The architecture was fantastic, but not near as exciting as the ride on a ferry.
Unlike Chinese art it has a genius for architecture and sculpture rather than painting.
Nothing could be more beautiful than the architecture of this ice-palace.
Unlike any other buildings in Abyssinia, the castles and palaces of Gondar resemble, with some modifications, the medieval fortresses of Europe, the style of architecture being the result of the presence in the country of numbers of Portuguese.
Both countries are rich in works of architecture raised during the time of Norman rule.
But a man has no more to do with the style of architecture of his house than a tortoise with that of its shell: nor need the soldier be so idle as to try to paint the precise color of his virtue on his standard.
In Normandy itself, after the separation from England, architecture becomes French, but it is French of a remarkably good type.
The architecture of the city is not without merit.
What does architecture amount to in the experience of the mass of men?
Their architecture in wood, however, was excellent; and the teak forests of their country afforded the finest timber for building and for carving.
Arles still possesses many monuments of Roman architecture and art, the most remarkable being the ruins of an amphitheatre (the Arenes), capable of containing 25,000 spectators, which, in the 11th and 12th centuries, was flanked with massive towers, of which three are still standing.
It would signify somewhat, if, in any earnest sense, he slanted them and daubed it; but the spirit having departed out of the tenant, it is of a piece with constructing his own coffin--the architecture of the grave--and "carpenter" is but another name for "coffin-maker."
A sentimental reformer in architecture, he began at the cornice, not at the foundation.
The arrival of these texts—as well as Byzantium's own architecture, science, and art—triggered a sensory and intellectual explosion, which became the cultural movement we now call the Renaissance.
The Renaissance had little or no influence on Sardinian architecture and culture.
Derbyshire is rich in ecclesiastical architecture as a whole.
The architecture of the department is chiefly displayed in its churches, many of which possess stained glass of the 16th century.
It is feeblest in architecture and strongest in the branches demanding skill and care in a limited compass, such as painting, porcelain and enamel.
They can do without architecture who have no olives nor wines in the cellar.
But it took firm root on Norman soil; it made its way to England at an early stage of its growth, and from that time it went on developing and improving on both sides of the Channel till the artistic revolution came by which, throughout northern Europe, the Romanesque styles gave way to the Gothic. Thus the history of architecture in England during the 11th and 12th centuries is a very different story from the history of the art in Sicily during the same time.
Within the town the streets are often dark and narrow, and, apart from the cathedral and the hotel de ville, the architecture is of little interest.
THOLOS (06Xos), the term given in Greek architecture to a circular building, with or without a peristyle; the earliest examples are those of the beehive tombs at Mycenae and in other parts of Greece, which were covered by domes built in horizontal courses of masonry.
But the most characteristic features of architecture in the country are shown in the forts and palaces of the chiefs and in their cenotaphs.
It should not be by their architecture, but why not even by their power of abstract thought, that nations should seek to commemorate themselves?
Dentil mouldings, of which examples may still be seen in the remains of the palace of Blachernae at Constantinople, are characteristic of Venetian ornamentation at this period, and remain a permanent feature in Venetian architecture down to the 11th century.
The full meaning of the change which had come over Venetian architecture, of the gulf which lies between the early Lombardesque style, so purely characteristic of Venice, and the fully developed classical revival, which now assumed undisputed sway, may best be grasped by comparing the old and the new Procuratie.
After taking orders he went (1770) to Rome, where he obtained the degree of doctor of theology and common law, and devoted himself enthusiastically to the study of the fine arts, especially of architecture and painting.
In truth, owing to its isolated position on the very verge of Italy, and to its close connexion with the East, Venetian architecture was an independent development.
All we can reasonably believe is that he gave encouragement to poetry as he had done to architecture and the drama; Onomacritus, the chief of the Orphic succession, and collector of the oracles of Musaeus, was a member of his household.
Few buildings, at least few buildings raised i n any reasonable style of architecture which makes use of the arched construction, can be less like one another Sicily.
P. Pullan, Byzantine Architecture (London, 1864); G.
The Portuguese were expelled by Fasilidas, but his castle was built, by Indian workmen, under the superintendence of Abyssinians who had learned something of architecture from the Portuguese adventurers, helped possibly by Portuguese still in the country.
Thus, while the institutions of England in the 12th century were English with very considerable Norman modifications, the architecture of England in that century was Norman with a very slight English modification.
The dome is the leading idea or motif in Byzantine ecclesiastical architecture; the domes are placed over square, not circular apartments, and their bases are brought to a circle by means of pendentives.
Being surrounded by its ancient walls, and retaining thirteen out of its original fifty towers, it is, with its predominantly Gothic architecture, a thoroughly medieval town in appearance.
The architecture of S.
For Roman antiquities in Gaul see, beside articles on the modern towns (ARLES, NiMES, ORANGE, &C.), BIBRACTE, ALESIA, ITIUS PORTUS, AQUEDUCT, ARCHITECTURE, AMPHITHEATRE, &C.; for religion see DRUIDISM; for the famous schools of Autun, Lyons, Toulouse, Nimes, Vienne, Marseilles and Narbonne, see J.
The castle of Helmond, built in 1402, is a beautiful specimen of architecture, and among the other buildings of note in the town are the spacious church of St Lambert, the Reformed church and the town hall.
History is exemplified in this restaurant's architecture with its brick interior, wooden beams and leather furniture.
It is still characterized by great splendour; of San indeed, the library of San Marco, built by Jacopo Sansovino in 1536, is justly considered the most sumptuous example of Renaissance architecture in the world.
In Portland's architecture, both public and private, there is much that is excellent; and there are a number of buildings of historic interest.
James was a cultured prince with a taste for music and architecture, but was a weak and incapable king.
He also encouraged architecture, and in particular constructed the beautiful colonnade in the piazza of St Peter's.
Other artists, of whom we know nothing else, such as Antonio Busetto, Antonio Foscolo, Gasparino Rosso, Giacomo da Como, Marco da Legno and others, were called in to help in evolving this masterpiece of decorated architecture, affording us an example of the way in which the ducal palace and other monuments of Venice grew out of the collaboration of numerous nameless artists.
After Longhena's date church architecture in Venice declined upon the dubious taste of baroque; the facades of San Moise and of Santa Maria del Giglio are good specimens of this style.
Venetian Gothic, both ecclesiastical and domestic, shares most of the characteristics of north Italian Gothic generally, though in domestic architecture it displays one peculiarity which we shall presently note.
SPANDRIL, or Spandrel (formerly splaundrel, a word of unknown origin), in architecture, the space between any arch or curved brace and the level label, beams, &c., over the same.
Just outside the south wall is a Roman necropolis, with massive tombs in masonry, and a Christian catacomb, and a little farther south a tomb in two stories, a mixture of Doric and Ionic architecture, belonging probably to the 2nd century B.C., though groundlessly called Dimensions in English feet.
A.) Fleche (French for "arrow"), the term generally used in French architecture for a spire, but more especially employed to designate the timber spire covered with lead, which was erected over the intersection of the roofs over nave and transepts; sometimes these were small and unimportant, but in cathedrals they were occasionally of large dimensions, as in the fleche of Notre-Dame, Paris, where it is nearly ioo ft.
He wrote An Inquiry into the Principles of Beauty in Grecian Architecture (London, 1822), and the Correspondence of the Earl of Aberdeen has been printed privately under the direction of his son, Lord Stanmore.
The delicate creamy Istrian stone, which is now so prominent a feature in Venetian architecture, did not come into common use till after the 11th century, when the Istrian coast became permanently Venetian.
The quaint architecture of the houses, many of which present their curious and handsome gables to the street, gives Stralsund an interesting and old-fashioned appearance.
In its construction an attempt has been made to produce a building suitable for Christian worship whilst the architecture is Moorish in style.
Many of the churches show characteristic Spanish Late Gothic architecture which survived until a comparatively recent period.
Her priestesses were Italian Greeks and her temple was Greek in its architecture and built by Greek artists.
Here are the ruins of a palace of the native khans, built in the 16th century; the mosques of the Persian shahs, built in 1078 and now converted into an arsenal; nearer the sea the "maidens' tower," transformed into a lighthouse; and not far from it remains of ancient walls projecting above the sea, and showing traces of Arabic architecture of the 9th and 10th centuries.
But it is in the domestic architecture of Venice that we find the most striking and characteristic examples of Gothic. The introduction of that style coincided with the consolidation of the Venetian constitution and the Gothic development of Venetian commerce both in the Levant and with England and Flanders.
- Towards the close of the 15th century Venetian architecture began to feel the influence of the classical revival; but, lying far from Rome and retaining still her connexion with the East, Venice did not fall under the sway of the classical ideals either so quickly or so completely as most Italian cities.
The most perfect example of this style in ecclesiastical architecture is the little church of the Miracoli built by Pietro Lombardo in 1480.
The very name consul, no less than the Romanizing character of the best architecture of the time, points to the same revival of antiquity.
No other city in the world offers so many and such striking examples of the ecclesiastical architecture of the centuries from :the 5th to the 8th.
Vitale (for plan see Architecture, sect.
When we come to the fully developed Renaissance, architecture in Venice ceases to possess that peculiarly individual imprint which marks the earlier Library styles.
He went first to Hanover, and afterwards to Cassel to study architecture, for which he seems to have had little inclination.
The architecture of the hydropolyp, simple though it be, furnishes a long series of variations affecting each part of the body.
From northern Italy, as it would seem, they adopted a style of architecture which grew in their hands, both in Normandy and in England, into a marked and living form of art.
QUATREFOIL, in Gothic architecture, the piercing of tracery in a window or balustrade with small semicircular openings known as "foils"; the intersection of these foils is termed the cusp.
Freeman, on account of the Romanesque character of the architecture, thought it probable that it really belongs to the time of the Lombard kings, and his opinion is shared by Ricci and Rivoira, who consider it to be a guardhouse erected by the exarchs, recent explorations having made it clear that it was an addition to the palace, while mosaic pavements and an atrium once surrounded by arcades really belonging to the latter were found in 1870 behind S.
Loring has unique architecture which divides the dining areas into sections, creating cozy private spaces for groups.
In recent times the general prosperity of the city, which is on the ascendant, has brought about a revival of domestic and civic architecture.
In 1777 he became director of a school of architecture at Milan.
Their architecture, drawing, goldsmith's work, carving, music and dancing are all highly developed in strict accordance with the traditions of Indo-Chinese art.
Boston compares favourably with other American cities in the character of its public and private architecture.
It cried Crusade when there was no Crusade; and the long Crusade against the Hohenstaufen, if it gave the papacy an apparent victory, only served in the long run to lower its a It is difficult to decide how far Arabic models influenced ecclesiastical architecture in the West as a result of the Crusades.
De Vogiie, Architecture, &c., Syrie centrale (1865-1877); Zwiedineck v.
While modern research has added considerably to our knowledge of prehistoric Athens, a still greater light has been thrown on the architecture and topography of the city in the earlier historic or " archaic " era, the subsequent age of Athenian greatness, and the period of decadence which set in with the Macedonian conquest; the first extends from the dawn of history to 480-479 B.C., when the city was destroyed by the Persians; the second, or classical, age closes in 322 B.C., when Athens lost its political independence after the Lamian War; the third, or Hellenistic, in 146 B.C., when the state fell under Roman protection.
We are principally concerned, however, with the results which add to our knowledge of the topography and architecture of the Acropolis.
In the lower strata were discovered the remnants of Cyclopean or prehistoric architecture already mentioned.
In the fifty years between the Persian and the Peloponnesian wars architecture and plastic art attained their highest perfection in Athens.
With the loss of political liberty the age of creative genius in Athenian architecture came to a close.
C. Penrose, Principles of Athenian Architecture (London, 1888); J.
Being thus elevated, and extending along the river for some 4 m., the city forms a magnificent panorama of buildings in many varieties of oriental architecture.
But in spite of its fine appearance from the river, the architecture of Benares is not distinguished, nor are its buildings of high antiquity.
in height, its summit being decorated with stalactite vaults, one of the grandest features in Mahommedan architecture, only equalled by the magnificent portals of the mosques in India.
(For views of interior and exterior, see Architecture.) for in the entrance gateway of the Lal Darwaza or Red Gate mosque at Jaunpur, where an arch (of two rings of ogee shape) is carried by a solid wall, built under it, which is pierced with three doorways with bracket-capitals and architraves, returning therefore to trabeated construction.
The mosque at Fatehpur-Sikri possesses in its great southern gateway, built by Akbar in the second half of the 16th century, the masterpiece of IndoSaracenci architecture.
In later days, in the time of the Sargonid kings of Akkad or the monarchs of Ur, stones such is granite, basalt, diorite and dolerite were probably brought from the Sinaitic peninsula, if not from the western desert of Egypt, if the Red Sea coast is to be identified, as seems very probable, with Magan, " the place to which ships went," the land whence the Babylonians got some of their first stones for sculpture and architecture.
The question as to whether copper really was first used in Egypt is not yet resolved, and many arguments can be brought against the theory of Egyptian origin and in favour of one in Syria or further north.26 Egypt has also recently been credited with being the inceptor of the whole " megalithic (or heliolithic, as the fashionable word now is) culture " of mankind, from Britain to China and (literally) Peru or at any rate Mexico via the Pacific Isles.27 The theory is that the achievements of the Egyptians in great stone architecture at the time of the pyramid-builders so impressed their contemporaries that they were imitated in the surrounding lands, by the Libyans and Syrians, that the fame of them was carried by the Phoenicians further afield, and that early Arab and Indian traders passed on the megalithic idea to Farther India, and thence to Polynesia and so on so that both the teocalli of Teotihuacan and Stonehenge are ultimately derived through cromlechs and dolmens innumerable from the stone pyramid of Saqqara, built by Imhotep, the architect of King Zoser, about 3100 B.C. (afterwards deified as the patron of science and architecture).
Puri district is rich in historical remains, from the primitive rock-hewn caves of Buddhism - the earliest relics of Indian architecture - to the medieval sun temple at Kanarak and the shrine of Jagannath.
long, is perhaps the finest example of Dravidian architecture.
The French historian of art, Seroux d'Agincourt, 1825, by his copious illustrations, greatly facilitated the study of the architecture of the catacombs and the works of art contained in them.
With the rebuilding of the choir the whole of the ancient Norman edifice was removed, the only Norman architecture now remaining being the E.
The other mosques do not merit any particular attention, and in general it may be said that Bagdad architecture is neither distinctive nor imposing.
In glaring contrast to the bold and simple forms of the architecture, which belongs to the Doric style, were the bronze and marbles and pictures of the high altar, the masterpiece of the Milanese Giacomo Trezzo, almost ruined by the French in 1808.
Fergusson, History of the Modern Styles of Architecture (London, 1891-1893); Sir W.
251 (reprinted in Clark's Medieval Military Architecture), 5th series, vi.
In addition to remains of architecture and sculpture, some of them of high merit, there have been found many inscriptions, throwing light on the cures attributed to the god.
The period of his reign was the golden age of Indian architecture.
The great sandstone temple is practically complete (see Architecture: Egypt).
There are accordingly parts of Siberia, especially among the Raskolniks or Nonconformists, where the north Russian, the Great Russian and the Ukrainian (or southern) types have maintained themselves in their full purity, and only some differences in domestic architecture, in the disposition of their villages and in the language and character of the population remind the traveller that he is in Siberia.
He taught at the lycee Charlemagne in 1853, and in the school of architecture 1865-1871, but his energies were mainly devoted to various scientific missions entrusted to him.
It has, in general, been greatly shortened, and the ordinary sermon of to-day is no longer an elaborate piece of carefully balanced and ornamental literary architecture, but a very simple and brief homily, not occupying the listener for more than some ten minutes in the course of an elaborate service.
Kingston House, long the seat of the dukes of Kingston, is a beautiful example of early 17th-century domestic architecture.
Dunkirk is the seat of a sub-prefect; its public institutions include tribunals of first instance and of commerce, a board of trade-arbitrators, an exchange, a branch of the Bank of France and a communal college; and it has a school of drawing, architecture and music, a library and a rich museum of paintings.
The beautiful cloisters on the south side of the cathedral, and the chapter-house beyond them, as well as the old churches of San Saturnino (Gothic) and San Nicolas (Romanesque), are also of interest to the student of architecture.
In 1910 it was renamed and appropriated to the uses of the Royal Scottish Academy of Painting, Sculpture and Architecture, which was instituted in 1826, and incorporated by royal charter in 1838, on the model of the Royal Academy in London.
The choir (restored in 1873 by public subscription) is a fine example of 15th-century architecture, and the Gothic crown surmounting the central tower forms one of the most characteristic features in every view of the city.
The aspect of Siena during these meetings is very characteristic, and the whole festivity bears a medieval stamp in harmony with the architecture and history of the town.
The cathedral, one of the finest examples of Italian Gothic architecture, obviously influenced in plan by the abbey of S.
This grand old palace has other attractions besides the beauty of its architecture, for its interior is lined with works of art.
Several styles are represented in its architecture which for the most part is the work of the 11th, 12th and 13th centuries; the eastern apse and the tower date from the reign of Louis XV.
Some relics of old military architecture survive, among them a cylindrical tower of the 15th century near the Porte Notre-Dame, the southern gate of the city, and the Porte Rivotte, a gate of the 16th century, flanked by two round towers.
These hills contain good building stone for ornamental architecture, and in some of them iron ore is abundant.
His learning was not drawn from books only; he was also an archaeologist, and frequently went on expeditions in France, always on foot, in the course of which he examined the monuments of architecture and sculpture, as well as the libraries, and collected a number of notes and sketches.
in 1480 in Gothic style; near it is a chapel (1609) remarkable for its architecture and sculpture.
Several of its churches are architecturally interesting, especially the Madonna delle Lacrime (1487) outside the town, the elegant early Renaissance architecture of which resembles that of the Madonna del Calcinaio at Cortona, and most of them (and also the municipal picture gallery) contain paintings by artists of the Umbrian school - notably Lo Spagna, a pupil of Perugino.
Scott in 1874, is of Early English architecture, and has some remains on one of the columns of frescoes of the same period, while the 14th-century paintings in the chancel are in better preservation.
high) is a fine example of Decorated architecture.
retrotabulum), a term of ecclesiastical art and architecture, applied in modern English usage to an altar-ledge or shelf, raised slightly above the back of the altar or communion table, on which are placed the cross, ceremonial candlesticks and other ornaments.
There are interesting remains of medieval architecture in the closely built town with its narrow streets; the beautiful 14thcentury windows of the Palazzo Montalto may be especially noticed, and also the 13th-century Castello Mainace at the southern extremity of the island.
The church of St Peter and St Paul is a spacious building in various styles of architecture, but principally Perpendicular.
In architecture of the Norman and Gothic periods London must be considered rich, though its richness is poverty 1 1as- when its losses, particularly during the great fire of 1666, tical are recalled.
Ancient architecture in London is principally ecclesiastical.
While the architecture of the City churches, with the exceptions mentioned, is not as a rule remarkable, many are notable for the rich and beautiful woodcarving they contain.
It presents fine examples of Norman architecture; its historical associations are of the highest interest, and its armoury and the regalia of England, which are kept here, attract great numbers of visitors.
There are few survivals of ancient°domestic architecture in London, but the gabled and timbered front of Staple Inn, Holborn (q.v.) is a picturesque fragment.
Of those associated with ecclesiastical foundations several occur in the course of this article (Section II., Ecclesiastical Architecture, &c.).
Some further important establishments and institutions may be tabulated here :- Architecture.
The older portions of the city are reminiscent of Dutch colonial days, and some fine specimens of the Dutch and later colonial architecture are still standing.
From the 11 th to the 13th century the old Burman empire was at the height of its power, and to this period belong the splendid remains of architecture at Pagan.
Among others we may mention the Palazzo Vecchio, formerly the seat of the government of the Republic and now the town hall, the Palazzo Riccardi, the residence of the Medici and now the prefecture, the palaces of the Strozzi, Antinori (one of the most perfect specimens of Florentine quattrocento architecture), Corsini, Davanzati, Pitti (the royal palace), 4c. The palace of the Arte della Lana or gild of wool merchants, tastefully and intelligently restored, is the headquarters of the Dante Society.
The principal buildings are the State Capitol, Grecian in architecture, the Federal Building, and the County Court House.
He also designed many of the fine palaces which give Vicenza its individuality; only two of them, the Barbarano and Chiericati palaces (the latter containing the picture gallery), have two orders of architecture, the rest having a heavy rustica basis with only one order above it.
Andrea Palladio (1518-1580) was a native of Vicenza, as was also a contemporary, Vincenzo Scamozzi (1552-1616), who was largely dependent on him, but is better known for his work on architecture (Architettura universale, 1615).
Of the other buildings of Coutances the church of St Pierre, in which Renaissance architecture is mingled with Gothic, and that of St Nicolas, of the 16th and 17th centuries, demand mention.
It is now only remarkable for its architecture.
It is an old-fashioned town with many quaint wooden houses, notable among them the "Northeimhaus," a beautiful specimen of medieval architecture.
Semper, the creators respectively of the parliament house and the museums, are the leaders of the Classical and Renaissance styles which are so strongly represented in Viennese architecture.
Within the township are several noteworthy examples of colonial architecture.
toItalian architecture, as they afterwards renewed the art of sculpture.
The first published account of the simple camera obscura was discovered by Libri in a translation of the Architecture of v.
Most of the modern buildings have been erected after celebrated prototypes of other countries and eras, so that, as has been said by Moriz Carriere, a walk through Munich affords a picture of the architecture and art of two thousand years.
The architectural style which has been principally followed in the later public buildings, among them the law courts, finished in 1897, the German bank, St Martin's hospital, as well as in numerous private dwellings, is the Italian and French Rococo, or Renaissance, adapted to the traditions of Munich architecture in the 17th and 18th centuries.
tried to introduce an entirely novel style of domestic architecture, formed by the combination of older forms. At the east end it is closed by the Maximilianeum, an extensive and imposing edifice, adorned externally with large sculptural groups and internally with huge paintings representing the chief scenes in the history of the world.
The church of Santa Maria Maggiore, built in 1627-1682, is a characteristic specimen of Jesuit architecture; the church of Sant' Antonio Nuovo, built in 1827-1849, is in the Greek style, as also the Greek Orthodox church, built in 1782, which is one of the handsomest Byzantine structures in the whole of Austria.
His chief work is De aquis urbis Romae, in two books, containing a history and description of the water-supply of Rome, including the laws relating to its use and maintenance, and other matters of importance in the history of architecture.
The first object of historical and architectural interest in Mainz is the grand old cathedral, an imposing Romanesque edifice with numerous Gothic additions and details (for plan, &c. see Architecture: Romanesque and Gothic in Germany).
The monotony and lifelessness of this form of architecture are shown in the meaningless way in which details, suited only to the Venetian methods of veneering walls with thin marble slabs, are copied in the solid marbles of Verona.
The domestic architecture of Verona cannot thus be now fairly estimated, and seems monotonous, heavy and uninteresting.
The architecture of Verona, like its sculpture, passed through Lombard, Florentine and Venetian stages.
Vitruvius Cerdo, possibly a pupil and freedman of the famous writer on architecture.
It was in connection with architecture that the great artisan movement began.
1843), a son of Anthony, and a journalist and writer on architecture.
south of Szombathely lies the small village of Jaak, with a Dominican convent from the iith century, which has a remarkably beautiful church, one of the best specimens of Romanesque architecture in the country.
The palace is half European and half Japanese in its style of architecture.
The former palace of the khans, which recalls by its architecture the mosques of Samarkand, is the best building in the town.
He became professor of architecture at Turin, and his most important works were the excavation of Tusculum in 1829 and of the Appian Way in 1848, the results of which he embodied in a number of works published in a costly form by his patroness, the queen of Sardinia.
Titanium is alloyed in small quantities with aluminium for use in naval architecture.
Scientific and practical subjects, such as natural history, architecture, medicine, agriculture, are treated in more elaborate literary style.
Both the forms of the letters and the style of the architecture show that the colonnade cannot date, as Pausanias says, from the time of the Peloponnesian War; Th.
"Whoever," he says, "is in the least versed in this moral kind of architecture will find the inward fabric so adjusted,.
Of these structures indeed some have survived to the present day in a sufficiently perfect state to bear witness to the grandeur and beauty of the old architecture of Herat.
Tacvia, ribbon, fillet), the term in architecture given to the projecting fillet which crowns the architrave of the Greek Doric order.
In architecture, the term is used to express the measure of the lower part of the shaft of a column.
SACRARIUM, the term in classic architecture given to the cella of a temple, and to the apartment in a dwelling-house which was sacred to a deity.
In medieval architecture the term is applied on the European continent to that portion of a chancel, which, enclosed with a railing or balustrade in front of the altar, is devoted to the celebration of the Holy Eucharist; this in England is generally known as the presbytery.
With the exception of a satiric comedy, Il Candelajo, all the works of this period are devoted to this logic - De Umbris Idearum, Ars Memoriae, De cornpendiosa architecture et complemento artis Lullii, and Cantus Circaeus.
In architecture especially she was well versed, and Philibert de l'Orme relates that she discussed with him the plan and decoration of her palace of the Tuileries.
It was afterwards, with various changes, adopted in all succeeding styles of architecture as a basis of ornamental decoration.
One of the most characteristic features in its architecture is the number of strong loopholed towers attached to the more ancient dwellings.
He is generally regarded as one of the restorers of the ancient style of architecture.
Alberti wrote works on sculpture, Della Statua, and on painting, De Pictura, which are highly esteemed; but his most celebrated treatise is that on architecture, De Re Aedificatoria, which has been translated into Italian, French, Spanish and English.
The chapel of St Julian, where French Anglican services are held, is of transitional Norman architecture, greatly altered by restoration.
The old Spanish-Moorish mission architecture has considerably influenced building styles.
Its educational institutions include a lycee, training colleges, a school of mines, an artillery school, schools of music, agriculture, drawing, architecture, &c., and a national school for instruction in brewing and other industries connected with agriculture.
The facade, however, with its two square and somewhat heavy flanking towers dates from the 17th century, and is Greco-Roman in architecture.
Some of these buildings exhibit very fine architecture.
In architecture the term is given to an ornamental rod with sprouting leaves, or sometimes with a serpent entwined round it (from the Biblical references in Exodus vii.
Of the Mexican and Central American sculpture and architecture a competent judge says that Yucatan and the southern states of Mexico are not rich in sculptures, apart from architecture; but in the valley of Mexico the human figure, animal forms, fanciful life motives in endless variety, were embodied in masks, yokes, tablets, calendars, cylinders, disks, boxes, vases and ornaments.
Maya architecture is the best remaining index of the art achievements of the American race.
Beyond Colombia are Ecuador and Peru, where, in the widening of the continent, architecture, stone-working, pottery, metallurgy, textiles are again exalted.
Venetian influence is everywhere manifest; the Lion of St Mark is carved over the main gateway and on many public buildings; and among the narrow and steep lanes of the city there are numerous examples of Venetian Gothic or early Renaissance architecture.
The older part of the cathedral, dating from 1430 to 1441, and including the fine north doorway, is Italian Gothic. Giorgio Orsini of Zara, who had studied architecture in Venice and been strongly influenced by the Italian Renascence, carried on the work of construction until his death in 1475.
Dreiblatl and Dreiblattbogen), the term in Gothic architecture given to the ornamental foliation or cusping introduced in the heads of window-lights, tracery, panellings, &c., in which the centre takes the form of a three-lobed leaf, one of the earliest examples being in the plate tracery at Winchester (1222-1235);1235); See Quatrefoil.
PRESBYTERY, in architecture, that portion of the choir of a church in which the high altar is placed, and which is generally raised by a few steps above the rest of the church.
But it revived, and most of its fine Moslem mosque and fortress architecture, still extant, belongs to the reign of Sultan Kalaun (1282) and the succeeding century, during which Abulfeda describes it as a very strong place.
The northern and oldest portion of the ramparts dates from the 13th century; the single gateway by which they are pierced is on the south and is a good example of the military architecture of the 15th century.
Of the apartments, all of the finest Gothic architecture, the chief are the refectory, divided down the centre by columns and lighted by large embrasured windows, and the knights' hall, a superb chamber, the vaulting of which is supported on three rows of cylindrical pillars.
The church, which rises high above the buildings clustering round it, consists of transepts and four bays of the nave of Romanesque architecture and of a fine choir (1450 - I 521) in the Flamboyant Gothic style with a triforium surmounted by lofty windows.
Ecclesiastical architecture attracted him strongly.
His first book, save for his share in a volume of English verse, was a History of Architecture (1849).
No art interested him except architecture, which he studied throughout his life; and he cared little for literature which was not either historical or political.
TETpa-, four, and (7T06, a portico), the term in architecture given to a rectangular court round which on all four sides is carried a covered portico or colonnade; the same as peristyle.
Apse (Architecture) >>
Note should be made of a short treatise on La Formation francaise des anciens noms du lieu (1867); a memoir De l'ogive et de l'architecture dite ogivale (1850), where he gives his theory on the use of stone arches - important for the history of religious architecture; an article on L'Age de la cathedrale de Laon (1874), in which he fixed the exact date of the birth of Gothic architecture; Histoire du costume en France (1875; 2nd ed.
It does not possess any remarkable buildings, although it contains several, private as well as public, that are of a quaint and picturesque style of architecture.
Begun by the Countess Matilda of Tuscany in 1099, after the designs of Lanfranc, and consecrated in 1184, the Romanesque cathedral (S Geminiano) is a low but handsome building, with a lofty crypt, under the choir (characteristic of the Tuscan Romanesque architecture), three eastern apses, and a façade still preserving some curious sculptures of the 12th century.
But, while lacking the medieval appearance of Fribourg or Bern, or Sion or Coire, the great number of modern fine buildings in Geneva, hotels, villas, &c., gives it an air of prosperity and comfort that attracts many visitors, though on others modern French architecture produces a blinding glare.
and later Gothic architecture bears evidence of the frequency with which the church has been restored and altered.
Among other prominent buildings are the Oddfellows' temple (completed 1894), the public library, the art museum (1886), a Jewish synagogue (in Avondale), and the (Jewish) Plum Street temple (1866), Moorish in architecture.
Thibron, the Spartan, persuaded the Magnesians to leave their indefensible and mutinous city in 399 B.C. and build afresh at Leucophrys, an hour distant, noted for its temple of Artemis Leucophryne, which, according to Strabo, surpassed that at Ephesus in the beauty of its architecture, though inferior in size and wealth.
There are many early rock-cut churches in Abyssinia, closely resembling the Coptic. After these, two main types of architecture are found - one basilican, the other native.
C. Hotten, Abyssinia Described (London, 1868); "Abyssinian Church Architecture," Royal Inst.
Here, facing MaiStreet, stands the city hall, a beautiful example of Colonial architecture, which was designed by Charles Bulfinch, completed in 1796, and until 1879 used as a state capitol; it has subsequently been restored.
The houses of Kulja are almost all clay-built and flat-roofed, and except in the special Chinese quarter in the eastern end of the town only a few public buildings show the influence of Chinese architecture.
(1664); A Parallel of the Ancient Architecture with the Modern..
All the arts of architecture and horticulture were lavished on Burghley House and Theobalds, which his son exchanged for Hatfield.
Outside them its finest examples of architecture are the churches of Mouzon (13th century) and Vouziers (15th century).
Though partly ruinous, the church of St Titus is a very interesting monument of early Christian architecture, dating from about the 4th century.
de Moree: Architecture, i.
architecture the term " string-course " is applied to the projecting course or moulding running horizontally along the face of a building.
While in Greece he made observations which showed that in ancient architecture the use of polychrome was frequent.
In 1834 he was appointed professor of architecture in Dresden, and during fifteen years received many important commissions from the Saxon court.
In 18J3 Semper left London for Zurich on his appointment as professor of architecture, and with a commission to build in that town the polytechnic school and the hospital.
He stands as a leader in the practice of polychrome, since widely diffused, and by his writings and example did much to reinstate the ancient union between architecture, sculpture and painting.
There is evidence to show that the Aztecs adopted the civilization of the Toltecs, including their religion (Quetzalcoatl being a god of the Toltecs and Mayas), calendar and architecture.
The accounts of the palaces of the native kings must be taken with some reserve, from the tendency to use descriptive terms not actually untrue, but which convey erroneous ideas taken from European architecture; thus what are called columns of porphyry and jasper supporting marble balconies might perhaps be better described as piers carrying slabs, while the apartments and terraces must have been more remarkable for number and extent than architectural grandeur, being but low one-storied buildings.
On the other hand, there are features in Central-American architecture which scarcely appear in Mexican.
Attempts to trace the architecture of Central America directly from Old-Woad types have not been successful, while on the other hand its decoration shows proof of original invention, especially in the imitations of woodwork which passed into sculptured ornament when the material became stone instead of wood.
Of earlier buildings, the most distinguished are the Eski Serai, an ancient and half-ruined palace of the sultans; the bazaar of Ali Pasha; and the 16th-century mosque of the sultan Selim II., a magnificent specimen of Turkish architecture.
There is preserved here the Old Hall, a beautiful example of halftimbered architecture.
The Bank of Ireland (see Architecture, fig.
Educational foundations include the Royal College of Physicians, of Surgeons and of Science; the Royal Irish Academy, with an unequalled collection of national antiquities, including manuscripts and a library; and the Royal Hibernian Academy of painting, sculpture and architecture.
- The architecture of these palaces is exhaustively treated in Ferguson's Palaces of Nineveh and Persepolis Restored, and in Perrot and Chipiez, Art in Chaldea and Assyria.
The buildings which he caused to be erected by Bernardo Rossellino in1460-1463form a noble group of early Renaissance architecture round the Piazza del Duomo.
The consequence of all these changes of dynasty was that Ahmedabad became the meeting-place of Hindu, Mahommedan and Jain architecture.
The government palace, which like the cathedral faces upon the plaza mayor, is generally considered one of the finest specimens of Spanish architecture in Mexico.
It is uncertain whether the conventional fleur-de-lis was originally meant to represent the lily or white iris - the flower-de-luce of Shakespeare - or an arrow-head, a spear-head, an amulet fastened on date-palms to ward off the evil eye, &c. In Roman and early Gothic architecture the fleur-de-lis is a frequent sculptured ornament.
After these outrages it was practically rebuilt on a scale of grandeur that made it the most magnificent example of church architecture in the north.
KciOETOS, a perpendicular line), in architecture the eye of the volute, so termed because its position is determined, in an Ionic or voluted capital, by a line let down from the point in which the volute generates.
Soon afterwards the sultan died (1219) and was succeeded by his brother, Ala ud-din Kaikobad I., the most powerful and illustrious prince of this branch of the Seljuks, renowned not only for his successful wars but also for his magnificent structures at Konia, Alaja, Sivas and elsewhere, which belong to the best specimens of Saracenic architecture.
The Mole Antonelliana, built by Alessandro Antonelli, is the most important example of modern architecture in Turin.
The same spirit of conservatism is manifest in the architecture of the churches, which are all of the medieval Byzantine type.
Langlois, Le Mont Athos et ses monasteres, with a complete bibliography (Paris, 1867); Duchesne and Bayet, Memoire sur une mission en Macedoine et au Mont Athos (Paris, 1876); Texier and Pullan, Byzantine Architecture (London, 1864); H.
The choir is largely constructed of brick, and thus affords an unusually early example of the use of this material in English ecclesiastical architecture.
In the early development of architecture and sculpture Pistoia played a very important part; these arts, as they existed in Tuscany before the time of Niccola Pisano, can perhaps be better studied in Pistoia than anywhere else; nor is the city less rich in the later works produced by the school of sculptors founded by Niccola.
The Palazzo del Commune and the Palazzo Pretorio, once the residence of the podesta, are both fine specimens of 14th-century domestic architecture, in good preservation.
He then wrote for Loudon's Magazine of Architecture, and verses of his were inserted in Messrs Smith & Elder's Friendship's Of f ering, by the editor, T.
" after Nature," for Loudon's Magazine, on "The Poetry of Architecture."
He had now plunged into the study of Bellini and the Venetian school, Fra Angelico and the early Tuscans, and he visited Lucca, Pisa, Florence, Padua, Verona and Venice, passionately devoting himself to architecture, sculpture and painting in each city of north Italy.
30) he published The Seven Lamps of Architecture, with his own etchings, which greatly increased the reputation acquired by his Modern Painters.
In 1853 The Stones of Venice was completed at Herne Hill, and he began a series of Letters and Notes on pictures and architecture.
The Edinburgh Lectures (November 1853) treated Architecture, Turner, and Pre-Raphaelitism.
The old town has a threefold interest: first as a very ancient seat of Jain worship; secondly for its example of palace architecture of the best Hindu period (1486-1516); and thirdly as an historic fortress.
FRUSTUM (Latin for a "piece broken off"), a term in geometry for the part of a solid figure, such as a cone or pyramid, cut off by a plane parallel to the base, or lying between two parallel planes; and hence in architecture a name given to the drum of a column.
The date of the erection of the cathedral is probably about 1179; it retains some traces of Norman architecture, and the facade has a fine figured cornice by Bartolommeo da Foggia; the crypt has capitals of the 11th (?) century.
The cathedral, although not ranking among those of the first class, is celebrated for its fine proportions, and is of great interest from the various styles of architecture which it includes.
Saxon architecture owes nearly everything to his initiative, and Bede was one of his pupils.
Around the plaza and elsewhere in the city, however, the Mexican style of architecture has given way to the American.
The plaza itself had been converted from a barren, sandy square into a well-shaded park, through the efforts of the Woman's Board of Trade, an unique institution, which also controls the public library, housed in a brick and stone building (1907) in the Mission style of architecture.
(1) Church Architecture.
- From the strictly architectural point of view the subject of church building, including the development of the various styles and the essential features of the construction and arrangement of churches, is dealt with elsewhere (see Architecture; Abbey; Basilica).
It is, however, impossible to understand the development of church architecture without realizing its intimate connexion with that of the doctrine, organization and ritual of the Christian Church as a religious community, and a brief sketch of this connexion may be given here by way of introduction to the more technical treatment of the subject.
In general it may be said of church architecture, more truly than of any other, that artistically it is " frozen music."
But as a rule, and especially in the great periods of church architecture, their builders were untrammelled by any utilitarian considerations; they built for the glory of God, for their own glory perhaps, in honour of the saints; and their work, where it survives, is (as it were) a petrification of their beliefs and ideals.
This is, of course, more true of the middle ages than of the times that preceded and followed them; the Church under the Roman empire hardly as yet realized the possibilities of " sermons in stones," and took over, with little change, the model of the secular and religious buildings of pagan Rome; the Renaissance, essentially a neo-pagan movement, introduced disturbing factors from outside, and, though developing a style very characteristic of the age that produced it, started that archaeological movement which has tended in modern times to substitute mere imitations of old models for any attempt to express in church architecture the religious spirit of the age.
Of all the mixed motives that went to the evolution of church architecture in the middle ages, this rivalry in ostentation was probably the most fertile in the creation of new forms. A volume might be written on the economic effects of this locking up of vast capital in unproductive buildings.
The Reformation was a fateful epoch in the history of church architecture.
Protestantism has, indeed, produced a distinctive church architecture, i.e.
It would be interesting in this connexion to trace the reverse effect of church architecture upon church doctrine.
Under the hill of Ascension are the remains of a temple, popularly called of Neptune, a very simple Doric structure, which still in its mutilated state presents some peculiarities of architecture.
The church of St Nicholas is a large and handsome structure in various styles of architecture, and consists of nave, chancel and aisles, with a square embattled tower having pinnacles at the angles.
Among numerous buildings of antiquarian interest the first is the ruined keep of the castle, a majestic specimen of Norman architecture, the largest of its kind in England, covering nearly twice the area of the White Tower in London.
In the 16th and 17th centuries, painting replaced architecture as the distinctive art of Andalusia; and many of the foremost Spanish painters, including Velazquez and Murillo, were natives of this province.
Near at hand are the ruins of Cranii, which afford fine examples of Greek military architecture; and at the west side of the harbour there is a curious stream, flowing from the sea, and employed to drive mills before losing itself in caverns inland.
Churches and convents of Byzantine architecture are scattered about the island.
The worship of crosses into which the Spirit or Christ had been inserted by the priest must have satisfied the religious needs of a people who, save in architecture, showed little artistic faculty.
Apart from the peasant class, Castilians have contributed more to the development of Spanish art and literature than the inhabitants of any other region except, perhaps, Andalusia, which claims to be regarded as supreme in architecture and painting.
With the exception of that part used as a mosque, nearly the whole of the ancient temple has fallen into ruins, but the relics are not excelled in beauty of architecture and sculpture by any remains of Hindu art.
Its front is a specimen of the enriched Corinthian architecture, with a projecting pillared portico after the style of the temple of Jupiter Stator at Rome, 264 ft.
Varro probably dealt with the history of art in connexion with architecture, which was included in his Disciplinae.
The buildings of the old town are chiefly of brick, from four to five storeys in height, with flat roofs, and other oriental peculiarities; while in the new town hewn stone is very largely employed, and the architecture is often of a modern English style.
Babila, also restored to its original form, &c., are interesting for their Romanesque architecture.
The choir is painted in perspective (there was no room to build one), the earliest example of this device, which was so frequently used in baroque architecture.
Among the most noteworthy exhibits were those of machinery, of automobiles and bicycles, of agriculture, of transports by sea, of modern art and architecture, of Italian home industries, of the city of Milan; besides which, all the countries exhibiting had their own separate pavilions.
With this object in view, the early improvers of hot-house architecture substituted metal for wood in the construction of the roofs, and for the most part dispensed with back walls; but the conducting power of the metal caused a great irregularity of temperature, which it was found difficult to control; and, notwithstanding the elegance of metallic houses, this circumstance, together with their greater cost, has induced most recent authorities to give the preference to wood.
Very careful and artistic representations of the stupa with its daghoba and interesting rail, pillars and sculptures will be found in Fergusson's Tree and Serpent Worship, and in his History of Indian Architecture (1876).
The minster, dedicated to St Mary the Virgin, illustrates every style of architecture from Norman to Perpendicular.
The state polytechnic school at Delft (1864) for the study of engineering in all its branches, architecture and naval construction, has a nominal course of four years, and confers the degree of " engineer."
pierre, stone), in architecture, a term applied to a raised platform reached by steps in front of the entrance to a building.
Attached to it are schools for the study of architecture, ornamental drawing and modelling.
The plural form Atlantes is the classical term in architecture for the male sculptured figures supporting a superstructure as in the baths at Pompeii, and in the temple at Agrigentum in Sicily.
of this dynasty, which has been revealed by the excavations of the Egypt Exploration Fund at Deir el Bahri (see Architecture, section Egyptian, fig.
These temples are described in the articles Karnak, Luxor and Architecture: Egyptian.
The parish church, of mixed architecture, including the Norman nave of the old priory church, and containing some of the most beautiful examples of window tracery in England, was restored in 1866, and enlarged by the addition of a south nave in 1879.
The tomb of Ahmad Shah is the only attempt at monumental architecture.
The cathedral or Dom, the principal edifice and chief object of interest in Cologne, is one of the finest and purest monuments of Gothic architecture in Europe (for plan,.
&c. see Architecture: Romanesque and Gothic in Germany).
While studying architecture at Giessen he came under the influence of Liebig and was induced to take up chemistry.
Here you find articles in the encyclopedia on topics related to architecture.
Though of small size, and by no means remarkable in point of architecture, it is interesting as the only temple that has come down to us in a good state of preservation of those dedicated to the Egyptian goddess, whose worship became so popular under the Roman Empire.
Neither in materials nor in style does their architecture exceed what might reasonably be expected in a second-rate provincial town; and the same may be said in general of the other public buildings.
The architecture of Pompeii must be regarded as presenting in general a transitional character from the pure Greek style to that of the Roman Empire.
All the three orders of Greek architecture - the Doric, Ionic and Corinthian - are found freely employed in the various edifices of the city, but rarely in strict accordance with the rules of art in their proportions and details; while the private houses naturally exhibit still more deviation and irregularity., In many of these indeed we find varieties in the ornamentation, and even in such leading features as the capitals of the columns, which remind one rather of the vagaries of medieval architecture than of the strict rules of Vitruvius or the regularity of Greek edifices.
He had an intelligent interest in art, and studied ecclesiastical music and architecture.
Like most great bishops of his age he had a passion for architecture.
Wilfrid's is a memorable name in English history, not only because of the large part he played in supplanting the Celtic discipline and in establishing a precedent of appeal to papal authority, but also by reason of his services to architecture and learning.
They have departments of architecture, building, civil engineering, chemistry, metallurgy and, in some cases, anatomy.
near Stuttgart, Brunswick, Eisenach, Giessen and Books - 229 Karlsruhe, Other technical schools are again the five veterinary academies of Berlin, Hanover, Munich, Dresden and Stuttgart, the commercial colleges (Handclshochschulen) of Leipzig, Aix-la-Chapelle, Hanover, Frankfurt-on-Main and Cologne, in addition to 424 commercial schools of a lesser degree, ioo schools for textile manufactures and numerous schools for special metal industries, wood-working, ceramic industries, naval architecture and engineering and navigation.
In architecture, as in literature, this period was also one of great achievement in Germany.
The Rector's Palace, another noteworthy example of late Romanesque, combined with Venetian Gothic, is one of the masterpieces of Dalmatian architecture.
Jackson, Dalmatia, the Quarnero and Istria (Oxford, 1887), gives the best account of Ragusan architecture and antiquities.
The nave was begun in 1096 and is Romanesque in style; the transept and choir, which contain magnificent stained glass of the Renaissance period, are of Gothic architecture.
The architecture and sculpture of this age have also left some of their most remarkable monuments among the Greek cities of Sicily.
Architecture too advanced, and the Doric style gradually lost somewhat of its ancient massiveness.
Their advance in civilization is shown by their position under the Normans, and above all by their admirable style of architecture '(see' Palermo).
VITRUVIUS (MARCUS VITRUVIUS POLLIO), Roman architect and engineer, author of a celebrated work on architecture.
C. I is on the science of architecture generally, and the branches of knowledge with which the trained architect ought to be acquainted, viz.
vii., mostly on methods of decoration, has a preface (as usual) on the opinions of ancient Greek writers, with lists of Greek sculptors, architects and writers on architecture, and of Roman architects.
The name of Vitruvius has been given to several works on modern architecture, such as Campbell, Vitruvius Britannicus (London, 1715-71), a series of illustrations of the chief buildings of the 18th century in England, including many works of the brothers Adam; one of these brothers, William Adam, produced a similar work illustrating the buildings which he had designed for Scotland, under the title of Vitruvius Scoticus (Edinburgh, 1790).
Phene Spiers, Architecture East and West, p. 245 f.), but it is certain that the engraved gems for which there was a demand in the Persian empire were largely the work of Greek artists (Furtwangler, Antike iii.
Certainly, had the Greek colonies in India been active political bodies, we could hardly have failed to find some trace of them, in civic architecture or in inscriptions, by this time.
The stream of Buddhist art which went out eastwards across Asia had its rise in North-West India, and the remains of architecture and sculpture unearthed in this region enable us to trace its development back to pure Greek types.
Many of the fountains are fine specimens of Arab architecture.
What is most to be admired in their style of architecture is its extraordinary freedom from restraint, shown in the wonderful variety of its forms, and the skill in design which has made the most intricate details to harmonize with grand outlines.
The excavation of the rock temple of Abu Simbel and the completion of the great hail of Karnak were his greatest achievements in architecture.
In architecture the prevailing fashion is a return to the style of the first half of the i 7th century, called the Christian IV.
His visits to the country in 1838 and 1840 were followed by an expedition sent by the British government in 1842 to transport to England the valuable monuments now in the British Museum, while Admiral Spratt and Edward Forbes explored the interior, and laid down its physical features on an excellent map. The monuments thus brought to light are among the most interesting of those discovered in Asia Minor, and prove the existence of a distinct native architecture, especially in the rock-cut tombs.
The crypt, discovered in 1726, is part of the Saxon church, and a noteworthy example of architecture of the period.
Among the other wonders of the Alhambra are the Sala de la Justicia (Hall of Justice), the Patio del Mexuar (Court of the Council Chamber), the Patio de Daraxa (Court of the Vestibule), and the Peinador de la Reina (Queen's Robing Room), in which are to be seen the same delicate and beautiful architecture, the same costly and elegant decorations.
By far the most important building in Magdeburg is the cathedral, dedicated to SS Maurice and Catherine, a handsome and massive structure of the 14th century, exhibiting an interesting blending of Romanesque and Gothic architecture.
The same development is looked for in Mycenaean architecture.
The bishoprics erected by him, and his many Lowland abbeys, Holyrood, Melrose, Dryburgh, Kelso, Jedburgh and others, confirmed the freedom of the Scottish church from the claims of the see of York, encouraged the i mprovement of agriculture and endowed the country with beautiful examples of architecture.
He recognized from the first two important disqualifications - his indifference to music and his slight knowledge of architecture.
Cicero finely observes that, in Athens, the glorious architecture caused him less pleasure than did the thought of the great men whose work was done in its midst - "how here one had lived, and there fallen asleep; how here another had disputed, and there lay buried" (De Legg.
The architectural details are in some cases unmistakably copied, without intentional modification, from the architecture of Greek temples; others point perhaps to Persian influence, while several - which are perhaps among the early works of this period - show the old freedom and power of employing in new and original ways details partly learned from abroad.
This beautiful specimen of Early English architecture was partly destroyed in 1561, and its lands were granted to the earl of Eglinton and others.
Its business edifices and residences are largely of Dutch architecture, with many storeys and steep roofs.
His other important works are: Etudes sur le Peloponnese (2nd ed., 1875); Les Monnaies d'Athenes (1858); L' Architecture au siecle de Pisistrate (1860); Fouilles a Carthage (1861).
Morris was at the school three years, but got very little good from it beyond a taste for architecture, fostered by the school library, and an attraction towards the Anglo-Catholic movement.
In the summer of 1856 Street removed to London, and Morris accompanied him, working very hard both in and out of office hours at architecture and painting.
The cathedral (see Architecture: Romanesque and Gothic Architecture in France; and Cathedral), which is perhaps the finest church of Gothic architecture in France, far exceeds the other buildings of the town in importance.
cotton-spinning, dyeing, motor-manufacture (City & Guilds of London Institute), architecture (Royal Institute of British Architects), commercial subjects, shorthand (the Society of Arts and London Chamber of Commerce), engineering (Institutions of Civil Engineers, of Mechanical Engineers, and of Electrical Engineers).
First comes architecture - in the main, symbolic art; then sculpture, the classical art par excellence; they are found, however, in all three forms. Painting and music are the specially romantic arts.
The Gothic architecture of the Strassburg minster became to him the symbol of a national and German ideal, directly antagonistic to the French tastes and the classical and rationalistic atmosphere that prevailed in Leipzig.
In this thinker, who was his senior by five years, Goethe found the master he sought; Herder taught him the significance of Gothic architecture, revealed to him the charm of nature's simplicity, and inspired him with enthusiasm for Shakespeare and the Volkslied.
The tower or church-gate, one of the finest specimens of early Norman architecture in England, and the western gate, a beautiful structure of rich Decorated work, together with ruined walls of considerable extent, are all that remains of the great abbey.
In architecture, the term "corona" is used of that part of a cornice which projects over the bed mould and constitutes the chief protection to the wall from rain; it is always throated, and its soffit rises towards the wall.
The robust, florid and distinctly Roman rendering of the classic, which followed the refined and attenuated treatment associated with the architecture of the brothers Adam, who died in 1792 and 1794, is the last development in England which can be regarded as a national style.
It is chiefly to architecture that metal-work owes its permanent artistic improvement.
It is of good early Greek architecture, earlier than the second temple.
Bearing out the evidence of tradition as well as architecture, the numerous finds of individual objects in terra-cotta figurines, vases, bronzes, engraved stones, &c., point to organized civilized life on this site many generations before Mycenae was built, a fortiori before the life as depicted by Homer flourished - nay, before, as tradition has it, under Proetus the walls of Tiryns were erected.
Villena is a labyrinth of winding alleys, which contain some interesting examples of Moorish domestic architecture.
The ancient architecture of Kashmir, the tope of Manikyala in the Punjab, and many sculptures found in the Peshawar valley, show unmistakable Greek influence.
Brahman astronomy owed much to the Greeks, and what the Buddhists were to the architecture of northern India, that the Greeks were to its sculpture.
He had plundered the temples at Bhilsa in central India, which are admired to the present day as the most interesting examples of Buddhist architecture in the country.
At Delhi also he erected the celebrated peacock throne; but his favourite place of residence was Agra, where his name will ever be associated with the marvel of Indian architecture, the Taj Mahal.
The exterior is simple, but the buildings which surround the main courtyard have high-pitched roofs surmounted by numerous dormer windows with decorated gables, recalling the Flemish style of architecture.
A triangular keep, a chapel, and other remains of a château (13th and 14th centuries) of the counts of Toulouse stand on the rocky pine-clad hill which rises to the north of the town; the chapel, dedicated to St Louis, belongs to the latest period of Romanesque architecture, and contains fine sculptures.
verandas, of no particular style of architecture, while the Protestant cathedral was formerly a powder magazine, to which a tower and spire have been added.
Peter and Paul, which ranks beside those of Spires and Mainz among the noblest Romanesque churches of the Rhine (see Architecture: Romanesque and Gothic in Germany).
A striking contrast exists between the Moorish quarter, with its tortuous lanes and Oriental architecture, and the modern quarter, with its rectangular streets and wide open squares, frequently bordered with trees and adorned with fountains.
The palace, built by Ahmed Pasha, the last bey of Constantine, between 1830 and 1836, is one of the finest specimens of Moorish architecture of the 19th century.
In the main, its architecture is Gothic, but the choir and the apsidal chapels, with their elaborate interior and exterior decoration, are of Renaissance workmanship. The graceful tower, which rises beside the southern portal to a height of 255 ft., belongs to the early 1 4 th century.
The church of St Etienne, or l'Abbaye-aux-Hommes, in the west of the town, is an important specimen of Romanesque architecture, dating from about 1070, when it was founded by William the Conqueror.
For a plan of the Parthian palace see Architecture, vol.
The churches include a Lutheran, an English, in the Norman style of architecture, and a Russian, with beautiful frescoes; while on the Michaelsberg is the Greek chapel, with a gilded dome, which was erected over the tomb of a son of the Rumanian prince Michel Stourdza, who died here in 1863.
Sir Joshua Jebb, who presided over its erection, may fairly claim indeed to be the author and originator of modern prison architecture.
It is worthy of note that prison architecture in the United States misses many of the gloomy features common to such constructions.
Notable is the so-called Deutsches Haus, the ancestral home of the counts of DrechselDeufstetten, a fine specimen of the German renaissance style of wooden architecture.
A country residence belonging to one of the sultans is situated close to Cheribon and is much visited on account of its fantastic architecture.
Enkhuizen, like its neighbour Hoorn, exhibits many interesting examples of domestic architecture dating from the 16th and 17th centuries, when It was an important and flourishing city.
Adjoining the abbey is the parish church of St Nicholas, restored in 1865, a structure of mixed architecture, containing a fine Norman doorway, which is supposed to have been the entrance of the former abbey church.
In Church Street and its vicinity still stand several specimens of the i 7th-century style of architecture of eastern Germany.
It is perhaps the finest piece of elaborate and richly adorned Renaissance architecture in existence, and is the work of a number of different artists.
It had been converted into a Christian church, and hardly anything of its architecture seems to have survived.
Sabino, begun in 1035 but not completed till 1171: the exterior preserves in the main the fine original architecture (notably the dome and campanile), but the interior has been modernized.
The original plan of the city, which was prepared by Major Pierre Charles L'Enfant (1755-1825), under the supervision of President Washington and Thomas Jefferson,' was a masterpiece in landscape architecture and in the main it has been preserved.
and Sciences with a graduate department (1893), a College of the Political Sciences (1907), Washington College of Engineering, divisions of architecture and education (1907), a Department of Law (first organized in 1826; closed in 1827; reorganized in 1865), a Department of Medicine (1821; since 1866 in a building given by W.
The Franciscan monastery and the lower and upper church of St Francis were begun immediately after his canonization in 1228, and completed in 1253, being fine specimens of Gothic architecture.
The Church architecture of the "middle ages," then developed naturally and without a break, through the Byzantine and Romanesque styles, out of the secular and religious architecture of Greece and Rome.
And, with the return of comparatively settled and prosperous conditions, not only architecture but the other arts also blossomed under the influence of what was later stigmatized as the "Gothic" spirit into new and original forms. Down to the Reformation the churches continued to be, as the temples of the ancient world had been, the main centres of the arts; yet the arts were not confined to them, but flourished wherever, as in castles or walled cities, the conditions essential to their development existed.
Apart from the fact that reckoning from the birth of Christ was by no means universal, and consequently the mass of men were ignorant that there was such a thing as the year 1000, one wonders how that most enduring type of architecture, the Romanesque, reached its maturity among men who thought that the earth itself was so soon to "shrivel like a parched scroll."
Principle of Least Resistance.Where more than one system of resistances are alike capable of balancing the same system of loads applied to a given structure, the smallest of those alternative systems, as waS demonstrated by the Rev. Henry Moseley in his Mechanics of Engineering and Architecture, is that which will actually be exerted but are distinguished by an asterisk.
Gothic architecture, which had always flourished feebly on Italian soil, was supplanted by a hybrid Roman style.
The modification of Gothic architecture by pseudo-Roman elements of style was incomplete.
Architecture in Spain, emerging from the Gothic stage, developed an Early Renaissance style of bewildering richness by adopting elements of Arabic and Moorish decoration.
Beginning with the older castles of Touraine, and passing onward to the Tuileries, we trace the passage from the medieval fortress to the modern pleasure-house, and note how architecture obeyed the special demands of that new phenomenon of Renaissance civilization, the court.
Sculpture, on the contrary, in which art, as in architecture, the medieval French had been surpassed by no other people of Europe, was practised with originality and power in the reigns of Henry II.
The decorative sculpture of this epoch, whether combined with architecture or isolated in monumental statuary, ranks for grace and suavity with the best of Sansovino's.
What is called Jacobean architecture marks indeed an Arts, interesting stage in the transition from the Gothic style.
The general type of architecture is Gothic, but the rich details, which are lavished with especial freedom in the interior courts, are usually borrowed from the Renaissance.
There are remains of houses, tombs, &c., of the Roman period, and fine specimens of Romanesque and Gothic architecture in the modern town.
The terraced architecture of the villages is very remarkable.
Architecture has restored many of the larger churches from their disfigurement by partition walls and galleries - though much still remains to be done in this way - and has erected new churches of a style favourable to devotion.
The Frank conquest is represented by the " Crusaders' Tower " at Kolossi, and the church of St Nicholas at Nicosia; and, later, by masterpieces of a French Gothic style, such as the church (mosque) of St Sophia, and other churches at Nicosia; the cathedral (mosque) and others at Famagusta (q.v.), and the monastery at Bella Pais; as well as by domestic architecture at Nicosia; and by forts at Kyrenia, Limasol and elsewhere.
Chamberlayne, Lacrimae nicossienses (Paris, 1894); and C. Enlart's volumes, L' Art gothique et la Renaissance en Chypre (Paris, 1899), deal with medieval architecture.
Cassini (1625-1712) from Italy to superintend, the Academies of Inscriptions and Medals, of Architecture and of Music, the French Academy at Rome, and Academies at Arles, Soissons, Nimes and many other towns, and he reorganized the Academy of Painting and Sculpture which Richelieu had established.
The famous château of the family of Orleans (see Architecture: Renaissance Architecture in France), a fine example of Renaissance architecture, stands on the more westerly of the two hills.
They are built of white marble, and are pre-eminent alike for their beauty and as typical specimens of Jain architecture in India.
It is one of the oldest as well as one of the most complete examples of Jain architecture known.
There are schools of painting, sculpture and architecture under the direction of the Royal Academy of Arts; a conservatory of music under that of the Royal Academy of Music; and experimental gardens and laboratories under the Royal Society of Agriculture.
The architecture is mixed, and the abbey is a beautiful example of the Norman and Transition styles.
The common material of the characteristic domestic architecture in rural districts is wood, except in Skane, where stone is available and has been used from early times.
Among country palaces or mansions that of Gripsholm is notable, overlooking Lake Malar, the shores of which are specially rich in historic sites and remains In ecclesiastical architecture Sweden possesses the noble cathedrals of Lund, Upsala and Linkoping; while that of Skara, near the southern shore of Lake Vener, dates originally from 1150, and that of Strengn: s on Lake Molar was consecrated in 1291.
But the richest locality as regards ancient ecclesiastical architecture is the island of Gotland (q.v.).
He elaborated a theory of Toltec migrations and considered the prehistoric Mexican to be of Asiatic origin, because of observed similarities to Japanese architecture, Chinese decoration, Malaysian language and Cambodian dress, &c.
to separate the tobacco leaf from the stems, to remove the overlying soil from a mineral deposit before opening and working it, to turn a gun-barrel in a lathe, &c. In architecture, a "strippilaster" is a narrow pilaster such as is found in Saxon work and in the Italian Romanesque churches.
The peculiarly national basis, Are, still recognizable in Cyruss architecture at Pasargadae, recedes into insignificance.
All these elements are combined into an organic unity, which achieved the greatest creations that Oriental architecture has found possible.
built the city Architecture of Veh-Ardashir (good is Ardashir), to which the later andActs.
long, with towers in the Chinese style of architecture, and is well watered by canals.
Views and plans of the abbey building will be found in Dugdale's Monasticon (1655) Stevens's Monasticon (1720); Stukeley, Itinerarium curiosum (1724); Grose, Antiquities (1754); Carter, Ancient Architecture (1800); Storer, Antiq.
In Alemtejo, and still more in Algarve, Arab and Berber types are common; and the influence of these races can everywhere be discerned in the architecture, handicrafts and speech of the peasantry.
Koebel (London, 1909), and Portuguese Architecture, by W.
humanists, such as Damiao de Goes, and scientists, such as the astronomer Pedro Nunes (Nonius), played conspicuous parts in the great intellectual movements of the time; a distinctive school of painters arose, chief among them being the so-called " Grao Vasco " (Vasco Fernandes of Vizeu); in architecture the name of King Emanuel was given to a new and composite style (the Manoeline or Manoellian), in which decorative forms from India and Africa were harmonized with Gothic and Renaissance designs; palaces, fortresses, cathedrals, monasteries, were built on a scale never before attempted in Portugal; and even in the minor arts and handicrafts - in goldsmith's work, for example, or in pottery - the influence of the East made itself felt.
above the river level, and has wide, well-paved streets shaded by oaks and elms. It is 659 the seat of the Indiana State Normal School (1870), which had in 1909 a library of about 50,000 volumes, 52 instructors and an average term enrolment of 988 students, and of the Rose Polytechnic Institute, which was founded in 1874 by Chauncey Rose (1794-1877), was opened in 1883, offers courses in mechanical, electrical, civil and chemical engineering and in architecture, and in 1909 had 22 instructors and 214 students.
The ascription to Wykeham of the invention of the Perpendicular style of medieval architecture is now an abandoned theory.
The architecture of the city until the earthquake and fire of 1906 was very heterogeneous.
A revival of the old Spanish-Moorish " mission " (monastery) style has exercised an increasing influence and is altogether the most pleasing development of Californian architecture.
It is famous for containing the most perfect specimens of Mogul architecture.
Another building of much the same date is the red stone palace generally attributed to Akbar, but probably of an earlier time, which is the finest example of pure Hindu architecture; while the Moti Masjid, or Pearl Mosque, is an equally perfect example of the Mahommedan style.
In his History of Architecture, Fergusson says of it: "This building is an early example of that system of inlaying with precious stones which became the great characteristic of the style of the Moghals after the death of Akbar.
These are combined in wreaths, scrolls and frets, as exquisite in design as they are beautiful in colour, and relieved by the pure white marble in which they are inlaid, they form the most beautiful and precious style of ornament ever adopted in architecture.
For an account of the architecture of Agra see Fergusson's History of Architecture; Cities of India (1903), by G.
The campanile still preserves portions of its original architecture, but the interior has been modernized.
There are other scattered remains of 13th-century architecture in the town, while, in the centre of the ancient city, close to the so-called oratory of Phalaris, is the Norman church of S.
He studied mathematics, civil and military architecture, and astronomy, and became associate of the Academie des Sciences, professor of geometry, secretary to the Academy of Architecture and fellow of the Royal Society of London.
First in importance is the Reichstagsgebaude (see Architecture, plate ix.
Lying apart from the system are the Lehrter Bahnhof for Hamburg and Bremen, the Stettiner for Baltic ports, and the Gorlitzer, Anhalter and Potsdamer termini for traffic to the south, of which the last two are fine specimens of railway architecture.
The most remarkable building, considered the grandest masterpiece of architecture in Hungary, is the Gothic cathedral of St Elizabeth.
CINQUE CENTO (Italian for five hundred; short for 1500), in architecture, the style which became prevalent in Italy in the century following r50o, now usually called "16th-century work."
It was the result of the revival of classic architecture known as Renaissance, but the change had commenced already a century earlier, in the works of Ghiberti and Donatello in sculpture, and of Brunelleschi and Alberti in architecture.
Its cathedral is one of the finest examples of the Romanesque architecture of Apulia, and has escaped damage from later restorations.
Of the twenty-five churches the majority are interesting from their antiquity, their architecture or their associations.
It consists at present of bare and ugly British barracks, among which are scattered exquisite gems of oriental architecture.
amande mystique), in architecture, the term given to a pointed oval panel formed by two equal circles cutting each other in their centres; this is a common form given to a panel in which the figure of Christ is represented.
The exterior of the palace wall exhibited a system of groups of half columns and stepped recesses, an ornament familiar in Babylonian architecture.
The chief public buildings are the two Dutch Reformed churches, the old church being a good specimen of colonial Dutch architecture, with gables, curves and thatched roof.
Among many medieval buildings, the church of St Ulrich, one of the finest specimens of Romanesque architecture in Germany, and the church of St James, with a magnificent altar screen and interesting tombs and effigies, are particularly noticeable.
A little distance to the west stand the university buildings, the central one being a splendid piece of architecture in the Norman style.
Stretching in a semicircle round the broad campus are the library, the medical building, the biology building and museum, the school of practical science, the geology and chemistry buildings and the convocation hall, their architecture varying very greatly, beauty having been sacrificed to more practical considerations; the magnetic observatory is also in the grounds, but is overshadowed by some of the more recent erections.
It is in the Romanesque style, and accommodates all the civic offices, the board of education, the police and county courts, &c. Many of the churches are worthy examples of good architecture.
Wurzburg is quaintly and irregularly built; many of the houses are interesting specimens of medieval architecture; and the numerous old churches recall the fact that it was long the capital of an ecclesiastical principality.
Even modern architecture, notably in America, reflects the consciousness of change.
This cathedral was begun in the 12th and finished early in the 14th century, and although modified in the 15th after a fire, it remains one of the most remarkable specimens of Gothic architecture in Europe.