary provisions regulating the mode of tranfition from the old constitutional arrang~ments to the new ones.

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  • The permanent organization consists of a system of committees, one for each of the more important election areas.

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  • In the smallest areas, such as the township or city ward, the meeting is composed of all the recognized members of the party who are entitled to vote, and it is then called a primary.

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  • In the larger election areas, such as a county or city, the number of voters who would be entitled to be present renders it impossible to admit all, so the nominating meetings in these areas are composed of delegates elected in the various primaries included in the area, and the meeting is called a nominating convention.

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  • smaller areas.

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  • The revenues of the several states, and of minor governmental areas within them, are mainly derived from a general property tax, laid directly upon realty and personalty.

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  • It is easily shown that the areas of the lune Adbea and the triangle ABC are equal.

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  • right angled at C, semicircles are described on the three sides, thus forming two lunes Afcda and Cgbec. The sum of the areas of these lunes equals the area of the triangle ABC.] As for Euclid, it is sufficient to recall the facts that the original author of prop. 8 of book iv.

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  • The latter, as we know, calculated the perimeters of successive polygons, passing from one polygon to another of double the number of sides; in a similar manner Gregory calculated the areas.

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  • It is clearly the form of the fundamental property (expressed in the terminology of the "application of areas") which led him to call the curves for the first time by the names parabola, ellipse, hyperbola.

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  • He, no doubt, like al-Asma`i and Abu `Ubaida, also himself visited the areas occupied by the tribes for their camping grounds in the neighbouring desert; and adjacent to Kufa was al-IIIra, the ancient capital of the Lakhmid kings, whose court was the most celebrated centre in pre-Islamic Arabia, where, in the century before the preaching of the Prophet, poets from the whole of the northern half of the peninsula were wont to assemble.

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  • The province of New Brunswick exhibits approximately parallel but subordinate ridges, with wide intervening areas of nearly flat Silurian and Carboniferous rocks.

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  • and affords the largest areas of arable and pasture land in British Columbia.

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  • The Selkirks and Gold Ranges west of the Rockies, with their great areas of eruptive rocks, both ancient and modern, include most of the important mines of gold, silver, copper and lead which give British Columbia its leadership among the Canadian provinces as a producer of metals.

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  • The precipitation in southern Saskatchewan and Alberta is much more variable than farther east and north, so that in some seasons crops have been a failure through drought, but large areas are now being brought under irrigation to avoid such losses.

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