How to use Arctic in a sentence
His skin was colder than snow, the power radiating off him like an arctic breeze.
It is continuous round the pole and roughly is bounded by the arctic circle.
It took place southwards, for the arctic flora is remarkably uniform, and, as Chodat points out, it shows no evidence of having been recruited from the several mountain floras.
Even in summer the double period is not prominent in the arctic climate of Karasjok or on the top of the Eiffel Tower.
The communication between the Atlantic and Arctic basins being cut off, as already described, at a depth of about 300 fathoms, the temperatures in the Norwegian Sea below that level are essentially Arctic, usually below the freezing-point of fresh water, except where the distribution is modified by the surface circulation.Advertisement
The North Atlantic being altogether cut off from the Arctic regions, and the vertical circulation being active, this movement is here practically non-existent; but in the South Atlantic, where communication with the Southern Ocean is perfectly open, Antarctic water can be traced to the equator and even beyond.
The arctic flora contains no genus that is peculiar to it, and only some fifty species that are so.
The arctic fauna is very poor.
Christ has objected to terming the arctic flora Scandinavian, but the name implies nothing more than that Scandinavia has been its chief centre of preservation.
At the close of the glacial period the alpine floras retreated to the mountains accompanied by an arctic contingent, though doubtless many species of the latter, such as Salix polaris, failed to establish themselves.Advertisement
He was accompanied by John Davis, the great Arctic navigator, as pilot-major.
For purposes of measurement the polar boundaries are taken to be the Arctic and Antarctic circles, although in discussing the configuration and circulation it is impossible to adhere strictly to these limits.
While Europe and probably North America were occupied by a warm temperate flora, tropical types had been driven southward, while the adaptation of others to arctic conditions had become accentuated.
The most important Arctic work in the 18th century was performed by the Russians, for they succeeded in delineating the whole of the northern coast of Siberia.
Along the Murman coast of the Arctic Ocean and in the White Sea, where many millions of herrings are caught annually by some 3000 persons, the yearly produce is estimated at the value of £140,000.Advertisement
It is singular that such closely allied species as the domestic dog and the Arctic fox are among the favourite prey of wolves, and, as is well known, children and even full-grown people are not infrequently the objects of their attack when pressed by hunger.
Flies seem capable of adapting themselves to extremes of cold equally as well as to those of heat, and species belonging to the order are almost invariably included in the collections brought back by members of Arctic expeditions.
Recent offerings include arctic char filets, tea-steamed duck medallions and saffron thread risotto cakes.
The habit of forming mycorhizas is found more frequently in warm climates than cold; indeed, the percentage of the flora exhibiting this peculiarity seems to increase with a certain regularity from the Arctic Circle to the equator.
The glacial period effected in Europe a wholesale extermination of temperate types accompanied by a southern extension of the arctic flora.Advertisement
The Pliocene flora found refuges in favored localities from which at its close the lowlands were restocked while the arctic plants were left behind on the mountains.
There is no reason to suppose that the peculiarities of the arctic flora are more modern than those of any other, though there is no fossil evidence to prove that it was not so.
That the arctic flora was driven south into Central Europe cannot be contested in the face of the evidence collected by Nathorst from deposits connected with the boulderclay.
Aristotle defined the temperate zone as extending from the tropic to the arctic circle, but there is some uncertainty as to the precise meaning he gave to the term " arctic circle."
Thus it consists of the immense plains and flat lands which extend between the plateau formation and the Arctic Ocean, including the series of parallel chains and hilly spurs which skirt the former region on the N.W.Advertisement
The double river-systems of the Volga and Kama, the Ob and Irtysh, the Angara and Yenisei, the Lena and Vitim on the Arctic slope, and the Amur and Sungari on the Pacific slope, are instances.
European plains - the tundras, including the Arctic islands, the forest region, especially the coniferous part of it, and the ante-steppe and steppes of the black earth region.
Still, the reindeer frequents it for its lichens, and on the drier slopes of the moraine deposits there occur four species of lemming, hunted by the Arctic fox (Vulpes lagopus).
A great circle, drawn through East Cape and the southern point of Arabia, passes nearly along the coast-line of the Arctic Ocean, over the Ural Mountains, through the western part of the Caspian, and nearly along the boundary between Persia and Asiatic Turkey.
The portion of Asia which lies between the Arctic Ocean and the mountainous belt bounding Manchuria, Mongolia and Turkestan Siberia.Advertisement
Thus it appears that from the Arctic Ocean there stretches a broad area as far as the south of China, in which no marine deposits of later date than Carboniferous have yet been found, except in the extreme north.
The rainfall, though moderate, is still sufficient to maintain the supply of water in the great rivers that traverse the country to the Arctic Sea, and to support an abundant vegetation.
The vegetation of the higher and therefore cooler and less rainy ranges of the Himalaya has greater uniformity of character along the whole chain, and a closer general approach to European forms is maintained; an increased number of species is actually identical, among these being found, at the greatest elevations, many alpine plants believed to be identical with species of the north Arctic regions.
The Salmonidae are entirely absent from the waters of southern Asia, though they exist in the rivers that flow into the Arctic Ocean and the neighbouring parts of the northern Pacific, extending perhaps to Formosa; and trout, though unknown in Indian rivers, are found beyond the watershed of the Indus, in the streams flowing into the Caspian.
The tree is very widely distributed, growing abundantly on most of the mountain ranges of northern and central Europe; while in Asia it occurs at least as far east as the Lena, and in latitude extends from the Altaic ranges to beyond the Arctic circle.Advertisement
She sailed in June 1853, and passing up Smith Sound at the head of Baffin Bay advanced into the enclosed sea which now bears the name of Kane Basin, thus establishing the Polar route of many future Arctic expeditions.
Between his first and second arctic voyages he made the acquaintance of the Fox family, the spiritualists.
They are essentially coast-fishes, inhabiting nearly all seas, but disappearing towards the Arctic and Antarctic Oceans.
The fauna, explored by Dybowski and Godlewski, and in 1900-2 by Korotnev, is much richer than it was supposed to be, and has quite an original character; but hypotheses as to a direct communication having existed between Lake Baikal and the Arctic Ocean during the Post-Tertiary or Tertiary ages are not proved.
The ordinary musk-rat is one of several species of a genus peculiar to America, where it is distributed in suitable localities in the northern part of the continent, extending from the Atlantic to the Pacific, and from the Rio Grande to the barren grounds bordering the Arctic seas.Advertisement
He entered the navy in 1846, and served first at sea off Portugal in 1847; afterwards, in 1848, in the Mediterranean, and from 1848 to 1851 as midshipman of the "Reynard" in operations against piracy in Chinese waters; as midshipman and mate of the "Serpent" during the Burmese War of 1852-53; as mate of the "Phoenix" in the Arctic Expedition of 1854; as lieutenant of the "Hastings" in the Baltic during the Russian War, taking part in the attack on Sveaborg.
It occurs throughout the greater part of the Arctic regions, the varieties in the old and new world differing slightly in colour.
Their services to their owners and to Arctic explorers are well known, but Eskimo dogs are so rapacious that it is impossible to train them to refrain from attacking sheep, goats or any small domesticated animals.
The united river carrying down the waters of the Athabasca slope is called the Slave river, which, passing through Great Slave Lake, emerges as the great Mackenzie river, which falls into the Arctic Sea.
They have also been found in Pleistocene gravels in several parts of England, as Maidenhead, Bromley, Freshfield near Bath, Barnwood near Gloucester, and in the brick-earth of the Thames valley at Crayford, Kent; while their remains also occur in Arctic America.Advertisement
The southern and south-western coasts have been known, as will be mentioned later, since the 10th century, when Norse settlers appeared there, and the names of many famous arctic explorers have been associated with the exploration of Greenland.
The unusual glaciation of the east coast is evidently owing to the north polar current carrying the ice masses from the north polar basin 4 south-westward along the land, and giving it an entirely arctic climate down to Cape Farewell.
The climate of the east coast is on the whole considerably more arctic than that of the west coast on corresponding latitudes; the land is much more completely snowcovered, and the snow-line goes considerably lower.
We thus see that the American and the European-Asiatic elements of the flora are nearly equivalent; and if the flora of Arctic North America were better known, the number of plants common to America might be still more enlarged.5 In the south, a few goats, sheep, oxen and pigs have been introduced.
The plants are of the usual arctic type, and identical with or allied to those found in Lapland or on the summits of the highest British hills.Advertisement
Russia the Zyrians are still driving the Samoyedes farther N., towards the Arctic coast.
The Ptychoderidae and Spengelidae are predominantly tropical and subtropical, while the Balanoglossidae are predominantly arctic and temperate in their distribution.
They may be traced from the Tian-shan to the Arctic Circle, and have an east-north-easterly direction in lower latitudes and a north-easterly direction farther north.
In the region between Viluisk (on the Vilui) and Yeniseisk a broad belt of alpine tracts, reaching their greatest elevation in the northern Yeniseisk taiga (between the Upper Tunguzka and the Podkamennaya Tunguzka) and continued to the south-west in lower upheavals, separates the elevated plains from the lowlands which extend towards the Arctic Ocean.
The three principal rivers - the Ob, the Yenisei, and the Lena - take their rise on the high plateau or in the alpine regions fringing it, and, after descending from the plateau and piercing the alpine regions, flow for many hundreds of miles across the high plains and lowlands before they reach the Arctic, Ocean.
The coast-line of Siberia is very extensive both on the Arctic Ocean and on the Pacific. The former ocean is ice-bound for at least ten months out of twelve; and, though Nordenskjold and Captain Wiggins demonstrated (1874-1900) the possibility of navigation along its shores, it is exceedingly is s.
The extensive lowlands which stretch over more than one half of the area, as well as the elevated plains, lie open to the Arctic Ocean.
North of this zone the rainfall decreases towards the Arctic.
Engler's Versuch einer Entwickelungsgeschichte der Pflanzenwelt (Leipzig, 1879-1882), we should have in Siberia (a) the arctic region; (b) the sub-arctic or coniferous region - north Siberian province; (c) the Central-Asian domain - Altai and Daurian mountainous regions; and (d) the east Chinese, intruding into the basin of the Amur.
As in European Russia, so in Siberia, three principal zones - the arctic, the boreal and the middle - may be distinguished, and these may be subdivided into several sub-regions.
On the whole, we may say that the arctic and boreal faunas of Europe extend over Siberia, with a few additional species in the Ural and Baraba region - a number of new species also appearing in East Siberia, some spreading along the high plateau and others along the lower plateau from the steppes of the Gobi.
The reindeer, arctic fox (Canis lagopus), hare, wolf, lemming (Myodes obensis), collar lemming (Cuniculus torquatus) and two species of voles (Arvicolae) are the most common on land.
The Russians, issuing from the middle Urals, have travelled as a broad stream through south Siberia, sending branches to the Altai, to the Ili river in Turkestan and to Minusinsk, as well as down the chief rivers which flow to the Arctic Ocean, the banks of which are studded with villages 15 to 20 m.
Squirrels, bears, foxes, arctic foxes, antelopes and especially deer in spring are the principal objects of the chase.
Although the Arctic Ocean had been reached as early as the first half of the 17th century, the exploration of its coasts by a series of expeditions under Ovtsyn, Minin, Pronchishev, Lasinius and Laptev - whose labours constitute a brilliant page in the annals of geographical discovery - was begun only in the 18th century (1735-1739).
Tofieldia, an arctic and alpine genus of small herbs with a slender scape springing from a tuft of narrow ensiform leaves and bearing a raceme of small green flowers; Narthecium (bog-asphodel), herbs with a habit similar to Tofieldia, but with larger golden-yellow flowers; and Colchicum, a genus with about 30 species including b the meadow saffron or autumn crocus (C. autumnale).
Arctic foxes feed largely on sea-birds and lemmings, laying up hidden stores of the last-named rodents for winter use.
The retention by women in Europe of the tropical garb can be explained by the fact that her sphere has been mainly confined to the house, and her life has been less active than that of man; consequently the adoption of the arctic dress has been in her case less necessary.
It is a port of call for ships trading with the north of Europe as well as for vessels outward bound to the Arctic regions, Hudson Bay and Canada.
The blackbird is found in every country of Europe, even breeding - although rarely - beyond the arctic circle, and in eastern Asia as well as in North Africa and the Atlantic islands.
The sea is connected with the Arctic Ocean northward by Bering Strait, at the narrowest part of which East Cape (Deshnev) in Asia approaches within about 56 m.
Even within the Arctic Circle they are in many localities abundant and excessively bloodthirsty during the short summer.
Thus in the recently discovered arctic genus Prosorhynchus the muscular and glandular extremity is protrusible, but in the allied Gasterostomum this organ is represented by a sucker with fimbriated or tentacular margins.
Three species of bears are scientifically recognized, but one of them, the ice-bear (Ursus maritimus), is only an accidental visitor, carried down by the Arctic current.
The ascent of the Sadlen or the Tyven in the neighbourhood is usually undertaken by travellers for the view of the barren, snow-clad Arctic landscape, the bluff indented coast, and the vast expanse of the Arctic Ocean.
Besides these variations in the number of ridges or plates of which each tooth is composed, the thickness of the enamel varies so much as to have given rise to a distinction between a " thick-plated " and a " thin-plated " variety - the latter being most prevalent among specimens from the Arctic regions.
Izerbacea and arctic species generally, to 1 oo ft., and occurring most abundantly in cold or temperate climates in both hemispheres, and generally in moist situations; a few species occur in the tropical and sub-tropical portions of the three great continents.
Fertilization is effected by insects, especially by bees, which are directed in their search by the colour and fragrance of the flowers; but some pollen must also be transported by the wind to the female flowers, especially in arctic species which, in spite of the poverty of insect life, set abundant fruit.
A committee of the Royal Geographical Society - the deliberations of which were interrupted by the departure on his last voyage of Sir John Franklin, one of the members - suggested these meridians as boundaries; the north and south boundaries of the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans being the polar circles, leaving an Arctic and an Antarctic Ocean to complete the hydrosphere.
It has been found more convenient to take as northern boundaries the narrowest part of the straits near the Arctic circle, Bering Strait on the Pacific side, and on the Atlantic side the narrowest part of Davis Strait, and of Denmark Strait, then the shortest line from Iceland to the Faeroes, thence to the most northerly island of the Shetlands and thence to Cape Statland in Norway.
Some authors include the Arctic Sea in the Atlantic Ocean, and some prefer to consider the southern part of the Atlantic, Indian and Pacific Oceans as a Great Southern Ocean.
Four great intercontinental enclosed seas are included between adjacent continents - the Arctic Sea, the Central American or West Indian Sea, the Australo-Asiatic or Malay Sea and the Mediterranean Sea.
The greatest of the intercontinental seas, the Arctic, comes nearest to oceanic conditions in the extent and depth of its depressions.
The ridge across Denmark Strait west of Iceland nowhere exceeds 300 fathoms in depth, so that the deeper water of the North Polar Basin is effectively separated from that of the Atlantic. A third small basin occupies Baffin Bay and contains a maximum depth of 1050 fathoms. Depths of from loo to 300 fathoms are not uncommon amongst the channels of the Arctic Archipelago north of North America, and Bering Strait, through which the surface water of the Arctic Sea meets that of the Pacific, is only 28 fathoms deep.
The Arctic Sea presents a great contrast between the salinity of the surface of the ice-free Norwegian Sea with 35 to 35.4 and that of the Central Polar Basin, which is dominated by river water and melted ice, and has a salinity less than 25 per mille in most parts.
Where the evaporation is at a minimum, the inflow of rivers from a large continental area and the precipitation from the atmosphere at a maximum, there is necessarily the greatest dilution of the sea-water, the Baltic and the Arctic Sea being conspicuous examples.
As the Arctic Basin is shut off from the North Atlantic by ridges rising to within 300 fathoms of the surface and from the Pacific by the shallow shelf of the Bering Sea, and as the ice-laden East Greenland and Labrador currents consist of fresh surface water which cannot appreciably influence the underlying mass, the Arctic region has no practical effect upon the bottom temperature of the three great oceans, which is entirely dominated by the influence of the Antarctic. The existence of deep-lying and extensive rises or ridges in high southern latitudes has been indicated by the deep-sea temperature observations of Antarctic expeditions.
In the Arctic and Pacific coast provinces, about Lake Superior, in Virginia and North Carolina, as well as in ruder parts of Mexico and South America, metals were cold-hammered into plates, weapons, rods and wire, ground and polished, fashioned into carved blocks of hard, tenacious stone by pressure or blow, overlaid, cold-welded and plated.
Commencing in the Arctic region, the Eskimo in his kayak, consisting of a framework of driftwood or bone covered with dressed sealskin, could paddle down east Greenland, up the west shore to Smith Sound, along Baffin Land and Labrador, and the shores of Hudson Bay throughout insular Canada and the Alaskan coast, around to Mount St Elias, and for many miles on the eastern shore of Asia.
The Arctic peoples regulated their lives by the long day and night in the year; among the tribes in the arid region the place of sunrise was marked on the horizon for each day; the tropical Indians were not so observant, but they worshipped the sun-god above all.
In the Arctic province the overpowering influence of meteorological phenomena manifested itself both in the doctrine of shades and in their shamanistic practices.
Here and there in the Arctic province remains of old village sites have been examined, and collections brought away by whalers and exploring expeditions.
As a straggler it has occurred within the Arctic Circle (as on the Varanger Fjord in Norway), as well as in Iceland and even Greenland; while it not unfrequently appears in Madeira and the Azores.
Grasses, mosses and Arctic flowering plants are abundant, but there are no trees excepting occasional dwarf willows.
Hunters come in numbers to the Lyakhovs, which must have been long known to Arctic hunters.
Formerly it was the general belief that the herring inhabits the open ocean close to the Arctic Circle, and that it migrates at certain seasons towards the northern coasts of Europe and America.
The polar or white bear (Ursus maritimus), common to the Arctic regions of both hemispheres, is distinguished from the other species by having the soles of the feet covered with close-set hairs, - in adaptation to the wants of the creature, the bear being thereby enabled to walk securely on slippery ice.
It is nearly landlocked to the N., communicating with the Arctic Ocean only by Bering Strait, which is 36 m.
Partly on account of its great extent, and partly because there is no wide opening to the Arctic regions, the normal wind circulation is on the whole less modified in the North Pacific than in the Atlantic, except in the west, where the south-west logy.
This is due not only to its geographical position and its vertical climatic zones, which give it a range from tropical to arctic types, but also to its peculiar combination of humid and arid conditions in which we find an extensive barren table-land interposed between two tropical forested coastal zones.
A native of the Arctic seas, it extends in the western Atlantic as far south as the river St Lawrence, which it ascends for a considerable distance.
Between the two mountain systems extends a great central area of plains, stretching from the Gulf of Mexico northward, far beyond the national boundary, to the Arctic Ocean.
There are numerous outliers of the Silurian north of the United States, even tip to the Arctic regions.
The Onondaga fauna which succeeded appears to have resulted from the commingling of the resident lower Devonian fauna with new emigrants from Europe by way of the Arctic regions.
The distribution of the beds of marine origin shows that the sea crept upon the eastern and southern borders of the continent auring the period, covered the western plains, and formed a great mediterranean sea between the eastern and western lands of the continent, connecting the Gulf of Mexico on the south and the Arctic Ocean on the north.
In virtue of these physical characteristics, the air over the land becomes much warmer in summer and much colder in winter than the air over the oceans in corresponding latitudes; hence the seasonal changes of temperature in the central United States are strong; the high temperatures appropriate to the torrid zone advance northward to middle latitudes in summer, and the low temperatures appropriate to the Arctic regions descend almost to middle latitudes in winter.
Fauna.Differences of temperature have produced in North America seven transcontinental life-zones or areas characterized by relative uniformity of both fauna and flora; they are the Arctic, Hudsonian and Canadian, which are divisions of the Boreal Region; the Transition, Upper Austral and Lower Austral, which are divisions of the Austral Region, and the Tropical.
The Arctic, Hudsonian and Canadian enter the United States from the north and the Tropical from the south; but the greater part of the United States is occupied by the Transition, Upper Austral and Lower Austral, and each of these is divided into eastern and western subzones by differences in the amount of moisture.
The Arctic or ArcticAlpine zone covers in the United States only the tops of a few mountains which extend above the limit of trees, such as Mt Katahdin in Maine, Mt Washington and neighboring peaks in the White Mountains of New Hampshire, and the loftier peaks of the Rocky, Cascade and Sierra Nevada Mountains.
The greatly varied Arctic coast line of Canada with its large islands, inlets and channels is too much clogged with ice to be of much practical use, but Hudson Bay, a mediterranean sea 850 m.
The great central area of Canada is drained towards Hudson Bay, but its two largest rivers have separate watersheds, the Mackenzie flowing north-west to the Arctic Ocean and the St Lawrence north-east towards the Atlantic, the one to the south-west and the other to the south-east of the Archean protaxis.
The northern part of Alberta and Saskatchewan and much of northern British Columbia are drained through the Athabasca and Peace rivers, first north-eastwards towards Athabasca Lake, then north through Slave river to Great Slave Lake, and finally north-west through Mackenzie river to the Arctic Ocean.
The divide between the rivers flowing west and those flowing east and north is very sharp in the southern Rocky Mountains, but there are two lakes, the Committee's Punch Bowl and Fortress Lake, right astride of it, sending their waters both east and west; and there is a mountain somewhat south of Fortress Lake whose melting snows drain in three directions into tributaries of the Columbia, the Saskatchewan and the Athabasca, so that they are distributed between the Pacific, the Atlantic (Hudson Bay) and the Arctic Oceans.
It includes Labrador, Ungava and most of Quebec on the east, northern Ontario on the south; and the western boundary runs from Lake-of-the-Woods north-west to the Arctic Ocean near the mouth of Mackenzie river.
When its vast area stretching from the international boundary to beyond the Arctic circle is opened up, it may be expected to prove the counterpart of the great mining region of the Cordillera in the United States to the south.
Leaving out the maritime provinces, southern Ontario, southern Alberta and the Pacific coast region on the one hand, and the Arctic north, particularly near Hudson Bay, on the other, Canada has snowy and severe winters, a very short spring with a sudden rise of temperature, short warm summers, and a delightful autumn with its " Indian summer."
In the lower St Lawrence country and about the Gulf many Arctic and sub-Arctic species are found.
At the higher levels the vegetation becomes more Arctic. Northwards the valleys of the Peace and other rivers differ little from those of Quebec and the northern prairies.
The black bear is also common to most other parts of Canada; the polar bear everywhere along the Arctic littoral.
Mountain and plain and Arctic hares and rabbits are plentiful or scarce in localities, according to seasons or other circumstances.
The wildfowl are, particularly in the west, in great numbers; their breeding-grounds extending from Manitoba and the western prairies up to Hudson Bay, the barren lands and Arctic coasts.
The islands and other districts within the Arctic circle became a portion of the Dominion only in 1880, when all British possessions in North America, excepting Newfoundland, with its dependency, the Labrador coast, and the Bermuda islands, were annexed to Canada.
Wheat grows as far south as Patagonia, and as far north as the edge of the Arctic Circle; it flourishes throughout Europe, and across the whole of northern Asia and in Japan; it is cultivated in Persia, and raised largely in India, as far south as the Nizam's dominions.
South of the Arctic circle they are, under ordinary circumstances, confined to the plateaus covered with dwarf birch and juniper above the conifer-region, though in Tromso amt and in Finmarken they occur in all suitable localities down to the level of the sea.
Its great elevation causes the climate to be rather arctic than tropical, so that there is no gradual blending of the climates and physical conditions of India and Tibet, such as would tend to promote intercourse between the inhabitants of these neighbouring regions; on the contrary, there are sharp lines of demarcation, in a mountain barrier which is scalable at only a few points, and in the social aspects and conditions of life on either side.
It was also for a long period the chief seat of the Greenland trade, but the Arctic seal and whale fishery is now extinct.
Another nutritious lichen is the " Tripe de Roche " of the arctic regions, consisting of several species of the Gyrophorei, which when boiled is often eaten by the Canadian hunters and Red Indians when pressed by hunger.
In arctic regions lichens form by far the largest portion of the vegetation, occurring everywhere on the ground and on rocks, and fruiting freely; while terrestrial species of Cladonia and Stereocaulon are seen in the greatest luxuriance and abundance spreading over extensive tracts almost to the entire exclusion of other vegetation.
In modern times the name has been applied to a group of races, which includes the Chukchis, Koryaks, Yukaghirs, Ainus, Gilyaks axed Kamchadales, inhabiting the arctic regions of Asia and America.
This relation of the arctic to the alpine flora is all the more remarkable in view of the very important differences between the arctic and alpine climates.
As for the explanation of the community between the alpine and arctic floras, all authorities are agreed that the key to the problem is furnished by the occurrence of the glacial period.
With the return of a milder climate, the so-called northern forms of the present alpine flora were split in two, one portion following close on the northern ice in its gradual retreat to the Arctic, the other following the shrinking glaciers till the plants were able to establish (or re-establish) themselves on the slopes of the Alps.
In any case, however, the migration of these plants to the Alps must for the most part have taken place via the Arctic. The possibility of any extensive east to west migration having taken place direct from the Altai to the Alps seems excluded by the fact that 50 o ho of the arctico-altaic alpine plants are absent from the Caucasus.
A score of species, it is true - not such a number, be it observed, as was formerly supposed - are common to the Alps and Altai, but absent from the Arctic. But the species composing this Altaic element are not so numerous as the arctico-alpine species that are absent from the Altai.
The former connexion between the Arctic and the Alps, which has left such unmistakable traces in the present alpine flora, affords, as regards the fauna also, the only possible explanation of the present geographical distribution of many alpine forms; but it is chiefly among the Invertebrata that we find this collateral testimony to the influence of the glacial period.
In Swedish Lapland, near the Arctic circle, are the great Gellivara, Kirunavara and Luossavara magnetite beds, among the largest in Europe.
Their use was not simply a barbarous expedient to defend man from the rigours of an arctic winter; woven wool alone cannot, in its most perfect form, accomplish this.
The finest furs are obtained from the Arctic and northern regions, and the lower the latitude the less full and silky the fur, till, at the torrid zone, fur gives place to harsh hair without any underwool.
The qualities do not compare with those species found in North America and the Arctic circle.
The white hares, however, of Russia, Siberia and other regions in the Arctic circle are very largely used in the cheaper trade of Europe, America and the British colonies.
This last, together with some of the Mysidae and the species Glyptonotus entomon, exhibits Arctic characteristics, which has suggested the idea of a geologically recent connexion between the Caspian and the Arctic, an idea of which no real proofs have been as yet discovered.
The bulk of its water empties by the Mackenzie river into the Arctic Ocean, but a small portion finds its way by the Ark-i-linik river into Hudson's Bay.
This form is rare except in Arctic regions, where it is sometimes fairly frequent.
Even in the northern hemisphere there are large areas in the Arctic about which little is known.
Very elaborate observations have been made during several Arctic expeditions of the azimuths of the summits of auroral arcs.
Arctic observers, both Danish and British, have repeatedly reported displays of aurora unaccompanied by any special magnetic disturbance.
In the Arctic, auroral displays seem sometimes to be very local, and this may be the explanation.
On the other hand, Arctic observers have reported an apparent connexion of a particularly definite character.
Birkeland (19), who has made a special study of magnetic disturbances in the Arctic, proceeding on the hypothesis that they arise from electric currents in the atmosphere, and who has thence attempted to deduce the position and intensity of these currents, asserts that whilst in the case of many storms the data were insufficient, when it was possible to fix the position of the mean line of flow of the hypothetical current relatively to an auroral arc, he invariably found the directions coincident or nearly so.
The mean height calculated at Arctic stations, where careful observations have been made, in this or analogous ways, has varied from 58 km.
If the Godthaab observations can be trusted, auroral discharges must often occur within a few miles of the earth's surface in Arctic regions.
Such extremely bright auroras seem very rare, however, even in the Arctic. There is a general tendency for both bands and rays to appear brightest at their lowest parts; arcs seldom appear as bright at their summits as nearer the horizon.
Thus the differences in the wave-lengths of presumably the same lines as measured by different Arctic observers may be only partly due to unfavourable observational conditions.
It is thus to the Arctic one looks for evidence.
Several Arctic observers,however,especially Paulsen (18) have observed a diminution of positive potential, or even a change to negative, for which they could suggest no explanation except the presence of a bright aurora.
Other Arctic observers have failed to find any trace of this phenomenon.
Artificial Phenomena resembling Aurora.-At Sodankyla, the station occupied by the Finnish Arctic Expedition of 1882-1883, Selim Lemstrom and Biese (23) described and gave drawings of optical phenomena which they believed to be artificially produced aurora.
It is unstratified; but by the action of water on it, stratified deposits have been formed, some of clay, containing remains of arctic animals, some, and very extensive ones, of sand and gravel.
Various attempts were also made to improve trade and industry by abolishing the still remaining privileges of the Hanseatic towns, by promoting a wholesale immigration of skilful and well-to-do Dutch traders and handicraftsmen into Denmark under most favourable conditions, by opening up the rich fisheries of the Arctic seas, and by establishing joint-stock chartered companies both in the East and the West Indies.
This family contains numerous species, having a wide geographical distribution, ranging in the New World from the Arctic circle as far south as Patagonia, and in the Old World throughout the whole of Europe and Asia, but absent in Africa south of the Sahara, and, of course, Australasia.
The Bovidae form a most extensive family, with members widely distributed throughout the Old World, with the exception of the Australian region; but in America they are less numerous, and confined to the Arctic and northern temperate regions, no species being indigenous either to South or Central America.
The Pliocene deposits contain a mollusc fauna more arctic than that which exists at the present time, indicating probably that the connexion between the Pacific and Arctic Oceans was broader than it is now.
Reindeer, or caribou, constitute the genus Rangifer, and are large clumsily built deer, inhabiting the sub-Arctic and Arctic regions of both hemispheres.
The warm winds which sweep up the Mississippi Valley from the Gulf of Mexico are responsible for the extremes of heat, and the Arctic winds of the north, which find no mountain range to break their strength, cause the extremes of cold.
Of course this would be true had Thule been situated under the Arctic Circle, which Pytheas evidently considered it to be, and his skill as an astronomer would lead him to accept as a fact what he knew must be true at some point as a voyager proceeded onwards.
It is cosmopolitan in distribution, but the majority of the species are confined to the temperate and colder parts of the northern hemisphere and many are arctic or alpine.
William Barents is honourably known as the leader of three of these arctic expeditions, in the last of which he perished.
It is an exceedingly scarce bird, and beyond its having an Arctic habitat, little has yet been ascertained about it.
The same author postulates an Arctic continent, bordering upon northern Europe, Greenland and North America; an African-Brazilian continent across the present south Atlantic, and a marine communication between Australia and India, where the faunas have much in common.
Several ambitious but ill-equipped Russian expeditions sailed for Arctic regions in 1912, but came to grief and accomplished little or nothing.
During the last ten years practically all unclaimed Arctic lands have come under the sovereignty of one or other State.
All the islands of the American Arctic Archipelago are claimed by Canada.
Nansen, In Northern Mists (1911), throws new light on the early history of Arctic exploration.
Denuch (1911) covers both Arctic and Antarctic.
A useful general " Map of the Arctic Regions " with a list of authorities, appeared in Bull.
It was, however, never so abundant as its smaller congeners, the so-called common and the arctic tern - two species that are so nearly alike as to be beyond discrimination on the wing by an ordinary observer, and even in the hand require a somewhat close examination?
The former of these has the more southern range, and often affects inland situations, while the latter, though by no means limited to the Arctic circle, is widely distributed over the north and mostly resorts to the sea-coast.
It must suffice here to state that the most certain difference, as it is the most easily recognizable, is to be found in the tarsus, which in the arctic tern is a quarter of an inch shorter than in its kinsman.
Nutritious possibilities are implied in Diastylis rathkii, Kroyer, one of the largest forms, which, though slender and rarely an inch long, in its favourite Arctic waters is found "in incalculable masses, in thousands of specimens" (Stuxberg, 1880).
They burrow in the sands of every shore; they throng the weeds between tide-marks; they ascend all streams; they are found in deep wells, in caverns, in lakes; in Arctic waters they swarm in numbers beyond computation; they find lodgings on crabs, on turtles, on weed-grown buoys; they descend into depths of the ocean down to hundreds or thousands of fathoms; they are found in mountain streams as far above sea-level as some of their congeners live below it.
Cambrian, Silurian, Devonian and Carboniferous deposits are found on the coasts of the Gulf of Finland and Lake Ladoga, and also along the coasts of the Arctic Ocean (probably Devonian), and in the Kjolen.
Some Finnish geologists - Sederholm for one - consider it probable that during the Glacial period an Arctic sea (Yoldia sea) covered all southern Finland and also Scania (Sickle) in Sweden, thus connecting the Atlantic Ocean with the Baltic and the White Sea by a broad channel; but no fossils from that sea have been found anywhere in Finland.
The plant is widely distributed in the north temperate zone, extending into the arctic zone.
In the arctic zone they form to% of the flora; they will flourish in soils rich in humus which are too acid to support grasses.
It discharges its waters northward by Slave river and the Mackenzie system to the Arctic Ocean.
On the other side the White Sea was connected by Lakes Onega and Ladoga with the Gulf of Finland and the Baltic. In the depths of the Baltic and of Lakes Vener and Vetter there actually exist animals which belong to the arctic fauna and are remnants of the ancient ice-sea.
The sea fauna also gradually changed, the arctic species migrating northward and being succeeded by the species existing on the coasts of Sweden.
About one-seventh of the whole country is north of the Arctic Circle.
Of these most are common to arctic lands, or occur as alpine plants in lower latitudes.
The elk, carefully preserved, haunts the lonely forests from the Arctic Circle even to the Smaland highlands.
Among the lower marine animals a few types of arctic origin are found, not only in the Baltic but even in Lakes Vener and Vetter, having remained, and in the case of the lakes survived the change to fresh water, after the disappearance of the connexion with the Arctic seas across the region of the great lakes, the Baltic, and north-east thereof.
The northern railway offers a land route to the Arctic coast of Norway.
At Boden the main line joins a line originally built to connect the iron-mines of Gellivara with the port of Lulea; the system is continued past Gellivara to Narvik on the Ofoten Fjord in Norway, this being far north of the Arctic Circle, and the line the most northerly in the world.
He praises the horses of the Svear and speaks of their great trade in furs of arctic animals which were transferred from merchant to merchant until they reached Rome.
If kept dry it will keep for an indefinite time, and is thus particularly serviceable in arctic or other explorations.
At the greater elevations the species identical with those of Europe become more frequent, and in the alpine regions many plants are found identical with species of the Arctic zone.
The fauna of the Tibetan Himalaya is essentially European or rather that of the northern half of the old continent, which region has by zoologists been termed Palaearctic. Among the characteristic animals may be named the yak, from which is reared a cross breed with the ordinary horned cattle of India, many wild sheep, and two antelopes, as well as the musk-deer; several hares and some burrowing animals, including pikas (Lagomys) and two or three species of marmot; certain arctic forms of carnivora - fox, wolf, lynx, ounce, marten and ermine; also wild asses.
The treaty gave to Portugal all lands which might be discovered east of a straight line drawn from the Arctic Pole to the Antarctic, at a distance of 370 leagues west of Cape Verde.
Of Phanerogams, only the Dryas octopetala covers small areas of the debris, interspersed with isolated Cochlearia, &c., and, where a layer of thinner clay has been deposited in sheltered places, the surface is covered with saxifrages, &c.; and a carpet of mosses allows the arctic willow (Salix polaris) to develop. Where a thin sheet of humus, fertilized by lemmings, has accumulated, a few flowering plants appear, but even so their brilliant flowers spring direct from the soil, concealing the developed leaflets, while their horizontally spread roots grow out of proportion; only the Salix lanata rises to 7 or 8 in., sending out roots I in.
Kjellmann's researches, to belong to the Asiatic rather than to the European arctic region.
The country possesses every gradation of temperature, from that of the tropical lowlands to the Arctic cold of the snow-capped peaks directly above.
Above this is the region of eternal snow, an Arctic zone within the tropics.
Owing to the diversities in altitude the flora of Bolivia represents every climatic zone, from the scanty Arctic vegetation of the lofty Cordilleras to the luxuriant tropical forests of the Amazon basin.
Horsens is the birthplace of the navigator Vitus Bering or Behring (1680), the Arctic explorer.
From the end of the 18th century the Russian fur traders had settlements here for the capture of the seal and the sea otter and the blue and the Arctic fox.
The range of latitude from Point Barrow in the Arctic Ocean to Cape Muzon is almost 17 degrees - as great as from New Orleans to Duluth; the range of longitude from Attu Island to the head of Portland Canal is 58 degrees - considerably greater than from New York to San Francisco.
On the Arctic there is a broad coastal plain.
Alaska, which it crosses near the Arctic coast in a broad belt composed of several ranges about 6000 ft.
Finally, between the Rocky Mountains and the Arctic Ocean is the Arctic Slope region, a sloping plain corresponding to the interior plains of the United States.
The Arctic Slope region is divided into the Anuktuvuk Plateau about 80 m.
The red fox is widely distributed, and the white or Arctic fox is very common along the eastern coast of Bering Sea; a blue fox, once wild, is now domesticated on Kodiak and the Aleutians, and on the southern continental coast, and a black fox, very rare, occurs in south-eastern Alaska; the silver fox is very rare.
The willows in the Arctic drainage basin shrink to shrubs scarcely knee-high.
Alaskan mails leave the states daily, many post-offices are maintained, mail is regularly delivered beyond the Arctic circle, all the more important towns have telegraphic communication with the states,' there is one railway in the interior through Canadian territory from Skagway, and other railways are planned.
But the fauna of the lake is somewhat rich; a species of seal which inhabits its waters, as well as several species of arctic crustaceans, recall its former connexion with the Arctic Ocean.
The sweet water Diatomaceae which are found in great variety in the ooze of the deepest parts of the lake also have an arctic character.
A peculiar method of distribution occurs in some alpine and arctic grasses, which grow under conditions where ripening of the fruit is often uncertain.
Calamagrostis and Deyeuxia are tall, often reed-like grasses, occurring throughout the temperate and arctic zones and upon high mountains in the tropics.
Festuceae (about 83 genera, including tropical, temperate, arctic and alpine forms) many are important meadow-grasses; 15 are British.
As the colder latitudes are entered the grasses become relatively more numerous, and are the leading family in Arctic and Antarctic regions.
The only countries where the order plays a distinctly subordinate part are some extra-tropical regions of the southern hemisphere, Australia, the Cape, Chili, &c. The proportion of graminaceous species to the whole phanerogamic flora in different countries is found to vary from nearly 4th in the Arctic regions to about 2 nth at the Cape; in the British Isles it is about y2th.
The only genus of flowering plants peculiar to the arctic regions is the beautiful and rare grass Pleuropogon Sabinii, of Melville Island.
Vegetation is scanty, but bears, foxes and other Arctic animals, geese, swans, &c., provide means of livelihood for a few Samoyed hunters.
During the Triassic and Jurassic periods the genus Baiera - no doubt a representative of the Ginkgoales--was widely spread throughout Europe and in other regions; Ginkgo itself occurs abundantly in Mesozoic and Tertiary rocks, and was a common plant in the Arctic regions as elsewhere during the Jurassic and Lower Cretaceous periods.
The unfavourable conditions in Arctic regions have produced a dwarf form, in which the main shoots grow close to the ground.
The chief home of the Coniferales is in the northern hemisphere, where certain species occasionally extend into the Arctic circle and penetrate beyond the northern limit of dicotyledon ous trees.
This bird is a winter visitor to Britain, and its Arctic nesting-places being then unknown, it was fabled to originate within the shell-like fruit of a tree growing by the sea-shore.
They had to content themselves with the Arctic Ocean and Muscovy; and they soon found themselves at war in Philips interests.
Many mammals have a longer hairy coat in winter, which is shed as summer comes on; and some few, which inhabit countries covered in winter with snow, as the Arctic fox, variable hare and ermine, undergo a complete change of colour in the two seasons, being white in winter and grey or brown in summer.
The jerboa group (Dipodidae, or Jaculidae) is also mainly an Old World type, although its aberrant representatives the jumping-mice (Zapus) have effected an entrance into Arctic North America.
The geographical range of each species is generally more or less restricted, usually according to climate, as they are mostly inhabitants either of the Arctic or Antarctic seas and adjacent temperate regions, few being found within the tropics.
It has been suggested that the presence of the remains of these animals indicates a communication to the north with the Arctic Ocean; but in view of the severe climatic conditions still prevailing at the time, this seems an unnecessary assumption.
Between the forests of these stretch numerous peat-mosses, which contain in their spongy reservoirs the sources of many small streams. On the Brocken are found one or two arctic and several alpine, plants.
Of the parks and public gardens, the most extensive is the Queen's Domain, covering an area of about 700 acres, while the most central is Franklin Square, adorned with a statue of Sir John Franklin, the famous Arctic explorer, who was governor of Tasmania from 1837 to 1843.
The climate is thoroughly Arctic. In the northern parts unbroken daylight in summer and darkness in winter last from two to three months each; and through the greater part of the country the sun does not rise at mid-winter or set at midsummer.
The south and west coasts are washed by the Gulf Stream, and the north coast by an Arctic current, which frequently brings with it a quantity of drift-ice, and thus exercises a considerable effect upon the climate of the island; sometimes it blocks the north coast in the summer months.
The vegetation presents the characteristics of an Arctic European type, and is tolerably uniform throughout the island, the differences even on the tableland being slight.
It has floras of the plains, the hills and the mountains; an alpine flora, and an arctic flora; a flora of marshes, and a flora of steppes; floras peculiar to the clay, the chalk, the sandstone and the slate formations.
Such engines were made for the "Victory," for Captain (afterwards Sir) John Ross's voyage to the Arctic regions in 1829, but they did not prove satisfactory.
This feature of the tale contains some hint of the long nightless summer in the Arctic regions, which perhaps reached the Greeks through the merchants who fetched amber from the Baltic coasts.
Professor Nathorst has described a remarkable Devonian plant, Pseudobornia ursina (from Bear Island, in the Arctic Ocean), which shows affinity both with the Equisetales and Sphenophyllales.
We may possibly go a step farther, and assume that the climatic conditions under which the Culm plants of the Arctic regions flourished were not very different from those which prevailed in Europe, Asia, Chile and South Australia.
This type occurs in Rhaetic and Lower Jurassic rocks of England, the Arctic regions, Japan and elsewhere.
The considerable variation in the size of the pinnae of Podozamites, as represented by species from the Jurassic rocks in the Arctic regions and various European localities, recalls the variation in length and breadth of the leaves of Agathis.
It is unnecessary to trace the variations of the Upper Cretaceous flora from point to point; but the discoveries within the Arctic circle have been so surprising that attention must again be called to them.
Thus plant-beds in the basalt of Scotland and Ireland were called Miocene; and in the Arctic regions and in North America even plant-beds of Upper Cretaceous age were referred to the same period.
Within the Arctic circle a large number of Tertiary plants have been collected.
These were described by Heer, who referred them to the Miocene period; he recognized, Arctic in fact, two periods during which Angiosperms flourished within the Arctic regions, the one Upper Cretaceous, the other Miocene.
At present the evidence is scarcely sufficient to decide the question, for if this view is right, we ought to find within the Arctic circle truly Arctic floras equivalent to the cool Lower Eocene and Miocene periods; but these have not yet been met with.
This is an assemblage that could not well be found under conditions differing greatly from those now holding in Norfolk; there is an absence of both Arctic and south European plants.
This deposit shows no trace of forest-trees, but it is full of remains of Arctic mosses, and of the dwarf willow and birch; in short, it yields the flora now found within the Arctic circle.
The incoming of the Glacial epoch does not appear to have been accompanied by any acclimatization of the plants - the species belonging to temperate Europe were locally exterminated, and Arctic forms took their places.
The same Arctic flora reappears in deposits immediately above the highest Boulder Clay, deposits formed after the ice had passed away.
We seem to find indications of long-period climatic oscillations in Tertiary times, but none of the sudden invasion of an Arctic flora, like that which occurred during more recent times.
It should not be forgotten, however, that an Arctic flora is mainly distinguishable from a temperate one by its poverty and dwarfed vegetation, its deciduous leaves and small fruits, rather than by the occurrence of any characteristic genera or families.
Careful and long-continued study would therefore be needed before we could say of any extinct dwarfed flora that it included only plants which could withstand Arctic conditions.
The part which lies within the Arctic Circle is very desolate and sterile, consisting chiefly of sand and reindeer moss.
South of the Arctic Circle the greater part of the country is covered with forests, intermingled with lakes and morasses, though in places there is excellent pasturage.
In prison he pursued the Vedic studies which had already given him a place in oriental scholarship. His elaborate paper on " The Orion, or Researches into the Antiquity of the Vedas," read at the International Congress of Orientalists, London 1892 (published at Poona, 1893), was followed in 1903 by his " Arctic Home in the Vedas " - expounding a theory of extremely remote Aryan origins which has failed to secure the acceptance of other scholars.
It took a fact-finding visit to the Arctic to see for himself the impacts of climate change.
This was keeping the cool, and clean, showery arctic airstream down the W of the UK.
Enjoy a walk on the arctic tundra which will give you a sense of the vast scale of Alaska's arctic tundra which will give you a sense of the vast scale of Alaska's arctic regions.
Between them an ingenious plan, based to some extent on the almost arctic weather conditions, was concocted.
Aurora borealis on the globe lies a few degrees south of here, nearer to the Arctic Circle.
Using the interactive map of Canada the user can view the distribution of the different wetland regions including boreal, mountain and arctic.
The teacher led a brainstorm of words associated with the Arctic.
A genetically distinct form of the Welsh race of arctic char is also found.
The meals will be something special with local specialities such as arctic charr and reindeer meat.
This immensely enjoyable feature documentary follows the male-voice choir of Berlevag, above the Arctic Circle, as they prepare for a Russian tour.
Seals Web Page Bearded Seals are a non-migratory Arctic species that feed on mollusks including clams.
It was, however, the only example of overt commercialism we found in the Arctic.
Juvenile Long-tailed shows barring on the rump and upper tail coverts which juvenile Arctic does not.
In the latter case, chemical ozone depletion in the Arctic would be expected to diminish.
Further on, the maritime heathland was alive with Arctic Terns, Great and Arctic Skuas, all engaged in dramatic aerial dogfights.
The wolves, snowy owls and arctic foxes, buffalo to be found with many others at the Highland Wildlife Park.
The region just south of the Arctic Circle along the eastern frontier is centered round Kuusamo.
This work focuses on temperate glaciers in the Alps, polythermal glaciers in the Arctic, and cold glaciers in Antarctica.
Typical mountain steppe mammals include Altai pika Ochotona alpina, arctic ground squirrel Citellus undulatus and Siberian chipmunk Tamias sibiricus.
In Nuuk, a large igloo is built and turned into an Arctic kitchen serving up fresh wild reindeer steaks and seal soup.
The Arctic, they warn, could already have reached tipping point - the moment beyond which the warming becomes irreversible.
A noted naturalist, he served on Sir John Franklin's arctic expeditions.
Perhaps the most fascinating result of melting permafrost has been the appearance of ancient relics from Arctic peoples.
Arctic Thunder is a frantic arcade racer that is in no way attempting to be a serious game.
I then fitted these in a box under the quarter berth and then rewired the boat with Arctic grade cable.
The strong offshore winds saw to it that the sea produced nothing more than a few lingering Manx shearwaters and an Arctic Skua.
The offshore wind did seawatchers no favors, with 50 Manx Shearwaters and 2 Arctic Skuas the only noteworthy sightings off the Bill.
But the impression left by the arctic silver after a test fit convinced me that the heatsink and core are mating adequately well.
The Russian Arctic has never before been sailed single-handed, and only five fully crewed yachts have made the passage.
Here you also find nesting arctic skua and bonxie (great skua ).
Also a great northern diver and 2 arctic skua flew east.
Ross's plan was to use steamships for the first time in the Arctic.
Arctic Corsair - The Steering Flat At the very stern of the vessel in a lower compartment is the Steering Flat.
Two Arctic Skuas harried terns offshore, which was a bit of a surprise to me.
There are Sandwich, Common and Arctic nesting terns and a thriving colony of common and gray seals.
My office looks over a gravel beach area which is a nesting ground for arctic terns.
Climate change will accelerate uncontrollably; billions of people will die this century and only the Arctic regions will remain tolerable for humans.
For instance, tropical land could become a land of ice, and the Arctic region could become tropical.
However, during these glacial periods it is likely that much of the County resembled the tundra of today's arctic provinces.
Habitat Various, including arctic tundra, open steppes, mountains and forest.
Enjoy a walk on the arctic tundra which will give you a sense of the vast scale of Alaska's arctic regions.
Scotland had long been involved in both Arctic and antarctic whaling.
A truly magical winter wonderland, deep inside the Arctic Circle, this is a place where all your Christmas dreams can come true.
Again, during the winter months pressure is relatively high over North America, Western Eurasia and the Arctic regions; hence vast quantities of air are brought down to the surface, and circulation must be kept up by ascending currents over the ocean.
In the case of the Gulf Stream, which is not much impeded by the land, this descending motion is relatively slight, being perhaps largely due to the greater specific gravity of the water; it ceases to be perceptible beyond about 500 fathoms. On the European-African side the descending movement is more marked, partly because the coast-line is much more irregular and the northward current is deflected against it by the earth's rotation, and partly because of the outflow of salt water from the Mediterranean; here the movement is traceable to at least 1000 fathoms. The northward movement of water across the Norwegian Sea extends down from the surface to the IcelandShetland ridge, where it is sharply cut off; the lower levels of the Norwegian Sea are filled with ice-cold Arctic water, close down to the ridge.
The repetition of the same species in the arctic regions and in the high mountains of the North Temperate region is generally attributed to the exchange which took place during the glacial period.
Beyond this he spoke of a land called Thule, which, if his estimate of the length of the longest day is correct, may have been Shetland, but was possibly Iceland; and from some confused statements as to a sea which could not be sailed through, it has been assumed that Pytheas was the first of the Greeks to obtain direct knowledge of the Arctic regions.
The Dutch emulated the British in the Arctic seas during this period, directing their efforts mainly towards the discovery of a north-east passage round the northern end of Novaya Zemlya; and William Barents or Barendsz (1594-1597) is the most famous name in this connexion, his boat voyage along the coast of Novaya Zemlya after losing his ship and wintering in a high latitude, being one of the most remarkable achievements in polar annals.
Unmistakable traces show that, while during the Glacial period Russia had an arctic flora and fauna, the climate of the Lacustrine period was more genial than it is now, and a dense human population at that time peopled the shores of the numberless lakes.
If we examine the hydrographic basins of the three divisions of Asia thus indicated we find that the northern division, including the drainage falling into the Arctic Sea,the Aralo- Hydro- Caspian depression, or the Mediterranean, embraces an graphs area of about 6,394,500 sq.
The land mammals of Greenland are decidedly more American than European; the musk-ox, the banded lemming (Cuniculus torquatus), the white polar wolf, of which there seems to have been a new invasion recently round the northern part of the country to the east coast, the Eskimo and the dog - probably also the reindeer - have all come from America, while the other land mammals, the polar bear, the polar fox, the Arctic hare, the stoat (Mustela erminea), are perfectly circumpolar forms. The species of seals and whales are, if anything, more American than European, and so to some extent are the fishes.
In the north, where the lichen-covered or ice-shaven rocks do not protrude, the ground is covered with a carpet of mosses, creeping dwarf willows, crow berries and similar plants, while the flowers most common are the andromeda, the yellow poppy, pedicularis, pyrola, &c. besides the flowering mosses; but in South Greenland there is something in the shape of bush, the dwarf birches even rising a few feet in very sheltered places, the willows may grow higher than a man, and the vegetation is less arctic and more abundant.
The foot-gear in the tropics was the sandal, and, passing northward, the moccasin, becoming the long boot in the Arctic. Trousers and the blouse were known only among the Eskimo, and it is difficult to say how much these have been modified by contact.
Possibly the Arctic musk-ox (Ovibos) may be connected with the takin by means of certain extinct ruminants, such as the North American Pleistocene Euceratherium and the European Pliocene Criotherium (see Chamois, Goral, Serow, Rocky Mountain Goat and Takin).
Hooker, Heer) regard the Arctic, and some (e.g.
Characteristic of the high mountainous region are the arctic fox, the glutton and the lemming, whose singular intermittent migrations to the lowlands have a considerable temporary influence on the distribution of beasts and birds of prey.
Toward the Arctic circle, the timber becomes, of course, sparse, low, gnarled and distorted.
These fossil Arctic plants have now been found as far south as Bovey Tracey in Devonshire, where Pengelly and Heer discovered the bear-berry and dwarf birch; London, where also Betula nana occurs; and at Deuben in Saxony, which lies nearly as far south as lat.
The mouth of the Ythan is the best place to see little, arctic, common and sandwich terns and of course Common Eider.
A scattering of common warblers and a few Arctic Terns were also seen.
The strong offshore winds saw to it that the sea produced nothing more than a few lingering Manx Shearwaters and an Arctic Skua.
Here you also find nesting arctic skua and bonxie (great skua).
A sauna followed by an early night ensured an early rise to start our 4 day sledding expedition into the arctic.
The temperature and salinity differences between the deep water in the Arctic and the warmer tropics drive a southward flow of deep water.
Sadly, the original wheel was stolen when the Arctic Corsair was broken into when laid up in Hull Albert Dock.
Ross 's plan was to use steamships for the first time in the Arctic.
The same applies more or less to the loss of ozone in the Arctic stratosphere during winter.
Three of them had fingers or toes amputated and their wounds took months to heal during the dark Arctic winter.
The landscape is diverse, ranging from the Arctic tundra of the north to the great prairies of the central area.
However, during these glacial periods it is likely that much of the County resembled the tundra of today 's arctic provinces.
My uncle served in the Royal Navy on the Arctic convoys and my mother lost a cousin in Normandy.
Scotland had long been involved in both Arctic and Antarctic whaling.
She was the first of a series of the new breed of arctic whaling ships to be launched by the yard.
As of 2005, Live Science revealed that 84 percent of Antarctic glaciers have retreated over the past 50 years, a rate similar to that of the Arctic glaciers.