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archipelago

archipelago

archipelago Sentence Examples

  • For the Grecian Archipelago see Aegean Sea.

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  • Part of the archipelago was discovered by Pedro Fernandez Quiros in 1607.

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  • Salvin, "On the Avifauna of the Galapagos Archipelago," Trans.

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  • Its sphere includes Indo-China, much of the Malay Archipelago, Tibet and Mongolia.

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  • Louis de Bougainville obtained a fuller acquaintance with the archipelago in 1768, and called them the Navigators' Islands (Iles des Navigateurs) .

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  • wide, communicating with the gulfs and straits of the North American Arctic archipelago; (2) Davis Strait, about 200 m.

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  • Among the islands of the Malay Archipelago the force of the monsoons is much interrupted, and the position of this region on the equator otherwise modifies the directions of the prevailing winds.

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  • Ibn Batuta made the voyage through the Malay Archipelago to China, and on his return he proceeded from Malabar to Bagdad and Damascus, ultimately reaching Fez, the capital of his native country, in November 1349.

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  • The archipelago is divided into two groups - the Leeward (lies sous le Vent) and the Windward Islands (Iles du Vent) - by a clear channel of 60 m.

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  • The Aleutian archipelago was sold to the United States in 1867, together with Alaska, and in 1875 the Kurile Islands were ceded to Japan.

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  • In Further India and the Malay Archipelago the Portuguese acquired predominating influence at sea, establishing factories on the Malabar coast, in the Persian Gulf, at Malacca, and in the Spice Islands, and extending their commercial enterprises from the Red sea to China.

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  • Odoric set out on his travels about 1318, and his journeys embraced parts of India, the Malay Archipelago, China and even Tibet, where he was the first European to enter Lhasa, not yet a forbidden city.

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  • Odoric set out on his travels about 1318, and his journeys embraced parts of India, the Malay Archipelago, China and even Tibet, where he was the first European to enter Lhasa, not yet a forbidden city.

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  • ELLICE (LAGOON) ISLANDS, an archipelago of the Pacific Ocean, lying between 5° and 11° S.

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  • The marine eels, Muraenidae, are more numerous towards the Malay Archipelago than in the Indian seas.

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  • He visited the New Hebrides, Santa Cruz, New Caledonia and Solomon Islands, and made careful though rough surveys of the Louisiade Archipelago, islands north of New Britain and part of New Guinea.

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  • He inaugurated new missionary enterprises from Hormuz to Japan and the Malay Archipelago, leaving an organized Christian community wherever he preached; he directed by correspondence the ecclesiastical policy of John III.

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  • ARCHIPELAGO, a name now applied to any island-studded sea, but originally the distinctive designation of what is now generally known as the Aegean Sea (Aiyaiov 7rEXayos), its ancient name having been revived.

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  • Two principal groups are distinguished, the Kuri archipelago in the south, and the Buduma in the north.

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  • Now, mere geographical considerations, taken from the situation and configuration of the islands of the so-called Indian or Malay Archipelago, would indicate that they extended in an unbroken series from the shores of the Strait of Malacca to the southern coast of New Guinea, which confronts that of north Australia in Torres Strait, or even farther to the eastward.

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  • Now, mere geographical considerations, taken from the situation and configuration of the islands of the so-called Indian or Malay Archipelago, would indicate that they extended in an unbroken series from the shores of the Strait of Malacca to the southern coast of New Guinea, which confronts that of north Australia in Torres Strait, or even farther to the eastward.

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  • The Ismdo-Malayan sub-region includes the Indian and Malayan peninsulas, Cochin-China and southern China, the Malayan archipelago, and Philippines, with New Guinea and Polynesia, excluding the Sandwich Islands.

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  • TONGA, Or Friendly Islands (So called by Captain Cook), an archipelago in the South Pacific Ocean, about 350 m.

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  • distant, a caza (or canton) in the sanjak of Lemnos and province of the Archipelago Isles.

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  • AEGEAN SEA, a part of the Mediterranean Sea, being the archipelago between Greece on the west and Asia Minor on the east, bounded N.

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  • coast of the South Andaman, through which is the safe navigable Elphinstone Passage; Ritchie's (or the Andaman) Archipelago off the E.

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  • The origin and development of these conditions, in islands so distinctly oceanic as the Galapagos, have given its chief importance to this archipelago since it was visited by Darwin in the "Beagle."

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  • are Karlo, East Kvarken, the Aland archipelago, Dagd, and Osel or Oesel in the Baltic Sea; Novaya Zemlya, with Kolguyev and Vaigach, in the Barents Sea; the Solovetski Islands in the White Sea; the New Siberian archipelago, Wrangel Land and Bear Islands, off the Siberian coast; the Commander Islands off Kamchatka; the Shantar Islands and the N.

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  • Between the islands of the Malay archipelago from Sumatra to New Guinea, and the neighbouring Asiatic continent, no definite relations appear ever to have existed, and no distinctly marked boundary for Asia has been established by the old geographers in this quarter.

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  • The southern group of the Malay Archipelago, from Sumatra to Java and Timor, extends in the arc of a circle between 95° and 127° E., and from 5° to 10° S.

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  • The name Archipelago (q.v.) was formerly applied specifically to this sea.

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  • ANGRA, or Angra Do Heroismo ("Bay of Heroism," a name given it in 1829, to commemorate its successful defence against the Miguelist party), the former capital of the Portuguese archipelago of the Azores, and chief town of an administrative district, comprising the islands of Terceira, St George and Graciosa.

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  • In 1583 Jan Hugen van Linschoten made a voyage to India with a Portuguese fleet, and his full and graphic descriptions of India, Africa, China and the Malay Archipelago must have been of no small use to his countrymen in their distant voyages.

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  • The south-eastern parts of the Malay Archipelago have much in common with the Australian continent, to which they adjoin, though their affinities are chiefly Indian.

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  • The newer rocks, common also to the Nicobars and Sumatra, are in Ritchie's Archipelago chiefly and contain radiolarians and foraminifera.

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  • The newer rocks, common also to the Nicobars and Sumatra, are in Ritchie's Archipelago chiefly and contain radiolarians and foraminifera.

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  • The extraordinary number of craters, a few of which are reported still to be active, gives evidence that the archipelago is the result of volcanic action.

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  • The Galapagos archipelago possesses a rare advantage from its isolated situation, and from the fact that its history has never been interfered with by any aborigines of the human race.

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  • It forms, with the islands of Syme, Casos, Carpathos, Castelorizo, Telos and Charki, one of the four sanjaks into which the Archipelago vilayet of Turkey is divided.

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  • With the exception of Tasmania there are no important islands belonging geographically to Australia, for New Guinea, Timor and other islands of the East Indian archipelago, though not removed any great distance from the continent, do not belong to its system.

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  • Clifford, Further India (1904); Journal of the Malay Archipelago, Logan (Singapore); Journal of the Straits Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society (Singapore); Weld, Maxwell, Swettenham and Clifford in the Journal of the Royal Colonial Institute (London); Clifford in the Journal of the Royal Geographical Society (London).

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  • A third curve, from the south-easternmost promontory of the Peloponnese through Cerigo, Crete, Carpathos and Rhodes, marks off the outer deeps of the open Mediterranean from the shallow seas of the archipelago, but the Cretan Sea, in which depths occur over 1000 fathoms, intervenes, north of the line, between it and the Aegean proper.

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  • In this way, for example, it has been suggested that a land, " Lemuria," once connected Madagascar with the Malay Archipelago, and that a northern extension of the antarctic land once united the three southern continents.

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  • After visiting Amboyna, the Moluccas and other isles of the Malay archipelago, he returned to Malacca in July 1547, and found three Jesuit recruits from Europe awaiting him.

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  • The Malays, who occupy the peninsula and most of the islands of the Archipelago called after them, are Mongols apparently modified by their very different climate, and by the maritime life Malays.

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  • The history of Indian civilization in Indo-China and the Archipelago is still obscure, in spite of the existence of gigantic ruins, but it would appear that in some parts at least twa periods must be distinguished, first the introduction of Hinduism (or mixed Hinduism and Buddhism), perhaps under Indian princes, and secondly a later and more purely ecclesiastical.

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  • The history of Indian civilization in Indo-China and the Archipelago is still obscure, in spite of the existence of gigantic ruins, but it would appear that in some parts at least twa periods must be distinguished, first the introduction of Hinduism (or mixed Hinduism and Buddhism), perhaps under Indian princes, and secondly a later and more purely ecclesiastical.

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  • The Malay population of the peninsula, including immigrants from the eastern archipelago, number some 750,000 to Soo,000, while the Tamils and other natives of India number about ioo,000, the aboriginal natives of the peninsula perhaps 20,000, Europeans and Americans about 6500, and Eurasians about 9000.

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  • In general terms they extend, with modifications of character probably due to admixture with other types and to varying conditions of life, over the whole of northern Asia as far south as the plains bordering the Caspian Sea, including Tibet and China, and also over the IndoMalayan peninsula and Archipelago, excepting Papua and some of the more eastern islands.

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  • The population of the archipelago is about 19,000, of whom about 370 are whites or half-castes.

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  • From Torres Strait to Dampier Land the shelf spreads out, and connects Australia with New Guinea and the Malay Archipelago.

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  • Modern naturalists consider that many of the problems of Australia's remarkable fauna and flora can be best explained by the following hypothesis: - The region now covered by the antarctic ice-cap was in early Tertiary times favoured by a mild climate; here lay an antarctic continent or archipelago.

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  • There are besides many other safe anchorages about the coast, notably Shoal Bay and Kotara Anchorage in the South Andaman; Cadell Bay and the Turtle Islands in the North Andaman; and Outram Harbour and Kwangtung Strait in the archipelago.

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  • The great peculiarity of Andaman flora is that, with the exception of the Cocos islands, no cocoanut palms are found in the archipelago.

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  • Quiros's La Dezana, Wallis's Osnaburg Island, Bougainville's Boudoir and Pic de la Boudeuse and Spanish Cristoval), the most eastern and southern of the archipelago.

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  • From that time a fleet was despatched every year, and the company's operations greatly increased geographical knowledge of India and the Eastern Archipelago.

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  • The Arctic voyages of Barents were quickly followed by the establishment of p u a Dutch East India Company; and the Dutch, ousting the Portuguese, not only established factories on the mainland of India and in Japan, but acquired a preponderating influence throughout the Malay Archipelago.

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  • 3.5 0'9 Malay Archipelago.

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  • Crete thus forms the natural limit between the Mediterranean and the Archipelago.

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  • Java is the most thickly peopled, best cultivated and most advanced island of the whole Eastern archipelago.

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  • The same conclusion is indicated by the absence from the Moluccas and Celebes of various other Mammals, Quadrumana, Carnivora, Insectivora and Ruminants, which abound in the western part of the Archipelago.

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  • In many parts of southern Asia are found semi-barbarous races representing the earliest known stratum of population, such as the Veddahs of Ceylon, and various tribes in China General a nd the Malay Archipelago.

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  • Beyond India it has spread to Malacca and the Malay Archipelago, where it overwhelmed Hindu civilization, and reached the southern Philippines.

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  • At present it occupies the extremity of the Malay Peninsula, Java, Sumatra, Borneo, the Philippines and other islands of the Malay Archipelago as well as Madagascar, while the inhabitants of most islands in the South Seas, including New Zealand and Hawaii, speak languages which if not Malay have at least undergone a strong Malay influence.

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  • It was, however, superseded by Islam, which spread to the Malay Archipelago and Peninsula before the 16th century.

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  • Thus the "Aegean Area" has now come to mean the Archipelago with Crete and Cyprus, the Hellenic peninsula with the Ionian isles, and Western Anatolia.

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  • She now commanded the Adriatic, the Ionian islands, the archipelago, the Sea of Marmora and the Black Sea, the trade route between Constantinople and western Europe, and she had already established herself in the seaports of Syria, and thus held the trade route between Asia Minor and Europe.

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  • Contemporaneously other events were menacing the ascendancy and exhausting the treasury of the republic. In 1453 Constantinople fell to the Ottoman Turks, and although Venice entered at once into treaty with the new power and desired to trade with it, not to fight with it, yet it was impossible that her possessions in the Levant and the archipelago should not eventually bring her into collision with the expanding energy of the Mussulman.

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  • They threatened at once the debris of the old Latin empire in Greece and the archipelago, and the relics of the Byzantine empire round Constantinople; they menaced the Hospitallers in Rhodes and the Lusignans in Cyprus.

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  • Malayan folk, who are the dominant race of the Malay Peninsula and of the Malay Archipelago.

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  • These people inhabit the whole of the Malayan Peninsula to the borders of lower Siam, the islands in the vicinity of the mainland, the shores of Sumatra and some portions of the interior of that island, Sarawak and Brunei in Borneo, and some parts of Dutch Borneo, Batavia and certain districts in Java, and some of the smaller islands of the archipelago.

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  • In the Malay Peninsula itself there is abundant evidence, ethnological and philological, of at least two distinct immigrations of people of the Malayan stock, the earlier incursions, it is probable, taking place from the eastern archipelago to the south, the later invasion spreading across the Straits of Malacca from Sumatra at a comparatively recent date.

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  • In the fifth edition of his Malay Archipelago, A.

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  • It might also be anticipated, were the theory of a southward immigration to be sustained, that the Malays would be new-comers in the islands of the archipelago, and have their oldest settlements on the Malayan Peninsula.

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  • John Crawfurd, in the Dissertation to his Dictionary of the Malay Language, published in 1840, noted the prevalence of Malayan terms in the Polynesian languages, and attributed the fact to the casting away of ships manned by Malays upon the islands of the Polynesian Archipelago.

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  • It has been suggested that their separation did not take place until after the continent which once existed in the north Pacific had become submerged, and that the Malays wandered northward, while the Polynesian race spread itself over the islands of the southern archipelago.

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  • All this, however, must necessarily be of the nature of the purest speculation, and the only facts which we are able to deduce in the present state of our knowledge of the subject may be summed up as follows: (a) That the Malays ethnologically belong to a race which is allied to the Polynesians; (b) that the theory formerly current to the effect that the Sakai and other similar races of the peninsula and archipelago belonged to the Malayan stock cannot be maintained, since recent investigations tend to identify them with the Mon-Annam or Mon-Khmer family of races; (c) that the Malays are, comparatively speaking, newcomers in the lands which they now inhabit; (d) that it is almost certain that their emigration took place from the south; (e) and that, at some remote period of their history, they came into close contact with the Polynesian race, probably before its dispersion over the extensive area which it now occupies.

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  • Prior to their conversion to Mahommedanism the Malays were subjected to a considerable Hindu influence, which reached them by means of the traders who visited the archipelago from India.

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  • In the islands of Bali and Lombok the people still profess a form of Hinduism, and Hindu remains are to be found in many other parts of the archipelago, though their traces do not extend to the peninsula.

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  • When the first Europeans visited the Malay Archipelago the Malays had already acquired the art of manufacturing gunpowder and forging canon.

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  • The art of writing also appears to have been independently invented by the Malayan races, since numerous alphabets are in use among the peoples of the archipelago, although for the writing of Malay itself the Arabic character has been adopted for some hundreds of years.

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  • The area over which it is spoken comprises the peninsula of Malacca with the adjacent islands (the Rhio-Lingga Archipelago), the greater part of the coast districts of Sumatra and Borneo, the seaports of Java, the Sunda and Banda Islands.

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  • It is the general medium of communication throughout the archipelago from Sumatra to the Philippine Islands, and it was so upwards of three hundred and fifty years ago when the Portuguese first appeared in those parts.

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  • There are no Malay manuscripts extant, no monumental records with inscriptions in Malay, dating from before the spreading of Islam in the archipelago, about the end of the 13th century.

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  • It is only since the Dutch have established their supremacy in the archipelago that the Roman character has come to be largely used in writing and printing Malay.

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  • Taiping (Perak, 1894-1898); John Crawfurd, History of the Indian Archipelago (3 vols., Edinburgh, 1820); Grammar and Dictionary of the Malay Language (2 vols., London, 1852); A Descriptive Dictionary of the Indian Islands and Adjacent Countries (London, 1856); Journal of the Indian Archipelago (12 vols., Singapore, 1847-1862); Journal of the Straits Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society, 33 Nos.

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  • Tupaya, a Tahitian, who accompanied Captain Cook in the " Endeavour " to Europe, supplied his patron with maps; Raraka drew a map in chalk of the Paumotu archipelago on the deck of Captain Wilkes's vessel; the Marshall islanders, according to Captain Winkler (Marine Rundschau, Oct.

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  • CYCLADES, a compact group of islands in the Greek Archipelago, forming a cluster around the island of Syra (Syros), the principal town of which, now officially known as Hermoupolis, is the capital of a department.

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  • It consists of an archipelago of islands and islets, over loo in number, situated to the north-east of Orkney, between 59 50 and 60° 52' N.

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  • BAHAMAS (Lucayos), an archipelago of the British West Indies.

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  • The Turks and Caicos islands continue the outer line, and belong geographically to the archipelago, but not politically.

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  • The surrounding seas are shallow for the most part, but there are three well-defined channels - the Florida or New Bahama channel, between the north-western islands and Florida, followed by the Gulf Stream, the Providence channels (north-east and north-west) from which a depression known as the Tongue of Ocean extends southward along the east side of Andros, and the Old Bahama channel, between the archipelago and Cuba.

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  • At that time the Greek emperor's rule was con fined to the shores of the Marmora, the Archipelago and Thrace.

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  • Meanwhile, in June 1499, war had again broken out with Venice, mainly owing to the intervention of the pope and emperor, who, with Milan, Florence and Naples, urged the sultan to crush the republic. On the 28th of July the Turks gained over the Venetians at Sapienza their first great victory at sea; and this was followed by the capture of Lepanto, at which Bayezid was present, and by the conquest of the Morea and most of the islands of the archipelago.

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  • In February 1773 the Russian plenipotentiary delivered his ultimatum, of which the most important demands were the cession of Kerch, Yenikale and Kinburn, the free navigation of the Black Sea and Archipelago for Russian trading and war vessels, and the recognition of the tsar's right to protect the Orthodox subjects of the sultan.

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  • The atrophy of the Ottoman sea-power had left the archipelago at the mercy of the Greek war-brigs; piracy flourished; and it became essential in the interests of the commerce of all nations to make some power responsible for the policing of the narrow seas.

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  • After the Greek revolution the system of manning the navy from the Christian natives of the archipelago and the Mediterranean littoral was abandoned, and recruits for the navy are now selected under the ordinary law.

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  • It is not connected with any portion of Europe or America except by suboceanic ridges; but in the extreme north it is separated only by a narrow strait from Ellesmere Land in the archipelago of the American continent.

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  • A few Devonian forms have also been recorded from the Parry Archipelago, and Nathorst has shown the existence of Old Red Sandstone facies of Devonian in Traill Island, Geographical Society Island, Ymer Island and Gauss Peninsula.

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  • corner of the archipelago, 75 m.

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  • Pearl Harbor and the harbour of Honolulu are the only safe ports in the archipelago.

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  • The enormous increase in the commercial demand for rubber and the probability of the continuance of this increase in view of the great variety of purposes to which the material can be applied, has led to great activity in rubber planting in other parts of the world, especially in Ceylon and the Malay Peninsula and Archipelago, where the Para rubber trees (Hevea brasiliensis) has been successfully introduced, and numerous plantations; many of which have not been in existence for more than ten or fifteen years, are now contributing to the world's supply.

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  • This tree, indigenous to Asia, attains large dimensions in India, Ceylon and the Malay Archipelago (Plate II.

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  • The archipelago is of volcanic formation, Tamara and Factory islands forming part of a ruined crater, with Crawford Island as the cone.

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  • The Sea of Okhotsk, separated from the Pacific by the Kurile Archipelago and from the Sea of Japan by the islands of Sakhalin and Yezo, is notorious as one of the worst seas of the world, owing to its dense fogs and its masses of floating ice.

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  • CAROLINE ISLANDS, a widely-scattered archipelago in the Pacific Ocean, E.

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  • The Germans divide the whole archipelago into two administrative districts, eastern and western, having the seats of government at Ponape and Yap respectively.

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  • of Mahe, the principal island of the Seychelles archipelago.

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  • The alluvial deposits are almost invariably worked opencast, those of the Malay Peninsula and Archipelago chiefly by Chinese labour: in a few instances hydraulic mining has been resorted to, and in other cases true underground mining is carried on; but the latter is both exceptional and difficult.

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  • The alluvial extracted, which in the Malay Peninsula and Archipelago carries from 5 to 60 lb of tinstone (or "black tin," as it is termed by Cornish miners) to the cubic yard of gravel, is washed in various simple sluicing appliances, by which the lighter clay, sand and stones are removed and tinstone is left behind comparatively pure, containing usually 65 to 75% of metallic tin (chemically pure tinstone contains 78.7%).

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  • olibanum of Java), corrupted in the parlance of Europe into benjamin and benzoin; camphor, produced by Cinnamomum Camphora, the "camphor laurel" of China and Japan, and by Dryobalanops aromatica, a native of the Indian Archipelago, and widely used as incense throughout the East, particularly in China; elemi, the resin of an unknown tree of the Philippine Islands, the elemi of old writers being the resin of Boswellia Frereana; gumdragon or dragon's blood, obtained from Calamus Draco, one of the ratan palms of the Indian Archipelago, Dracaena Draco, a liliaceous plant of the Canary Island, and Pterocarpus Draco, a leguminous tree of the island of Socotra; rose-malloes, a corruption of the Javanese rasamala, or liquid storax, the resinous exudation of Liquidambar Altingia, a native of the Indian Archipelago (an American Liquidambar also produces a rose-malloes-like exudation); star anise, the starlike fruit of the Illicum anisatum of Yunan and south-western China, burnt as incense in the temples of Japan; sweet flag, the root of Acorus Calamus, the bath of the Hindus, much used for incense in India.

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  • It comprises the districts of Mergui and Tavoy and a part of Amherst, and includes also the Mergui Archipelago.

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  • There are in addition some pearling grounds in the Mergui Archipelago, which have a very recent history; they were practically unknown before 1890; in the early 'nineties they were worked by Australian adventurers, most of whom have since departed; and now they are leased in blocks to a syndicate of Chinamen, who grant sub-leases to individual adventurers at the rate of £25 a pump for the pearling year.

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  • It seems certain that some knowledge of the art was preserved in France, in Germany and in Spain, and it seems improbable that it should have been lost in that archipelago, where the traditions of ancient civilization must have been better preserved than in almost any other place.

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  • Of those mentioned, the first four are from the Malay Peninsula or the islands of the Indo-Malay Archipelago, the last from Ceylon and India.

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  • His description of sago in the archipelago is not free from errors, but they are the errors of an eye-witness.

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  • Alphonse de Candolle (Origin of Cultivated Plants, p. 158) points out that the epoch of its introduction into different countries agrees with the idea that its origin was in India, Cochin-China or the Malay Archipelago, and regards it as most probable that its primitive range extended from Bengal to Cochin-China.

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  • of New Caledonia; the Huon Islands, a practically barren group; the Wallis Archipelago; and Futuna and Alofa, S.

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  • Leaving Hampton Roads on the 18th of August 1838, it Mopped at Madeira and Rio de Janeiro; visited Tierra del Fuego, Chile, Peru, the Paumotu group of the Low Archipelago, the Samoan islands and New South Wales; from Sydney sailed into the Antarctic Ocean in December 1839 and reported the discovery of an Antarctic continent west of the Balleny islands; visited the Fiji and the Hawaiian islands in 1840, explored the west coast of the United States, including the Columbia river, San Francisco Bay and the Sacramento river, in 1841, and returned by way of the Philippine islands, the Sulu archipelago, Borneo, Singapore, Polynesia and the Cape of Good Hope, reaching New York on the 10th of June 1842.

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  • In 1688 he was elected doge, and in 1693 he took command of the Venetian forces against the Turks for the fourth time; the enemy which had been cruising in the archipelago withdrew at his approach, so great was the terror inspired by his name.

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  • New Siberia Archipelago >>

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  • MALDIVE ISLANDS, an archipelago of coral islets in the Indian Ocean, forming a chain between 7° 6' N.

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  • The hereditary sultan of the archipelago is tributary to the British government of Ceylon.

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  • The sultan's residence and the capital of the archipelago is the island of Male.

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  • I (1900), and the Geographical Journ., loc. cit., &c. A French adventurer, Francois Pyrard de la Val, was wrecked in the Maldives in 1602 and detained there five years; he wrote an interesting account of the archipelago, Voyage de F.

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  • Louisiade Archipelago >>

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  • On the south, the RikiU Islands bring her within reach of Formosa and the Malayan archipelago; on the west, Oki, Iki, and Tsushima bridge the sea between her and Korea; on the north-west Sakhalin connects her with the Amur region; and on the north, the Kuriles form an almost continuous route to Kamchatka.

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  • In winter, for example, when the northern monsoon begins to blow, numbers of denizens of the Sea of Okhotsk swim southward to the more genial waters of north Japan; and in summer the Indian Ocean and the Malayan archipelago send to her southern coasts a crowd of emigrants which turn homeward again at the approach of winter.

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  • Very remarkable is the giant Taka-ashi long legs (Macrocheirus Kaempfeni), which has legs 14 metres long and is found in the seas of Japan and the Malay archipelago.

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  • ~ f.-.,,,,.-l a, Japanese archipelago, and several others have since then been added to the list.

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  • The mussel (i-no.kai) is well represented by the species numa-gai (marsh-mussel), karasu-gai (raven-mussel), kamisori-gai (razor-mussel), shijimi-no-kai (Corbicula), of which there are nine species, &c. Unlike the land-molluscs, the great majority of Japanese sea-molluscs are akin to those of the Indian Ocean and the Malay archipelago.

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  • Singapore had a Journal of the Indian Archipelago from 1847 to 1859, and the Chinese Repository (1832-1851) was edited at Carton by Morrison.

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  • The most beautiful of all snakes are perhaps certain varieties of Chrysopelea ornata, a species extremely common in the Indian Archipelago and many parts of the continent of tropical Asia.

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  • All are inhaoitants of the tropical Indo-Pacific ocean, and most numerous in and about the Persian Gulf, in the East Indian Archipelago, and in the seas between S.

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  • SYRA, or Syros (anc. Eupos, perhaps Homeric Evpirt), a Greek island in the middle of the Cyclades, which in the 19th century became the commercial centre of the Archipelago, and is also the residence of the nomarch of the Cyclades and the seat of the central law courts.

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  • The Australian Shelf rises steeply as a rule from depths, of 2500 to 3000 fathoms. A broad depression with depths of from 3300 to 3500 fathoms lies to the east of the Cocos Islands and extends into the angle between the Malay Archipelago and Australia.

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  • The ridge across Denmark Strait west of Iceland nowhere exceeds 300 fathoms in depth, so that the deeper water of the North Polar Basin is effectively separated from that of the Atlantic. A third small basin occupies Baffin Bay and contains a maximum depth of 1050 fathoms. Depths of from loo to 300 fathoms are not uncommon amongst the channels of the Arctic Archipelago north of North America, and Bering Strait, through which the surface water of the Arctic Sea meets that of the Pacific, is only 28 fathoms deep.

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  • The timber trees found towards the interior, and on the higher elevations, are of great size and beauty, the most valuable being teak (Tectona grandis), then-gan (Hopea odorata), ka-gnyeng (Dipterocarpus laevis), &c. The coast-line of the district, off which lies an archipelago of two hundred and seven islands, is much broken, and for several miles inland is very little raised above sea-level, and is drained by numerous muddy tidal creeks.

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  • Mergui town has risen into prominence in recent years as the centre of the pearling trade in the neighbouring archipelago.

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  • Mergui Archipelago >>

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  • 17ropa&Es, from air€ip€u', to sow), the islands scattered about the Greek Archipelago, as distinguished from the Cyclades, which are grouped round Delos, and from the islands attached, as it were, to the mainlands of Europe and Asia.

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  • Off its coast-line, on the parallel of 6° S., lies the vast Bismarck Archipelago, of which New Pomerania (Neu Pommern) is the most important member; and, on the parallel of io, the d'Entrecasteaux Islands, with the Marshall Bennett group to their north-east; while stretching out from the south-east promontory of the mainland is the Louisiade Archipelago.

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  • The islands on the southern margin of the Louisiade Archipelago are raised coral reefs, but the majority are mountainous, rarely, however, exceeding 3000 ft.; all of them are richly forested, but of little agricultural value.

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  • Nearly all the rivers in New Guinea yield " colours " of gold, but only in the Louisiade Archipelago has enough been discovered to constitute the district a goldfield.

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  • The zoology of the Bismarck Archipelago is little known.

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  • European industries include gold mining, in which 500 miners, besides natives, are engaged (chiefly in the Louisiade Archipelago), and the beche de mer and pearl-shell fisheries, which were formerly more productive than at present.

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  • Species of Palaquium, the genus from which, in the Indian Archipelago, the best gutta-percha is obtained, occur on the hills, and from their cultivation there might in time be obtained a large revenue independently of European labour.

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  • German New Guinea The German protectorate of New Guinea, so called after the island which contributes the greatest area, comprehends, besides Kaiser Wilhelms Land, the islands which are now commonly called the Bismarck Archipelago - viz.

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  • It is divided into two districts with separate administrations, New Guinea and the Bismarck Archipelago; over both: presides an imperial governor, the seat of government being Herbertshohe in New Pomerania.

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  • A line of steamers plies between New Guinea, the Bismarck Archipelago and Singapore.

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  • This ascendancy he abused by numerous acts of piracy which made him notorious throughout Greece; but his real purpose in building his navy was to become lord of all the islands of the archipelago and the mainland towns of Ionia.

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  • The native race of Bugis, whose number within this area is about 70,000, is one of the most interesting in the whole archipelago.

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  • He traversed Asia Minor and European Greece probably more than once; he visited all the most important islands of the Archipelago - Rhodes, Cyprus, Delos, Paros, Thasos, Samothrace, Crete, Samos, Cythera and Aegina.

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  • The natives in language and customs present affinities with some Polynesians, and have been held to be a survival of the eastward immigration of people of Caucasian stock which took place before those which established the " pre-Malay "peoples (such as the Dyaks and Battas) in the Malay Archipelago.

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  • RIOUW, RHIOUw or Bintang, an archipelago of the Dutch East Indies, E.

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  • Christmas Island has been a great source of phosphates of this type; also Jaluit Island in the Maldive Archipelago, Banaba or Ocean Island, and Nauru or Pleasant Island.

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  • A narrow tract of land along the coast of the Caspian, known as the "hillocks of Baer," is covered with hillocks elongated from west to east, perpendicularly to the coast-line, the spaces between them being filled with water or overgrown with thickets of reed, Salix, Ulmus campestris, almond trees, &c. An archipelago of little islands is thus formed close to the shore by these mounds, which are backed on the N.

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  • The early colonists found quite half the surface of the archipelago covered with dense, evergreen forest, a luxuriant growth of pines and beeches, tangled and intertwined with palms, ferns of all sizes, wild vines and other parasites, and a rank, bushy, mossed undergrowth.

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  • By 1642 they had spread to South Island, for there Abel Jansen Tasman found them when, in the course of his circuitous voyage from Java in the "Heemskirk," he chanced upon the archipelago, coasted along much of its western side, though without venturing to land, and gave it the name it still bears.

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  • Shortly after 1846, the British began to assert that the Rosario Strait and not Haro Strait (as the Americans held) was the channel separating the mainland and Vancouver Island, thus claiming the Haro Archipelago of which San Juan was the principal island.

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  • NEW SIBERIA ARCHIPELAGO, a group of islands situated off the Arctic coast of Siberia, from 73° to 76° 6' N., and 135° 20' to 148° E.

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  • The name is loosely applied, covering either the northern group only of these islands, for which the name of New Siberia Archipelago, or of Anjou Islands, ought properly to be reserved, or the southern group as well, which ought to maintain its name of Lyakhov Islands.

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  • Some confusion prevails also as to whether the islands Bennett, Henrietta and Jeannette, discovered by the "Jeannette" expedition, ought to be included in the same archipelago, or described separately as the Jeannette Islands.

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  • The first of these three belongs geographically, and probably geologically, to New Siberia Archipelago, from which it is only 97 m.

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  • of New Siberia Island, in 157° to 159° E., they can hardly be included in the New Siberia Archipelago.

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  • A Russian officer named Hedenstrbm, accompanied by Sannikov, explored the archipelago and published a map of it in 1811.

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  • TIDORE or Tidor, an island of the Malay Archipelago, off the W.

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  • This was assured to the insurgents at the outset by the revolt of the maritime communities of the Greek archipelago.

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  • The Turkish fleet, "adrift in the Archipelago" - as the British seamen put it - though greatly superior in tonnage and weight of metal, could never be a match for the Greek brigs, manned as these were by trained, if not disciplined, crews.

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  • Their fleets were divided into squadrons, of which one, under Tombazes, was deputed to watch for the entrance of the Ottomans into the archipelago, while the other under Andreas Miaoulis sailed to blockade Patras and watch the coasts of Epirus.

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  • In the Archipelago Hydriotes and Spetsiotes were at daggers drawn; the men of Psara were at open war with those of Samos; all semblance of discipline and cohesion had vanished from the Greek fleet.

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  • MALAY ARCHIPELAGO' (variously called Malaysia, the Indian Archipelago, the East Indies, Indonesia, Insulinde), the largest group of islands in the world, lying south-east of Asia and north and north-west of Australia.

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  • It includes the Sunda Islands, the Moluccas, New Guinea, and the Philippine Islands, but excludes the Andaman-Nicobar group. The equator passes through the middle of the archipelago; it successively cuts Sumatra, Borneo, Celebes and Halmahera, four of the most important islands.

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  • Wallace (who includes the Solomon Islands as well as New Guinea in the group) points out that the archipelago "includes two islands larger than Great Britain; and in one of them, Borneo, the whole of the British Isles might be set down, and would be surrounded by a sea of forests.

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  • The islands of the archipelago nearly all present bold and picturesque profiles against the horizon, and at the same time the character of the scenery varies from island to island and even from district to district.

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  • The loftiest mountain in the archipelago would appear to be Kinabalu in Borneo (13,698 ft.).

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  • An important fact in the physical geography of the archipelago is that Java, Bali, Sumatra and Borneo, and the lesser islands between them 1 For more detailed information respecting the several islands and groups of the archipelago, see the separate articles Borneo; Java; Philippine Islands; Sumatra, &C.

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  • The archipelago, in effect, is divided between two great regions, the Asiatic and the Australian, and the fact is evident in various branches of its geography - zoological, botanical, and even human.

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  • The most notable fact in the geological history of the archipelago is the discovery in Java of the fossil remains of Pithecanthropus erectus, a form intermediate between the higher apes and man.

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  • The most striking general fact as regards climate in the archipelago is that wherever that part of the south-east monsoon which has passed over Australia strikes, the climate is comparatively dry, and the vegetation is less luxuriant.

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  • The northwest monsoon, beginning in October and lasting till March, brings the principal rainy season in the archipelago.

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  • Most of the islands of the archipelago belong to the great equatorial forest-belt.

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  • To the naturalist the Malay Archipelago is a region of the highest interest; and from an early period it has attracted the attention of explorers of the first rank.

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  • Similarly, in the Asiatic islands are found the great mammals of the continent - the elephant, tiger, rhinoceros, anthropoid ape, &c., which are wanting in the Australian region, with which the eastern part of the archipelago is associated.

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  • (For details concerning flora and fauna, see separate articles, especially Java.) Inhabitants.-The majority of the native inhabitants of the Malay Archipelago belong to two races, the Malays and the Melanesians (Papuans).

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  • The Malay Archipelago was thus first invaded by the Caucasians, who eventually passed eastward and are to-day represented in the Malay Archipelago only by the Mentawi islanders.

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  • They were followed by an immigration of Mongol-Caucasic peoples with a preponderance of Caucasic blood-the Indonesians of some, the pre-Malays of other writers-who are to-day represented in the archipelago by such peoples as the Dyaks of Borneo and the Battas of Sumatra.

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  • At a far later date, probably almost within historic times, the true Malay race, a combination of Mongol and Caucasic elements, came into existence and overran the archipelago, in time becoming the dominant race.

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  • A Hindu strain is evident in Java and others of the western islands; Moors and Arabs (that is, as the names are used in the archipelago, Mahommedans from various countries between Arabia and India) are found more or less amalgamated with many of the Malay peoples; and the Chinese form, from an economical point of view, one of the most important sections of the community in many of the more civilized districts.

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  • Chinese have been established in the archipelago from a very early date: the first Dutch invaders found them settled at Jacatra; and many of them, as, for instance, the colony of Ternate, have taken so kindly to their new home that they have acquired Malay to the disuse of their native tongue.

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  • There is a vast field for philological explorations in the archipelago.

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  • The islands are often described as of two groups, Java and Madura forming one, and the other consisting of Sumatra, Borneo, Riouw-Lingga Archipelago, Banka, Billiton, Celebes, Molucca Archipelago, the small Sunda Islands, and a part of New Guinea-the Outposts as they are collectively named.

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  • The principal steamship company in the archipelago is the Royal Packet (Koninklyke Paketvaart) Company.

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  • Wallace, Malay Archipelago (London, 1869, and later editions, notably for zoological distribution) and Island Life (London, 1880, notably for ornithology).

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  • Forbes, A Naturalist's Wanderings in the Eastern Archipelago (London, 1885); P. van der Lith, Nederlandsch Oostindie (2nd ed., Leiden, 1893-1895); F.

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  • He crushed the rebellion and won the affection of the natives by his just and enlightened administration, which had no parallel in the annals of Portuguese rule in the archipelago.

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  • - Pirates from Dieppe visited the archipelago between 1527 and 1539.

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  • An English squadron under Sir James Lancaster came into conflict with the Portuguese in 1591, and an expedition under Sir Henry Middleton traded in the archipelago in 1604.

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  • In 1602 the Dutch East India Company was incorporated, and for nearly two centuries this organization played the chief part in the history of the archipelago.

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  • Meanwhile the English East India Company, chartered in 1600, had also extended its operations to the archipelago.

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  • - Ptolemy and other ancient geographers describe the Malay Archipelago, or part of it, in vague and inaccurate terms, and the traditions they preserved were supplemented in the middle ages by the narratives of a few famous travellers, such as Ibn Batuta, Marco Polo, Odoric of Pordenone and Niccolo Conti.

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  • Malay and Chinese records also furnish material for the early history of individual islands, but the known history of the archipelago as a whole begins in the i 6th century.

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  • The Portuguese were the first Europeans to colonize any part of the archipelago.

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  • The main object of the Portuguese was to obtain a share in the lucrative spice trade carried on by the Malays, Chinese and Japanese; the trade-routes of the archipelago converged upon Malacca, which was the point of departure for spice merchants trading with every country on the shores of the Indian Ocean and Arabian Sea.

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  • In 1514 a second Portuguese fleet arrived at Ternate, which during the next five years became the centre of Portuguese enterprise in the archipelago; regular traffic with Malacca and Cochin was established, and the native raja became a vassal of Portugal.

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  • Meanwhile the Spanish government was considering whether the Moluccas did not fall within the Spanish sphere of influence as defined by the Treaty of Tordesillas in 1494; and in August 1519 an expedition commanded by Ferdinand Magellan sailed from Seville to seek a westward passage to the archipelago.

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  • Ternate remained the seat of the governor of the Moluccas, who was the highest official in the archipelago, though subordinate to the viceroy or governor of Portuguese India.

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  • The full details of the settlement are unknown, but thenceforward the British company devoted its energies chiefly to the development of its Indian possessions, while the Dutch were left supreme in the archipelago.

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  • In 1684 the British even evacuated Bantam, their chief settlement, and retired to Benkulen in Sumatra, which remained for more than a century their sole territorial possession in the archipelago.

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  • Under this system, which was intended to provide Netherlands India with a fixed population of European descent, Dutch girls were sent to the archipelago to be married to white settlers, and subsequently marriages between Dutchmen and captive native women were encouraged.

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  • That servitude existed in many forms all over the archipelago, but among the most curious must be reckoned the pandelingschap or "pledgedom," which originated in Borneo, and according to which a man had the power to make his debtors his serfs until their debts were paid.

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  • In 1863 Fransen van de Putte, minister for the colonies, introduced the first of the annual colonial budgets for which the Regulations had provided, thus enabling the statesgeneral to control the revenue and expenditure of Netherlands India; in 1865 he reduced and in 1872 abolished the differentiation of customs dues in favour of goods imported from Holland, substituting a uniform import duty of 6% and establishing a number of free ports throughout the archipelago.

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  • While the Dutch were thus consolidating their authority, other countries were acquiring new commercial or colonial interests in the archipelago.

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  • Australian and Japanese trade in the archipelago was stimulated by the establishment of the Australian Commonwealth (1901) and the Russo-Japanese War (1904-5).

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  • In 1910 the nations most directly interested in the future of the archipelago were the Netherlands, Great Britain, the United States, Germany, Japan, China and Portugal.

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  • For later history see John Crawfurd, History of the Indian Archipelago (Edinburgh, 1820), which quotes from native as well as European records, and Twentieth-Century Impressions of Netherlands India (ed.

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  • The exports from Batavia to the other islands of the archipelago, and to the ports in the Malay Peninsula, are rice, sago, coffee, sugar, salt, oil, tobacco, teak timber and planks, Java cloths, brass wares, &c., and European, Indian and Chinese goods.

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  • The tonnage of vessels clearing from Batavia to countries beyond the archipelago had increased from 879,000 tons in 1887 to nearly 1,500,000 tons by the end of the century.

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  • Neu-Mecklenburg, formerly New Ireland, native Tombara), an island of the Bismarck Archipelago, N.E.

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  • They range over the south of Europe, the whole of Africa, India and the Malay Archipelago as far east as Borneo.

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  • BALEARIC ISLANDS (Baleares), an archipelago of four large and eleven small islands in the Mediterranean Sea, off the east coast of Spain, of which country it forms a province.

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  • The archipelago, which lies between 38° 40' and 40° 5' N., and between 1° and 5° E., comprises two distinct groups.

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  • The eastern and larger group, corresponding with the ancient Insulae Baleares, comprises the two principal members of the archipelago, Majorca (Spanish, Mallorca) and Minorca (Spanish, Menorca), with seven islets: Aire, Aucanada, Botafoch, Cabrera, Dragonera, Pinto and El Rey.

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  • The climate of the archipelago, though generally mild, healthy and favourable to plant life, is by no means uniform, owing to the differences of altitude and shelter from wind in different islands.

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  • Like "Brazil," it dates from a period anterior to the discovery of the New World, "Antilia," as stated above, being one of those mysterious lands, which figured on the medieval charts sometimes as an archipelago, sometimes as continuous land of greater or lesser extent, constantly fluctuating in mid-ocean between the Canaries and East India.

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  • Later, when this was found to consist of a vast archipelago enclosing the Caribbean Sea and Gulf of Mexico, Antilia assumed its present plural form, Antilles, which was collectively applied to the whole of this archipelago.

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  • Beyond it lay an archipelago of lesser islands.

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  • Uvea Wallis Archipelago >>

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  • Amongst the islands of the Malay Archipelago are a number of enclosed areas - the Sulu, Celebes, Java, Banda and Arafura seas.

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  • Depths of less than 2000 fathoms occur continuously on a bank extending from south-eastern Asia, on which stands the Malay Archipelago.

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  • The north of the chain, from the Kuriles to Formosa, belongs to the empire of Japan; southward it is continued by the Philippines (belonging to the United States of America) which link it with the vast archipelago between the Pacific and Indian oceans, to which the name Malay Archipelago is commonly applied.

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  • South-eastward of the Malay Archipelago lies " the largest island and the smallest continent," Australia; eastward of the archipelago, New Guinea, the largest island if Australia be regarded as a continent only.

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  • In Tonga, in the New Hebrides, and in the long chain of the Solomons and the Bismarck Archipelago there is much activity.

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  • Christmas, one of the last-named, is reputed to be the largest lagoon island in the Pacific. The Paumotu Archipelago is the most extensive of the coral groups.

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  • Not long after the death of Columbus, and when the Portuguese traders, working from the west, had hardly reached the confines of the Malay Archipelago, the Spaniard Vasco Nunez de Balboa crossed America at its narrowest part and discovered the great ocean to the west of it (1513).

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  • One of his commanders, Luis Vaes de Torres, struck off to the north-west, coasted along the south of the Louisiade Archipelago and New Guinea, traversed the strait which bears his name between New Guinea and Australia, and reached the Philippines.

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  • In1615-1617two Dutchmen, Jacob Lemaire and Willem Cornelis Schouten, having in view both the discovery of the southern continent and the possibility of establishing relations with the East Indies from the east, took a course which brought them to the north part of the Paumotu Archipelago, thence to part of the Tonga chain, and ultimately to New Pomerania, after which they reached the East Indies.

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  • The Dutchman Jacob Roggeveen, in the course of a voyage round the world in 1721-1722, crossed the Pacific from east to west, and discovered Easter Island, some of the northern islands of the Paumotu Archipelago, and (as is generally supposed) a part of the Samoan group. The voyage of Commodore George (afterwards Lord) Anson in 1740-1744 was for purposes rather of war than of exploration, and Commodore John Byron's voyage in 1765 had little result beyond gaining some additional knowledge of the Paumotu Archipelago.

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  • Within the limits of the area under notice, his first voyage (1769) included visits to Tahiti and the Society group generally, to New Zealand and to the east coast of Australia, his second (1773-1774) to New Zealand, the Paumotu Archipelago, the Society Islands, Tonga and subsequently Easter Island, the Marquesas and the New Hebrides; and his third (1777-1778) to Tonga, the Cook or Norway group, and the Hawaiian Islands, of which, even if they were previously known to the Spaniards, he may be called the discoverer, and where he was subsequently killed.

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  • The seat of government of the German protectorate of Kaiser Wilhelm's Land (New Guinea) is Herbertshohe in the Bismarck Archipelago.

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  • Whether the two families have a common ancestor in the negritos of Malaysia and the Indian archipelago, or whether Papuan and Negrito are alike branches of an aboriginal African race, is a problem yet to be solved.

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  • The view which has received most general acceptance is that they represent a branch of the Caucasic division of mankind who migrated at a remote period possibly in Neolithic times from the Asiatic mainland travelling by way of the Malay Archipelago and gradually colonizing the eastern Pacific. The Polynesians, who, as represented by such groups as the Samoans and Marquesas islanders, are the physical equal of Europeans, are of a light brown colour, tall, well-proportioned, with regular and often beautiful features.

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  • Careful investigations have supported the theory that Micronesia was peopled largely from the Philippines or some portion of the Malay Archipelago at a much later period than the Polynesian migration.

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  • It lies south of the Paumotu archipelago, ioo m.

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  • The commander, Lieutenant William Bligh, was set adrift in the launch with part of the crew, but managed to make his way to Timor in the Malay Archipelago.

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  • The Gulf of Nicoya, a shallow landlocked inlet, containing a whole archipelago of richly-wooded islets, derives its name from Nicoya, an Indian chief who, with his tribe, was here converted to Christianity in the 16th century.

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  • The Areca palm is a native of the Malay Peninsula and Islands and is extensively cultivated over a wide area in the East, including southern India, Ceylon, Siam, the Malay Archipelago and the Philippine Islands.

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  • Strindberg's mastery of the art of description is perhaps seen at its best in the novels of life in the Swedish archipelago, in Hemsoborna (" The Inhabitants of Hemsd, 1887), one of the best existing novels of popular Swedish life, and Skarkarlslif (" Life of an Island Lad," 1890).

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  • Bismarck Archipelago >>

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  • On Rousay (627) the cairn of Blotchnie Fiold (811 ft.), the highest point of the island, commands a beautiful survey of the northern isles of the archipelago.

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  • The term "East Indies" is still sometimes applied to the Malay Archipelago alone, and the phrase "Dutch East Indies" is commonly used to denote the Dutch possessions which constitute the greater part of that archipelago.

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  • He spent considerable time in the Aegean archipelago, of which he wrote in The Cyclades: or Life among the Insular Greeks (1885).

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  • pp. 179-197, in which the story of the archipelago is set forth by various writers; an account of the islands by A.

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  • SOLOMON ISLANDS (Ger., Salomoinseln), an archipelago of the Western Pacific Ocean, included in Melanesia, and forming a chain (in continuation of that of the Admiralty Islands and New Mecklenburg in the Bismarck Archipelago) from N.W.

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  • (For map, see Pacific Ocean.) A comparatively shallow sea surrounds the islands and indicates physical connexion with the Bismarck Archipelago and New Guinea, whereas directly east of the Solomons there 1 Some sentences from W.

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  • and San Cristoval with their surrounding islets were annexed by Great Britain, and the final delimitation of German and British influence in the archipelago was made by the convention of the 14th of November 1899.

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  • TIMOR LAUT (" Seaweed Timor"; Dutch, Timor Laoet), Tenimber or Tenimbar, a group of islands in the Malay Archipelago, S.W.

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  • Its coast, unlike that of the other islands of the archipelago, has few coral reefs.

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  • There are some fine species of birds, and the native avifauna is so distinctive that Wallace argued from it that the Hawaiian Archipelago had long been separated from any other land.

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  • The position of the archipelago, at the " cross-roads " of the North Pacific, has made it commercially important since the days of the whale fishery, and it has a practical monopoly of coaling, watering and victualling.

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  • Its main disadvantage is the lack of harbours - Honolulu and Pearl Harbor are the only ones in the archipelago; but under the River and Harbour Act of 1905 examinations and surveys were made to improve Hilo Bay on the island of Hawaii.

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  • At the time of Cook's visit the archipelago seems to have been divided into three distinct kingdoms: Hawaii; Oahu and Maui; and Lanai and Molokai.

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  • MOLUCCAS, or Spice Islands, a name which in its wider sense includes all the islands of the Malay Archipelago between Celebes on the W., New Guinea on the E., Timor on the S., and the open Pacific Ocean on the N.

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  • At the close of the 16th century this part of the archipelago was divided among four rulers settled at Ternate, Tidore, Halmahera and Bachian.

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  • See further Malay Archipelago, and separate articles on the principal islands and groups.

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  • Sarong, the Malay ward for a garment wrapped round the lower part of the body and used by both men and women, is now applied to plain or printed cloths exported to the Indian or Eastern Archipelago for this purpose.

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  • SIPHANTO, Sipheno or Siphno (anc. Siphnos), an island of the Greek Archipelago, in the department of the Cyclades, 30 m.

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  • As in antiquity so now the potters of the island are known throughout the Archipelago.

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  • BISMARCK ARCHIPELAGO, the collective name of a large number of islands lying N.

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  • The largest island is New Pomerania, and the archipelago also includes New Mecklenburg, New Hanover, with small attendant islands, the Admiralty Islands and a chain of islands off the coast of New Guinea, the whole system lying in the form of a great amphitheatre of oval shape.

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  • The archipelago was named in honour of the first chancellor of the German empire, after a German protectorate had been declared in 1884.

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  • The presence of carp in Indo-China and the Malay Archipelago is probably also to be ascribed to human agency.

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  • TIMOR, an island of the Malay Archipelago, the easternmost and largest of the Lesser Sunda Islands, stretching S.W.

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  • Forbes's Naturalist's Wanderings in the Eastern Archipelago.

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  • Few ships visit the colony, except Dutch vessels trading in the archipelago, which call regularly at Dilli.

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  • Malay Archipelago).

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  • For the remarkable flying survey of the south coast by the commandant of the Siboga expedition, exploring the deep seas and fauna of the archipelago, see Bulletin (No.

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  • The Malay Archipelago, ii.

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  • In 1877 John Selwyn was consecrated bishop. Wesleyan native evangelists from Fiji and Tonga carried Christianity in 1875 to the Bismarck Archipelago.

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  • The peninsula and archipelago known as Malaysia presents a remarkable mingling of races, languages and beliefs.

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  • In the Archipelago most of the work has naturally been in the hands of the Netherlands Missionary Society (1812) and other Dutch agencies, who at first were not encouraged by the colonial government, but have since done well, especially in the Minahassa district of Celebes (r50,000 members) and among the Bataks of Sumatra (Rhenish Mission).

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  • 'SUMATRA, the westernmost and, next to Borneo, the largest of the Great Sunda Islands in the Malay Archipelago.

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  • As throughout the whole of the Malayan Archipelago, so in Sumatra, which lies about equally balanced on both sides of the equator, the temperature stands at a high level subject to but slight variations.

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  • The Sumatran hare (Lepus netscheri), discovered in 1880, adds a second species to the Lepus nigricollis, the only hare previously known in the Malay Archipelago.

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  • A remarkable feature of the Sumatran flora is the great variety of trees that vie with each other in stature and beauty, and as a timber-producing country the island ranks high even among the richly wooded lands of the archipelago.

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  • As far as is known, Sumatran civilization and culture are of Hindu origin; and it is not improbable that the island was the first of all the archipelago to receive the Indian immigrants who played so important a part in the history of the region.

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  • (See also MALAY ARCHIPELAGO.)

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  • The extensive sea-arms forming the South Holland and Zeeland archipelago are the Hont or West Scheldt, the East Scheldt, the Grevelingen (communicating with Krammer and the Volkerak) and the Haringvliet, which after being joined by the Volkerak is known as the Hollandsch Diep. These inlets were formerly of much greater extent than now, but are gradually closing up owing to the accumulation of mud deposits, and no longer have the same freedom of communication with one another.

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  • Towards its mouth its waters find their way into all the channels intersecting the South Holland archipelago.

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  • - The Dutch colonies in the Malay Archipelago have an area of 600,000 sq.

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  • In Bibilid prison, in the Santa Cruz district, nearly 80% of the prisoners of the archipelago are confined; it is under the control of the department of public instruction and its inmates are given an opportunity to learn one or more useful trades.

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  • Manila is the greatest hemp market in the world; 110, 399 tons, valued at $19,444,769, were exported from the archipelago in 1906, almost all being shipped from Manila.

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  • But in 1884 and 1885 the German flag was hoisted on the north of New Th Guinea (to which the name Kaiser Wffhelmsland has Pac~ui~ been given), on several parts of the New Britain Archipelago (which afterwards became the Bismarck Archipelago), and on the Caroline Islands.

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  • and between 8 ° 4' 54" and 12° 47' 25" E., exclusive of the island of Bornholm, which, as will be seen, is not to be included in the Danish archipelago.

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  • Several islands, none of great extent, lie off the west coast of Fiinen in the Little Belt; off the south, however, an archipelago is enclosed by the long narrow islands of Aerti (16 m.

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  • Nyborg on the east is the port for the steam-ferry to Korsor in Zealand; Svendborg picturesquely overlooks the southern archipelago; Faaborg on the south-west lies on a fjord of the same name; Assens, on the west, a port for the crossing of the Little Belt into Schleswig, still shows traces of the fortifications which were stormed by John of Ranzau in 1 535; Middelfart is a seaside resort near the narrowest reach of the Little Belt; Bogense is a small port on the north coast.

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  • in length, with several large villages, which lies somewhat apart from the main archipelago.

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  • of the nearest point of the archipelago, and as it belongs geologically to Sweden (from which it is distant only 22 m.) must be considered to be physically an appendage rather than an internal part of the kingdom of Denmark.

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  • FRANZ JOSEF LAND, an arctic archipelago lying E.

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  • In 1896 the Jackson-Harmsworth expedition worked northwards through an archipelago for about 70 m.

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  • As the non-existence of land to the north had been proved, the attempt to penetrate northwards was abandoned, and the last season was devoted to a survey and scientific examination of the archipelago, especially to the west; this was carried out by Messrs Jackson, Armitage, R.

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  • Beginning a northward journey with sledges at the end of the winter, Wellman met with an accident which compelled him to return, but not before some exploration had been accomplished, and the eastern extension of the archipelago fairly well defined.

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  • The Portuguese and Spaniards were better acquainted with Halmahera than with many other parts of the archipelago; they called it sometimes Batu China and sometimes Moro.

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  • This was a Genoese expedition, which about 1270 seems to have sailed into the Alantic, re-discovered the "Fortunate Islands" or Canaries, and made something of a conquest and settlement in one of the most northerly isles of this archipelago, still known (after the Italian captain) as Lanzarote.

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  • From the northern end it is connected (I) with the polar sea northward by Smith Sound, prolonged by Kane Basin and Kennedy and Robeson Channels; (2) with the straits which ramify through the archipelago to the north-west by narrow channels at the head of Jones Sound, from which O.

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  • Sverdrup and his party conducted explorations in 1900-1902; (3) with the more southerly part of the same archipelago by Lancaster Sound.

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  • They inhabit the Black Sea littoral from Varna to the Bosporus, the shores of the Sea of Marmora and the Aegean, the Aegean archipelago, the mainland of Greece, Epirus and the western islands as far north as Corfu.

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  • The northern chain is of volcanic formation, and contains the peak of Lombok (ii,81o ft.), one of the highest volcanoes in the Malay Archipelago.

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  • The old sultan of Mataram was captured, and he and other Balinese chiefs were exiled to different parts of the Malay Archipelago, whilst the sultan's heir fell at the hands of his warriors.

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  • Wallace, Malay Archipelago (London, 1869, and later editions).

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  • It is also resorted to by native sailing craft from all parts of the Malay Archipelago.

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  • The trade of Singapore is chiefly dependent upon the position which the port occupies as the principal emporium of the Federated Malay States and of the Malayan archipelago, and as the great port of call for ships passing to and from the Far East.

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  • See Life of Sir Stamford Raffles; Logan's Journal of the Malay Archipelago; the Journal of the Straits Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society (Singapore); Sir Frank Swettenham, British Malaya (London, 1906); Blue-Book of the Straits Settlements (1906); The Straits Directory, 1908 (Singapore, 1908).

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  • Their earliest halting place was probably the Malay Archipelago, where a few of their kin linger in the Mentawi Islands on the west coast of Sumatra.

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  • He has studied the folk-lore of those islands exhaustively, and from this source comes to the conclusion that the Polynesian migration from the Indian Archipelago may be approximately assigned to the close of the 1st or to the 2nd century.

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  • It used to be doubted whether these people could have gone from the Indian archipelago so far eastward, because the prevailing winds and currents are from the east.

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  • Pottery was not manufactured by the Polynesians: a fact which, it has been argued, goes far to prove the remoteness of the Polynesian migration from the Malay Archipelago, where there is not a single tribe which does not possess the art.

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  • Thus it is pointed out that Cook's estimate of 240,000 for the Society Archipelago (Tahiti) was at the time reduced by his associate, Forster, to 150,000, so that the 300,000 credited by him to the Sandwich Islands should also be heavily discounted.

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  • The skill of the natives as seamen is proverbial in the archipelago.

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  • VANCOUVER ISLAND, the largest of an archipelago of innumerable islands which fringes the Pacific coast of Canada, being at the same time the largest island on the west coast of North America.

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  • GIUSTINIANI, the name of a prominent Italian family which originally belonged to Venice, but established itself subsequently in Genoa also, and at various times had representatives in Naples, Corsica and several of the islands of the Archipelago.

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  • CANARY ISLANDS (Canarias), a Spanish archipelago in the Atlantic Ocean; about 60 m.

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  • The archipelago forms one Spanish province, of which the capital is Santa Cruz de Tenerife, the residence of the civil governor, who has under his command one of the two districts into which the archipelago is divided, this first district comprising Teneriffe, Palma, Gomera and Hierro.

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  • The captaingeneral and second commandant of the archipelago reside in Santa Cruz de Tenerife, and there is a brigadier-governor of Grand Canary, residing in Las Palmas, besides eight inferior military commandants.

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  • The archipelago is divided into two naval districts, commanded by royal navy captains.

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  • A Portuguese expedition, undertaken about the same time, failed to find the archipelago, and want of means frustrated the project of conquest entertained by a grandson of Alnhonso X.

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  • Jean de Bethencourt, who died in 1422, bequeathed the islands to his brother Reynaud; Guzman sold them to another Spaniard named Paraza, who was forced to re-sell to Ferdinand and Isabella of Castile in 1476; and Prince Henry twice endeavoured to enforce his own claims. Meanwhile the Guanches remained unconquered throughout the greater part of the archipelago.

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  • The archipelago was included for administrative purposes in the captaincy-general of Andalusia until 1833, when it was made a separate province.

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  • LABUAN (a corruption of the Malay word labuh-an, signifying an "anchorage"), an island of the Malay Archipelago, off the north-west coast of Borneo in 5° 16' N., 115° 15' E.

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  • In respect to positive affinities, Sir Joseph Hooker pointed out some relations with the flora of tropical Africa as evidenced by the prevalence of such genera as Grewia and Impatiens, and the absence, common to both countries, of oaks and pines which abound in the Malayan archipelago.

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  • Andamanese (1882) Gipsy Languages (344,143) Others (125) Total Vernaculars of India 147 The only representatives of the Malayo-Polynesian group in India .are the Selungs of the Mergui Archipelago and the Nicobarese.

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  • Pearls are found off the southern coast of Madras and also in the Mergui archipelago.

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  • Afghanistan, Nepal, Eastern Turkestan, Tibet, Mongolia, Manchuria, China, Japan, the Eastern Archipelago, Siam, Burma, Ceylon and India at one time marked the magnificent circumference of its conquests.

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  • Its shrines and monasteries stretched in a continuous line from the Caspian to the Pacific, and still extend from the confines of the Russian empire to the equatorial archipelago.

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  • Then, sailing round Ceylon, he captured Malacca, the key of the navigation of the Indian archipelago, and opened a trade with Siam and the Spice Islands (Moluccas).

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  • The Dutch were already too strongly entrenched in the Indian archipelago for English competition to avail there, and the intense rivalry between the two nations led to the tragedy of Amboyna in 1623, when Governor Van Speult put to torture and death nine Englishmen on a charge of conspiring to take the Dutch forts.

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  • At first the trade was mainly with the Indian archipelago, but soon the English began to feel their way towards the mainland of India itself.

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  • The zibeth (Viverra zibetha) is a widely distributed species extending from Arabia to Malabar, and throughout several of the larger islands of the Indian Archipelago.

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  • The small Indian civet or rasse (Viverricula malaccensis) ranges from Madagascar through India to China, the Malay Peninsula, and the islands of the Archipelago.

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  • The Dahlak archipelago and other groups of islands along the coast belong to Eritrea.

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  • PHILIPPINE ISLANDS, or THE Philippines, an archipelago belonging to the United States of America, situated about Soo m.

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  • m., and the total number of islands enumerated within the archipelago is 3141; of these 2775 contain less than i sq.

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  • On the east border of the south portion of the basin of the Rio Grande Mindanao is Mt Apo (10,312 ft.), an extinct volcano and the highest elevation in the archipelago.

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  • Submarine mountain ranges connect not only the islands within the archipelago, but also the archipelago itself with Borneo and Celebes, so that only shallow channels connect the interior waters with the Pacific Ocean and the China Sea.

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  • The Cagayan river, in north Luzon, is the largest in the archipelago.

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  • There are twelve active volcanoes in the archipelago.

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  • In the 47 years ending March 1909 the various regions of the archipelago were visited by about 60 strong earthquakes; 16 of these, in ten different regions, occurred in the decade from 1890 to 1900.

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  • Squirrelshrews occur in the Palawan-Calamianes group, and true shrews at various points in the archipelago.

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  • Pearloysters are abundant in the southern waters of the archipelago.

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  • The coral beds of Mindanao and the Sulu Archipelago are of unsurpassed beauty, and Guimaras, Cebu and Siquijor are completely covered with a thick cap of coral limestone.

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  • The rich and varied flora of the Philippines is essentially Malayan, intermixed with Chinese and Australian elements, but with sufficient individuality to constitute a sub-region, there being at least 769 species peculiar to the archipelago.

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  • Throughout the archipelago the mean annual temperature varies much more with the altitude than with the latitude, but the range in mean monthly temperatures increases from 3.96° F.

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  • In the year ending August 1903 the amounts of rainfall at 41 observation stations widely distributed throughout the archipelago varied from 16.2 in.

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  • Only 9.5% of all the land in the archipelago was included in " farms " in 1903, and less than one-half of the farm land was under cultivation.

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  • It is grown most extensively in the valley of the Cagayan river, in 1902 the total acreage in the archipelago was about 254,470.

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  • The total population of the archipelago as enumerated in the census of 1903 was 7,635,426.

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  • The Igorots (197,938 wild and 13,582 civilized) are the chief representatives of the early Malay immigration to the archipelago.

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  • Each municipality is made up of barrios or small villages (about 13,400 in the entire archipelago) and of one, or more, more thickly peopled areas, each called a poblacion, and resembling the township " centre " of New England.

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  • The administrative head of the system fs the director of education, who is appointed by the commission, and who arranges the course of study, approves the plans for school houses, determines in what towns secondary schools shall be established and in what towns American teachers shall teach, divides the archipelago into school divisions and appoints a division superintendent in each, and supervises the examination of teachers and the application of insular school funds.

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  • Magellan named his discovery the Archipelago of San Lazarus.

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  • In the sailing directions, issued in 1561, for the use of this expedition the phrase " las Islas Filipinas " was used as applying to the entire archipelago.

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  • By the terms of the capitulation the whole of the archipelago was surrendered to the British and an indemnity of 4,000,000 pesos was to be paid.

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  • high, found both wild and cultivated in China, the Malay Archipelago, Ceylon, India, tropical Africa and Australia.

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  • Agricultural labour for convicts has been tried in colonies of coatti (or those provisionally released) planted out in the islands of the Italian archipelago.

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  • The chief geological formations of Buru are crystalline slate near the north coast, and more to the south Mesozoic sandstone and chalk, deposits of rare occurrence in the archipelago.

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  • After a long discussion the peace treaty was ratified by the United States Senate on the 6th of February 1899; and in accordance with its terms Porto Rico, the Philippine Archipelago, and Guam were transferred by Spain to the United States, and Cuba came under American jurisdiction pending the establishment there of an independent government.

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  • SUNDA ISLANDS, the collective name of the islands in the Malay Archipelago which extend from the Malay Peninsula to the Moluccas.

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  • BORNEO, a great island of the Malay Archipelago, extending from 7° N.

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  • The Cypselus esculentus, or edible-nest swift, is very common, and the nests, which are built mostly in limestone caves, are esteemed the best in the archipelago.

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  • In British North Borneo, and especially in the district of Tempasuk on the north-west coast, Borneo ponies, bred originally, it is supposed, from the stock which is indigenous to the Sulu archipelago, are common.

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  • To this day, among the natives of the Malayan Archipelago, men speak of going to Pontianak, to Sambas or to Brunei, as the case may be, but make use of no term which recognizes that these localities are part of a single whole.

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  • Meanwhile the Dutch and British East India Companies had been formed, had destroyed the monopoly so long enjoyed by the Portuguese, and to a less extent the Spaniards, in the trade of the Malayan Archipelago, and had gained a footing in Borneo.

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  • The Dutch, in fact, speedily became the predominant European race throughout the Malay Archipelago, defeating the British by superior energy and enterprise, and the trading-posts all along the western and southern coasts of Borneo were presently their exclusive possessions, the sultan of Bantam, who was the overlord of these districts, ceding his rights to the Dutch.

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  • In 1838 Sir James Brooke, an Englishman, whose attention had been turned to the state of affairs in the Eastern Archipelago, set out for Borneo, determined, if possible, to remedy the evil.

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  • Throughout the Malayan Archipelago the words Bajau and perompak (pirate) are still used as synonymous terms. At the northern extremity of the island Marudu Bay receives the waters of the Marudu which rises on the western side of Mount Madalon.

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  • The east coast is very sparsely populated and its inhabitants are mostly Bajaus and settlers from the neighbouring Sulu archipelago.

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  • The Dusun language, it is interesting to note, presents very curious grammatical complications and refinements such as are not to be found among the tongues spoken by any of the other peoples of the Malayan Archipelago or the mainland of south-eastern Asia.

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  • They have still extensive colonies in the East Indian Archipelago, as well as possessions in the West Indies.

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  • In some places the oblique Mongolian eye is noticed, and (together with certain Indo-Chinese customs) there is often a scantiness of beard and general "Malay" look, which increases westwards, and seems to imply relations with the archipelago subsequent to the departure thence of the pure Polynesians.

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  • On the island of Peru, in the Gilbert group, in 1869 there was still the remnants of a large proah which, from the description given, appears to have been like those used in the Indian Archipelago.

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  • In the language of Ebon, one of the islands in the Marshall archipelago, nouns have the peculiarity which is characteristic of the Papuan languages: those which indicate close relationship - as of a son to a father, or of the members of a person's body - take a pronominal suffix which gives them the appearance of inflexions.

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  • The existence of these lands helps to account for the usual obstruction of pack-ice in the waters of the Nordenskjold Archipelago and the Kara Sea.

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  • All the islands of the American Arctic Archipelago are claimed by Canada.

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  • Anatolia 1 Archipelago, 2 Bigha, 3 Brusa, 4 Aidin (Smyrna) 5 Ismid, 6 Kastamuni, 7 Angora.

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  • ALAND ISLANDS, an archipelago at the entrance to the Gulf of Bothnia, about 25 m.

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  • MERGUI ARCHIPELAGO, a cluster of islands in the Bay of Bengal, near the southern coast of Lower Burma.

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  • Pocock in the first part of the Kennel Encyclopaedia, 1907), the absence of any really wild species of the typical group of the genus Canis between Burma and Siam on the one hand and Australia on the other is a very strong argument against the dingo being indigenous, seeing that, whether brought by man or having travelled thither of its own accord, the dingo must have reached its present habitat by way of the Austro-Malay archipelago.

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  • Finland includes in the south-west the Aland archipelago - its frontier approaching within .8 m.

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  • Thus, the species inhabiting Sumatra, Java and Borneo are almost always much smaller than the closely allied species of Celebes and the Moluccas; the species or varieties of the small island of Amboyna are larger than the same species or closely allied forms inhabiting the surrounding islands; the species found in Celebes possess a peculiar form of wing, quite distinct from that of the same or closely allied species of adjacent islands; and, lastly, numerous species which have tailed wings in India and the western islands of the Archipelago, gradually lose the tail as we proceed eastward to New Guinea and the Pacific.

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  • It is absent, however, from the great elevated plateau of Central Asia, nor does it inhabit Ceylon, Borneo or the other islands of the Indo-Malay Archipelago, except those named.

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  • BAY ISLANDS (IsLAS DE LA Bahia), a small archipelago in the Caribbean Sea, off the coast of Honduras, of which country it forms an administrative district.

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  • The archipelago consists of Roatan or Ruatan, Guanaja or Bonacca, Utilla, Barbareta, Helena, Morat, the Puercos or Hog Islands, and many cays or islets.

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  • An archipelago of islands, of which DagO is the largest, belongs to this government (Oesel belongs to Livonia).

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  • Farther north, a narrow sound (Glands Haf) intervening on the Swedish side, the vast Aland archipelago, belonging to Russia, extends across to the Finnish coast.

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  • After devoting himself wholly to realism of the coarsest kind, he began in 1889 his series of mystico-pathological novels about life in the archipelago of Stockholm.

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  • 5849) has described in verse the life in the islands of the Stockholm archipelago.

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  • (For map see Argentina.) It extends from the northern boundary of the province of Tacna, about 17° 25' S., to Cape Horn at the extreme southern point of the Fuegian archipelago in 55° 58' 40" S., with an extreme meridian length of 2661 m., and with a coast line considerably exceeding that figure owing to a westward curve of about 31° and an eastward trend south of 50° S.

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  • The deeply-indented coast line is filled with islands which preserve the general outline of the continent southward to the Fuegian archipelago, the outside groups forming a continuation of the Cordillera Maritima.

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  • Among the islands which thickly fringe this part of the coast, the largest are Azopardo (lying within Baker Inlet), Prince Henry, Campana, Little Wellington, Great Wellington and Mornington (of the Wellington archipelago), Madre de Dios, Duke of York, Chatham, Hanover, Cambridge, Contreras, Rennell and the Queen Adelaide group of small barren rocks and islands lying immediately north of the Pacific entrance to the Straits of Magellan.

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  • of coast from the Chonos Archipelago south to the Fuegian islands have a climate, closely approximating that of the latter.

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  • The estimated number of Indians living within the boundaries of Chile is about 50,000, which presumably includes the nomadic tribes of the Fuegian archipelago, whose number probably does not reach 5000.

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  • TERNATE, a small island in the Malay Archipelago, off the west coast of Halmahera, in o 48' N., 127° 19' E.

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  • The breaking up of the old government of the Moluccas tended to make Ternate perhaps the most important Dutch-Indian political centre of the archipelago east of Celebes.

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  • The coast-villages are inhabited by a mixed Malay population, Buginese, Macassars, Balinese and other races of the archipelago.

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  • Maglia is a native of the Chilean coast as far south as the Chonos Archipelago, and was cultivated in the garden of the Horticultural Society at Chiswick in 1822, being con sidered by Sabine, in his paper on the native country of the wild potato, to be the true S.

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  • Wallace, The Malay Archipelago).

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  • They comprised, in Africa, the Cape Verde Islands, St Thomas and Prince's Islands, Portuguese Guinea, Angola and Portuguese East Africa, or Mozambique; in India, Goa, Damaun and Diu; in China, Macao; and in the Malay Archipelago part of Timor.

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  • Joao da Nova discovered Ascension (1501) and St Helena (1502);(1502); Tristao da Cunha was the first to sight the archipelago still known by his name (1506).

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  • East of Malacca, Albuquerque sent Duarte Fernandes as envoy to Siam (1511), and despatched to the Moluccas two expeditions (1512, 1514), which founded the Portuguese dominion in the Malay Archipelago (q.v.).

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  • Other seaports and islands were conquered or colonized in rapid succession, and by 1540 Portugal had acquired a line of scattered maritime possessions extending along the coasts of Brazil, East and West Africa, Malabar, Ceylon, Persia, Indo-China and the Malay Archipelago.

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  • This is chiefly practised by the inhabitants of China and the islands of the Indian Archipelago, and in countries where Chinese are largely employed.

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  • Luchu Archipelago >>

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  • MELANESIA, one of the three great divisions of the oceanic islands in the central and western Pacific. It embraces the Bismarck Archipelago, N.E.

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  • After spending a year and a half in England, during which time, besides his book on the Amazon, he published a small volume on the Palm Trees of the Amazon, he started for the Malay Archipelago, exploring, observing and collecting from 1854 to 1862.

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  • His deeply interesting narrative, The Malay Archipelago, appeared in 1869, and he also published many important papers through the London scientific societies.

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  • He discovered that the Malay Archipelago was divided into a western group of islands, which in their zoological affinities are Oriental, and an eastern, which are Australian.

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  • westward from the extremity of the Alaskan peninsula toward the peninsula of Kamchatka; they constitute part of the District of Alaska, U.S.A. The islands, of which an alternative collective name is the Catherine Archipelago, comprise four groups - the Fox, Andreanof, Rat and Near Islands.

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  • The axis of the archipelago near the mainland of Alaska has a S.W.

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  • It is stated that before the advent of the Russians there were 25,000 Aleuts on the archipelago, but that the barbarities of the traders eventually reduced the population to one-tenth of this number.

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  • The number of Aleuts in 1890 was reported as 968; the total population of the archipelago in 1900 was 2000.

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  • During his third and last voyage, in 1778, Captain James Cook surveyed the eastern portion of the Aleutian archipelago, accurately determined the position of some of the more important islands and corrected many errors of former navigators.

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  • extremity and lying close inland, the Alexander Archipelago, whose principal islands from N.W.

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  • are Chicagof, Baranof, Admiralty, Kupreanof, Kuiu, Prince of Wales (the largest of the archipelago and of all the islands about Alaska, measuring about 140 m.

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  • The Aleutian Islands, like the Alexander Archipelago, are remnants of a submerged mountain system.

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  • On the islands of the Alexander Archipelago and on Prince William Sound it grows to gigantic size; even on the Koyukuk and the middle Yukon it attains in places a diameter of 2 ft.

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  • In 1902 a forest reservation comprising the largest part of the Alexander Archipelago was created by the United States government.

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  • The chief German protectorates are South-west Africa, Togoland and Cameroon, German East Africa, Kaiser Wilhelm Land, Bismarck Archipelago, Solomon Islands, and Kiaochow - under lease from China - (Zeitschrift fitir Kolonialrecht, 1907, p. 311).

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  • At first Ptolemy had made a successful descent upon Asia Minor and on several of the islands of the Archipelago; but he was at length totally defeated by Demetrius in a naval engagement off Salamis, in Cyprus (306).

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  • One genus (Dinochloa, a native of the Malay archipelago) is scandent, and climbs over trees roo ft.

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  • arundinacea is the principal grass of the alang-alang fields in the Malay Archipelago; it is used for thatch.

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  • TIERRA DEL FUEGO, an archipelago at the southern extremity of South America, from which it is separated by Magellan Strait, at the First Narrows and other points scarcely a mile wide.

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  • Sarmiento, the culminating point of the archipelago, was generally supposed to be volcanic, but it presents such extremely precipitous flanks that John Ball considered it more probably " a portion of the original rock skeleton that formed the axis of the Andean chain during the long ages that preceded the great volcanic outbursts that have covered the framework of the western side of South America."

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  • The division of the archipelago to the south of Beagle Channel includes the islands of Hoste, Navarin, Gordon, Londonderry, Stewart, Wollaston and numerous islets, disposed in triangular form with the base on Beagle Channel and the apex at the rocky headland of Cape Horn.

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  • With the settlement of the main island, which is now sometimes called Onisia, leaving the name of Tierra del Fuego to the archipelago, the Onas tribe has become fairly known.

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  • The aborigines are decreasing rapidly in the whole archipelago, and although the Rev. Thomas Bridges, who, as missionary first and then as farmer, resided thirty years there, calculated the population to be 10,000 when he arrived, towards the close of the 19th century it was estimated to be little more than woo.

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  • In 1619 the brothers Garcia and Gongalo de Nodal first circumnavigated the archipelago, which was afterwards visited at intervals by Captain Sir John Narborough (1670), M.

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  • To these admirable surveys is due most of the present geographical terminology of the archipelago.

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  • The forty species of Nepenthes are mostly natives of the hotter parts of the Indian Archipelago, but a few range into Ceylon, Bengal, Cochin China, and some even occur in tropical Australia on the one hand, and in the Seychelles and Madagascar on the other.

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  • SEYCHELLES, an archipelago in the Indian Ocean, consisting of forty-five islands - besides a number of rocks or islets - situated between 3° 38' and 5° 45' S., and 52° 55' and 53° 50' E.

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  • The outlying islands lie south-west of the Seychelles group and between that archipelago and Madagascar.

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  • Soon afterwards Pierre Poivre, intendant of Ile de France, seeing the freedom of the Seychelles archipelago from hurricanes, caused spice plantations to be made there, with the object of wresting from the Dutch the monopoly they then enjoyed of the spice trade.

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  • The Amirante archipelago is situated on a submarine bank west and south-west of the Seychelles, the nearest island being about 120 m.

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  • The archipelago consists of a number of coral islets and atolls comprising the African Islands (4), the St Joseph group (8), the Poivre Islands (9) and the Alphonso group (3).

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  • Fauvel (Mahe, 1909); Ancient Maps of Seychelles Archipelago, a portfolio containing 28 maps (Mahe, 1909); J.

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  • Stanley Gardiner, "The Seychelles Archipelago" (with bibliographical notes), in Geo.

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  • ANDROS, or Andro, an island of the Greek archipelago, the most northerly of the Cyclades, 6 m.

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  • corner of the nyanza is the Sesse archipelago, consisting of sixty-two islands.

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  • In general characteristics and the beauty of their scenery these islands resemble those of the Sesse archipelago.

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  • It forms, with the islands of Psara, Nikaria, Leros, Calymnus and Cos, a sanjak of the Archipelago vilayet.

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  • There are frequent emigrations to Celebes and other parts of the archipelago.

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  • Near its mouth, the Xingu expands into an immense lake, and its waters then mingle with those of the Amazon through a labyrinth of canos (natural canals), winding in countless directions through a wooded archipelago.

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  • The greenshank is a native of the northern parts of the Old World, but in winter it wanders far to the south, and occurs regularly at the Cape of Good Hope, in India and thence throughout the Indo-Malay Archipelago to Australia.

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  • SAN JUAN (or HARO) Islands, an archipelago (San Juan, Orcas, Shaw, Lopez, Blakely, Cypress, &c.) lying between Vancouver Island and the mainland of North America.

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  • LANZAROTE, an island in the Atlantic Ocean, forming part of the Spanish archipelago of the Canary Islands.

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  • LOUISIADE ARCHIPELAGO, a chain of islands in the Pacific Ocean, extending south-eastward from the easternmost promontory of New Guinea, and included in the Australian territory of Papua (British New Guinea).

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  • wide at the widest point, with a maximum depth of 120 ft., protected on the sea side by Chiriqui Archipelago; immediately east of Colon, at the narrowest part of the isthmus, is the Gulf of San Blas, 20 M.

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  • wide, protected by a peninsula and by the Mulatas Archipelago - low, sandy islands stretching about 80 m.

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  • Passing through the Straits of Magellan, he visited the Tuamotu archipelago, and Tahiti, where the English navigator Wallis had touched eight months before.

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  • In 177b he was appointed commander-in-chief of the fleet sent against the Turks, whose far superior navy he annihilated at Cheshme (July 5th 1770), a victory which led to the conquest of the Greek archipelago.

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  • of the Malay Archipelago, where, though they may occur, they are certainly uncommon.

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  • above the sea), near the straits of Magellan, as well as in Teneriffe, the Cape of Good Hope, Abyssinia, Rodriguez, the Philippine Islands and the Malay Archipelago.

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  • Alfred Russel Wallace pronounced against this hypothesis in an appendix to his Malay Archipelago (1883 ed., p. 602), where he observes that "the black, woolly-haired races of the Philippines and the Malay Peninsula ...

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  • Meyer, who spent several years in the Malay Archipelago and New Guinea, developed a contrary conclusion in his Die Negritos der Philippinen (1878), holding that the Negritos and Papuans are identical, and that possibly, or even probably, the former are an offshoot of the latter, like some other Polynesian islanders.

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  • There was no discovery here, for the whole Canarian archipelago was now pretty well known to French and Spanish mariners, especially since the conquest of 1402-06 by French adventurers under Castilian overlordship; but in 1418 Henry's captain, Joao Goncalvez Zarco rediscovered Porto Santo, and in 1420 Madeira, the chief members of an island group which had originally been discovered (probably by Genoese pioneers) before 1351 or perhaps even before 1339, but had rather faded from Christian knowledge since.

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  • This rediscovery of the far western archipelago, and the expeditions which, even within Prince Henry's life (as in 1452) pushed still deeper into the Atlantic, seem to show that the infante was not entirely forgetful of the possibility of such a western route to Asia as Columbus attempted in 1492, only to find America across his path.

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  • Forbes, A Naturalist's Wanderings in the Eastern Archipelago (London, 1884); H.

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  • Neu-Pommern, formerly New Britain, native Birara), an island of the Bismarck Archipelago, N.E.

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  • ADMIRALTY ISLANDS, a group of about forty islands lying north of New Guinea, between 1° and 3° S., and 146° and 148° E., within the Bismarck Archipelago, belonging to Germany.

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  • FIJI (Viti), a British colony consisting of an archipelago in the Pacific Ocean, the most important in Polynesia, between 15° and 20° S., and on and about the meridian of 180°.

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  • The Asiatic and Malayan affinities of many of its animals, as well as the physical conditions of the bed of the Indian Ocean, make it highly probable that Madagascar, while once forming part of Africa, is the chief relic of a considerable archipelago formerly connecting that continent with Asia, its other portions being shown by groups of small islands, and by coral atolls and shoals, which are gradually disappearing beneath the waves.

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  • Among these the most noteworthy are: De Opkomst van het nederlandsch Gezag in Oost-Indie (1886); De Vestiging der Portugeezen, in Indie (1873), and other books on the early Portuguese colonization in the Malay Archipelago.

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  • They are also known as the Magellan Archipelago, and in Japan as Kwazan-retto (series of volcanic islands).

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  • He considered the whole group connected geologically with the great islands of the Malay Archipelago farther south.

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  • The plants suggest a comparison of the climate and forests with those of the Malay Archipelago and tropical America.

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  • Les Marquises), an archipelago of the Pacific Ocean lying between 7° 50 and 10° 35' S.

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  • The volcanic origin of the whole archipelago is proved by the principal rocks being of basalt, trachyte and lava.

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  • The archipelago, which has some small trade in copra, cotton and cotton seeds, is administered by a French resident, and has a total population of about 4300, nearly all natives.

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  • The Russian explorer, Adam Ivan Krusenstern, made an extensive investigation of the archipelago in 1804.

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  • In 1813 the American Commodore David Porter failed to establish a colony here; and in May 1842, after French Roman Catholic missionaries had prepared the way, Rear-admiral Dupetit-Thouars took formal possession of the archipelago for France.

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  • "Nowhere in the archipelago," wrote A.

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  • In spite of its situation in the centre of the archipelago, Celebes possesses a fauna of a very distinctive kind.

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  • The horses are in high repute in the archipelago; formerly about 700 were yearly exported to Java, but the supply has considerably diminished.

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  • Equally remarkable with this presence of peculiar species is the absence of many kinds that are common in the rest of the archipelago; and these facts have been considered to indicate connexion with a larger land-mass at a very distant geological epoch, and the subsequent continuous isolation of Celebes.

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  • Vegetation is extremely rich; but there are fewer large trees than in the other islands of the archipelago.

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  • For example, rice is produced here in smaller quantity and of inferior quality to that in the western part of the archipelago, but superior to that in the eastern section, where sago and sorghum form the staple articles of food.

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  • Palos (3000), with good port; Pare-Pare, connected by road with Lake Tempe; and Macassar (17,925), the seat of the governor and the centre of trade for the eastern part of the archipelago.

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  • The Maldives is a group of low-lying coral islands, forming an archipelago of 26 major atolls, situated south west of Sri Lanka.

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  • Malta geography Malta comprises an archipelago in the central Mediterranean Sea, some 93 km south of Sicily.

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  • Hundreds of kilometers of coastline, many of which are still unexplored, make the Maltese archipelago a favorite with adventurous divers.

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  • As a consequence, users of current systems have been conditioned to operate in isolation, thus creating an archipelago of information islands.

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  • The most recent such episode has given the archipelago a tilt toward the northeast.

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  • Under his vast rule were three small islands of the Maltese archipelago.

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  • The islands of the Indonesian archipelago also hold very distinctive faunas.

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  • Honolulu is a harbor city at the southern end of Oahu, the most visited island of the Hawaiian archipelago.

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  • Hidden rocks make the Finnish archipelago quite treacherous and only experienced sailors with up-to-date charts should navigate them.

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  • He also has an in-depth knowledge of the flora and fauna of the entire Japanese archipelago.

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  • On this unique, remote archipelago in the Pacific, the animals have never learned fear of man.

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  • archipelago islands are basically sandy islands that lie in a figure of '7 ' configuration.

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  • We are unaware of previous breeding in the Madeira archipelago.

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  • An island archipelago only 20 minutes from Cornwall, with over 100 islands waiting to be explored.

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