His skin was colder than snow, the power radiating off him like an arctic breeze.
It is continuous round the pole and roughly is bounded by the arctic circle.
Even in summer the double period is not prominent in the arctic climate of Karasjok or on the top of the Eiffel Tower.
The arctic flora contains no genus that is peculiar to it, and only some fifty species that are so.
For purposes of measurement the polar boundaries are taken to be the Arctic and Antarctic circles, although in discussing the configuration and circulation it is impossible to adhere strictly to these limits.
It took place southwards, for the arctic flora is remarkably uniform, and, as Chodat points out, it shows no evidence of having been recruited from the several mountain floras.
Christ has objected to terming the arctic flora Scandinavian, but the name implies nothing more than that Scandinavia has been its chief centre of preservation.
The North Atlantic being altogether cut off from the Arctic regions, and the vertical circulation being active, this movement is here practically non-existent; but in the South Atlantic, where communication with the Southern Ocean is perfectly open, Antarctic water can be traced to the equator and even beyond.
The glacial period effected in Europe a wholesale extermination of temperate types accompanied by a southern extension of the arctic flora.
mountains of Europe and North America they grow only at moderate elevations, and none approach the arctic circle.
The communication between the Atlantic and Arctic basins being cut off, as already described, at a depth of about 300 fathoms, the temperatures in the Norwegian Sea below that level are essentially Arctic, usually below the freezing-point of fresh water, except where the distribution is modified by the surface circulation.
Beyond the arctic circle some 200, or more than a quarter, are confined to the mountains of the northern hemisphere and of ~still more southern regions.
Cold Temperate and Frigid Districts.In the coldest portion of the north temperate zone, forests of dwarfed trees occur, and these occasionally spread into the Arctic region itself (Schimper, 1904: 685).
This tree, the "liard" of the Canadian voyageur, abounds on many of the river sides of the northwestern plains; it occurs in the neighbourhood of the Great Slave Lake and along the Mackenzie River, and forms much of the driftwood of the Arctic coast.
The Hudson Bay Company had been in- Arctic corporated in 1670, and its servants soon extended their operations over a wide area to the north and west of Canada.
to the Nordenskjold Sea, a division of the Arctic, disemboguing S.W.
The conception of the north-western route to Cathay now leads the story of exploration, for the first time as far as important and sustained efforts are concerned, towards the Arctic seas.
At the close of the glacial period the alpine floras retreated to the mountains accompanied by an arctic contingent, though doubtless many species of the latter, such as Salix polaris, failed to establish themselves.
The mean depth over this ridge is about 250 fathoms, and the maximum depth nowhere reaches 500 fathoms. The main basin of the Atlantic is thus cut off from the Arctic basin, with which the area north of the ridge has complete deep-water communication.
It extends E northward to the Arctic Basin and southward to the Great Southern Ocean.
North of the North Atlantic maximum the waters become steadily fresher as latitude increases until the channels opening into the Arctic basin are reached.
He was accompanied by John Davis, the great Arctic navigator, as pilot-major.
Aristotle defined the temperate zone as extending from the tropic to the arctic circle, but there is some uncertainty as to the precise meaning he gave to the term " arctic circle."
The Arctic voyages of Barents were quickly followed by the establishment of p u a Dutch East India Company; and the Dutch, ousting the Portuguese, not only established factories on the mainland of India and in Japan, but acquired a preponderating influence throughout the Malay Archipelago.
Just as we have evidence of a former mild climate in the arctic regions, so a similar mild climate has been postulated for Antarctica.
While Europe and probably North America were occupied by a warm temperate flora, tropical types had been driven southward, while the adaptation of others to arctic conditions had become accentuated.
The most important Arctic work in the 18th century was performed by the Russians, for they succeeded in delineating the whole of the northern coast of Siberia.
And Reid has shown that during the glacial period the existing flora was replaced by an arctic one represented by such plants as Salix polaris, S.
At the temperate stations the maximum occurs near mid-winter; in the Arctic it seems deferred towards spring.
The White, Barents and Kara Seas of the Arctic bound it on the N., and the northern Pacific - that is, the Seas of Bering, Okhotsk and Japan - bounds it on the E.
Thus it consists of the immense plains and flat lands which extend between the plateau formation and the Arctic Ocean, including the series of parallel chains and hilly spurs which skirt the former region on the N.W.
In the extreme south, where an Arctic vegetation is found, the pastures are rich, and the forests, largely of the Antarctic beech (Fagus antarctica), are vigorous wherever the rainfall is heavy.
With the same object Alexander Mackenzie, with a party of Canadians, set out from Fort Chippewyan on the 3rd of June 1789, and descending the great river which now bears the explorer's name reached the Arctic sea.
wide, communicating with the gulfs and straits of the North American Arctic archipelago; (2) Davis Strait, about 200 m.
This intermediate region, which has Atlantic characteristics down to 300 fathoms, and at greater depths belongs more properly to the Arctic Sea, commonly receives the name of Norwegian Sea.
The first passes northwards, most of it between the Faeroe and Shetland Islands, to the coast of Norway, and so on to the Arctic basin, which, as Nansen has shown, it fills to a great depth.
On the other hand, there are Arctic species like the ground-beetle, Pelophila borealis, and south-western species like the boring weevil, Mesites Tardyi, common in Ireland, and represented in northern or western Britain, but unknown in eastern Britain or in Central Europe.
Arctic plants make their brief growth and flower at a temperature little above freezing-point, and are dependent for their heat on the direct rays of the sun.
The percentages of the land surface draining to the different oceans are approximately - Atlantic, 34'3%; Arctic sea, 26.5%; Pacific, 14.4%; Indian Ocean, 12.8%.'
The yellow type is capable of a higher culture, cherishes higher religious beliefs, and inhabits as a rule the temperate zone, although extending to the tropics on one side and to the arctic regions on the other.
The Coleoptera are almost worldwide in their distribution, being represented in the Arctic regions and on almost all oceanic islands.
In Novaya Zemlya and the Taimyr peninsula, it projects within the Arctic Circle as far as 77° 6' and 77° 40' N.
The flat lands which extend from the base of the Alpine foothills to the shores of the Arctic Ocean, assume the character either of dry deserts, as in the Aral-Caspian depression, or of low tablelands, as in central Russia and E.
The habit of forming mycorhizas is found more frequently in warm climates than cold; indeed, the percentage of the flora exhibiting this peculiarity seems to increase with a certain regularity from the Arctic Circle to the equator.
The Pliocene flora found refuges in favored localities from which at its close the lowlands were restocked while the arctic plants were left behind on the mountains.
There is no reason to suppose that the peculiarities of the arctic flora are more modern than those of any other, though there is no fossil evidence to prove that it was not so.
That the arctic flora was driven south into Central Europe cannot be contested in the face of the evidence collected by Nathorst from deposits connected with the boulderclay.
Taking the whole arctic flora at 762 species, Hooker found that 616 occurred in arctic Europe, and of these 586 are Scandinavian.
A detailed examination of mountain floras shows that a large local element is present in each besides the arctic. The one is in tact the result of similar physical conditions to that which has produced the other.
And in particular 1-e told of the remarkable voyage of Other, a Norwegian of Helgelsnd, who was the first authentic Arctic explorer, the first to tell of the rounding of the North Cape and the sight of the midnight sun.
The 18th century saw the Arctic coast of North America reached at two points, as well as the first scientific attempt to reach the North Pole.
In September 1740 Vitus Bering sailed from Okhotsk on a second Arctic voyage with George William Steller on board as naturalist.
The chief element of uncertainty as to the largest features of the relief of the earth's crust is due to the unexplored area in the Arctic region and the larger regions of the Antarctic, of which Crustal we know nothing.
Some species, such as Anemone alpine, which are wanting in the Arctic flora of the Old World, he thinks must have reached Europe by way of Greenland from north-east America.
Recent offerings include arctic char filets, tea-steamed duck medallions and saffron thread risotto cakes.
The fauna of the Arctic Ocean off the Norwegian coast corresponds, in its W.
limits advance almost to the Arctic coast at Varanger Fjord, farther E.
64° and the shores of the Arctic Sea.
The double river-systems of the Volga and Kama, the Ob and Irtysh, the Angara and Yenisei, the Lena and Vitim on the Arctic slope, and the Amur and Sungari on the Pacific slope, are instances.
slope of the Urals; in the Pai-kho ridge; and in the islands of the Arctic Ocean.
above present sea-level, are found alike on the Arctic Sea and on the Baltic and Black Sea coasts.
Russia, and along the shores of the Arctic Ocean.
The environment in the Arctic Circle is very hostile.
European plains - the tundras, including the Arctic islands, the forest region, especially the coniferous part of it, and the ante-steppe and steppes of the black earth region.
Still, the reindeer frequents it for its lichens, and on the drier slopes of the moraine deposits there occur four species of lemming, hunted by the Arctic fox (Vulpes lagopus).
The arctic fauna is very poor.
permafrost layers cover large areas of the Arctic coasts.
WOODMAN, P. 1999 The early postglacial Settlement of Arctic Europe.
A deep gulf of the Arctic Sea advanced up the valley of the Dvina; and the Caspian, connected by the Manych with the Black Sea, and by the Uzboy valley with Lake Aral, penetrated N.
it is bounded by the Arctic Ocean; the islands of NovayaZemlya, Kolguyev and Vaigach also belong to it, but the Kara Sea is reckoned to Siberia.
It is a special feature of Russia that she has no free outlet to the open sea except on the ice-bound shores of the Arctic Ocean.
by the faint swelling of the Uvaly, the watershed between the Arctic Ocean and the Volga basin.
On the Arctic coast the forests disappear, giving place to the tundras.
The Arctic Region comprises the tundras of the Arctic littoral beyond the N.
in Finland and on the Arctic Circle about Archangel, 68° N.
The Forest Region of the Russian botanists includes the greater part of the country, from the Arctic tundras to the steppes, and over this immense expanse it maintains a remarkable uniformity of character.
The White Sea and the Arctic Ocean to the E.
of the Arctic Circle.
lemming years " in the breeding grounds of the Arctic tundra.
loony tunes ', a classic sound of the lonely arctic.
of Svyatoi Nos on the Kola peninsula belong to a separate zoological region, connected with, and hardly separable from, that part of the Arctic Ocean which washes the Siberian coast as far as the mouth of the Lena.
Along the Murman coast of the Arctic Ocean and in the White Sea, where many millions of herrings are caught annually by some 3000 persons, the yearly produce is estimated at the value of £140,000.
It is singular that such closely allied species as the domestic dog and the Arctic fox are among the favourite prey of wolves, and, as is well known, children and even full-grown people are not infrequently the objects of their attack when pressed by hunger.
Flies seem capable of adapting themselves to extremes of cold equally as well as to those of heat, and species belonging to the order are almost invariably included in the collections brought back by members of Arctic expeditions.
Geography The northern boundary of Asia is formed by the Arctic Ocean; the coast-line falls between 70° and 75° N., and so lies within the Arctic circle, having its extreme northern point in Cape Sivero-Vostochnyi (i.e.
to the Caspian, whence it turns to the north on a line not far from the 60th meridian, along the Ural Mountains, and meets the Arctic Ocean nearly opposite the island of Novaya Zemlya.
A great circle, drawn through East Cape and the southern point of Arabia, passes nearly along the coast-line of the Arctic Ocean, over the Ural Mountains, through the western part of the Caspian, and nearly along the boundary between Persia and Asiatic Turkey.
above sea, where all the main rivers flow northward to the Mediterranean, the Arctic Sea, or the Caspian; a central section of depression, where the drainage is lost in swamps or hamuns, and of which the average level probably does not exceed 2000 ft.
The portion of Asia which lies between the Arctic Ocean and the mountainous belt bounding Manchuria, Mongolia and Turkestan Siberia.
Thus it appears that from the Arctic Ocean there stretches a broad area as far as the south of China, in which no marine deposits of later date than Carboniferous have yet been found, except in the extreme north.
The rainfall, though moderate, is still sufficient to maintain the supply of water in the great rivers that traverse the country to the Arctic Sea, and to support an abundant vegetation.
The vegetation of the higher and therefore cooler and less rainy ranges of the Himalaya has greater uniformity of character along the whole chain, and a closer general approach to European forms is maintained; an increased number of species is actually identical, among these being found, at the greatest elevations, many alpine plants believed to be identical with species of the north Arctic regions.
The Salmonidae are entirely absent from the waters of southern Asia, though they exist in the rivers that flow into the Arctic Ocean and the neighbouring parts of the northern Pacific, extending perhaps to Formosa; and trout, though unknown in Indian rivers, are found beyond the watershed of the Indus, in the streams flowing into the Caspian.
The tree is very widely distributed, growing abundantly on most of the mountain ranges of northern and central Europe; while in Asia it occurs at least as far east as the Lena, and in latitude extends from the Altaic ranges to beyond the Arctic circle.
in the neighbourhood of the coast nearly to the 67th parallel; but it is, in that arctic climate, rarely met with at a greater elevation than Boo ft.
3 A greater undertaking was Pennant's Arctic Zoology, published in 1785, with a supplement in 1787.
She sailed in June 1853, and passing up Smith Sound at the head of Baffin Bay advanced into the enclosed sea which now bears the name of Kane Basin, thus establishing the Polar route of many future Arctic expeditions.
Between his first and second arctic voyages he made the acquaintance of the Fox family, the spiritualists.
Arctic Papers of 1875).
They are essentially coast-fishes, inhabiting nearly all seas, but disappearing towards the Arctic and Antarctic Oceans.
The fauna, explored by Dybowski and Godlewski, and in 1900-2 by Korotnev, is much richer than it was supposed to be, and has quite an original character; but hypotheses as to a direct communication having existed between Lake Baikal and the Arctic Ocean during the Post-Tertiary or Tertiary ages are not proved.
The ordinary musk-rat is one of several species of a genus peculiar to America, where it is distributed in suitable localities in the northern part of the continent, extending from the Atlantic to the Pacific, and from the Rio Grande to the barren grounds bordering the Arctic seas.
He entered the navy in 1846, and served first at sea off Portugal in 1847; afterwards, in 1848, in the Mediterranean, and from 1848 to 1851 as midshipman of the "Reynard" in operations against piracy in Chinese waters; as midshipman and mate of the "Serpent" during the Burmese War of 1852-53; as mate of the "Phoenix" in the Arctic Expedition of 1854; as lieutenant of the "Hastings" in the Baltic during the Russian War, taking part in the attack on Sveaborg.
The narwhal is an Arctic whale, frequenting the icy circumpolar seas, and rarely seen south of 65° N.
KARA SEA, a portion of the Arctic Ocean demarcated, and except on the north-west completely enclosed, by Novaya Zemlya, Vaygach Island and the Siberian coast.
Our arctic voyagers - Sir E.
It occurs throughout the greater part of the Arctic regions, the varieties in the old and new world differing slightly in colour.
Their services to their owners and to Arctic explorers are well known, but Eskimo dogs are so rapacious that it is impossible to train them to refrain from attacking sheep, goats or any small domesticated animals.
begins the height of land running north-easterly, north of which all the waters of Alberta flow toward the Arctic Sea.
The united river carrying down the waters of the Athabasca slope is called the Slave river, which, passing through Great Slave Lake, emerges as the great Mackenzie river, which falls into the Arctic Sea.
By way of the North Saskatchewan river Alexander Mackenzie crossed the height of land, and proceeding northward discovered the river which bears his name, and also the Arctic Sea.
MUSK-OX, also known as musk-buffalo and musk-sheep, an Arctic American ruminant of the family Bovidae, now representing a genus and sub-family by itself.
They have also been found in Pleistocene gravels in several parts of England, as Maidenhead, Bromley, Freshfield near Bath, Barnwood near Gloucester, and in the brick-earth of the Thames valley at Crayford, Kent; while their remains also occur in Arctic America.
GREENLAND (Danish, &c., Gronland), a large continental island, the greater portion of which lies within the Arctic Circle, while the whole is arctic in character.
The southern and south-western coasts have been known, as will be mentioned later, since the 10th century, when Norse settlers appeared there, and the names of many famous arctic explorers have been associated with the exploration of Greenland.
(Washington, 1885); Three Years of Arctic Service (2 vols.
The unusual glaciation of the east coast is evidently owing to the north polar current carrying the ice masses from the north polar basin 4 south-westward along the land, and giving it an entirely arctic climate down to Cape Farewell.
The climate of the east coast is on the whole considerably more arctic than that of the west coast on corresponding latitudes; the land is much more completely snowcovered, and the snow-line goes considerably lower.
We thus see that the American and the European-Asiatic elements of the flora are nearly equivalent; and if the flora of Arctic North America were better known, the number of plants common to America might be still more enlarged.5 In the south, a few goats, sheep, oxen and pigs have been introduced.
The plants are of the usual arctic type, and identical with or allied to those found in Lapland or on the summits of the highest British hills.
into the primitive arctic community.
A little tribe of Eskimo living in the region of Cape York near Smith Sound - the so-called " Arctic Highlanders " or Smith Sound Eskimo - number about 240.
SAMOYEDES, a tribe of the Ural-Altaic group, scattered in small groups over an immense area, from the Altai mountains down the basins of the Ob and Yenisei, and along the shores of the Arctic ocean from the mouth of the latter river to the White Sea.
Russia the Zyrians are still driving the Samoyedes farther N., towards the Arctic coast.
This is really the case, for all observations show that the Antarctic and Arctic ice-bound seas are enormously rich in diatom life when compared with temperate and tropical regions: the great Antarctic zone of sea-bottom deposit, in which the skeletons of diatoms predominate, covers some ten millions of square miles.
The Ptychoderidae and Spengelidae are predominantly tropical and subtropical, while the Balanoglossidae are predominantly arctic and temperate in their distribution.
and Geographically, Siberia is now limited by the Ural Mountains on the W., by the Arctic and North Pacific Oceans on the N.
They may be traced from the Tian-shan to the Arctic Circle, and have an east-north-easterly direction in lower latitudes and a north-easterly direction farther north.
In the region between Viluisk (on the Vilui) and Yeniseisk a broad belt of alpine tracts, reaching their greatest elevation in the northern Yeniseisk taiga (between the Upper Tunguzka and the Podkamennaya Tunguzka) and continued to the south-west in lower upheavals, separates the elevated plains from the lowlands which extend towards the Arctic Ocean.
along the Tunguzka; they appear also in the Noril Mountains on the Yenisei, whence they extend towards the Arctic .Ocean.
The three principal rivers - the Ob, the Yenisei, and the Lena - take their rise on the high plateau or in the alpine regions fringing it, and, after descending from the plateau and piercing the alpine regions, flow for many hundreds of miles across the high plains and lowlands before they reach the Arctic, Ocean.
being, however, much shorter, as in these latitudes the plateau approaches nearer to the Arctic Ocean.
The coast-line of Siberia is very extensive both on the Arctic Ocean and on the Pacific. The former ocean is ice-bound for at least ten months out of twelve; and, though Nordenskjold and Captain Wiggins demonstrated (1874-1900) the possibility of navigation along its shores, it is exceedingly is s.
The extensive lowlands which stretch over more than one half of the area, as well as the elevated plains, lie open to the Arctic Ocean.
in Transbaikalia, whence it turns north to the Arctic Ocean.
North of this zone the rainfall decreases towards the Arctic.
The flora of Siberia presents very great local varieties, not only on account of the diversity of physical characteristics, but also in consequence of the intrusion of new species from the neighbouring regions, as widely different as the arctic littoral, the arid steppes of Central Asia, and the wet monsoon regions of the Pacific littoral.
1 The northern limit of this region, must, however, be drawn nearer to the Arctic Ocean.
myrtillus) and the arctic bramble (Rubus arcticus) extend very far northward; raspberries and red and black currants form a luxuriant undergrowth in the forests, together with Ribes dikusha in East Siberia.
Engler's Versuch einer Entwickelungsgeschichte der Pflanzenwelt (Leipzig, 1879-1882), we should have in Siberia (a) the arctic region; (b) the sub-arctic or coniferous region - north Siberian province; (c) the Central-Asian domain - Altai and Daurian mountainous regions; and (d) the east Chinese, intruding into the basin of the Amur.
As in European Russia, so in Siberia, three principal zones - the arctic, the boreal and the middle - may be distinguished, and these may be subdivided into several sub-regions.
On the whole, we may say that the arctic and boreal faunas of Europe extend over Siberia, with a few additional species in the Ural and Baraba region - a number of new species also appearing in East Siberia, some spreading along the high plateau and others along the lower plateau from the steppes of the Gobi.
The reindeer, arctic fox (Canis lagopus), hare, wolf, lemming (Myodes obensis), collar lemming (Cuniculus torquatus) and two species of voles (Arvicolae) are the most common on land.
schistocolor), the beaver, variable hare, wild boar, roebuck, stag, reindeer, elk and Phoca annelata of Lake Baikal - all these are common alike to Europe and to Siberia; while the bear, musk-deer (Moschus moschi- f erus), ermine, sable, pouched marmot or souslik (Spermophilus eversmani), Arvicola obscures and Lagomys hyperboraeus, distributed over Siberia, may be considered as belonging to the arctic fauna.
The dredgings of the " Vega " expedition in the Arctic Ocean disclosed an unexpected wealth of marine fauna, and those of L.
The Russians, issuing from the middle Urals, have travelled as a broad stream through south Siberia, sending branches to the Altai, to the Ili river in Turkestan and to Minusinsk, as well as down the chief rivers which flow to the Arctic Ocean, the banks of which are studded with villages 15 to 20 m.
Squirrels, bears, foxes, arctic foxes, antelopes and especially deer in spring are the principal objects of the chase.
Although the Arctic Ocean had been reached as early as the first half of the 17th century, the exploration of its coasts by a series of expeditions under Ovtsyn, Minin, Pronchishev, Lasinius and Laptev - whose labours constitute a brilliant page in the annals of geographical discovery - was begun only in the 18th century (1735-1739).
Within a certain small area in the Arctic Circle (about 97° W.
Tofieldia, an arctic and alpine genus of small herbs with a slender scape springing from a tuft of narrow ensiform leaves and bearing a raceme of small green flowers; Narthecium (bog-asphodel), herbs with a habit similar to Tofieldia, but with larger golden-yellow flowers; and Colchicum, a genus with about 30 species including b the meadow saffron or autumn crocus (C. autumnale).
Passing from South Africa to the north polar regions of both the Old and the New World, inclusive of Iceland, we enter the domain of the Arctic fox (V.
Arctic foxes feed largely on sea-birds and lemmings, laying up hidden stores of the last-named rodents for winter use.
Stratz divides clothing climatically into two classes: tropical, which is based on the girdle (or, when the attachment is fastened round the neck, the cloak), and the arctic, based on the trouser.
The retention by women in Europe of the tropical garb can be explained by the fact that her sphere has been mainly confined to the house, and her life has been less active than that of man; consequently the adoption of the arctic dress has been in her case less necessary.
It is a port of call for ships trading with the north of Europe as well as for vessels outward bound to the Arctic regions, Hudson Bay and Canada.
The blackbird is found in every country of Europe, even breeding - although rarely - beyond the arctic circle, and in eastern Asia as well as in North Africa and the Atlantic islands.
The sea is connected with the Arctic Ocean northward by Bering Strait, at the narrowest part of which East Cape (Deshnev) in Asia approaches within about 56 m.
Even within the Arctic Circle they are in many localities abundant and excessively bloodthirsty during the short summer.
Thus in the recently discovered arctic genus Prosorhynchus the muscular and glandular extremity is protrusible, but in the allied Gasterostomum this organ is represented by a sucker with fimbriated or tentacular margins.
Three species of bears are scientifically recognized, but one of them, the ice-bear (Ursus maritimus), is only an accidental visitor, carried down by the Arctic current.
The ascent of the Sadlen or the Tyven in the neighbourhood is usually undertaken by travellers for the view of the barren, snow-clad Arctic landscape, the bluff indented coast, and the vast expanse of the Arctic Ocean.
limit approaches that of the permanently frozen subsoil, going into the arctic circle in Scandinavia, elsewhere sinking to about 54° N.; in the S.
Besides these variations in the number of ridges or plates of which each tooth is composed, the thickness of the enamel varies so much as to have given rise to a distinction between a " thick-plated " and a " thin-plated " variety - the latter being most prevalent among specimens from the Arctic regions.
Izerbacea and arctic species generally, to 1 oo ft., and occurring most abundantly in cold or temperate climates in both hemispheres, and generally in moist situations; a few species occur in the tropical and sub-tropical portions of the three great continents.
Fertilization is effected by insects, especially by bees, which are directed in their search by the colour and fragrance of the flowers; but some pollen must also be transported by the wind to the female flowers, especially in arctic species which, in spite of the poverty of insect life, set abundant fruit.
A committee of the Royal Geographical Society - the deliberations of which were interrupted by the departure on his last voyage of Sir John Franklin, one of the members - suggested these meridians as boundaries; the north and south boundaries of the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans being the polar circles, leaving an Arctic and an Antarctic Ocean to complete the hydrosphere.
It has been found more convenient to take as northern boundaries the narrowest part of the straits near the Arctic circle, Bering Strait on the Pacific side, and on the Atlantic side the narrowest part of Davis Strait, and of Denmark Strait, then the shortest line from Iceland to the Faeroes, thence to the most northerly island of the Shetlands and thence to Cape Statland in Norway.
Some authors include the Arctic Sea in the Atlantic Ocean, and some prefer to consider the southern part of the Atlantic, Indian and Pacific Oceans as a Great Southern Ocean.
as limits; but in none of these schemes has the coast of Antarctica been adequately considered, and they have all been too much influenced by the Mercator map. Each of the three oceans, Atlantic, Indian and Pacific, possesses an Antarctic facies in the southern part and a tropical facies between the tropics, and the Atlantic and Pacific an Arctic facies in their northern parts.
Four great intercontinental enclosed seas are included between adjacent continents - the Arctic Sea, the Central American or West Indian Sea, the Australo-Asiatic or Malay Sea and the Mediterranean Sea.
The greatest of the intercontinental seas, the Arctic, comes nearest to oceanic conditions in the extent and depth of its depressions.
The ridge across Denmark Strait west of Iceland nowhere exceeds 300 fathoms in depth, so that the deeper water of the North Polar Basin is effectively separated from that of the Atlantic. A third small basin occupies Baffin Bay and contains a maximum depth of 1050 fathoms. Depths of from loo to 300 fathoms are not uncommon amongst the channels of the Arctic Archipelago north of North America, and Bering Strait, through which the surface water of the Arctic Sea meets that of the Pacific, is only 28 fathoms deep.
The Arctic Sea presents a great contrast between the salinity of the surface of the ice-free Norwegian Sea with 35 to 35.4 and that of the Central Polar Basin, which is dominated by river water and melted ice, and has a salinity less than 25 per mille in most parts.
Where the evaporation is at a minimum, the inflow of rivers from a large continental area and the precipitation from the atmosphere at a maximum, there is necessarily the greatest dilution of the sea-water, the Baltic and the Arctic Sea being conspicuous examples.
As the Arctic Basin is shut off from the North Atlantic by ridges rising to within 300 fathoms of the surface and from the Pacific by the shallow shelf of the Bering Sea, and as the ice-laden East Greenland and Labrador currents consist of fresh surface water which cannot appreciably influence the underlying mass, the Arctic region has no practical effect upon the bottom temperature of the three great oceans, which is entirely dominated by the influence of the Antarctic. The existence of deep-lying and extensive rises or ridges in high southern latitudes has been indicated by the deep-sea temperature observations of Antarctic expeditions.
In other enclosed seas which are shut off from the ocean by a very shallow sill the rule holds good that the homothermic water below the level of the sill is at the lowest temperature reached by the surface water in the coldest season of the year, provided always that the stratification of salinity is such as to permit of convection being set up. To this group belongs the Arctic Sea; the Norwegian Sea is homothermic below J50 fathoms at 29.8° F., but this cold water does not penetrate into the Arctic Basin on account of the ridge between Spitsbergen and Greenland, and there the water below 1400 fathoms has a temperature of 30 6° to 30.7° F.
Ice is a very poor conductor of heat and accordingly protects the surface of the water beneath from rapid cooling; hence new-formed pancake ice does not increase excessively in thickness in one winter, and even in the centre of the Arctic Basin the ice-covering only amounts to 6 or at most 9 ft.
the east and west widening of North America forms more than a third of the almost continuous land ring around a zone of sub-Arctic climate, through the middle of which runs the Arctic circle.
P Y groups: - Eskimo, on Arctic shores; Dene (Tinneh), in north-western Canada; Algonquin-Iroquois, Canada and eastern United States; Sioux, plains of the west; Muskhogee, Gulf States; Tlinkit-Haida, North Pacific coast; Salish-Chinook, Fraser-Columbia coasts and basins; Shoshoni, interior basin; California-Oregon, mixed tribes; Pueblo province, southwestern United States and northern Mexico; Nahuatla-Maya, southern Mexico and Central America; Chibcha-Kechua, the Cordilleras of South America; Carib-Arawak, about Caribbean Sea; Tupi-Guarani, Amazon drainage; Araucanian, Pampas; Patagonian, peninsula; Fuegian, Magellan Strait.
Cal.; Costanoan, Cal.; Eskimauan, Arctic province; Esselenian, Cal.; Iroquoian, N.Y., N.C.; Kalapooian, Or.; Karankawan, Tex.; Keresan, N.
In the Arctic and Pacific coast provinces, about Lake Superior, in Virginia and North Carolina, as well as in ruder parts of Mexico and South America, metals were cold-hammered into plates, weapons, rods and wire, ground and polished, fashioned into carved blocks of hard, tenacious stone by pressure or blow, overlaid, cold-welded and plated.
of Agriculture.) Excepting for extensive and rapid travel over the snow in the Arctic regions by means of dog sleds, the extremely limited transportation by dog travail (or sledge) in the Sioux province, and the use of the llama as a beast of burden Travel.
Commencing in the Arctic region, the Eskimo in his kayak, consisting of a framework of driftwood or bone covered with dressed sealskin, could paddle down east Greenland, up the west shore to Smith Sound, along Baffin Land and Labrador, and the shores of Hudson Bay throughout insular Canada and the Alaskan coast, around to Mount St Elias, and for many miles on the eastern shore of Asia.
The Arctic peoples regulated their lives by the long day and night in the year; among the tribes in the arid region the place of sunrise was marked on the horizon for each day; the tropical Indians were not so observant, but they worshipped the sun-god above all.
In the Arctic province the overpowering influence of meteorological phenomena manifested itself both in the doctrine of shades and in their shamanistic practices.
Here and there in the Arctic province remains of old village sites have been examined, and collections brought away by whalers and exploring expeditions.
As a straggler it has occurred within the Arctic Circle (as on the Varanger Fjord in Norway), as well as in Iceland and even Greenland; while it not unfrequently appears in Madeira and the Azores.
VAYGACH (variously Waigats, Waigatch, &c.), an island off the Arctic coast of Russia, between it and Novaya Zemlya, bounded S.
Grasses, mosses and Arctic flowering plants are abundant, but there are no trees excepting occasional dwarf willows.
Fisher in an appendix to Captain Parry's Journal of a Second Voyage the Arctic Regions.
NEW SIBERIA ARCHIPELAGO, a group of islands situated off the Arctic coast of Siberia, from 73° to 76° 6' N., and 135° 20' to 148° E.
Hunters come in numbers to the Lyakhovs, which must have been long known to Arctic hunters.
Formerly it was the general belief that the herring inhabits the open ocean close to the Arctic Circle, and that it migrates at certain seasons towards the northern coasts of Europe and America.
Among others who contributed valuable papers on the subject may be noticed Oswald Heer (1809-1883), who made observations on the Miocene flora, especially in Arctic regions; Gaston de Saporta (1823-1895), who examined the Tertiary flora; Sir J.
The polar or white bear (Ursus maritimus), common to the Arctic regions of both hemispheres, is distinguished from the other species by having the soles of the feet covered with close-set hairs, - in adaptation to the wants of the creature, the bear being thereby enabled to walk securely on slippery ice.
to the Arctic from those which flow S.
JAN MAYEN, an arctic island between Greenland and the north of Norway, about 71° N.
It is nearly landlocked to the N., communicating with the Arctic Ocean only by Bering Strait, which is 36 m.
Partly on account of its great extent, and partly because there is no wide opening to the Arctic regions, the normal wind circulation is on the whole less modified in the North Pacific than in the Atlantic, except in the west, where the south-west logy.
deeply into the:tropical half of the country, carry with them temperate and sub-tropical conditions over much the greater part of the republic. Above the plateau rise the marginal sierras, while a few isolated peaks in the region of perpetual snow give to Mexico a considerable area of cold temperate and a trace of arctic conditions.
This is due not only to its geographical position and its vertical climatic zones, which give it a range from tropical to arctic types, but also to its peculiar combination of humid and arid conditions in which we find an extensive barren table-land interposed between two tropical forested coastal zones.
A native of the Arctic seas, it extends in the western Atlantic as far south as the river St Lawrence, which it ascends for a considerable distance.
minutilla, the American stint, is darker, with olive feet, and ranges from the Arctic New World to Brazil.
fuscicollis, Bonaparte's sandpiper, with white upper tail-coverts inhabits Arctic America, but reaches the greater part of South America in winter, whilst T.
Between the two mountain systems extends a great central area of plains, stretching from the Gulf of Mexico northward, far beyond the national boundary, to the Arctic Ocean.
There are numerous outliers of the Silurian north of the United States, even tip to the Arctic regions.
The Onondaga fauna which succeeded appears to have resulted from the commingling of the resident lower Devonian fauna with new emigrants from Europe by way of the Arctic regions.
The distribution of the beds of marine origin shows that the sea crept upon the eastern and southern borders of the continent auring the period, covered the western plains, and formed a great mediterranean sea between the eastern and western lands of the continent, connecting the Gulf of Mexico on the south and the Arctic Ocean on the north.
In virtue of these physical characteristics, the air over the land becomes much warmer in summer and much colder in winter than the air over the oceans in corresponding latitudes; hence the seasonal changes of temperature in the central United States are strong; the high temperatures appropriate to the torrid zone advance northward to middle latitudes in summer, and the low temperatures appropriate to the Arctic regions descend almost to middle latitudes in winter.
Fauna.Differences of temperature have produced in North America seven transcontinental life-zones or areas characterized by relative uniformity of both fauna and flora; they are the Arctic, Hudsonian and Canadian, which are divisions of the Boreal Region; the Transition, Upper Austral and Lower Austral, which are divisions of the Austral Region, and the Tropical.
The Arctic, Hudsonian and Canadian enter the United States from the north and the Tropical from the south; but the greater part of the United States is occupied by the Transition, Upper Austral and Lower Austral, and each of these is divided into eastern and western subzones by differences in the amount of moisture.
The Arctic or ArcticAlpine zone covers in the United States only the tops of a few mountains which extend above the limit of trees, such as Mt Katahdin in Maine, Mt Washington and neighboring peaks in the White Mountains of New Hampshire, and the loftier peaks of the Rocky, Cascade and Sierra Nevada Mountains.
The Arctic Circle is drawn at 66° 30' N.
The western boundary is the Pacific on the south, an irregular line a few miles inland from the coast along the " pan handle " of Alaska to Mount St Elias, and the meridian of 14r° to the Arctic Ocean.
The greatly varied Arctic coast line of Canada with its large islands, inlets and channels is too much clogged with ice to be of much practical use, but Hudson Bay, a mediterranean sea 850 m.
The great central area of Canada is drained towards Hudson Bay, but its two largest rivers have separate watersheds, the Mackenzie flowing north-west to the Arctic Ocean and the St Lawrence north-east towards the Atlantic, the one to the south-west and the other to the south-east of the Archean protaxis.
The northern part of Alberta and Saskatchewan and much of northern British Columbia are drained through the Athabasca and Peace rivers, first north-eastwards towards Athabasca Lake, then north through Slave river to Great Slave Lake, and finally north-west through Mackenzie river to the Arctic Ocean.
The divide between the rivers flowing west and those flowing east and north is very sharp in the southern Rocky Mountains, but there are two lakes, the Committee's Punch Bowl and Fortress Lake, right astride of it, sending their waters both east and west; and there is a mountain somewhat south of Fortress Lake whose melting snows drain in three directions into tributaries of the Columbia, the Saskatchewan and the Athabasca, so that they are distributed between the Pacific, the Atlantic (Hudson Bay) and the Arctic Oceans.
It includes Labrador, Ungava and most of Quebec on the east, northern Ontario on the south; and the western boundary runs from Lake-of-the-Woods north-west to the Arctic Ocean near the mouth of Mackenzie river.
The southern parts of the Arctic islands, especially Banksland, belong to it also.
62° it is still narrower and somewhat interrupted, but preserves its main physical features to the Arctic Ocean about the mouth of the Mackenzie.
When its vast area stretching from the international boundary to beyond the Arctic circle is opened up, it may be expected to prove the counterpart of the great mining region of the Cordillera in the United States to the south.
42° to the Arctic regions and touching three oceans, there must be great variations of climate.
Leaving out the maritime provinces, southern Ontario, southern Alberta and the Pacific coast region on the one hand, and the Arctic north, particularly near Hudson Bay, on the other, Canada has snowy and severe winters, a very short spring with a sudden rise of temperature, short warm summers, and a delightful autumn with its " Indian summer."
In the lower St Lawrence country and about the Gulf many Arctic and sub-Arctic species are found.
At the higher levels the vegetation becomes more Arctic. Northwards the valleys of the Peace and other rivers differ little from those of Quebec and the northern prairies.
The black bear is also common to most other parts of Canada; the polar bear everywhere along the Arctic littoral.
Mountain and plain and Arctic hares and rabbits are plentiful or scarce in localities, according to seasons or other circumstances.
The wildfowl are, particularly in the west, in great numbers; their breeding-grounds extending from Manitoba and the western prairies up to Hudson Bay, the barren lands and Arctic coasts.
belong to the Arctic region and 125,755 sq.
The islands and other districts within the Arctic circle became a portion of the Dominion only in 1880, when all British possessions in North America, excepting Newfoundland, with its dependency, the Labrador coast, and the Bermuda islands, were annexed to Canada.
Wheat grows as far south as Patagonia, and as far north as the edge of the Arctic Circle; it flourishes throughout Europe, and across the whole of northern Asia and in Japan; it is cultivated in Persia, and raised largely in India, as far south as the Nizam's dominions.
1797), the hydrographer; Malcolm Laing (1762-1818), author of the History of Scotland from the Union of the Crowns to the Union of the Kingdoms; Mary Brunton (1778-1818), author of Self-Control, Discipline and other novels; Samuel Laing (1780-1868), author of A Residence in Norway, and translator of the Heimskringla, the Icelandic chronicle of the kings of Norway; Thomas Stewart Traill (1781-1862), professor of medical jurisprudence in Edinburgh University and editor of the 8th edition of the Encyclopaedia Britannica; Samuel Laing (1812-1897), chairman of the London, Brighton & South Coast railway, and introducer of the system of "parliamentary" trains with fares of one penny a mile; Dr John Rae (1813-1893), the Arctic explorer; and William Balfour Baikie (1825-1864), the African traveller.
on the American continent, but it becomes rare and stunted in the Arctic circle.
South of the Arctic circle they are, under ordinary circumstances, confined to the plateaus covered with dwarf birch and juniper above the conifer-region, though in Tromso amt and in Finmarken they occur in all suitable localities down to the level of the sea.
Robertianum (herb-Robert) - reach the arctic zone, while G.
to the Arctic Ocean, joined on the left by the Zym, Turukhan and Ingarevka, and on the right by the Kureika and Daneshkina.
Its great elevation causes the climate to be rather arctic than tropical, so that there is no gradual blending of the climates and physical conditions of India and Tibet, such as would tend to promote intercourse between the inhabitants of these neighbouring regions; on the contrary, there are sharp lines of demarcation, in a mountain barrier which is scalable at only a few points, and in the social aspects and conditions of life on either side.
It was also for a long period the chief seat of the Greenland trade, but the Arctic seal and whale fishery is now extinct.
americanus), in the arctic fox (Canis lagopus), in the stoat and ermine, and among birds, in the ptarmigan, and some other species of Lagopus.
Another nutritious lichen is the " Tripe de Roche " of the arctic regions, consisting of several species of the Gyrophorei, which when boiled is often eaten by the Canadian hunters and Red Indians when pressed by hunger.
In arctic regions lichens form by far the largest portion of the vegetation, occurring everywhere on the ground and on rocks, and fruiting freely; while terrestrial species of Cladonia and Stereocaulon are seen in the greatest luxuriance and abundance spreading over extensive tracts almost to the entire exclusion of other vegetation.
In modern times the name has been applied to a group of races, which includes the Chukchis, Koryaks, Yukaghirs, Ainus, Gilyaks axed Kamchadales, inhabiting the arctic regions of Asia and America.
This relation of the arctic to the alpine flora is all the more remarkable in view of the very important differences between the arctic and alpine climates.
As for the explanation of the community between the alpine and arctic floras, all authorities are agreed that the key to the problem is furnished by the occurrence of the glacial period.
With the return of a milder climate, the so-called northern forms of the present alpine flora were split in two, one portion following close on the northern ice in its gradual retreat to the Arctic, the other following the shrinking glaciers till the plants were able to establish (or re-establish) themselves on the slopes of the Alps.
In any case, however, the migration of these plants to the Alps must for the most part have taken place via the Arctic. The possibility of any extensive east to west migration having taken place direct from the Altai to the Alps seems excluded by the fact that 50 o ho of the arctico-altaic alpine plants are absent from the Caucasus.
A score of species, it is true - not such a number, be it observed, as was formerly supposed - are common to the Alps and Altai, but absent from the Arctic. But the species composing this Altaic element are not so numerous as the arctico-alpine species that are absent from the Altai.
The former connexion between the Arctic and the Alps, which has left such unmistakable traces in the present alpine flora, affords, as regards the fauna also, the only possible explanation of the present geographical distribution of many alpine forms; but it is chiefly among the Invertebrata that we find this collateral testimony to the influence of the glacial period.
Spongiochiton, Katharina, Amicula, Cryptochiton (C. stelleri, arctic).
to an inlet of the Arctic Ocean, passing through several large lake-expansions - Pelly, Garry, MacDougall and Franklin.
In Swedish Lapland, near the Arctic circle, are the great Gellivara, Kirunavara and Luossavara magnetite beds, among the largest in Europe.
Their use was not simply a barbarous expedient to defend man from the rigours of an arctic winter; woven wool alone cannot, in its most perfect form, accomplish this.
The finest furs are obtained from the Arctic and northern regions, and the lower the latitude the less full and silky the fur, till, at the torrid zone, fur gives place to harsh hair without any underwool.
An inhabitant of the Arctic circle, best from Greenland.
The qualities do not compare with those species found in North America and the Arctic circle.
The white hares, however, of Russia, Siberia and other regions in the Arctic circle are very largely used in the cheaper trade of Europe, America and the British colonies.
Adam's information concerning Vinland did not, however, impress his medieval readers, as he placed the new land somewhere in the Arctic regions: "All those regions which are beyond are filled with insupportable ice and boundless gloom."
away from Lake Aral, though they do not cross the Aral-Irtysh waterdivide, so that this sea will not probably have been at that time connected with the Arctic, as some have supposed.
This last, together with some of the Mysidae and the species Glyptonotus entomon, exhibits Arctic characteristics, which has suggested the idea of a geologically recent connexion between the Caspian and the Arctic, an idea of which no real proofs have been as yet discovered.
The bulk of its water empties by the Mackenzie river into the Arctic Ocean, but a small portion finds its way by the Ark-i-linik river into Hudson's Bay.
This form is rare except in Arctic regions, where it is sometimes fairly frequent.
Even in the northern hemisphere there are large areas in the Arctic about which little is known.
long.) the Danish Arctic Expedition (10) of 1904 found seventy-five out of every hundred occurrences to take place before midnight.
(morning) occurrences of the principal forms as recorded by the Arctic observers at Cape Thorsden, Jan Mayen and Tasiusak.
Very elaborate observations have been made during several Arctic expeditions of the azimuths of the summits of auroral arcs.
Arctic observers, both Danish and British, have repeatedly reported displays of aurora unaccompanied by any special magnetic disturbance.
In the Arctic, auroral displays seem sometimes to be very local, and this may be the explanation.
On the other hand, Arctic observers have reported an apparent connexion of a particularly definite character.
Birkeland (19), who has made a special study of magnetic disturbances in the Arctic, proceeding on the hypothesis that they arise from electric currents in the atmosphere, and who has thence attempted to deduce the position and intensity of these currents, asserts that whilst in the case of many storms the data were insufficient, when it was possible to fix the position of the mean line of flow of the hypothetical current relatively to an auroral arc, he invariably found the directions coincident or nearly so.
The mean height calculated at Arctic stations, where careful observations have been made, in this or analogous ways, has varied from 58 km.
If the Godthaab observations can be trusted, auroral discharges must often occur within a few miles of the earth's surface in Arctic regions.
Such extremely bright auroras seem very rare, however, even in the Arctic. There is a general tendency for both bands and rays to appear brightest at their lowest parts; arcs seldom appear as bright at their summits as nearer the horizon.
Thus the differences in the wave-lengths of presumably the same lines as measured by different Arctic observers may be only partly due to unfavourable observational conditions.
It is thus to the Arctic one looks for evidence.
Several Arctic observers,however,especially Paulsen (18) have observed a diminution of positive potential, or even a change to negative, for which they could suggest no explanation except the presence of a bright aurora.
Other Arctic observers have failed to find any trace of this phenomenon.
Artificial Phenomena resembling Aurora.-At Sodankyla, the station occupied by the Finnish Arctic Expedition of 1882-1883, Selim Lemstrom and Biese (23) described and gave drawings of optical phenomena which they believed to be artificially produced aurora.
BARENTS SEA, that part of the Arctic Ocean which is demarcated by the north coast of Europe, the islands of Novaya Zemlya, Franz Josef Land and Spitsbergen, and smaller intervening islands; it was named after the Dutch navigator.
It is unstratified; but by the action of water on it, stratified deposits have been formed, some of clay, containing remains of arctic animals, some, and very extensive ones, of sand and gravel.
Various attempts were also made to improve trade and industry by abolishing the still remaining privileges of the Hanseatic towns, by promoting a wholesale immigration of skilful and well-to-do Dutch traders and handicraftsmen into Denmark under most favourable conditions, by opening up the rich fisheries of the Arctic seas, and by establishing joint-stock chartered companies both in the East and the West Indies.
FRANZ JOSEF LAND, an arctic archipelago lying E.
Jackson, A Thousand Days in the Arctic (1899).
BAFFIN BAY and BAFFIN LAND an arctic sea and an insular tract named after the explorer William Baffin.
Kjellman, The Algae of the Arctic Sea (Stockholm, 1883); F.
This family contains numerous species, having a wide geographical distribution, ranging in the New World from the Arctic circle as far south as Patagonia, and in the Old World throughout the whole of Europe and Asia, but absent in Africa south of the Sahara, and, of course, Australasia.
The Bovidae form a most extensive family, with members widely distributed throughout the Old World, with the exception of the Australian region; but in America they are less numerous, and confined to the Arctic and northern temperate regions, no species being indigenous either to South or Central America.
from arctic America to Patagonia and the Falkland Isles.
angustifolium, an arctic and temperate North American species, is also native in Galway and Kerry in Ireland.
The Pliocene deposits contain a mollusc fauna more arctic than that which exists at the present time, indicating probably that the connexion between the Pacific and Arctic Oceans was broader than it is now.
Reindeer, or caribou, constitute the genus Rangifer, and are large clumsily built deer, inhabiting the sub-Arctic and Arctic regions of both hemispheres.
The warm winds which sweep up the Mississippi Valley from the Gulf of Mexico are responsible for the extremes of heat, and the Arctic winds of the north, which find no mountain range to break their strength, cause the extremes of cold.
Of course this would be true had Thule been situated under the Arctic Circle, which Pytheas evidently considered it to be, and his skill as an astronomer would lead him to accept as a fact what he knew must be true at some point as a voyager proceeded onwards.
It is cosmopolitan in distribution, but the majority of the species are confined to the temperate and colder parts of the northern hemisphere and many are arctic or alpine.
William Barents is honourably known as the leader of three of these arctic expeditions, in the last of which he perished.
1910 with the avowed intention of carrying out oceanographical work in the South Atlantic and of proceeding round Cape Horn to Bering Strait, where he proposed to repeat Nansen's drift across the Arctic sea from a more easterly starting-place.
lat., while in Siberia its range extends to the Arctic Circle; in Norway its upper limit is said to coincide with that of the pine; trees exist near the western coast having stems 15 ft.
It is an exceedingly scarce bird, and beyond its having an Arctic habitat, little has yet been ascertained about it.
sabinii, is more common, and has been found breeding both in Arctic America and in Siberia, and several examples, chiefly immature birds, have been obtained in the British islands.
The same author postulates an Arctic continent, bordering upon northern Europe, Greenland and North America; an African-Brazilian continent across the present south Atlantic, and a marine communication between Australia and India, where the faunas have much in common.
ARCTIC REGIONS (see 21.938).
which in length and difficulty was one of the most remarkable Arctic journeys on record.
The ambitious Anglo-American Arctic expedition of 1906-7 achieved relatively little real polar work except a journey from March to May 1907 by E.
shores of Arctic Canada.
Several ambitious but ill-equipped Russian expeditions sailed for Arctic regions in 1912, but came to grief and accomplished little or nothing.
Novopashennoi for an hydrographic survey of the Arctic coast of Siberia.
Amundsen pushed his vessel into the pack in order to begin his drift across the Arctic Ocean, but on finding that the current was setting S.
During the last ten years practically all unclaimed Arctic lands have come under the sovereignty of one or other State.
Soon after the outbreak of the World War Russia notified a formal claim to the Arctic islands lying N.
All the islands of the American Arctic Archipelago are claimed by Canada.
Nansen, In Northern Mists (1911), throws new light on the early history of Arctic exploration.
Hulth, " Swedish Arctic and Antarctic Explorations," 1758-1910, K.
Denuch (1911) covers both Arctic and Antarctic.
A useful general " Map of the Arctic Regions " with a list of authorities, appeared in Bull.
Mikkelsen, Lost in the Arctic (1913).
of Naval Service, Ottawa, 1915, 1916, 1917 and 1918; also Report of the Canadian Arctic Expedition 1913-18 (lo vols.
Ottawa, in course of publication); " The Activities of the Canadian Arctic Expedition from 1916-1918," V.
It was, however, never so abundant as its smaller congeners, the so-called common and the arctic tern - two species that are so nearly alike as to be beyond discrimination on the wing by an ordinary observer, and even in the hand require a somewhat close examination?
The former of these has the more southern range, and often affects inland situations, while the latter, though by no means limited to the Arctic circle, is widely distributed over the north and mostly resorts to the sea-coast.
It must suffice here to state that the most certain difference, as it is the most easily recognizable, is to be found in the tarsus, which in the arctic tern is a quarter of an inch shorter than in its kinsman.
2 Linnaeus's diagnosis of his Sterna hirundo points to his having had an " arctic " tern before him; but it is certain that he did not suspect that specific appellation (already used by other writers for the " common " tern) to cover a second species.
Nutritious possibilities are implied in Diastylis rathkii, Kroyer, one of the largest forms, which, though slender and rarely an inch long, in its favourite Arctic waters is found "in incalculable masses, in thousands of specimens" (Stuxberg, 1880).
They burrow in the sands of every shore; they throng the weeds between tide-marks; they ascend all streams; they are found in deep wells, in caverns, in lakes; in Arctic waters they swarm in numbers beyond computation; they find lodgings on crabs, on turtles, on weed-grown buoys; they descend into depths of the ocean down to hundreds or thousands of fathoms; they are found in mountain streams as far above sea-level as some of their congeners live below it.
richardsoni, a name that correctly applies only to whole-coloured examples, for this species too is dimorphic. Even its proper English name 4 is disputable, but it has been frequently called the Arctic gull or Arctic skua, and it is by far the commonest of the genus in Britain, and perhaps throughout the northern hemisphere.
The chief lakes are: Lake Ladoga, of which the northern half belongs to Finland; Saima (three and a half times larger than Lake Leman), whose outlet, the Vuoksen, flows into Lake Ladoga, forming the mighty Imatra rapids, while the lake itself is connected by means of a sluiced canal with the Gulf of Finland; the basins of Pyha-selka, Ori-vesi and Piellis-jarvi; Pajane, surrounded by hundreds of smaller lakes, and the waters of which are discharged into the lower gulf through the Kymmene river; Nasi-jarvi and Pyha-jarvi, whose outflow is the Kumo-elf, flowing into the Gulf of Bothnia; Ulea-trask, discharged by the Ulea into the same gulf; and Enare, belonging to the basin of the Arctic Ocean.
Cambrian, Silurian, Devonian and Carboniferous deposits are found on the coasts of the Gulf of Finland and Lake Ladoga, and also along the coasts of the Arctic Ocean (probably Devonian), and in the Kjolen.
Some Finnish geologists - Sederholm for one - consider it probable that during the Glacial period an Arctic sea (Yoldia sea) covered all southern Finland and also Scania (Sickle) in Sweden, thus connecting the Atlantic Ocean with the Baltic and the White Sea by a broad channel; but no fossils from that sea have been found anywhere in Finland.
The plant is widely distributed in the north temperate zone, extending into the arctic zone.
In the arctic zone they form to% of the flora; they will flourish in soils rich in humus which are too acid to support grasses.
the largest genus of the order, the sedges, is widely distributed in the temperate, alpine and arctic regions of both hemispheres, and is represented by 60 species in Britain.
It discharges its waters northward by Slave river and the Mackenzie system to the Arctic Ocean.
On the other side the White Sea was connected by Lakes Onega and Ladoga with the Gulf of Finland and the Baltic. In the depths of the Baltic and of Lakes Vener and Vetter there actually exist animals which belong to the arctic fauna and are remnants of the ancient ice-sea.
The sea fauna also gradually changed, the arctic species migrating northward and being succeeded by the species existing on the coasts of Sweden.
About one-seventh of the whole country is north of the Arctic Circle.
Of these most are common to arctic lands, or occur as alpine plants in lower latitudes.
The elk, carefully preserved, haunts the lonely forests from the Arctic Circle even to the Smaland highlands.
Among the lower marine animals a few types of arctic origin are found, not only in the Baltic but even in Lakes Vener and Vetter, having remained, and in the case of the lakes survived the change to fresh water, after the disappearance of the connexion with the Arctic seas across the region of the great lakes, the Baltic, and north-east thereof.
The northern railway offers a land route to the Arctic coast of Norway.
At Boden the main line joins a line originally built to connect the iron-mines of Gellivara with the port of Lulea; the system is continued past Gellivara to Narvik on the Ofoten Fjord in Norway, this being far north of the Arctic Circle, and the line the most northerly in the world.
He praises the horses of the Svear and speaks of their great trade in furs of arctic animals which were transferred from merchant to merchant until they reached Rome.
If kept dry it will keep for an indefinite time, and is thus particularly serviceable in arctic or other explorations.
At the greater elevations the species identical with those of Europe become more frequent, and in the alpine regions many plants are found identical with species of the Arctic zone.
The fauna of the Tibetan Himalaya is essentially European or rather that of the northern half of the old continent, which region has by zoologists been termed Palaearctic. Among the characteristic animals may be named the yak, from which is reared a cross breed with the ordinary horned cattle of India, many wild sheep, and two antelopes, as well as the musk-deer; several hares and some burrowing animals, including pikas (Lagomys) and two or three species of marmot; certain arctic forms of carnivora - fox, wolf, lynx, ounce, marten and ermine; also wild asses.
The treaty gave to Portugal all lands which might be discovered east of a straight line drawn from the Arctic Pole to the Antarctic, at a distance of 370 leagues west of Cape Verde.
NOVAYA ZEMLYA (Nova Zembla, " new land"), an Arctic land off the coast of European Russia, to which it belongs, consisting of two large islands separated by a narrow winding channel, the Matochkin Shar.
above the sea) Novaya Zemlya, like the whole of the arctic coast of Russia, was submerged for several hundred feet.
Of Phanerogams, only the Dryas octopetala covers small areas of the debris, interspersed with isolated Cochlearia, &c., and, where a layer of thinner clay has been deposited in sheltered places, the surface is covered with saxifrages, &c.; and a carpet of mosses allows the arctic willow (Salix polaris) to develop. Where a thin sheet of humus, fertilized by lemmings, has accumulated, a few flowering plants appear, but even so their brilliant flowers spring direct from the soil, concealing the developed leaflets, while their horizontally spread roots grow out of proportion; only the Salix lanata rises to 7 or 8 in., sending out roots I in.
Kjellmann's researches, to belong to the Asiatic rather than to the European arctic region.
The country possesses every gradation of temperature, from that of the tropical lowlands to the Arctic cold of the snow-capped peaks directly above.
Above this is the region of eternal snow, an Arctic zone within the tropics.
Owing to the diversities in altitude the flora of Bolivia represents every climatic zone, from the scanty Arctic vegetation of the lofty Cordilleras to the luxuriant tropical forests of the Amazon basin.
SPERM -Whale, or Cachalot (Physeter macrocephalus), the largest representative of the toothed whales, its length and bulk being about equal to, or somewhat exceeding those of the Arctic right-whale, from which, however, it is very different has on each side from twenty to twenty-five stout conical teeth,.
Horsens is the birthplace of the navigator Vitus Bering or Behring (1680), the Arctic explorer.
From the end of the 18th century the Russian fur traders had settlements here for the capture of the seal and the sea otter and the blue and the Arctic fox.
by the Arctic Ocean, on the W.
by the Arctic Ocean and Bering Strait, on the S.
The range of latitude from Point Barrow in the Arctic Ocean to Cape Muzon is almost 17 degrees - as great as from New Orleans to Duluth; the range of longitude from Attu Island to the head of Portland Canal is 58 degrees - considerably greater than from New York to San Francisco.
On the Arctic there is a broad coastal plain.
Alaska, which it crosses near the Arctic coast in a broad belt composed of several ranges about 6000 ft.
Finally, between the Rocky Mountains and the Arctic Ocean is the Arctic Slope region, a sloping plain corresponding to the interior plains of the United States.
The Arctic Slope region is divided into the Anuktuvuk Plateau about 80 m.
of 2500 ft., and between the plateau and the Arctic Ocean the Coastal Plain.
or less within the Arctic circle; the summer temperature is quite endurable but the winters are exceedingly rigorous.2 East of the mountains in south-eastern Alaska the atmosphere is dry and bracing, the temperature ranging from -14° to 92° F.
in Bering Sea and the Arctic Ocean, but are much less common than formerly, as are also the walrus, the sea otter and the fur seal.
The red fox is widely distributed, and the white or Arctic fox is very common along the eastern coast of Bering Sea; a blue fox, once wild, is now domesticated on Kodiak and the Aleutians, and on the southern continental coast, and a black fox, very rare, occurs in south-eastern Alaska; the silver fox is very rare.
The willows in the Arctic drainage basin shrink to shrubs scarcely knee-high.
of the Arctic circle, save along Bering Sea; also that there is little doubt of the practicability of successfully cultivating buckwheat, barley and oats, and possibly also rye and wheat; that grasses for grazing grow generally and often in abundance; and in general that the possibilities of interior Alaska as a live-stock country are very considerable.
Alaskan mails leave the states daily, many post-offices are maintained, mail is regularly delivered beyond the Arctic circle, all the more important towns have telegraphic communication with the states,' there is one railway in the interior through Canadian territory from Skagway, and other railways are planned.
But the fauna of the lake is somewhat rich; a species of seal which inhabits its waters, as well as several species of arctic crustaceans, recall its former connexion with the Arctic Ocean.
The sweet water Diatomaceae which are found in great variety in the ooze of the deepest parts of the lake also have an arctic character.
A peculiar method of distribution occurs in some alpine and arctic grasses, which grow under conditions where ripening of the fruit is often uncertain.
Calamagrostis and Deyeuxia are tall, often reed-like grasses, occurring throughout the temperate and arctic zones and upon high mountains in the tropics.
Festuceae (about 83 genera, including tropical, temperate, arctic and alpine forms) many are important meadow-grasses; 15 are British.
is a mountain grass of the northern hemisphere and found also in the Arctic region.
As the colder latitudes are entered the grasses become relatively more numerous, and are the leading family in Arctic and Antarctic regions.
The only countries where the order plays a distinctly subordinate part are some extra-tropical regions of the southern hemisphere, Australia, the Cape, Chili, &c. The proportion of graminaceous species to the whole phanerogamic flora in different countries is found to vary from nearly 4th in the Arctic regions to about 2 nth at the Cape; in the British Isles it is about y2th.
The only genus of flowering plants peculiar to the arctic regions is the beautiful and rare grass Pleuropogon Sabinii, of Melville Island.
Vegetation is scanty, but bears, foxes and other Arctic animals, geese, swans, &c., provide means of livelihood for a few Samoyed hunters.
During the Triassic and Jurassic periods the genus Baiera - no doubt a representative of the Ginkgoales--was widely spread throughout Europe and in other regions; Ginkgo itself occurs abundantly in Mesozoic and Tertiary rocks, and was a common plant in the Arctic regions as elsewhere during the Jurassic and Lower Cretaceous periods.
The unfavourable conditions in Arctic regions have produced a dwarf form, in which the main shoots grow close to the ground.
The chief home of the Coniferales is in the northern hemisphere, where certain species occasionally extend into the Arctic circle and penetrate beyond the northern limit of dicotyledon ous trees.
elevation, which include some of the most fertile and productive areas in Colombia; the temperate districts between 7500 and 10,000 ft., the cold, bleak and inhospitable paramos between 10,000 and 15,000 ft., and above these the arctic wastes of ice and snow.
This bird is a winter visitor to Britain, and its Arctic nesting-places being then unknown, it was fabled to originate within the shell-like fruit of a tree growing by the sea-shore.
They had to content themselves with the Arctic Ocean and Muscovy; and they soon found themselves at war in Philips interests.
Many mammals have a longer hairy coat in winter, which is shed as summer comes on; and some few, which inhabit countries covered in winter with snow, as the Arctic fox, variable hare and ermine, undergo a complete change of colour in the two seasons, being white in winter and grey or brown in summer.
The jerboa group (Dipodidae, or Jaculidae) is also mainly an Old World type, although its aberrant representatives the jumping-mice (Zapus) have effected an entrance into Arctic North America.
The geographical range of each species is generally more or less restricted, usually according to climate, as they are mostly inhabitants either of the Arctic or Antarctic seas and adjacent temperate regions, few being found within the tropics.
It has been suggested that the presence of the remains of these animals indicates a communication to the north with the Arctic Ocean; but in view of the severe climatic conditions still prevailing at the time, this seems an unnecessary assumption.
Between the forests of these stretch numerous peat-mosses, which contain in their spongy reservoirs the sources of many small streams. On the Brocken are found one or two arctic and several alpine, plants.
Of the parks and public gardens, the most extensive is the Queen's Domain, covering an area of about 700 acres, while the most central is Franklin Square, adorned with a statue of Sir John Franklin, the famous Arctic explorer, who was governor of Tasmania from 1837 to 1843.
The Norwegian portion is thus insignificant; of the Russian only a little lies south of the Arctic circle, and the whole is less accessible and more sparsely populated than the Swedish, the southern boundary of which may be taken arbitrarily at about 64° N., though scattered families of Lapps occur much farther south, even in the Hardanger Fjeld in Norway.
The climate is thoroughly Arctic. In the northern parts unbroken daylight in summer and darkness in winter last from two to three months each; and through the greater part of the country the sun does not rise at mid-winter or set at midsummer.
Its extreme northerly point is touched by the Arctic Circle; it lies between 13° 22' and 24° 35' W., and between 63° 12' and 66° 33' N., and has an area of 4 0, 437 sq.
above the existing sea-level, shells have been found which are characteristic of high Arctic latitudes and no longer exist in Iceland; whereas on the lower shore-line, Too to 130 ft., the shells belong to species which occur amongst the coast fauna of the present day.
The south and west coasts are washed by the Gulf Stream, and the north coast by an Arctic current, which frequently brings with it a quantity of drift-ice, and thus exercises a considerable effect upon the climate of the island; sometimes it blocks the north coast in the summer months.
The vegetation presents the characteristics of an Arctic European type, and is tolerably uniform throughout the island, the differences even on the tableland being slight.
It has floras of the plains, the hills and the mountains; an alpine flora, and an arctic flora; a flora of marshes, and a flora of steppes; floras peculiar to the clay, the chalk, the sandstone and the slate formations.
Such engines were made for the "Victory," for Captain (afterwards Sir) John Ross's voyage to the Arctic regions in 1829, but they did not prove satisfactory.
RICHARD WATSON GILDER (1844-1909), American editor and poet, was born in Bordentown, New Jersey, on the 8th of February 1844, a brother of Willia.m Henry Gilder (1838-1900), the Arctic explorer.
This feature of the tale contains some hint of the long nightless summer in the Arctic regions, which perhaps reached the Greeks through the merchants who fetched amber from the Baltic coasts.
The waxes can be classified similarly to the oils and fats as follows: - The table enumerates the most important waxes: - Waxes There are only two liquid waxes known, sperm oil and arctic sperm oil (bottlenose-whale oil), formerly always classed together with the animal oils.
Professor Nathorst has described a remarkable Devonian plant, Pseudobornia ursina (from Bear Island, in the Arctic Ocean), which shows affinity both with the Equisetales and Sphenophyllales.
We may possibly go a step farther, and assume that the climatic conditions under which the Culm plants of the Arctic regions flourished were not very different from those which prevailed in Europe, Asia, Chile and South Australia.
This type occurs in Rhaetic and Lower Jurassic rocks of England, the Arctic regions, Japan and elsewhere.
the Arctic regions, North America, Japan, China, Australia and India.
The considerable variation in the size of the pinnae of Podozamites, as represented by species from the Jurassic rocks in the Arctic regions and various European localities, recalls the variation in length and breadth of the leaves of Agathis.
18 Greenland, and other Arctic lands and G12 G13 Gla G15 G16 G17 Yale University has noticed in some of the Cycadean stems from the Black hills of Dakota and Wyoming that the wood appears to possess a similar structure, differing in its narrower medullary rays from the wood of modern Cycads.
It is unnecessary to trace the variations of the Upper Cretaceous flora from point to point; but the discoveries within the Arctic circle have been so surprising that attention must again be called to them.
4) is found both in the Arctic floras and at Gelinden.
Thus plant-beds in the basalt of Scotland and Ireland were called Miocene; and in the Arctic regions and in North America even plant-beds of Upper Cretaceous age were referred to the same period.
Within the Arctic circle a large number of Tertiary plants have been collected.
These were described by Heer, who referred them to the Miocene period; he recognized, Arctic in fact, two periods during which Angiosperms flourished within the Arctic regions, the one Upper Cretaceous, the other Miocene.
As Mr Starkie Gardner has pointed out, it does not seem reasonable to assume that the same flora could have ranged then through 40° of latitude; it is more probable that an Eocene temperate flora found in the Arctic regions travelled southwards as the climate became cooler, till it became the Miocene temperate flora of central Europe.
At present the evidence is scarcely sufficient to decide the question, for if this view is right, we ought to find within the Arctic circle truly Arctic floras equivalent to the cool Lower Eocene and Miocene periods; but these have not yet been met with.
This is an assemblage that could not well be found under conditions differing greatly from those now holding in Norfolk; there is an absence of both Arctic and south European plants.
This deposit shows no trace of forest-trees, but it is full of remains of Arctic mosses, and of the dwarf willow and birch; in short, it yields the flora now found within the Arctic circle.
The incoming of the Glacial epoch does not appear to have been accompanied by any acclimatization of the plants - the species belonging to temperate Europe were locally exterminated, and Arctic forms took their places.
The same Arctic flora reappears in deposits immediately above the highest Boulder Clay, deposits formed after the ice had passed away.
50°, but has yielded to Professor Nathorst's researches several Arctic species of willow and saxifrage.
We seem to find indications of long-period climatic oscillations in Tertiary times, but none of the sudden invasion of an Arctic flora, like that which occurred during more recent times.
It should not be forgotten, however, that an Arctic flora is mainly distinguishable from a temperate one by its poverty and dwarfed vegetation, its deciduous leaves and small fruits, rather than by the occurrence of any characteristic genera or families.
Careful and long-continued study would therefore be needed before we could say of any extinct dwarfed flora that it included only plants which could withstand Arctic conditions.
by the White Sea and Arctic Ocean, W.
The part which lies within the Arctic Circle is very desolate and sterile, consisting chiefly of sand and reindeer moss.
South of the Arctic Circle the greater part of the country is covered with forests, intermingled with lakes and morasses, though in places there is excellent pasturage.
In prison he pursued the Vedic studies which had already given him a place in oriental scholarship. His elaborate paper on " The Orion, or Researches into the Antiquity of the Vedas," read at the International Congress of Orientalists, London 1892 (published at Poona, 1893), was followed in 1903 by his " Arctic Home in the Vedas " - expounding a theory of extremely remote Aryan origins which has failed to secure the acceptance of other scholars.
It took a fact-finding visit to the Arctic to see for himself the impacts of climate change.
This was keeping the cool, and clean, showery arctic airstream down the W of the UK.
antarctic pole as the Polar Star is to the arctic pole.
Enjoy a walk on the arctic tundra which will give you a sense of the vast scale of Alaska's arctic tundra which will give you a sense of the vast scale of Alaska's arctic regions.
arctic skua flew east.