Archipelago sentence example
Part of the archipelago was discovered by Pedro Fernandez Quiros in 1607.
The archipelago is divided into two groups - the Leeward (lies sous le Vent) and the Windward Islands (Iles du Vent) - by a clear channel of 60 m.
Odoric set out on his travels about 1318, and his journeys embraced parts of India, the Malay Archipelago, China and even Tibet, where he was the first European to enter Lhasa, not yet a forbidden city.
Ibn Batuta made the voyage through the Malay Archipelago to China, and on his return he proceeded from Malabar to Bagdad and Damascus, ultimately reaching Fez, the capital of his native country, in November 1349.
From Torres Strait to Dampier Land the shelf spreads out, and connects Australia with New Guinea and the Malay Archipelago.Advertisement
The Aleutian archipelago was sold to the United States in 1867, together with Alaska, and in 1875 the Kurile Islands were ceded to Japan.
The name Archipelago (q.v.) was formerly applied specifically to this sea.
In Further India and the Malay Archipelago the Portuguese acquired predominating influence at sea, establishing factories on the Malabar coast, in the Persian Gulf, at Malacca, and in the Spice Islands, and extending their commercial enterprises from the Red sea to China.
In February 1773 the Russian plenipotentiary delivered his ultimatum, of which the most important demands were the cession of Kerch, Yenikale and Kinburn, the free navigation of the Black Sea and Archipelago for Russian trading and war vessels, and the recognition of the tsar's right to protect the Orthodox subjects of the sultan.
Pearl Harbor and the harbour of Honolulu are the only safe ports in the archipelago.Advertisement
The Cagayan river, in north Luzon, is the largest in the archipelago.
The enormous increase in the commercial demand for rubber and the probability of the continuance of this increase in view of the great variety of purposes to which the material can be applied, has led to great activity in rubber planting in other parts of the world, especially in Ceylon and the Malay Peninsula and Archipelago, where the Para rubber trees (Hevea brasiliensis) has been successfully introduced, and numerous plantations; many of which have not been in existence for more than ten or fifteen years, are now contributing to the world's supply.
The archipelago is of volcanic formation, Tamara and Factory islands forming part of a ruined crater, with Crawford Island as the cone.
The Sea of Okhotsk, separated from the Pacific by the Kurile Archipelago and from the Sea of Japan by the islands of Sakhalin and Yezo, is notorious as one of the worst seas of the world, owing to its dense fogs and its masses of floating ice.
The Germans divide the whole archipelago into two administrative districts, eastern and western, having the seats of government at Ponape and Yap respectively.Advertisement
The alluvial extracted, which in the Malay Peninsula and Archipelago carries from 5 to 60 lb of tinstone (or "black tin," as it is termed by Cornish miners) to the cubic yard of gravel, is washed in various simple sluicing appliances, by which the lighter clay, sand and stones are removed and tinstone is left behind comparatively pure, containing usually 65 to 75% of metallic tin (chemically pure tinstone contains 78.7%).
It comprises the districts of Mergui and Tavoy and a part of Amherst, and includes also the Mergui Archipelago.
There are in addition some pearling grounds in the Mergui Archipelago, which have a very recent history; they were practically unknown before 1890; in the early 'nineties they were worked by Australian adventurers, most of whom have since departed; and now they are leased in blocks to a syndicate of Chinamen, who grant sub-leases to individual adventurers at the rate of £25 a pump for the pearling year.
It seems certain that some knowledge of the art was preserved in France, in Germany and in Spain, and it seems improbable that it should have been lost in that archipelago, where the traditions of ancient civilization must have been better preserved than in almost any other place.
Of those mentioned, the first four are from the Malay Peninsula or the islands of the Indo-Malay Archipelago, the last from Ceylon and India.Advertisement
His description of sago in the archipelago is not free from errors, but they are the errors of an eye-witness.
Alphonse de Candolle (Origin of Cultivated Plants, p. 158) points out that the epoch of its introduction into different countries agrees with the idea that its origin was in India, Cochin-China or the Malay Archipelago, and regards it as most probable that its primitive range extended from Bengal to Cochin-China.
In 1688 he was elected doge, and in 1693 he took command of the Venetian forces against the Turks for the fourth time; the enemy which had been cruising in the archipelago withdrew at his approach, so great was the terror inspired by his name.
The hereditary sultan of the archipelago is tributary to the British government of Ceylon.
The sultan's residence and the capital of the archipelago is the island of Male.Advertisement
Very remarkable is the giant Taka-ashi long legs (Macrocheirus Kaempfeni), which has legs 14 metres long and is found in the seas of Japan and the Malay archipelago.
Singapore had a Journal of the Indian Archipelago from 1847 to 1859, and the Chinese Repository (1832-1851) was edited at Carton by Morrison.
The most beautiful of all snakes are perhaps certain varieties of Chrysopelea ornata, a species extremely common in the Indian Archipelago and many parts of the continent of tropical Asia.
The Australian Shelf rises steeply as a rule from depths, of 2500 to 3000 fathoms. A broad depression with depths of from 3300 to 3500 fathoms lies to the east of the Cocos Islands and extends into the angle between the Malay Archipelago and Australia.
The timber trees found towards the interior, and on the higher elevations, are of great size and beauty, the most valuable being teak (Tectona grandis), then-gan (Hopea odorata), ka-gnyeng (Dipterocarpus laevis), &c. The coast-line of the district, off which lies an archipelago of two hundred and seven islands, is much broken, and for several miles inland is very little raised above sea-level, and is drained by numerous muddy tidal creeks.Advertisement
The islands on the southern margin of the Louisiade Archipelago are raised coral reefs, but the majority are mountainous, rarely, however, exceeding 3000 ft.; all of them are richly forested, but of little agricultural value.
Nearly all the rivers in New Guinea yield " colours " of gold, but only in the Louisiade Archipelago has enough been discovered to constitute the district a goldfield.
The zoology of the Bismarck Archipelago is little known.
European industries include gold mining, in which 500 miners, besides natives, are engaged (chiefly in the Louisiade Archipelago), and the beche de mer and pearl-shell fisheries, which were formerly more productive than at present.
Species of Palaquium, the genus from which, in the Indian Archipelago, the best gutta-percha is obtained, occur on the hills, and from their cultivation there might in time be obtained a large revenue independently of European labour.Advertisement
German New Guinea The German protectorate of New Guinea, so called after the island which contributes the greatest area, comprehends, besides Kaiser Wilhelms Land, the islands which are now commonly called the Bismarck Archipelago - viz.
This ascendancy he abused by numerous acts of piracy which made him notorious throughout Greece; but his real purpose in building his navy was to become lord of all the islands of the archipelago and the mainland towns of Ionia.
The native race of Bugis, whose number within this area is about 70,000, is one of the most interesting in the whole archipelago.
He traversed Asia Minor and European Greece probably more than once; he visited all the most important islands of the Archipelago - Rhodes, Cyprus, Delos, Paros, Thasos, Samothrace, Crete, Samos, Cythera and Aegina.
The natives in language and customs present affinities with some Polynesians, and have been held to be a survival of the eastward immigration of people of Caucasian stock which took place before those which established the " pre-Malay "peoples (such as the Dyaks and Battas) in the Malay Archipelago.Advertisement
Christmas Island has been a great source of phosphates of this type; also Jaluit Island in the Maldive Archipelago, Banaba or Ocean Island, and Nauru or Pleasant Island.
The early colonists found quite half the surface of the archipelago covered with dense, evergreen forest, a luxuriant growth of pines and beeches, tangled and intertwined with palms, ferns of all sizes, wild vines and other parasites, and a rank, bushy, mossed undergrowth.
By 1642 they had spread to South Island, for there Abel Jansen Tasman found them when, in the course of his circuitous voyage from Java in the "Heemskirk," he chanced upon the archipelago, coasted along much of its western side, though without venturing to land, and gave it the name it still bears.
Shortly after 1846, the British began to assert that the Rosario Strait and not Haro Strait (as the Americans held) was the channel separating the mainland and Vancouver Island, thus claiming the Haro Archipelago of which San Juan was the principal island.
The name is loosely applied, covering either the northern group only of these islands, for which the name of New Siberia Archipelago, or of Anjou Islands, ought properly to be reserved, or the southern group as well, which ought to maintain its name of Lyakhov Islands.Advertisement
Some confusion prevails also as to whether the islands Bennett, Henrietta and Jeannette, discovered by the "Jeannette" expedition, ought to be included in the same archipelago, or described separately as the Jeannette Islands.
The first of these three belongs geographically, and probably geologically, to New Siberia Archipelago, from which it is only 97 m.
A Russian officer named Hedenstrbm, accompanied by Sannikov, explored the archipelago and published a map of it in 1811.
This was assured to the insurgents at the outset by the revolt of the maritime communities of the Greek archipelago.
The Turkish fleet, "adrift in the Archipelago" - as the British seamen put it - though greatly superior in tonnage and weight of metal, could never be a match for the Greek brigs, manned as these were by trained, if not disciplined, crews.Advertisement
Their fleets were divided into squadrons, of which one, under Tombazes, was deputed to watch for the entrance of the Ottomans into the archipelago, while the other under Andreas Miaoulis sailed to blockade Patras and watch the coasts of Epirus.
In the Archipelago Hydriotes and Spetsiotes were at daggers drawn; the men of Psara were at open war with those of Samos; all semblance of discipline and cohesion had vanished from the Greek fleet.
It includes the Sunda Islands, the Moluccas, New Guinea, and the Philippine Islands, but excludes the Andaman-Nicobar group. The equator passes through the middle of the archipelago; it successively cuts Sumatra, Borneo, Celebes and Halmahera, four of the most important islands.
Wallace (who includes the Solomon Islands as well as New Guinea in the group) points out that the archipelago "includes two islands larger than Great Britain; and in one of them, Borneo, the whole of the British Isles might be set down, and would be surrounded by a sea of forests.
The islands of the archipelago nearly all present bold and picturesque profiles against the horizon, and at the same time the character of the scenery varies from island to island and even from district to district.
The loftiest mountain in the archipelago would appear to be Kinabalu in Borneo (13,698 ft.).
An important fact in the physical geography of the archipelago is that Java, Bali, Sumatra and Borneo, and the lesser islands between them 1 For more detailed information respecting the several islands and groups of the archipelago, see the separate articles Borneo; Java; Philippine Islands; Sumatra, &C.
The archipelago, in effect, is divided between two great regions, the Asiatic and the Australian, and the fact is evident in various branches of its geography - zoological, botanical, and even human.
The most notable fact in the geological history of the archipelago is the discovery in Java of the fossil remains of Pithecanthropus erectus, a form intermediate between the higher apes and man.
The most striking general fact as regards climate in the archipelago is that wherever that part of the south-east monsoon which has passed over Australia strikes, the climate is comparatively dry, and the vegetation is less luxuriant.
The northwest monsoon, beginning in October and lasting till March, brings the principal rainy season in the archipelago.
To the naturalist the Malay Archipelago is a region of the highest interest; and from an early period it has attracted the attention of explorers of the first rank.
Similarly, in the Asiatic islands are found the great mammals of the continent - the elephant, tiger, rhinoceros, anthropoid ape, &c., which are wanting in the Australian region, with which the eastern part of the archipelago is associated.
The Malay Archipelago was thus first invaded by the Caucasians, who eventually passed eastward and are to-day represented in the Malay Archipelago only by the Mentawi islanders.
They were followed by an immigration of Mongol-Caucasic peoples with a preponderance of Caucasic blood-the Indonesians of some, the pre-Malays of other writers-who are to-day represented in the archipelago by such peoples as the Dyaks of Borneo and the Battas of Sumatra.
At a far later date, probably almost within historic times, the true Malay race, a combination of Mongol and Caucasic elements, came into existence and overran the archipelago, in time becoming the dominant race.
A Hindu strain is evident in Java and others of the western islands; Moors and Arabs (that is, as the names are used in the archipelago, Mahommedans from various countries between Arabia and India) are found more or less amalgamated with many of the Malay peoples; and the Chinese form, from an economical point of view, one of the most important sections of the community in many of the more civilized districts.
There is a vast field for philological explorations in the archipelago.
The islands are often described as of two groups, Java and Madura forming one, and the other consisting of Sumatra, Borneo, Riouw-Lingga Archipelago, Banka, Billiton, Celebes, Molucca Archipelago, the small Sunda Islands, and a part of New Guinea-the Outposts as they are collectively named.
The principal steamship company in the archipelago is the Royal Packet (Koninklyke Paketvaart) Company.
He crushed the rebellion and won the affection of the natives by his just and enlightened administration, which had no parallel in the annals of Portuguese rule in the archipelago.
An English squadron under Sir James Lancaster came into conflict with the Portuguese in 1591, and an expedition under Sir Henry Middleton traded in the archipelago in 1604.
In 1602 the Dutch East India Company was incorporated, and for nearly two centuries this organization played the chief part in the history of the archipelago.
Meanwhile the English East India Company, chartered in 1600, had also extended its operations to the archipelago.
The Portuguese were the first Europeans to colonize any part of the archipelago.
The main object of the Portuguese was to obtain a share in the lucrative spice trade carried on by the Malays, Chinese and Japanese; the trade-routes of the archipelago converged upon Malacca, which was the point of departure for spice merchants trading with every country on the shores of the Indian Ocean and Arabian Sea.
In 1514 a second Portuguese fleet arrived at Ternate, which during the next five years became the centre of Portuguese enterprise in the archipelago; regular traffic with Malacca and Cochin was established, and the native raja became a vassal of Portugal.
Meanwhile the Spanish government was considering whether the Moluccas did not fall within the Spanish sphere of influence as defined by the Treaty of Tordesillas in 1494; and in August 1519 an expedition commanded by Ferdinand Magellan sailed from Seville to seek a westward passage to the archipelago.
Ternate remained the seat of the governor of the Moluccas, who was the highest official in the archipelago, though subordinate to the viceroy or governor of Portuguese India.
The full details of the settlement are unknown, but thenceforward the British company devoted its energies chiefly to the development of its Indian possessions, while the Dutch were left supreme in the archipelago.
In 1684 the British even evacuated Bantam, their chief settlement, and retired to Benkulen in Sumatra, which remained for more than a century their sole territorial possession in the archipelago.
Under this system, which was intended to provide Netherlands India with a fixed population of European descent, Dutch girls were sent to the archipelago to be married to white settlers, and subsequently marriages between Dutchmen and captive native women were encouraged.
That servitude existed in many forms all over the archipelago, but among the most curious must be reckoned the pandelingschap or "pledgedom," which originated in Borneo, and according to which a man had the power to make his debtors his serfs until their debts were paid.
In 1863 Fransen van de Putte, minister for the colonies, introduced the first of the annual colonial budgets for which the Regulations had provided, thus enabling the statesgeneral to control the revenue and expenditure of Netherlands India; in 1865 he reduced and in 1872 abolished the differentiation of customs dues in favour of goods imported from Holland, substituting a uniform import duty of 6% and establishing a number of free ports throughout the archipelago.
While the Dutch were thus consolidating their authority, other countries were acquiring new commercial or colonial interests in the archipelago.
Australian and Japanese trade in the archipelago was stimulated by the establishment of the Australian Commonwealth (1901) and the Russo-Japanese War (1904-5).
In 1910 the nations most directly interested in the future of the archipelago were the Netherlands, Great Britain, the United States, Germany, Japan, China and Portugal.
The exports from Batavia to the other islands of the archipelago, and to the ports in the Malay Peninsula, are rice, sago, coffee, sugar, salt, oil, tobacco, teak timber and planks, Java cloths, brass wares, &c., and European, Indian and Chinese goods.
The tonnage of vessels clearing from Batavia to countries beyond the archipelago had increased from 879,000 tons in 1887 to nearly 1,500,000 tons by the end of the century.
They range over the south of Europe, the whole of Africa, India and the Malay Archipelago as far east as Borneo.
The climate of the archipelago, though generally mild, healthy and favourable to plant life, is by no means uniform, owing to the differences of altitude and shelter from wind in different islands.
Like "Brazil," it dates from a period anterior to the discovery of the New World, "Antilia," as stated above, being one of those mysterious lands, which figured on the medieval charts sometimes as an archipelago, sometimes as continuous land of greater or lesser extent, constantly fluctuating in mid-ocean between the Canaries and East India.
Later, when this was found to consist of a vast archipelago enclosing the Caribbean Sea and Gulf of Mexico, Antilia assumed its present plural form, Antilles, which was collectively applied to the whole of this archipelago.
Beyond it lay an archipelago of lesser islands.
Amongst the islands of the Malay Archipelago are a number of enclosed areas - the Sulu, Celebes, Java, Banda and Arafura seas.
Depths of less than 2000 fathoms occur continuously on a bank extending from south-eastern Asia, on which stands the Malay Archipelago.
The north of the chain, from the Kuriles to Formosa, belongs to the empire of Japan; southward it is continued by the Philippines (belonging to the United States of America) which link it with the vast archipelago between the Pacific and Indian oceans, to which the name Malay Archipelago is commonly applied.
South-eastward of the Malay Archipelago lies " the largest island and the smallest continent," Australia; eastward of the archipelago, New Guinea, the largest island if Australia be regarded as a continent only.
In Tonga, in the New Hebrides, and in the long chain of the Solomons and the Bismarck Archipelago there is much activity.
Christmas, one of the last-named, is reputed to be the largest lagoon island in the Pacific. The Paumotu Archipelago is the most extensive of the coral groups.
Not long after the death of Columbus, and when the Portuguese traders, working from the west, had hardly reached the confines of the Malay Archipelago, the Spaniard Vasco Nunez de Balboa crossed America at its narrowest part and discovered the great ocean to the west of it (1513).
One of his commanders, Luis Vaes de Torres, struck off to the north-west, coasted along the south of the Louisiade Archipelago and New Guinea, traversed the strait which bears his name between New Guinea and Australia, and reached the Philippines.
In1615-1617two Dutchmen, Jacob Lemaire and Willem Cornelis Schouten, having in view both the discovery of the southern continent and the possibility of establishing relations with the East Indies from the east, took a course which brought them to the north part of the Paumotu Archipelago, thence to part of the Tonga chain, and ultimately to New Pomerania, after which they reached the East Indies.
The Dutchman Jacob Roggeveen, in the course of a voyage round the world in 1721-1722, crossed the Pacific from east to west, and discovered Easter Island, some of the northern islands of the Paumotu Archipelago, and (as is generally supposed) a part of the Samoan group. The voyage of Commodore George (afterwards Lord) Anson in 1740-1744 was for purposes rather of war than of exploration, and Commodore John Byron's voyage in 1765 had little result beyond gaining some additional knowledge of the Paumotu Archipelago.
Within the limits of the area under notice, his first voyage (1769) included visits to Tahiti and the Society group generally, to New Zealand and to the east coast of Australia, his second (1773-1774) to New Zealand, the Paumotu Archipelago, the Society Islands, Tonga and subsequently Easter Island, the Marquesas and the New Hebrides; and his third (1777-1778) to Tonga, the Cook or Norway group, and the Hawaiian Islands, of which, even if they were previously known to the Spaniards, he may be called the discoverer, and where he was subsequently killed.
The seat of government of the German protectorate of Kaiser Wilhelm's Land (New Guinea) is Herbertshohe in the Bismarck Archipelago.
Whether the two families have a common ancestor in the negritos of Malaysia and the Indian archipelago, or whether Papuan and Negrito are alike branches of an aboriginal African race, is a problem yet to be solved.
The view which has received most general acceptance is that they represent a branch of the Caucasic division of mankind who migrated at a remote period possibly in Neolithic times from the Asiatic mainland travelling by way of the Malay Archipelago and gradually colonizing the eastern Pacific. The Polynesians, who, as represented by such groups as the Samoans and Marquesas islanders, are the physical equal of Europeans, are of a light brown colour, tall, well-proportioned, with regular and often beautiful features.
Careful investigations have supported the theory that Micronesia was peopled largely from the Philippines or some portion of the Malay Archipelago at a much later period than the Polynesian migration.
It lies south of the Paumotu archipelago, ioo m.
The commander, Lieutenant William Bligh, was set adrift in the launch with part of the crew, but managed to make his way to Timor in the Malay Archipelago.
The Gulf of Nicoya, a shallow landlocked inlet, containing a whole archipelago of richly-wooded islets, derives its name from Nicoya, an Indian chief who, with his tribe, was here converted to Christianity in the 16th century.
The Areca palm is a native of the Malay Peninsula and Islands and is extensively cultivated over a wide area in the East, including southern India, Ceylon, Siam, the Malay Archipelago and the Philippine Islands.
Strindberg's mastery of the art of description is perhaps seen at its best in the novels of life in the Swedish archipelago, in Hemsoborna (" The Inhabitants of Hemsd, 1887), one of the best existing novels of popular Swedish life, and Skarkarlslif (" Life of an Island Lad," 1890).
On Rousay (627) the cairn of Blotchnie Fiold (811 ft.), the highest point of the island, commands a beautiful survey of the northern isles of the archipelago.
The term "East Indies" is still sometimes applied to the Malay Archipelago alone, and the phrase "Dutch East Indies" is commonly used to denote the Dutch possessions which constitute the greater part of that archipelago.
Its coast, unlike that of the other islands of the archipelago, has few coral reefs.
There are some fine species of birds, and the native avifauna is so distinctive that Wallace argued from it that the Hawaiian Archipelago had long been separated from any other land.
The position of the archipelago, at the " cross-roads " of the North Pacific, has made it commercially important since the days of the whale fishery, and it has a practical monopoly of coaling, watering and victualling.
Its main disadvantage is the lack of harbours - Honolulu and Pearl Harbor are the only ones in the archipelago; but under the River and Harbour Act of 1905 examinations and surveys were made to improve Hilo Bay on the island of Hawaii.
At the close of the 16th century this part of the archipelago was divided among four rulers settled at Ternate, Tidore, Halmahera and Bachian.
See further Malay Archipelago, and separate articles on the principal islands and groups.
Sarong, the Malay ward for a garment wrapped round the lower part of the body and used by both men and women, is now applied to plain or printed cloths exported to the Indian or Eastern Archipelago for this purpose.
As in antiquity so now the potters of the island are known throughout the Archipelago.
The largest island is New Pomerania, and the archipelago also includes New Mecklenburg, New Hanover, with small attendant islands, the Admiralty Islands and a chain of islands off the coast of New Guinea, the whole system lying in the form of a great amphitheatre of oval shape.
The archipelago was named in honour of the first chancellor of the German empire, after a German protectorate had been declared in 1884.
The presence of carp in Indo-China and the Malay Archipelago is probably also to be ascribed to human agency.
Few ships visit the colony, except Dutch vessels trading in the archipelago, which call regularly at Dilli.
In 1877 John Selwyn was consecrated bishop. Wesleyan native evangelists from Fiji and Tonga carried Christianity in 1875 to the Bismarck Archipelago.
The peninsula and archipelago known as Malaysia presents a remarkable mingling of races, languages and beliefs.
In the Archipelago most of the work has naturally been in the hands of the Netherlands Missionary Society (1812) and other Dutch agencies, who at first were not encouraged by the colonial government, but have since done well, especially in the Minahassa district of Celebes (r50,000 members) and among the Bataks of Sumatra (Rhenish Mission).
As throughout the whole of the Malayan Archipelago, so in Sumatra, which lies about equally balanced on both sides of the equator, the temperature stands at a high level subject to but slight variations.
The Sumatran hare (Lepus netscheri), discovered in 1880, adds a second species to the Lepus nigricollis, the only hare previously known in the Malay Archipelago.
A remarkable feature of the Sumatran flora is the great variety of trees that vie with each other in stature and beauty, and as a timber-producing country the island ranks high even among the richly wooded lands of the archipelago.
As far as is known, Sumatran civilization and culture are of Hindu origin; and it is not improbable that the island was the first of all the archipelago to receive the Indian immigrants who played so important a part in the history of the region.
The extensive sea-arms forming the South Holland and Zeeland archipelago are the Hont or West Scheldt, the East Scheldt, the Grevelingen (communicating with Krammer and the Volkerak) and the Haringvliet, which after being joined by the Volkerak is known as the Hollandsch Diep. These inlets were formerly of much greater extent than now, but are gradually closing up owing to the accumulation of mud deposits, and no longer have the same freedom of communication with one another.
Towards its mouth its waters find their way into all the channels intersecting the South Holland archipelago.
In Bibilid prison, in the Santa Cruz district, nearly 80% of the prisoners of the archipelago are confined; it is under the control of the department of public instruction and its inmates are given an opportunity to learn one or more useful trades.
Manila is the greatest hemp market in the world; 110, 399 tons, valued at $19,444,769, were exported from the archipelago in 1906, almost all being shipped from Manila.
Nyborg on the east is the port for the steam-ferry to Korsor in Zealand; Svendborg picturesquely overlooks the southern archipelago; Faaborg on the south-west lies on a fjord of the same name; Assens, on the west, a port for the crossing of the Little Belt into Schleswig, still shows traces of the fortifications which were stormed by John of Ranzau in 1 535; Middelfart is a seaside resort near the narrowest reach of the Little Belt; Bogense is a small port on the north coast.
In 1896 the Jackson-Harmsworth expedition worked northwards through an archipelago for about 70 m.
Beginning a northward journey with sledges at the end of the winter, Wellman met with an accident which compelled him to return, but not before some exploration had been accomplished, and the eastern extension of the archipelago fairly well defined.
The Portuguese and Spaniards were better acquainted with Halmahera than with many other parts of the archipelago; they called it sometimes Batu China and sometimes Moro.
This was a Genoese expedition, which about 1270 seems to have sailed into the Alantic, re-discovered the "Fortunate Islands" or Canaries, and made something of a conquest and settlement in one of the most northerly isles of this archipelago, still known (after the Italian captain) as Lanzarote.
Sverdrup and his party conducted explorations in 1900-1902; (3) with the more southerly part of the same archipelago by Lancaster Sound.
They inhabit the Black Sea littoral from Varna to the Bosporus, the shores of the Sea of Marmora and the Aegean, the Aegean archipelago, the mainland of Greece, Epirus and the western islands as far north as Corfu.
The northern chain is of volcanic formation, and contains the peak of Lombok (ii,81o ft.), one of the highest volcanoes in the Malay Archipelago.
It is also resorted to by native sailing craft from all parts of the Malay Archipelago.
The trade of Singapore is chiefly dependent upon the position which the port occupies as the principal emporium of the Federated Malay States and of the Malayan archipelago, and as the great port of call for ships passing to and from the Far East.
Their earliest halting place was probably the Malay Archipelago, where a few of their kin linger in the Mentawi Islands on the west coast of Sumatra.
He has studied the folk-lore of those islands exhaustively, and from this source comes to the conclusion that the Polynesian migration from the Indian Archipelago may be approximately assigned to the close of the 1st or to the 2nd century.
It used to be doubted whether these people could have gone from the Indian archipelago so far eastward, because the prevailing winds and currents are from the east.
Thus it is pointed out that Cook's estimate of 240,000 for the Society Archipelago (Tahiti) was at the time reduced by his associate, Forster, to 150,000, so that the 300,000 credited by him to the Sandwich Islands should also be heavily discounted.
The archipelago forms one Spanish province, of which the capital is Santa Cruz de Tenerife, the residence of the civil governor, who has under his command one of the two districts into which the archipelago is divided, this first district comprising Teneriffe, Palma, Gomera and Hierro.
The captaingeneral and second commandant of the archipelago reside in Santa Cruz de Tenerife, and there is a brigadier-governor of Grand Canary, residing in Las Palmas, besides eight inferior military commandants.
The archipelago is divided into two naval districts, commanded by royal navy captains.
Jean de Bethencourt, who died in 1422, bequeathed the islands to his brother Reynaud; Guzman sold them to another Spaniard named Paraza, who was forced to re-sell to Ferdinand and Isabella of Castile in 1476; and Prince Henry twice endeavoured to enforce his own claims. Meanwhile the Guanches remained unconquered throughout the greater part of the archipelago.
The archipelago was included for administrative purposes in the captaincy-general of Andalusia until 1833, when it was made a separate province.
In respect to positive affinities, Sir Joseph Hooker pointed out some relations with the flora of tropical Africa as evidenced by the prevalence of such genera as Grewia and Impatiens, and the absence, common to both countries, of oaks and pines which abound in the Malayan archipelago.
Pearls are found off the southern coast of Madras and also in the Mergui archipelago.
Afghanistan, Nepal, Eastern Turkestan, Tibet, Mongolia, Manchuria, China, Japan, the Eastern Archipelago, Siam, Burma, Ceylon and India at one time marked the magnificent circumference of its conquests.
The Dutch were already too strongly entrenched in the Indian archipelago for English competition to avail there, and the intense rivalry between the two nations led to the tragedy of Amboyna in 1623, when Governor Van Speult put to torture and death nine Englishmen on a charge of conspiring to take the Dutch forts.
At first the trade was mainly with the Indian archipelago, but soon the English began to feel their way towards the mainland of India itself.
The zibeth (Viverra zibetha) is a widely distributed species extending from Arabia to Malabar, and throughout several of the larger islands of the Indian Archipelago.
The small Indian civet or rasse (Viverricula malaccensis) ranges from Madagascar through India to China, the Malay Peninsula, and the islands of the Archipelago.
On the east border of the south portion of the basin of the Rio Grande Mindanao is Mt Apo (10,312 ft.), an extinct volcano and the highest elevation in the archipelago.
Submarine mountain ranges connect not only the islands within the archipelago, but also the archipelago itself with Borneo and Celebes, so that only shallow channels connect the interior waters with the Pacific Ocean and the China Sea.
There are twelve active volcanoes in the archipelago.
In the 47 years ending March 1909 the various regions of the archipelago were visited by about 60 strong earthquakes; 16 of these, in ten different regions, occurred in the decade from 1890 to 1900.
Pearloysters are abundant in the southern waters of the archipelago.
The coral beds of Mindanao and the Sulu Archipelago are of unsurpassed beauty, and Guimaras, Cebu and Siquijor are completely covered with a thick cap of coral limestone.
The rich and varied flora of the Philippines is essentially Malayan, intermixed with Chinese and Australian elements, but with sufficient individuality to constitute a sub-region, there being at least 769 species peculiar to the archipelago.
In the year ending August 1903 the amounts of rainfall at 41 observation stations widely distributed throughout the archipelago varied from 16.2 in.
Only 9.5% of all the land in the archipelago was included in " farms " in 1903, and less than one-half of the farm land was under cultivation.
It is grown most extensively in the valley of the Cagayan river, in 1902 the total acreage in the archipelago was about 254,470.
The total population of the archipelago as enumerated in the census of 1903 was 7,635,426.
The Igorots (197,938 wild and 13,582 civilized) are the chief representatives of the early Malay immigration to the archipelago.
Each municipality is made up of barrios or small villages (about 13,400 in the entire archipelago) and of one, or more, more thickly peopled areas, each called a poblacion, and resembling the township " centre " of New England.
The administrative head of the system fs the director of education, who is appointed by the commission, and who arranges the course of study, approves the plans for school houses, determines in what towns secondary schools shall be established and in what towns American teachers shall teach, divides the archipelago into school divisions and appoints a division superintendent in each, and supervises the examination of teachers and the application of insular school funds.
Magellan named his discovery the Archipelago of San Lazarus.
In the sailing directions, issued in 1561, for the use of this expedition the phrase " las Islas Filipinas " was used as applying to the entire archipelago.
By the terms of the capitulation the whole of the archipelago was surrendered to the British and an indemnity of 4,000,000 pesos was to be paid.
Agricultural labour for convicts has been tried in colonies of coatti (or those provisionally released) planted out in the islands of the Italian archipelago.
The chief geological formations of Buru are crystalline slate near the north coast, and more to the south Mesozoic sandstone and chalk, deposits of rare occurrence in the archipelago.
After a long discussion the peace treaty was ratified by the United States Senate on the 6th of February 1899; and in accordance with its terms Porto Rico, the Philippine Archipelago, and Guam were transferred by Spain to the United States, and Cuba came under American jurisdiction pending the establishment there of an independent government.
The Cypselus esculentus, or edible-nest swift, is very common, and the nests, which are built mostly in limestone caves, are esteemed the best in the archipelago.
In British North Borneo, and especially in the district of Tempasuk on the north-west coast, Borneo ponies, bred originally, it is supposed, from the stock which is indigenous to the Sulu archipelago, are common.
To this day, among the natives of the Malayan Archipelago, men speak of going to Pontianak, to Sambas or to Brunei, as the case may be, but make use of no term which recognizes that these localities are part of a single whole.
Meanwhile the Dutch and British East India Companies had been formed, had destroyed the monopoly so long enjoyed by the Portuguese, and to a less extent the Spaniards, in the trade of the Malayan Archipelago, and had gained a footing in Borneo.
The Dutch, in fact, speedily became the predominant European race throughout the Malay Archipelago, defeating the British by superior energy and enterprise, and the trading-posts all along the western and southern coasts of Borneo were presently their exclusive possessions, the sultan of Bantam, who was the overlord of these districts, ceding his rights to the Dutch.
In 1838 Sir James Brooke, an Englishman, whose attention had been turned to the state of affairs in the Eastern Archipelago, set out for Borneo, determined, if possible, to remedy the evil.
Throughout the Malayan Archipelago the words Bajau and perompak (pirate) are still used as synonymous terms. At the northern extremity of the island Marudu Bay receives the waters of the Marudu which rises on the western side of Mount Madalon.
The east coast is very sparsely populated and its inhabitants are mostly Bajaus and settlers from the neighbouring Sulu archipelago.
The Dusun language, it is interesting to note, presents very curious grammatical complications and refinements such as are not to be found among the tongues spoken by any of the other peoples of the Malayan Archipelago or the mainland of south-eastern Asia.
They have still extensive colonies in the East Indian Archipelago, as well as possessions in the West Indies.
In some places the oblique Mongolian eye is noticed, and (together with certain Indo-Chinese customs) there is often a scantiness of beard and general "Malay" look, which increases westwards, and seems to imply relations with the archipelago subsequent to the departure thence of the pure Polynesians.
On the island of Peru, in the Gilbert group, in 1869 there was still the remnants of a large proah which, from the description given, appears to have been like those used in the Indian Archipelago.
The existence of these lands helps to account for the usual obstruction of pack-ice in the waters of the Nordenskjold Archipelago and the Kara Sea.
All the islands of the American Arctic Archipelago are claimed by Canada.
Finland includes in the south-west the Aland archipelago - its frontier approaching within .8 m.
Thus, the species inhabiting Sumatra, Java and Borneo are almost always much smaller than the closely allied species of Celebes and the Moluccas; the species or varieties of the small island of Amboyna are larger than the same species or closely allied forms inhabiting the surrounding islands; the species found in Celebes possess a peculiar form of wing, quite distinct from that of the same or closely allied species of adjacent islands; and, lastly, numerous species which have tailed wings in India and the western islands of the Archipelago, gradually lose the tail as we proceed eastward to New Guinea and the Pacific.
It is absent, however, from the great elevated plateau of Central Asia, nor does it inhabit Ceylon, Borneo or the other islands of the Indo-Malay Archipelago, except those named.
The archipelago consists of Roatan or Ruatan, Guanaja or Bonacca, Utilla, Barbareta, Helena, Morat, the Puercos or Hog Islands, and many cays or islets.
An archipelago of islands, of which DagO is the largest, belongs to this government (Oesel belongs to Livonia).
Farther north, a narrow sound (Glands Haf) intervening on the Swedish side, the vast Aland archipelago, belonging to Russia, extends across to the Finnish coast.
After devoting himself wholly to realism of the coarsest kind, he began in 1889 his series of mystico-pathological novels about life in the archipelago of Stockholm.
The deeply-indented coast line is filled with islands which preserve the general outline of the continent southward to the Fuegian archipelago, the outside groups forming a continuation of the Cordillera Maritima.
Among the islands which thickly fringe this part of the coast, the largest are Azopardo (lying within Baker Inlet), Prince Henry, Campana, Little Wellington, Great Wellington and Mornington (of the Wellington archipelago), Madre de Dios, Duke of York, Chatham, Hanover, Cambridge, Contreras, Rennell and the Queen Adelaide group of small barren rocks and islands lying immediately north of the Pacific entrance to the Straits of Magellan.
The estimated number of Indians living within the boundaries of Chile is about 50,000, which presumably includes the nomadic tribes of the Fuegian archipelago, whose number probably does not reach 5000.
The breaking up of the old government of the Moluccas tended to make Ternate perhaps the most important Dutch-Indian political centre of the archipelago east of Celebes.
The coast-villages are inhabited by a mixed Malay population, Buginese, Macassars, Balinese and other races of the archipelago.
They comprised, in Africa, the Cape Verde Islands, St Thomas and Prince's Islands, Portuguese Guinea, Angola and Portuguese East Africa, or Mozambique; in India, Goa, Damaun and Diu; in China, Macao; and in the Malay Archipelago part of Timor.
Joao da Nova discovered Ascension (1501) and St Helena (1502);(1502); Tristao da Cunha was the first to sight the archipelago still known by his name (1506).
East of Malacca, Albuquerque sent Duarte Fernandes as envoy to Siam (1511), and despatched to the Moluccas two expeditions (1512, 1514), which founded the Portuguese dominion in the Malay Archipelago (q.v.).
Other seaports and islands were conquered or colonized in rapid succession, and by 1540 Portugal had acquired a line of scattered maritime possessions extending along the coasts of Brazil, East and West Africa, Malabar, Ceylon, Persia, Indo-China and the Malay Archipelago.
This is chiefly practised by the inhabitants of China and the islands of the Indian Archipelago, and in countries where Chinese are largely employed.
After spending a year and a half in England, during which time, besides his book on the Amazon, he published a small volume on the Palm Trees of the Amazon, he started for the Malay Archipelago, exploring, observing and collecting from 1854 to 1862.
His deeply interesting narrative, The Malay Archipelago, appeared in 1869, and he also published many important papers through the London scientific societies.
He discovered that the Malay Archipelago was divided into a western group of islands, which in their zoological affinities are Oriental, and an eastern, which are Australian.
The axis of the archipelago near the mainland of Alaska has a S.W.
It is stated that before the advent of the Russians there were 25,000 Aleuts on the archipelago, but that the barbarities of the traders eventually reduced the population to one-tenth of this number.
The number of Aleuts in 1890 was reported as 968; the total population of the archipelago in 1900 was 2000.
During his third and last voyage, in 1778, Captain James Cook surveyed the eastern portion of the Aleutian archipelago, accurately determined the position of some of the more important islands and corrected many errors of former navigators.
The Aleutian Islands, like the Alexander Archipelago, are remnants of a submerged mountain system.
On the islands of the Alexander Archipelago and on Prince William Sound it grows to gigantic size; even on the Koyukuk and the middle Yukon it attains in places a diameter of 2 ft.
In 1902 a forest reservation comprising the largest part of the Alexander Archipelago was created by the United States government.
The chief German protectorates are South-west Africa, Togoland and Cameroon, German East Africa, Kaiser Wilhelm Land, Bismarck Archipelago, Solomon Islands, and Kiaochow - under lease from China - (Zeitschrift fitir Kolonialrecht, 1907, p. 311).
At first Ptolemy had made a successful descent upon Asia Minor and on several of the islands of the Archipelago; but he was at length totally defeated by Demetrius in a naval engagement off Salamis, in Cyprus (306).
One genus (Dinochloa, a native of the Malay archipelago) is scandent, and climbs over trees roo ft.
Sarmiento, the culminating point of the archipelago, was generally supposed to be volcanic, but it presents such extremely precipitous flanks that John Ball considered it more probably " a portion of the original rock skeleton that formed the axis of the Andean chain during the long ages that preceded the great volcanic outbursts that have covered the framework of the western side of South America."
The division of the archipelago to the south of Beagle Channel includes the islands of Hoste, Navarin, Gordon, Londonderry, Stewart, Wollaston and numerous islets, disposed in triangular form with the base on Beagle Channel and the apex at the rocky headland of Cape Horn.
With the settlement of the main island, which is now sometimes called Onisia, leaving the name of Tierra del Fuego to the archipelago, the Onas tribe has become fairly known.
The aborigines are decreasing rapidly in the whole archipelago, and although the Rev. Thomas Bridges, who, as missionary first and then as farmer, resided thirty years there, calculated the population to be 10,000 when he arrived, towards the close of the 19th century it was estimated to be little more than woo.
To these admirable surveys is due most of the present geographical terminology of the archipelago.
The forty species of Nepenthes are mostly natives of the hotter parts of the Indian Archipelago, but a few range into Ceylon, Bengal, Cochin China, and some even occur in tropical Australia on the one hand, and in the Seychelles and Madagascar on the other.
The outlying islands lie south-west of the Seychelles group and between that archipelago and Madagascar.
Soon afterwards Pierre Poivre, intendant of Ile de France, seeing the freedom of the Seychelles archipelago from hurricanes, caused spice plantations to be made there, with the object of wresting from the Dutch the monopoly they then enjoyed of the spice trade.
The archipelago consists of a number of coral islets and atolls comprising the African Islands (4), the St Joseph group (8), the Poivre Islands (9) and the Alphonso group (3).
In general characteristics and the beauty of their scenery these islands resemble those of the Sesse archipelago.
It forms, with the islands of Psara, Nikaria, Leros, Calymnus and Cos, a sanjak of the Archipelago vilayet.
There are frequent emigrations to Celebes and other parts of the archipelago.
Near its mouth, the Xingu expands into an immense lake, and its waters then mingle with those of the Amazon through a labyrinth of canos (natural canals), winding in countless directions through a wooded archipelago.
The greenshank is a native of the northern parts of the Old World, but in winter it wanders far to the south, and occurs regularly at the Cape of Good Hope, in India and thence throughout the Indo-Malay Archipelago to Australia.
Passing through the Straits of Magellan, he visited the Tuamotu archipelago, and Tahiti, where the English navigator Wallis had touched eight months before.
In 177b he was appointed commander-in-chief of the fleet sent against the Turks, whose far superior navy he annihilated at Cheshme (July 5th 1770), a victory which led to the conquest of the Greek archipelago.
Meyer, who spent several years in the Malay Archipelago and New Guinea, developed a contrary conclusion in his Die Negritos der Philippinen (1878), holding that the Negritos and Papuans are identical, and that possibly, or even probably, the former are an offshoot of the latter, like some other Polynesian islanders.
There was no discovery here, for the whole Canarian archipelago was now pretty well known to French and Spanish mariners, especially since the conquest of 1402-06 by French adventurers under Castilian overlordship; but in 1418 Henry's captain, Joao Goncalvez Zarco rediscovered Porto Santo, and in 1420 Madeira, the chief members of an island group which had originally been discovered (probably by Genoese pioneers) before 1351 or perhaps even before 1339, but had rather faded from Christian knowledge since.
This rediscovery of the far western archipelago, and the expeditions which, even within Prince Henry's life (as in 1452) pushed still deeper into the Atlantic, seem to show that the infante was not entirely forgetful of the possibility of such a western route to Asia as Columbus attempted in 1492, only to find America across his path.
The Asiatic and Malayan affinities of many of its animals, as well as the physical conditions of the bed of the Indian Ocean, make it highly probable that Madagascar, while once forming part of Africa, is the chief relic of a considerable archipelago formerly connecting that continent with Asia, its other portions being shown by groups of small islands, and by coral atolls and shoals, which are gradually disappearing beneath the waves.
They are also known as the Magellan Archipelago, and in Japan as Kwazan-retto (series of volcanic islands).
He considered the whole group connected geologically with the great islands of the Malay Archipelago farther south.
The plants suggest a comparison of the climate and forests with those of the Malay Archipelago and tropical America.
The volcanic origin of the whole archipelago is proved by the principal rocks being of basalt, trachyte and lava.
The archipelago, which has some small trade in copra, cotton and cotton seeds, is administered by a French resident, and has a total population of about 4300, nearly all natives.
The Russian explorer, Adam Ivan Krusenstern, made an extensive investigation of the archipelago in 1804.
In 1813 the American Commodore David Porter failed to establish a colony here; and in May 1842, after French Roman Catholic missionaries had prepared the way, Rear-admiral Dupetit-Thouars took formal possession of the archipelago for France.
In spite of its situation in the centre of the archipelago, Celebes possesses a fauna of a very distinctive kind.
The horses are in high repute in the archipelago; formerly about 700 were yearly exported to Java, but the supply has considerably diminished.
Equally remarkable with this presence of peculiar species is the absence of many kinds that are common in the rest of the archipelago; and these facts have been considered to indicate connexion with a larger land-mass at a very distant geological epoch, and the subsequent continuous isolation of Celebes.
Vegetation is extremely rich; but there are fewer large trees than in the other islands of the archipelago.
For example, rice is produced here in smaller quantity and of inferior quality to that in the western part of the archipelago, but superior to that in the eastern section, where sago and sorghum form the staple articles of food.
Palos (3000), with good port; Pare-Pare, connected by road with Lake Tempe; and Macassar (17,925), the seat of the governor and the centre of trade for the eastern part of the archipelago.
Malta geography Malta comprises an archipelago in the central Mediterranean Sea, some 93 km south of Sicily.
Hundreds of kilometers of coastline, many of which are still unexplored, make the Maltese archipelago a favorite with adventurous divers.
As a consequence, users of current systems have been conditioned to operate in isolation, thus creating an archipelago of information islands.
The most recent such episode has given the archipelago a tilt toward the northeast.
The islands of the Indonesian archipelago also hold very distinctive faunas.
Honolulu is a harbor city at the southern end of Oahu, the most visited island of the Hawaiian archipelago.
Hidden rocks make the Finnish archipelago quite treacherous and only experienced sailors with up-to-date charts should navigate them.
He also has an in-depth knowledge of the flora and fauna of the entire Japanese archipelago.
On this unique, remote archipelago in the Pacific, the animals have never learned fear of man.
We are unaware of previous breeding in the Madeira archipelago.
An island archipelago only 20 minutes from Cornwall, with over 100 islands waiting to be explored.
The story of the Chagos Archipelago should provide ample evidence to disabuse any rational person of the fundamental decency of the British Government.
Maldives - Simon Rogerson Of the 199 inhabited islands in the archipelago, 14 were completely evacuated.
The most northerly point in Russia, this archipelago of 191 islands is a naturalist's Paradise.
It commands a view of the elevated coast of Asia Minor towards the north, and of the Archipelago, studded with its numerous islands, on the north-west; while on the south-west is seen Mount Ida in Crete, often veiled in clouds, and on the south and south-east the vast expanse of waters which wash the African shore.
So long, however, as India held the monopoly of the clove, the Malay Peninsula was ignored,'the Hindus spreading their influence through the islands of the archipelago and leaving traces thereof even to this day.
The Moluccas were, from the first, the objective of the Portuguese invaders, and no sooner had the white men found their way round the Cape of Good Hope and established themselves successively upon the coast of East Africa, in the neighbourhood of the Gulf of Aden and the Malabar coast, than Malacca, then the chief trading centre of the Malayan Archipelago, became the object of their desire.
In the western hemisphere they range along the Mexican highlands and the Andes far into the tropics, while in the Old World the genus, well represented in the Himalayas and the hills of China, exists likewise in the peninsula of Malacca, in the Indian Archipelago and Malaya to the Philippine Islands and Borneo.
The sea power of the Greek communities on the coast of Asia Minor and in the Archipelago began to be a formidable rival to the Phoenician soon after the time of Hanna and Himilco, and peculiar interest attaches to the first recorded Greek Greeks.
He afterwards visited and described many places in Persia, India and the Malay Archipelago, returning to Europe in a Portuguese ship after an absence of five years.
The archipelago lies in the track of the fierce hurricanes which occur usually in this period.
Surveys of the archipelago were made by the American.
Diptera in general are not remarkable for brilliancy of coloration; as a rule they are dull and inconspicuous in hue, the prevailing bodytints being browns and greys; occasionally, however, more especially in species (Syrphidae) that mimic Hymenoptera, the body is conspicuously banded with yellow; a few are metallic, such as the species of Formosia, found in the islands of the East Indian Archipelago, which are among the most brilliant of all insects.
The region of the heavy periodical summer rains and high temperature, which comprises India, the IndoChinese peninsula, and southern China, as well as the western part of the Malay Archipelago, is also marked by much similarity in the plants and animals throughout' its extent.
The perennially humid regions of the Malayan peninsula and western portion of the archipelago are everywhere covered with dense forest, rendered difficult to traverse by the thorny cane, a palm of the genus Calamus, which has its greatest development in this part of Asia.
The Eastern empire had been for a time annihilated by the movement which in 1095 it had helped to evoke; and if it rose from its ashes in 1261 for two centuries of renewed life, it was never more than the shadow of its old self, with little hold on Asia Minor and less on Greece and the Archipelago, which the Latins still continued to occupy until they were finally conquered by the Ottoman Turks.
By the simplicity of its phonetic elements, the regularity of its grammatical structure, and the copiousness of its nautical vocabulary, the Malay language is singularly well fitted to be the lingua franca throughout the Indian archipelago.
In 1884 attention was drawn in a special degree to the Queensland traffic in Pacific Islanders by the " Hopeful " trials, and a government commission was appointed to inquire into the methods followed by labour ships in recruiting the natives of New Guinea, the Louisiade Archipelago, and the D'Entrecasteaux group of islands.
The word Shetland is supposed to be simply a modernized rendering of the Old Norse Hjaltland, of which the meaning is variously given as "high land," "Hjalti's land" - after Hjalti, a man whose name occurs in ancient Norse literature, but of whom little else is known - and "hilt land," in allusion to an imagined, though not too obvious, resemblance in the configuration of the archipelago to the hilt of a sword.
The Venetians had been driven from the Morea and the islands of the Archipelago; and, except a strip of the Dalmatian coast and the little mountain state of Montenegro, the whole of the Balkan peninsula was in Turkish hands.
Already, on the 25th of May, had been concluded the holy league between the pope, Venice and Spain for a new crusade against the infidel, in spite of the efforts of France to prevent the adhesion of the republic. Preparations were hurried on and at the end of September the great allied fleet, under Don John of Austria, sailed into the archipelago.
The Guanches, now extinct as a distinct people, appear, from the study of skulls and bones discovered, to have resembled the Cro-Magnon race of the Quaternary age, and no real doubt is now entertained that they were an offshoot of the great race of Berbers which from the dawn of history has occupied northern Africa from Egypt to the Atlantic. Pliny the Elder, deriving his knowledge from the accounts of Juba, king of Mauretania, states that when visited by the Carthaginians under Hanno the archipelago was found by them to be uninhabited, but that they saw ruins of great buildings.
This would suggest that the Guanches were not the first inhabitants, and from the absence of any trace of Mahommedanism among the peoples found in the archipelago by the Spaniards it would seem that this extreme westerly migration of Berbers took place between the time of which Pliny wrote and the conquest of northern Africa by the Arabs.
The New Guinea native is usually of a negroid type with fine physique, but in the Arfak mountains in the north-west, and at points on the west and north coasts and adjacent islands, the very degraded and stunted Karons are found, with hardly the elements of social organization (possibly the aboriginal race unmixed with foreign elements), and resembling the Aetas or Negritos of the Philippines, and other kindred tribes in the Malay Archipelago.
Political Division.-Politically the whole of the archipelago, except British North Borneo, &c. (see Borneo), part of Timor (Portuguese), New Guinea east of the 141st meridian (British and German), and the Philippine Islands, belongs to the Netherlands.
In India the northern range of the group is only bounded by the slopes of the Himalaya, and farther to the eastward parrots are not only abundant over the whole of the Malay Archipelago, as well as Australia and Tasmania, but two very well-defined families are peculiar to New Zealand and its adjacent islands (see Kakapo and Nestor).
These may have been Puka Puka of the Tuamotu Archipelago and Flint Island; but it may be stated here that the identification of islands sighted by the early explorers is often a matter of conjecture, and that therefore some islands of which the definite discovery must be dated much later had in fact been seen by Europeans at this early period.
When Germany acquired the Bismarck Archipelago in Melanesia the introduction of German names (New Pomerania, Neu Pommern, for New Britain; Neu Mecklenburg for New Ireland; Neu Langenburg for the Duke of York Group, &c.) met with no little protest as contrary to precedent and international etiquette.
Considerably north-east of Rodriguez lie the Oil Islands or Chagos archipelago, of which the chief is Diego Garcia (see Chagos).
Because the coconut palm is grown in many tropical areas, the origin of the coconut is not widely known, although most scientists feel it is native to the Malay Archipelago South Pacific region.
They honeymooned in Maldives, a remote archipelago of coral islands in the Indian Ocean with baby Suri in tow.
Galapagos Island cruises acquaint travelers with the uninhabited environment of the Galapagos archipelago.
The Galapagos archipelago is located on the equator west of Ecuador's mainland.
The one exception is Celebrity Cruises' sailings, which is one of the large cruise ship companies operating within the archipelago.
Found from the Greek Archipelago to Afghanistan, and hardy on dry soils.
Venice's lagoon (the "Laguna Veneta") is actually an archipelago of over a hundred islands, and several of these are inhabited, vibrant, and well worth a visit.
The extraordinary number of craters, a few of which are reported still to be active, gives evidence that the archipelago is the result of volcanic action.
The Galapagos archipelago possesses a rare advantage from its isolated situation, and from the fact that its history has never been interfered with by any aborigines of the human race.
It forms, with the islands of Syme, Casos, Carpathos, Castelorizo, Telos and Charki, one of the four sanjaks into which the Archipelago vilayet of Turkey is divided.
With the exception of Tasmania there are no important islands belonging geographically to Australia, for New Guinea, Timor and other islands of the East Indian archipelago, though not removed any great distance from the continent, do not belong to its system.
There are besides many other safe anchorages about the coast, notably Shoal Bay and Kotara Anchorage in the South Andaman; Cadell Bay and the Turtle Islands in the North Andaman; and Outram Harbour and Kwangtung Strait in the archipelago.
The great peculiarity of Andaman flora is that, with the exception of the Cocos islands, no cocoanut palms are found in the archipelago.
The Ismdo-Malayan sub-region includes the Indian and Malayan peninsulas, Cochin-China and southern China, the Malayan archipelago, and Philippines, with New Guinea and Polynesia, excluding the Sandwich Islands.
From that time a fleet was despatched every year, and the company's operations greatly increased geographical knowledge of India and the Eastern Archipelago.
The Arctic voyages of Barents were quickly followed by the establishment of p u a Dutch East India Company; and the Dutch, ousting the Portuguese, not only established factories on the mainland of India and in Japan, but acquired a preponderating influence throughout the Malay Archipelago.
Louis de Bougainville obtained a fuller acquaintance with the archipelago in 1768, and called them the Navigators' Islands (Iles des Navigateurs) .
Crete thus forms the natural limit between the Mediterranean and the Archipelago.
Java is the most thickly peopled, best cultivated and most advanced island of the whole Eastern archipelago.
Among the islands of the Malay Archipelago the force of the monsoons is much interrupted, and the position of this region on the equator otherwise modifies the directions of the prevailing winds.
The same conclusion is indicated by the absence from the Moluccas and Celebes of various other Mammals, Quadrumana, Carnivora, Insectivora and Ruminants, which abound in the western part of the Archipelago.
The marine eels, Muraenidae, are more numerous towards the Malay Archipelago than in the Indian seas.
The Malays, who occupy the peninsula and most of the islands of the Archipelago called after them, are Mongols apparently modified by their very different climate, and by the maritime life Malays.
In many parts of southern Asia are found semi-barbarous races representing the earliest known stratum of population, such as the Veddahs of Ceylon, and various tribes in China General a nd the Malay Archipelago.
Its sphere includes Indo-China, much of the Malay Archipelago, Tibet and Mongolia.
The history of Indian civilization in Indo-China and the Archipelago is still obscure, in spite of the existence of gigantic ruins, but it would appear that in some parts at least twa periods must be distinguished, first the introduction of Hinduism (or mixed Hinduism and Buddhism), perhaps under Indian princes, and secondly a later and more purely ecclesiastical.
Beyond India it has spread to Malacca and the Malay Archipelago, where it overwhelmed Hindu civilization, and reached the southern Philippines.
At present it occupies the extremity of the Malay Peninsula, Java, Sumatra, Borneo, the Philippines and other islands of the Malay Archipelago as well as Madagascar, while the inhabitants of most islands in the South Seas, including New Zealand and Hawaii, speak languages which if not Malay have at least undergone a strong Malay influence.
It was, however, superseded by Islam, which spread to the Malay Archipelago and Peninsula before the 16th century.
Thus the "Aegean Area" has now come to mean the Archipelago with Crete and Cyprus, the Hellenic peninsula with the Ionian isles, and Western Anatolia.