Architecture Sentence Examples
The architecture was fantastic, but not near as exciting as the ride on a ferry.
Nothing could be more beautiful than the architecture of this ice-palace.
Unlike Chinese art it has a genius for architecture and sculpture rather than painting.
Both countries are rich in works of architecture raised during the time of Norman rule.
Unlike any other buildings in Abyssinia, the castles and palaces of Gondar resemble, with some modifications, the medieval fortresses of Europe, the style of architecture being the result of the presence in the country of numbers of Portuguese.Advertisement
The architecture of the city is not without merit.
In Normandy itself, after the separation from England, architecture becomes French, but it is French of a remarkably good type.
Their architecture in wood, however, was excellent; and the teak forests of their country afforded the finest timber for building and for carving.
What does architecture amount to in the experience of the mass of men?
Arles still possesses many monuments of Roman architecture and art, the most remarkable being the ruins of an amphitheatre (the Arenes), capable of containing 25,000 spectators, which, in the 11th and 12th centuries, was flanked with massive towers, of which three are still standing.Advertisement
A sentimental reformer in architecture, he began at the cornice, not at the foundation.
Within the town the streets are often dark and narrow, and, apart from the cathedral and the hotel de ville, the architecture is of little interest.
Derbyshire is rich in ecclesiastical architecture as a whole.
In truth, owing to its isolated position on the very verge of Italy, and to its close connexion with the East, Venetian architecture was an independent development.
Dentil mouldings, of which examples may still be seen in the remains of the palace of Blachernae at Constantinople, are characteristic of Venetian ornamentation at this period, and remain a permanent feature in Venetian architecture down to the 11th century.Advertisement
History is exemplified in this restaurant's architecture with its brick interior, wooden beams and leather furniture.
The Renaissance had little or no influence on Sardinian architecture and culture.
But the most characteristic features of architecture in the country are shown in the forts and palaces of the chiefs and in their cenotaphs.
After taking orders he went (1770) to Rome, where he obtained the degree of doctor of theology and common law, and devoted himself enthusiastically to the study of the fine arts, especially of architecture and painting.
The question as to whether copper really was first used in Egypt is not yet resolved, and many arguments can be brought against the theory of Egyptian origin and in favour of one in Syria or further north.26 Egypt has also recently been credited with being the inceptor of the whole " megalithic (or heliolithic, as the fashionable word now is) culture " of mankind, from Britain to China and (literally) Peru or at any rate Mexico via the Pacific Isles.27 The theory is that the achievements of the Egyptians in great stone architecture at the time of the pyramid-builders so impressed their contemporaries that they were imitated in the surrounding lands, by the Libyans and Syrians, that the fame of them was carried by the Phoenicians further afield, and that early Arab and Indian traders passed on the megalithic idea to Farther India, and thence to Polynesia and so on so that both the teocalli of Teotihuacan and Stonehenge are ultimately derived through cromlechs and dolmens innumerable from the stone pyramid of Saqqara, built by Imhotep, the architect of King Zoser, about 3100 B.C. (afterwards deified as the patron of science and architecture).Advertisement
The arrival of these texts—as well as Byzantium's own architecture, science, and art—triggered a sensory and intellectual explosion, which became the cultural movement we now call the Renaissance.
All we can reasonably believe is that he gave encouragement to poetry as he had done to architecture and the drama; Onomacritus, the chief of the Orphic succession, and collector of the oracles of Musaeus, was a member of his household.
Puri district is rich in historical remains, from the primitive rock-hewn caves of Buddhism - the earliest relics of Indian architecture - to the medieval sun temple at Kanarak and the shrine of Jagannath.
The French historian of art, Seroux d'Agincourt, 1825, by his copious illustrations, greatly facilitated the study of the architecture of the catacombs and the works of art contained in them.
The other mosques do not merit any particular attention, and in general it may be said that Bagdad architecture is neither distinctive nor imposing.Advertisement
In glaring contrast to the bold and simple forms of the architecture, which belongs to the Doric style, were the bronze and marbles and pictures of the high altar, the masterpiece of the Milanese Giacomo Trezzo, almost ruined by the French in 1808.
In addition to remains of architecture and sculpture, some of them of high merit, there have been found many inscriptions, throwing light on the cures attributed to the god.
The period of his reign was the golden age of Indian architecture.
There are accordingly parts of Siberia, especially among the Raskolniks or Nonconformists, where the north Russian, the Great Russian and the Ukrainian (or southern) types have maintained themselves in their full purity, and only some differences in domestic architecture, in the disposition of their villages and in the language and character of the population remind the traveller that he is in Siberia.
He taught at the lycee Charlemagne in 1853, and in the school of architecture 1865-1871, but his energies were mainly devoted to various scientific missions entrusted to him.
It has, in general, been greatly shortened, and the ordinary sermon of to-day is no longer an elaborate piece of carefully balanced and ornamental literary architecture, but a very simple and brief homily, not occupying the listener for more than some ten minutes in the course of an elaborate service.
The chapel of St Julian, where French Anglican services are held, is of transitional Norman architecture, greatly altered by restoration.
First comes architecture - in the main, symbolic art; then sculpture, the classical art par excellence; they are found, however, in all three forms. Painting and music are the specially romantic arts.
It is one of the oldest as well as one of the most complete examples of Jain architecture known.
Traditional Japanese landscape and architecture are recreated in rich detail.
Kingston House, long the seat of the dukes of Kingston, is a beautiful example of early 17th-century domestic architecture.
Dunkirk is the seat of a sub-prefect; its public institutions include tribunals of first instance and of commerce, a board of trade-arbitrators, an exchange, a branch of the Bank of France and a communal college; and it has a school of drawing, architecture and music, a library and a rich museum of paintings.
The beautiful cloisters on the south side of the cathedral, and the chapter-house beyond them, as well as the old churches of San Saturnino (Gothic) and San Nicolas (Romanesque), are also of interest to the student of architecture.
In 1910 it was renamed and appropriated to the uses of the Royal Scottish Academy of Painting, Sculpture and Architecture, which was instituted in 1826, and incorporated by royal charter in 1838, on the model of the Royal Academy in London.
The choir (restored in 1873 by public subscription) is a fine example of 15th-century architecture, and the Gothic crown surmounting the central tower forms one of the most characteristic features in every view of the city.
The aspect of Siena during these meetings is very characteristic, and the whole festivity bears a medieval stamp in harmony with the architecture and history of the town.
This grand old palace has other attractions besides the beauty of its architecture, for its interior is lined with works of art.
Several styles are represented in its architecture which for the most part is the work of the 11th, 12th and 13th centuries; the eastern apse and the tower date from the reign of Louis XV.
His learning was not drawn from books only; he was also an archaeologist, and frequently went on expeditions in France, always on foot, in the course of which he examined the monuments of architecture and sculpture, as well as the libraries, and collected a number of notes and sketches.
Several of its churches are architecturally interesting, especially the Madonna delle Lacrime (1487) outside the town, the elegant early Renaissance architecture of which resembles that of the Madonna del Calcinaio at Cortona, and most of them (and also the municipal picture gallery) contain paintings by artists of the Umbrian school - notably Lo Spagna, a pupil of Perugino.
Scott in 1874, is of Early English architecture, and has some remains on one of the columns of frescoes of the same period, while the 14th-century paintings in the chancel are in better preservation.
There are interesting remains of medieval architecture in the closely built town with its narrow streets; the beautiful 14thcentury windows of the Palazzo Montalto may be especially noticed, and also the 13th-century Castello Mainace at the southern extremity of the island.
In architecture of the Norman and Gothic periods London must be considered rich, though its richness is poverty 1 1as- when its losses, particularly during the great fire of 1666, tical are recalled.
Ancient architecture in London is principally ecclesiastical.
While the architecture of the City churches, with the exceptions mentioned, is not as a rule remarkable, many are notable for the rich and beautiful woodcarving they contain.
It presents fine examples of Norman architecture; its historical associations are of the highest interest, and its armoury and the regalia of England, which are kept here, attract great numbers of visitors.
Of those associated with ecclesiastical foundations several occur in the course of this article (Section II., Ecclesiastical Architecture, &c.).
The older portions of the city are reminiscent of Dutch colonial days, and some fine specimens of the Dutch and later colonial architecture are still standing.
From the 11 th to the 13th century the old Burman empire was at the height of its power, and to this period belong the splendid remains of architecture at Pagan.
Among others we may mention the Palazzo Vecchio, formerly the seat of the government of the Republic and now the town hall, the Palazzo Riccardi, the residence of the Medici and now the prefecture, the palaces of the Strozzi, Antinori (one of the most perfect specimens of Florentine quattrocento architecture), Corsini, Davanzati, Pitti (the royal palace), 4c. The palace of the Arte della Lana or gild of wool merchants, tastefully and intelligently restored, is the headquarters of the Dante Society.
The principal buildings are the State Capitol, Grecian in architecture, the Federal Building, and the County Court House.
He also designed many of the fine palaces which give Vicenza its individuality; only two of them, the Barbarano and Chiericati palaces (the latter containing the picture gallery), have two orders of architecture, the rest having a heavy rustica basis with only one order above it.
Andrea Palladio (1518-1580) was a native of Vicenza, as was also a contemporary, Vincenzo Scamozzi (1552-1616), who was largely dependent on him, but is better known for his work on architecture (Architettura universale, 1615).
Of the other buildings of Coutances the church of St Pierre, in which Renaissance architecture is mingled with Gothic, and that of St Nicolas, of the 16th and 17th centuries, demand mention.
It is now only remarkable for its architecture.
It is an old-fashioned town with many quaint wooden houses, notable among them the "Northeimhaus," a beautiful specimen of medieval architecture.
Semper, the creators respectively of the parliament house and the museums, are the leaders of the Classical and Renaissance styles which are so strongly represented in Viennese architecture.
Within the township are several noteworthy examples of colonial architecture.
The first published account of the simple camera obscura was discovered by Libri in a translation of the Architecture of v.
Most of the modern buildings have been erected after celebrated prototypes of other countries and eras, so that, as has been said by Moriz Carriere, a walk through Munich affords a picture of the architecture and art of two thousand years.
The architectural style which has been principally followed in the later public buildings, among them the law courts, finished in 1897, the German bank, St Martin's hospital, as well as in numerous private dwellings, is the Italian and French Rococo, or Renaissance, adapted to the traditions of Munich architecture in the 17th and 18th centuries.
The church of Santa Maria Maggiore, built in 1627-1682, is a characteristic specimen of Jesuit architecture; the church of Sant' Antonio Nuovo, built in 1827-1849, is in the Greek style, as also the Greek Orthodox church, built in 1782, which is one of the handsomest Byzantine structures in the whole of Austria.
His chief work is De aquis urbis Romae, in two books, containing a history and description of the water-supply of Rome, including the laws relating to its use and maintenance, and other matters of importance in the history of architecture.
The monotony and lifelessness of this form of architecture are shown in the meaningless way in which details, suited only to the Venetian methods of veneering walls with thin marble slabs, are copied in the solid marbles of Verona.
The domestic architecture of Verona cannot thus be now fairly estimated, and seems monotonous, heavy and uninteresting.
The architecture of Verona, like its sculpture, passed through Lombard, Florentine and Venetian stages.
It was in connection with architecture that the great artisan movement began.
The former palace of the khans, which recalls by its architecture the mosques of Samarkand, is the best building in the town.
He became professor of architecture at Turin, and his most important works were the excavation of Tusculum in 1829 and of the Appian Way in 1848, the results of which he embodied in a number of works published in a costly form by his patroness, the queen of Sardinia.
Titanium is alloyed in small quantities with aluminium for use in naval architecture.
Scientific and practical subjects, such as natural history, architecture, medicine, agriculture, are treated in more elaborate literary style.
Both the forms of the letters and the style of the architecture show that the colonnade cannot date, as Pausanias says, from the time of the Peloponnesian War; Th.
In architecture, the term is used to express the measure of the lower part of the shaft of a column.
In medieval architecture the term is applied on the European continent to that portion of a chancel, which, enclosed with a railing or balustrade in front of the altar, is devoted to the celebration of the Holy Eucharist; this in England is generally known as the presbytery.
With the exception of a satiric comedy, Il Candelajo, all the works of this period are devoted to this logic - De Umbris Idearum, Ars Memoriae, De cornpendiosa architecture et complemento artis Lullii, and Cantus Circaeus.
It was afterwards, with various changes, adopted in all succeeding styles of architecture as a basis of ornamental decoration.
One of the most characteristic features in its architecture is the number of strong loopholed towers attached to the more ancient dwellings.
He is generally regarded as one of the restorers of the ancient style of architecture.
Alberti wrote works on sculpture, Della Statua, and on painting, De Pictura, which are highly esteemed; but his most celebrated treatise is that on architecture, De Re Aedificatoria, which has been translated into Italian, French, Spanish and English.
The old Spanish-Moorish mission architecture has considerably influenced building styles.
Its educational institutions include a lycee, training colleges, a school of mines, an artillery school, schools of music, agriculture, drawing, architecture, &c., and a national school for instruction in brewing and other industries connected with agriculture.
The facade, however, with its two square and somewhat heavy flanking towers dates from the 17th century, and is Greco-Roman in architecture.
Of the Mexican and Central American sculpture and architecture a competent judge says that Yucatan and the southern states of Mexico are not rich in sculptures, apart from architecture; but in the valley of Mexico the human figure, animal forms, fanciful life motives in endless variety, were embodied in masks, yokes, tablets, calendars, cylinders, disks, boxes, vases and ornaments.
Maya architecture is the best remaining index of the art achievements of the American race.
Beyond Colombia are Ecuador and Peru, where, in the widening of the continent, architecture, stone-working, pottery, metallurgy, textiles are again exalted.
Venetian influence is everywhere manifest; the Lion of St Mark is carved over the main gateway and on many public buildings; and among the narrow and steep lanes of the city there are numerous examples of Venetian Gothic or early Renaissance architecture.
The older part of the cathedral, dating from 1430 to 1441, and including the fine north doorway, is Italian Gothic. Giorgio Orsini of Zara, who had studied architecture in Venice and been strongly influenced by the Italian Renascence, carried on the work of construction until his death in 1475.
But it revived, and most of its fine Moslem mosque and fortress architecture, still extant, belongs to the reign of Sultan Kalaun (1282) and the succeeding century, during which Abulfeda describes it as a very strong place.
The northern and oldest portion of the ramparts dates from the 13th century; the single gateway by which they are pierced is on the south and is a good example of the military architecture of the 15th century.
Of the apartments, all of the finest Gothic architecture, the chief are the refectory, divided down the centre by columns and lighted by large embrasured windows, and the knights' hall, a superb chamber, the vaulting of which is supported on three rows of cylindrical pillars.
The church, which rises high above the buildings clustering round it, consists of transepts and four bays of the nave of Romanesque architecture and of a fine choir (1450 - I 521) in the Flamboyant Gothic style with a triforium surmounted by lofty windows.
Ecclesiastical architecture attracted him strongly.
His first book, save for his share in a volume of English verse, was a History of Architecture (1849).
No art interested him except architecture, which he studied throughout his life; and he cared little for literature which was not either historical or political.
It does not possess any remarkable buildings, although it contains several, private as well as public, that are of a quaint and picturesque style of architecture.
Begun by the Countess Matilda of Tuscany in 1099, after the designs of Lanfranc, and consecrated in 1184, the Romanesque cathedral (S Geminiano) is a low but handsome building, with a lofty crypt, under the choir (characteristic of the Tuscan Romanesque architecture), three eastern apses, and a façade still preserving some curious sculptures of the 12th century.
But, while lacking the medieval appearance of Fribourg or Bern, or Sion or Coire, the great number of modern fine buildings in Geneva, hotels, villas, &c., gives it an air of prosperity and comfort that attracts many visitors, though on others modern French architecture produces a blinding glare.
Among other prominent buildings are the Oddfellows' temple (completed 1894), the public library, the art museum (1886), a Jewish synagogue (in Avondale), and the (Jewish) Plum Street temple (1866), Moorish in architecture.
Thibron, the Spartan, persuaded the Magnesians to leave their indefensible and mutinous city in 399 B.C. and build afresh at Leucophrys, an hour distant, noted for its temple of Artemis Leucophryne, which, according to Strabo, surpassed that at Ephesus in the beauty of its architecture, though inferior in size and wealth.
There are many early rock-cut churches in Abyssinia, closely resembling the Coptic. After these, two main types of architecture are found - one basilican, the other native.
Here, facing MaiStreet, stands the city hall, a beautiful example of Colonial architecture, which was designed by Charles Bulfinch, completed in 1796, and until 1879 used as a state capitol; it has subsequently been restored.
The houses of Kulja are almost all clay-built and flat-roofed, and except in the special Chinese quarter in the eastern end of the town only a few public buildings show the influence of Chinese architecture.
All the arts of architecture and horticulture were lavished on Burghley House and Theobalds, which his son exchanged for Hatfield.
Outside them its finest examples of architecture are the churches of Mouzon (13th century) and Vouziers (15th century).
Though partly ruinous, the church of St Titus is a very interesting monument of early Christian architecture, dating from about the 4th century.
While in Greece he made observations which showed that in ancient architecture the use of polychrome was frequent.
In 1834 he was appointed professor of architecture in Dresden, and during fifteen years received many important commissions from the Saxon court.
In 18J3 Semper left London for Zurich on his appointment as professor of architecture, and with a commission to build in that town the polytechnic school and the hospital.
He stands as a leader in the practice of polychrome, since widely diffused, and by his writings and example did much to reinstate the ancient union between architecture, sculpture and painting.
There is evidence to show that the Aztecs adopted the civilization of the Toltecs, including their religion (Quetzalcoatl being a god of the Toltecs and Mayas), calendar and architecture.
The accounts of the palaces of the native kings must be taken with some reserve, from the tendency to use descriptive terms not actually untrue, but which convey erroneous ideas taken from European architecture; thus what are called columns of porphyry and jasper supporting marble balconies might perhaps be better described as piers carrying slabs, while the apartments and terraces must have been more remarkable for number and extent than architectural grandeur, being but low one-storied buildings.
On the other hand, there are features in Central-American architecture which scarcely appear in Mexican.
Attempts to trace the architecture of Central America directly from Old-Woad types have not been successful, while on the other hand its decoration shows proof of original invention, especially in the imitations of woodwork which passed into sculptured ornament when the material became stone instead of wood.
Of earlier buildings, the most distinguished are the Eski Serai, an ancient and half-ruined palace of the sultans; the bazaar of Ali Pasha; and the 16th-century mosque of the sultan Selim II., a magnificent specimen of Turkish architecture.
There is preserved here the Old Hall, a beautiful example of halftimbered architecture.
Educational foundations include the Royal College of Physicians, of Surgeons and of Science; the Royal Irish Academy, with an unequalled collection of national antiquities, including manuscripts and a library; and the Royal Hibernian Academy of painting, sculpture and architecture.
The buildings which he caused to be erected by Bernardo Rossellino in1460-1463form a noble group of early Renaissance architecture round the Piazza del Duomo.
The consequence of all these changes of dynasty was that Ahmedabad became the meeting-place of Hindu, Mahommedan and Jain architecture.
The government palace, which like the cathedral faces upon the plaza mayor, is generally considered one of the finest specimens of Spanish architecture in Mexico.
It is uncertain whether the conventional fleur-de-lis was originally meant to represent the lily or white iris - the flower-de-luce of Shakespeare - or an arrow-head, a spear-head, an amulet fastened on date-palms to ward off the evil eye, &c. In Roman and early Gothic architecture the fleur-de-lis is a frequent sculptured ornament.
After these outrages it was practically rebuilt on a scale of grandeur that made it the most magnificent example of church architecture in the north.
Soon afterwards the sultan died (1219) and was succeeded by his brother, Ala ud-din Kaikobad I., the most powerful and illustrious prince of this branch of the Seljuks, renowned not only for his successful wars but also for his magnificent structures at Konia, Alaja, Sivas and elsewhere, which belong to the best specimens of Saracenic architecture.
The Mole Antonelliana, built by Alessandro Antonelli, is the most important example of modern architecture in Turin.
The same spirit of conservatism is manifest in the architecture of the churches, which are all of the medieval Byzantine type.
The choir is largely constructed of brick, and thus affords an unusually early example of the use of this material in English ecclesiastical architecture.
In the early development of architecture and sculpture Pistoia played a very important part; these arts, as they existed in Tuscany before the time of Niccola Pisano, can perhaps be better studied in Pistoia than anywhere else; nor is the city less rich in the later works produced by the school of sculptors founded by Niccola.
The Palazzo del Commune and the Palazzo Pretorio, once the residence of the podesta, are both fine specimens of 14th-century domestic architecture, in good preservation.
He had now plunged into the study of Bellini and the Venetian school, Fra Angelico and the early Tuscans, and he visited Lucca, Pisa, Florence, Padua, Verona and Venice, passionately devoting himself to architecture, sculpture and painting in each city of north Italy.
In 1853 The Stones of Venice was completed at Herne Hill, and he began a series of Letters and Notes on pictures and architecture.
The Edinburgh Lectures (November 1853) treated Architecture, Turner, and Pre-Raphaelitism.
The date of the erection of the cathedral is probably about 1179; it retains some traces of Norman architecture, and the facade has a fine figured cornice by Bartolommeo da Foggia; the crypt has capitals of the 11th (?) century.
The cathedral, although not ranking among those of the first class, is celebrated for its fine proportions, and is of great interest from the various styles of architecture which it includes.
Saxon architecture owes nearly everything to his initiative, and Bede was one of his pupils.
Around the plaza and elsewhere in the city, however, the Mexican style of architecture has given way to the American.
The plaza itself had been converted from a barren, sandy square into a well-shaded park, through the efforts of the Woman's Board of Trade, an unique institution, which also controls the public library, housed in a brick and stone building (1907) in the Mission style of architecture.
It is, however, impossible to understand the development of church architecture without realizing its intimate connexion with that of the doctrine, organization and ritual of the Christian Church as a religious community, and a brief sketch of this connexion may be given here by way of introduction to the more technical treatment of the subject.
In general it may be said of church architecture, more truly than of any other, that artistically it is " frozen music."
But as a rule, and especially in the great periods of church architecture, their builders were untrammelled by any utilitarian considerations; they built for the glory of God, for their own glory perhaps, in honour of the saints; and their work, where it survives, is (as it were) a petrification of their beliefs and ideals.
This is, of course, more true of the middle ages than of the times that preceded and followed them; the Church under the Roman empire hardly as yet realized the possibilities of " sermons in stones," and took over, with little change, the model of the secular and religious buildings of pagan Rome; the Renaissance, essentially a neo-pagan movement, introduced disturbing factors from outside, and, though developing a style very characteristic of the age that produced it, started that archaeological movement which has tended in modern times to substitute mere imitations of old models for any attempt to express in church architecture the religious spirit of the age.
Of all the mixed motives that went to the evolution of church architecture in the middle ages, this rivalry in ostentation was probably the most fertile in the creation of new forms. A volume might be written on the economic effects of this locking up of vast capital in unproductive buildings.
The Reformation was a fateful epoch in the history of church architecture.
Protestantism has, indeed, produced a distinctive church architecture, i.e.
It would be interesting in this connexion to trace the reverse effect of church architecture upon church doctrine.
Under the hill of Ascension are the remains of a temple, popularly called of Neptune, a very simple Doric structure, which still in its mutilated state presents some peculiarities of architecture.
The church of St Nicholas is a large and handsome structure in various styles of architecture, and consists of nave, chancel and aisles, with a square embattled tower having pinnacles at the angles.
Among numerous buildings of antiquarian interest the first is the ruined keep of the castle, a majestic specimen of Norman architecture, the largest of its kind in England, covering nearly twice the area of the White Tower in London.
In the 16th and 17th centuries, painting replaced architecture as the distinctive art of Andalusia; and many of the foremost Spanish painters, including Velazquez and Murillo, were natives of this province.
Near at hand are the ruins of Cranii, which afford fine examples of Greek military architecture; and at the west side of the harbour there is a curious stream, flowing from the sea, and employed to drive mills before losing itself in caverns inland.
Churches and convents of Byzantine architecture are scattered about the island.
The worship of crosses into which the Spirit or Christ had been inserted by the priest must have satisfied the religious needs of a people who, save in architecture, showed little artistic faculty.
Apart from the peasant class, Castilians have contributed more to the development of Spanish art and literature than the inhabitants of any other region except, perhaps, Andalusia, which claims to be regarded as supreme in architecture and painting.
With the exception of that part used as a mosque, nearly the whole of the ancient temple has fallen into ruins, but the relics are not excelled in beauty of architecture and sculpture by any remains of Hindu art.
Its front is a specimen of the enriched Corinthian architecture, with a projecting pillared portico after the style of the temple of Jupiter Stator at Rome, 264 ft.
Varro probably dealt with the history of art in connexion with architecture, which was included in his Disciplinae.
The buildings of the old town are chiefly of brick, from four to five storeys in height, with flat roofs, and other oriental peculiarities; while in the new town hewn stone is very largely employed, and the architecture is often of a modern English style.
Babila, also restored to its original form, &c., are interesting for their Romanesque architecture.
The choir is painted in perspective (there was no room to build one), the earliest example of this device, which was so frequently used in baroque architecture.
Among the most noteworthy exhibits were those of machinery, of automobiles and bicycles, of agriculture, of transports by sea, of modern art and architecture, of Italian home industries, of the city of Milan; besides which, all the countries exhibiting had their own separate pavilions.
With this object in view, the early improvers of hot-house architecture substituted metal for wood in the construction of the roofs, and for the most part dispensed with back walls; but the conducting power of the metal caused a great irregularity of temperature, which it was found difficult to control; and, notwithstanding the elegance of metallic houses, this circumstance, together with their greater cost, has induced most recent authorities to give the preference to wood.
Very careful and artistic representations of the stupa with its daghoba and interesting rail, pillars and sculptures will be found in Fergusson's Tree and Serpent Worship, and in his History of Indian Architecture (1876).
The minster, dedicated to St Mary the Virgin, illustrates every style of architecture from Norman to Perpendicular.
The state polytechnic school at Delft (1864) for the study of engineering in all its branches, architecture and naval construction, has a nominal course of four years, and confers the degree of " engineer."
Attached to it are schools for the study of architecture, ornamental drawing and modelling.
The plural form Atlantes is the classical term in architecture for the male sculptured figures supporting a superstructure as in the baths at Pompeii, and in the temple at Agrigentum in Sicily.
The parish church, of mixed architecture, including the Norman nave of the old priory church, and containing some of the most beautiful examples of window tracery in England, was restored in 1866, and enlarged by the addition of a south nave in 1879.
The tomb of Ahmad Shah is the only attempt at monumental architecture.
While studying architecture at Giessen he came under the influence of Liebig and was induced to take up chemistry.
Here you find articles in the encyclopedia on topics related to architecture.
Though of small size, and by no means remarkable in point of architecture, it is interesting as the only temple that has come down to us in a good state of preservation of those dedicated to the Egyptian goddess, whose worship became so popular under the Roman Empire.
Neither in materials nor in style does their architecture exceed what might reasonably be expected in a second-rate provincial town; and the same may be said in general of the other public buildings.
The architecture of Pompeii must be regarded as presenting in general a transitional character from the pure Greek style to that of the Roman Empire.
All the three orders of Greek architecture - the Doric, Ionic and Corinthian - are found freely employed in the various edifices of the city, but rarely in strict accordance with the rules of art in their proportions and details; while the private houses naturally exhibit still more deviation and irregularity., In many of these indeed we find varieties in the ornamentation, and even in such leading features as the capitals of the columns, which remind one rather of the vagaries of medieval architecture than of the strict rules of Vitruvius or the regularity of Greek edifices.
He had an intelligent interest in art, and studied ecclesiastical music and architecture.
Like most great bishops of his age he had a passion for architecture.
Wilfrid's is a memorable name in English history, not only because of the large part he played in supplanting the Celtic discipline and in establishing a precedent of appeal to papal authority, but also by reason of his services to architecture and learning.
They have departments of architecture, building, civil engineering, chemistry, metallurgy and, in some cases, anatomy.
In architecture, as in literature, this period was also one of great achievement in Germany.
The Rector's Palace, another noteworthy example of late Romanesque, combined with Venetian Gothic, is one of the masterpieces of Dalmatian architecture.
Jackson, Dalmatia, the Quarnero and Istria (Oxford, 1887), gives the best account of Ragusan architecture and antiquities.
The nave was begun in 1096 and is Romanesque in style; the transept and choir, which contain magnificent stained glass of the Renaissance period, are of Gothic architecture.
The architecture and sculpture of this age have also left some of their most remarkable monuments among the Greek cities of Sicily.
Architecture too advanced, and the Doric style gradually lost somewhat of its ancient massiveness.
Their advance in civilization is shown by their position under the Normans, and above all by their admirable style of architecture '(see' Palermo).
C. I is on the science of architecture generally, and the branches of knowledge with which the trained architect ought to be acquainted, viz.
The name of Vitruvius has been given to several works on modern architecture, such as Campbell, Vitruvius Britannicus (London, 1715-71), a series of illustrations of the chief buildings of the 18th century in England, including many works of the brothers Adam; one of these brothers, William Adam, produced a similar work illustrating the buildings which he had designed for Scotland, under the title of Vitruvius Scoticus (Edinburgh, 1790).
Phene Spiers, Architecture East and West, p. 245 f.), but it is certain that the engraved gems for which there was a demand in the Persian empire were largely the work of Greek artists (Furtwangler, Antike iii.
Certainly, had the Greek colonies in India been active political bodies, we could hardly have failed to find some trace of them, in civic architecture or in inscriptions, by this time.
The stream of Buddhist art which went out eastwards across Asia had its rise in North-West India, and the remains of architecture and sculpture unearthed in this region enable us to trace its development back to pure Greek types.
Many of the fountains are fine specimens of Arab architecture.
What is most to be admired in their style of architecture is its extraordinary freedom from restraint, shown in the wonderful variety of its forms, and the skill in design which has made the most intricate details to harmonize with grand outlines.
The excavation of the rock temple of Abu Simbel and the completion of the great hail of Karnak were his greatest achievements in architecture.
In architecture the prevailing fashion is a return to the style of the first half of the i 7th century, called the Christian IV.
His visits to the country in 1838 and 1840 were followed by an expedition sent by the British government in 1842 to transport to England the valuable monuments now in the British Museum, while Admiral Spratt and Edward Forbes explored the interior, and laid down its physical features on an excellent map. The monuments thus brought to light are among the most interesting of those discovered in Asia Minor, and prove the existence of a distinct native architecture, especially in the rock-cut tombs.
The crypt, discovered in 1726, is part of the Saxon church, and a noteworthy example of architecture of the period.
Among the other wonders of the Alhambra are the Sala de la Justicia (Hall of Justice), the Patio del Mexuar (Court of the Council Chamber), the Patio de Daraxa (Court of the Vestibule), and the Peinador de la Reina (Queen's Robing Room), in which are to be seen the same delicate and beautiful architecture, the same costly and elegant decorations.
By far the most important building in Magdeburg is the cathedral, dedicated to SS Maurice and Catherine, a handsome and massive structure of the 14th century, exhibiting an interesting blending of Romanesque and Gothic architecture.
The same development is looked for in Mycenaean architecture.
The bishoprics erected by him, and his many Lowland abbeys, Holyrood, Melrose, Dryburgh, Kelso, Jedburgh and others, confirmed the freedom of the Scottish church from the claims of the see of York, encouraged the i mprovement of agriculture and endowed the country with beautiful examples of architecture.
He recognized from the first two important disqualifications - his indifference to music and his slight knowledge of architecture.
The architectural details are in some cases unmistakably copied, without intentional modification, from the architecture of Greek temples; others point perhaps to Persian influence, while several - which are perhaps among the early works of this period - show the old freedom and power of employing in new and original ways details partly learned from abroad.
This beautiful specimen of Early English architecture was partly destroyed in 1561, and its lands were granted to the earl of Eglinton and others.
Its business edifices and residences are largely of Dutch architecture, with many storeys and steep roofs.
Morris was at the school three years, but got very little good from it beyond a taste for architecture, fostered by the school library, and an attraction towards the Anglo-Catholic movement.
In the summer of 1856 Street removed to London, and Morris accompanied him, working very hard both in and out of office hours at architecture and painting.
The Gothic architecture of the Strassburg minster became to him the symbol of a national and German ideal, directly antagonistic to the French tastes and the classical and rationalistic atmosphere that prevailed in Leipzig.
In this thinker, who was his senior by five years, Goethe found the master he sought; Herder taught him the significance of Gothic architecture, revealed to him the charm of nature's simplicity, and inspired him with enthusiasm for Shakespeare and the Volkslied.
The tower or church-gate, one of the finest specimens of early Norman architecture in England, and the western gate, a beautiful structure of rich Decorated work, together with ruined walls of considerable extent, are all that remains of the great abbey.
In architecture, the term "corona" is used of that part of a cornice which projects over the bed mould and constitutes the chief protection to the wall from rain; it is always throated, and its soffit rises towards the wall.
The robust, florid and distinctly Roman rendering of the classic, which followed the refined and attenuated treatment associated with the architecture of the brothers Adam, who died in 1792 and 1794, is the last development in England which can be regarded as a national style.
It is chiefly to architecture that metal-work owes its permanent artistic improvement.
It is of good early Greek architecture, earlier than the second temple.
Bearing out the evidence of tradition as well as architecture, the numerous finds of individual objects in terra-cotta figurines, vases, bronzes, engraved stones, &c., point to organized civilized life on this site many generations before Mycenae was built, a fortiori before the life as depicted by Homer flourished - nay, before, as tradition has it, under Proetus the walls of Tiryns were erected.
Villena is a labyrinth of winding alleys, which contain some interesting examples of Moorish domestic architecture.
The ancient architecture of Kashmir, the tope of Manikyala in the Punjab, and many sculptures found in the Peshawar valley, show unmistakable Greek influence.
Brahman astronomy owed much to the Greeks, and what the Buddhists were to the architecture of northern India, that the Greeks were to its sculpture.
He had plundered the temples at Bhilsa in central India, which are admired to the present day as the most interesting examples of Buddhist architecture in the country.
At Delhi also he erected the celebrated peacock throne; but his favourite place of residence was Agra, where his name will ever be associated with the marvel of Indian architecture, the Taj Mahal.
The exterior is simple, but the buildings which surround the main courtyard have high-pitched roofs surmounted by numerous dormer windows with decorated gables, recalling the Flemish style of architecture.
A triangular keep, a chapel, and other remains of a château (13th and 14th centuries) of the counts of Toulouse stand on the rocky pine-clad hill which rises to the north of the town; the chapel, dedicated to St Louis, belongs to the latest period of Romanesque architecture, and contains fine sculptures.
A striking contrast exists between the Moorish quarter, with its tortuous lanes and Oriental architecture, and the modern quarter, with its rectangular streets and wide open squares, frequently bordered with trees and adorned with fountains.
The palace, built by Ahmed Pasha, the last bey of Constantine, between 1830 and 1836, is one of the finest specimens of Moorish architecture of the 19th century.
In the main, its architecture is Gothic, but the choir and the apsidal chapels, with their elaborate interior and exterior decoration, are of Renaissance workmanship. The graceful tower, which rises beside the southern portal to a height of 255 ft., belongs to the early 1 4 th century.
The church of St Etienne, or l'Abbaye-aux-Hommes, in the west of the town, is an important specimen of Romanesque architecture, dating from about 1070, when it was founded by William the Conqueror.
The churches include a Lutheran, an English, in the Norman style of architecture, and a Russian, with beautiful frescoes; while on the Michaelsberg is the Greek chapel, with a gilded dome, which was erected over the tomb of a son of the Rumanian prince Michel Stourdza, who died here in 1863.
Sir Joshua Jebb, who presided over its erection, may fairly claim indeed to be the author and originator of modern prison architecture.
It is worthy of note that prison architecture in the United States misses many of the gloomy features common to such constructions.
Notable is the so-called Deutsches Haus, the ancestral home of the counts of DrechselDeufstetten, a fine specimen of the German renaissance style of wooden architecture.
A country residence belonging to one of the sultans is situated close to Cheribon and is much visited on account of its fantastic architecture.
Enkhuizen, like its neighbour Hoorn, exhibits many interesting examples of domestic architecture dating from the 16th and 17th centuries, when It was an important and flourishing city.
Adjoining the abbey is the parish church of St Nicholas, restored in 1865, a structure of mixed architecture, containing a fine Norman doorway, which is supposed to have been the entrance of the former abbey church.
In Church Street and its vicinity still stand several specimens of the i 7th-century style of architecture of eastern Germany.
It is perhaps the finest piece of elaborate and richly adorned Renaissance architecture in existence, and is the work of a number of different artists.
It had been converted into a Christian church, and hardly anything of its architecture seems to have survived.
The original plan of the city, which was prepared by Major Pierre Charles L'Enfant (1755-1825), under the supervision of President Washington and Thomas Jefferson,' was a masterpiece in landscape architecture and in the main it has been preserved.
The Franciscan monastery and the lower and upper church of St Francis were begun immediately after his canonization in 1228, and completed in 1253, being fine specimens of Gothic architecture.
The Church architecture of the "middle ages," then developed naturally and without a break, through the Byzantine and Romanesque styles, out of the secular and religious architecture of Greece and Rome.
And, with the return of comparatively settled and prosperous conditions, not only architecture but the other arts also blossomed under the influence of what was later stigmatized as the "Gothic" spirit into new and original forms. Down to the Reformation the churches continued to be, as the temples of the ancient world had been, the main centres of the arts; yet the arts were not confined to them, but flourished wherever, as in castles or walled cities, the conditions essential to their development existed.
Apart from the fact that reckoning from the birth of Christ was by no means universal, and consequently the mass of men were ignorant that there was such a thing as the year 1000, one wonders how that most enduring type of architecture, the Romanesque, reached its maturity among men who thought that the earth itself was so soon to "shrivel like a parched scroll."
Principle of Least Resistance.Where more than one system of resistances are alike capable of balancing the same system of loads applied to a given structure, the smallest of those alternative systems, as waS demonstrated by the Rev. Henry Moseley in his Mechanics of Engineering and Architecture, is that which will actually be exerted but are distinguished by an asterisk.
Gothic architecture, which had always flourished feebly on Italian soil, was supplanted by a hybrid Roman style.
The modification of Gothic architecture by pseudo-Roman elements of style was incomplete.
Architecture in Spain, emerging from the Gothic stage, developed an Early Renaissance style of bewildering richness by adopting elements of Arabic and Moorish decoration.
Beginning with the older castles of Touraine, and passing onward to the Tuileries, we trace the passage from the medieval fortress to the modern pleasure-house, and note how architecture obeyed the special demands of that new phenomenon of Renaissance civilization, the court.
Sculpture, on the contrary, in which art, as in architecture, the medieval French had been surpassed by no other people of Europe, was practised with originality and power in the reigns of Henry II.
The decorative sculpture of this epoch, whether combined with architecture or isolated in monumental statuary, ranks for grace and suavity with the best of Sansovino's.
What is called Jacobean architecture marks indeed an Arts, interesting stage in the transition from the Gothic style.
The general type of architecture is Gothic, but the rich details, which are lavished with especial freedom in the interior courts, are usually borrowed from the Renaissance.
There are remains of houses, tombs, &c., of the Roman period, and fine specimens of Romanesque and Gothic architecture in the modern town.
The terraced architecture of the villages is very remarkable.
Architecture has restored many of the larger churches from their disfigurement by partition walls and galleries - though much still remains to be done in this way - and has erected new churches of a style favourable to devotion.
The Frank conquest is represented by the " Crusaders' Tower " at Kolossi, and the church of St Nicholas at Nicosia; and, later, by masterpieces of a French Gothic style, such as the church (mosque) of St Sophia, and other churches at Nicosia; the cathedral (mosque) and others at Famagusta (q.v.), and the monastery at Bella Pais; as well as by domestic architecture at Nicosia; and by forts at Kyrenia, Limasol and elsewhere.
Chamberlayne, Lacrimae nicossienses (Paris, 1894); and C. Enlart's volumes, L' Art gothique et la Renaissance en Chypre (Paris, 1899), deal with medieval architecture.
Cassini (1625-1712) from Italy to superintend, the Academies of Inscriptions and Medals, of Architecture and of Music, the French Academy at Rome, and Academies at Arles, Soissons, Nimes and many other towns, and he reorganized the Academy of Painting and Sculpture which Richelieu had established.
They are built of white marble, and are pre-eminent alike for their beauty and as typical specimens of Jain architecture in India.
The architecture is mixed, and the abbey is a beautiful example of the Norman and Transition styles.
The common material of the characteristic domestic architecture in rural districts is wood, except in Skane, where stone is available and has been used from early times.
But the richest locality as regards ancient ecclesiastical architecture is the island of Gotland (q.v.).
He elaborated a theory of Toltec migrations and considered the prehistoric Mexican to be of Asiatic origin, because of observed similarities to Japanese architecture, Chinese decoration, Malaysian language and Cambodian dress, &c.
The peculiarly national basis, Are, still recognizable in Cyruss architecture at Pasargadae, recedes into insignificance.
All these elements are combined into an organic unity, which achieved the greatest creations that Oriental architecture has found possible.
Views and plans of the abbey building will be found in Dugdale's Monasticon (1655) Stevens's Monasticon (1720); Stukeley, Itinerarium curiosum (1724); Grose, Antiquities (1754); Carter, Ancient Architecture (1800); Storer, Antiq.
In Alemtejo, and still more in Algarve, Arab and Berber types are common; and the influence of these races can everywhere be discerned in the architecture, handicrafts and speech of the peasantry.
The ascription to Wykeham of the invention of the Perpendicular style of medieval architecture is now an abandoned theory.
The architecture of the city until the earthquake and fire of 1906 was very heterogeneous.
A revival of the old Spanish-Moorish " mission " (monastery) style has exercised an increasing influence and is altogether the most pleasing development of Californian architecture.
It is famous for containing the most perfect specimens of Mogul architecture.
Another building of much the same date is the red stone palace generally attributed to Akbar, but probably of an earlier time, which is the finest example of pure Hindu architecture; while the Moti Masjid, or Pearl Mosque, is an equally perfect example of the Mahommedan style.
These are combined in wreaths, scrolls and frets, as exquisite in design as they are beautiful in colour, and relieved by the pure white marble in which they are inlaid, they form the most beautiful and precious style of ornament ever adopted in architecture.
The campanile still preserves portions of its original architecture, but the interior has been modernized.
He studied mathematics, civil and military architecture, and astronomy, and became associate of the Academie des Sciences, professor of geometry, secretary to the Academy of Architecture and fellow of the Royal Society of London.
Lying apart from the system are the Lehrter Bahnhof for Hamburg and Bremen, the Stettiner for Baltic ports, and the Gorlitzer, Anhalter and Potsdamer termini for traffic to the south, of which the last two are fine specimens of railway architecture.
The most remarkable building, considered the grandest masterpiece of architecture in Hungary, is the Gothic cathedral of St Elizabeth.
It was the result of the revival of classic architecture known as Renaissance, but the change had commenced already a century earlier, in the works of Ghiberti and Donatello in sculpture, and of Brunelleschi and Alberti in architecture.
Its cathedral is one of the finest examples of the Romanesque architecture of Apulia, and has escaped damage from later restorations.
Of the twenty-five churches the majority are interesting from their antiquity, their architecture or their associations.
It consists at present of bare and ugly British barracks, among which are scattered exquisite gems of oriental architecture.
The exterior of the palace wall exhibited a system of groups of half columns and stepped recesses, an ornament familiar in Babylonian architecture.
The chief public buildings are the two Dutch Reformed churches, the old church being a good specimen of colonial Dutch architecture, with gables, curves and thatched roof.
Among many medieval buildings, the church of St Ulrich, one of the finest specimens of Romanesque architecture in Germany, and the church of St James, with a magnificent altar screen and interesting tombs and effigies, are particularly noticeable.
A little distance to the west stand the university buildings, the central one being a splendid piece of architecture in the Norman style.
Stretching in a semicircle round the broad campus are the library, the medical building, the biology building and museum, the school of practical science, the geology and chemistry buildings and the convocation hall, their architecture varying very greatly, beauty having been sacrificed to more practical considerations; the magnetic observatory is also in the grounds, but is overshadowed by some of the more recent erections.
It is in the Romanesque style, and accommodates all the civic offices, the board of education, the police and county courts, &c. Many of the churches are worthy examples of good architecture.
Wurzburg is quaintly and irregularly built; many of the houses are interesting specimens of medieval architecture; and the numerous old churches recall the fact that it was long the capital of an ecclesiastical principality.
Even modern architecture, notably in America, reflects the consciousness of change.
This cathedral was begun in the 12th and finished early in the 14th century, and although modified in the 15th after a fire, it remains one of the most remarkable specimens of Gothic architecture in Europe.
The hotel de ville is established in a mansion of Renaissance architecture; a town gateway of the 15th century, surmounted by a belfry, is also of architectural interest.
The older writers have spoken of protoplasm or the cell as being in a sense "manufactured articles"; in the more modern view such a conception is replaced by the statement that protoplasm and the cell have behind them a long historical architecture.
Both ideas, or both modes of expressing what is fundamentally the same idea, have this in common, that life is not a sum of the qualities of the chemical elements contained in protoplasm, but a function first of the peculiar architecture of the mixture, and then of the high complexity of the compounds contained in the mixture.
His theory is in consonance with the interpretation of the structure of protoplasm as having behind it a long historical architecture and leads to the obvious conclusion that if protoplasm be constructed artificially it will be by a series of stages and that the product will be simpler than any of the existing animals or plants.
Castle Peles or Pelesh, the modern palace, named after the hill on which it stands, is of a mixed style of architecture.
But it must be remembered that Leonardo was already full of projects in mechanics, hydraulics, architecture, and military and civil engineering, ardently feeling his way in the work of experimental.
In ecclesiastical architecture Leeds is not rich.
The church of St John, however, is an interesting example of the junction of Gothic traditions with Renaissance tendencies in architecture.
The architecture of Giulio's own house in the town is also good.
But the peculiar fame of the Abbey lies not in its architecture, nor in its connexion with the metropolis alone, but in the fact that it has long been the place of the coronation of sovereigns and the burial-place of many of them and of their greatest subjects.
The hall, converted into a royal chapel by George I., and now housing the museum of the Royal United Service Institution, the buildings of which adjoin it, is a fine specimen of Palladian architecture, and its ceiling is adorned with allegorical paintings by Rubens, restored and rehung in 1907.
As a rule, each is built in a large garden or compound; and although the style of architecture is less imposing than that of the stately residences in Calcutta, it is well suited to the climate, and has a beauty and comfort of its own.
In medieval domestic architecture the county is not rich.
Painting and sculpture, like modern Rumanian architecture, are still in their infancy.
Viviers is an old town with a church of various styles of architecture and several old houses.
It occupies the spot where one of the old town gates was situated, and was built by King Vladislav in that elaborate style of architecture which is known as the style of Vladisla y.
Its cathedral of St Pierre, in some respects the most daring achievement of Gothic architecture, consists only of a transept and choir with apse and seven apse-chapels.
Beneath the choir, which is a fine example of early Gothic architecture, extends a crypt of the 11th century with mural paintings of the 12th century.
Among the minor churches of the town are St Pierre, which has a graceful façade and richly carved doors, St Didier and St Agricol, all three of Gothic architecture.
In 1768 the abbey of St Blasien, with the library and church, was burnt to the ground, and the splendid new church which rose on the ruins of the old (1783) remained until its destruction by fire in 1874, at once a monument of Gerbert's taste in architecture and of his Habsburg sympathies.
The principal buildings are the fine Gothic church of St Peter and St Paul, dating from the r5th century, with two stately towers, a famous organ and a very heavy bell; the Frauen Kirche, erected about the end of the 15th century, and possessing a fine portal and choir in pierced work; the Kloster Kirche, restored in 1868, with handsome choir stalls and a carved altar dating from 1383; and the Roman Catholic church, founded in 1853, in the Roman style of architecture, with beautiful glass windows and oil-paintings.
Gorlitz, next to Breslau, is the largest and most flourishing commercial town of Silesia, and is also regarded as classic ground for the study of German Renaissance architecture.
The buildings erected by Abdur Rahman were pretentious, but unmarked by any originality in design and hardly worthy representation of the beauty and dignity of Mahommedan architecture.
The building was of Doric architecture and lay on a ridge of the hill commanding a fine view of Athens and the Saronic Gulf, near the middle of the limestone part of the island.
The pilgrimage church of the Madonna dei Miracoli, begun in 1498 by Vincenzo dell' Orto, has a dome of rich architecture externally; the campanile dates from 1516, the rest of the church is later.
In the Old Town still remain a few specimens of eighteenth century architecture, including several old-fashioned post-houses, which used to furnish entertainment for travellers starting for the Middle West by way of the old Cumberland Road beginning at Fort Cumberland, and from Baltimore to Fort Cumberland by a much older turnpike.
The regular annual tuition fee is $100, but in medicine, in architecture, and in civil and mechanical engineering it is $150.
He dedicated no small portion of his time to the study of pure mathematics, to investigations in physics and chemistry, and even to anatomy and architecture; and there can be no doubt that this varied learning enhanced considerably the value of many of his judicial decisions.
The Saracenic architecture and Arabic inscriptions of these buildings have often caused them to be taken for works of the ancient ameers.
In architecture, a crescent is a street following the arc of a circle; the name in this sense was first used in the Royal Crescent at Bath.
Architecture and art generally were making rapid strides during this stirring time.
In ecclesiastical architecture his reign represents the early flower of the Decorated order, perhaps the most beautiful of all the developments of English art.
The term is sometimes given incorrectly in architecture to a circular disk carved with a conventional rose, which is found in many early styles, the proper term being rosette.
It is the finest specimen of Byzantine civil architecture left in the city.
In their architecture, the mosques present a striking instance of the influence of the Byzantine style, especially as it appears in St Sophia.
The existence of a school of art, where painting and architecture are taught, is also a sign of new times.
The great monument of early Arabic architecture in Spain, the mosque of Cordova, was built by his predecessors, not by him.
The term was applied in architecture to various forms of ornamentation taking the shape of a scroll, such as the volute of an Ionian capital.
We see here, as in other activities of the age, a determination to acquire technical knowledge, and to apply it directly to the practical issue; just as music was being enriched by new technical knowledge, architecture by modern theories of plans and T-squares (sc. Hippodamus), the handling of soldiers by the new technique of " tactics " and " hoplitics," so citizenship must be analysed afresh, systematized and adapted in relation to modern requirements.
Other distinguished philologists are his successor as head of the Latin school, Bjorn Magnusson Olsen (Researches on Sturlunga, Ari the Wise, The Runes in the Old Icelandic Literature - the last two works in Danish); Finnur Jonsson, professor at the University of Copenhagen (History of the Old Norwegian and Icelandic Literature, in Danish, and excellent editions of many old Icelandic classical works); and Valtyr Guc?mundsson, lecturer at the University of Copenhagen (several works on the old architecture of Scandinavia) and editor of the influential Icelandic literary and political review, Eimre151n (" The Locomotive ").
There are also remains of Greek architecture in various places; but the most interesting buildings are the ancient synagogues, of which some eleven examples are now known.