The parish of Mortlach, in which Dufftown is situated, is rich in archaeological and historical associations.
Beit Jibrin is in the centre of a district of great archaeological interest.
There is an archaeological museum with prehistoric antiquities from the lake-dwellings on an island in the Lake of Varese.
From archaeological discoveries it would appear that the ancient town was preceded by a prehistoric settlement of the Bronze Age, the dwellings of which rested upon piles - one, indeed, of the so-called terremare, which are especially frequent in the neighbourhood of Parma.
von Rosen, Archaeological' Researches on the Frontier of Argentina and Bolivia 1901-1902 (Stockholm, 1904); Arturo B.
The archaeological interest of Aegina is centred in the well-known temple on the ridge near the northern corner of the island.
It remains, therefore, to ask whether any information can be had about the language of this primitive -COfolk, and whether they can be identified as the authors of any of the various archaeological strata now recognized on Italian soil.
It is as yet difficult to determine the part which Rhodes played in prehistoric days during the naval predominance of the neighbouring island of Crete; but archaeological remains dating from the later Minoan age prove that the early Aegean culture maintained itself there comparatively unimpaired until the historic period.
The position of Rhodes as a distributing centre of Levantine and especially of Phoenician goods is well attested by archaeological finds.
Rajputana is of great archaeological interest, possessing some fine religious buildings in ruins and others in excellent preservation.
These materials, imperfect as they are, when combined with the notices derived from ancient writers and the evidence of archaeological excavations, may be considered as having furnished some results of reasonable certainty.
No satisfactory collection has been made of the Celtic inscriptions of Cisalpine Gaul, though many are scattered about in different museums. For our present purpose it is important to note that the archaeological stratification in deposits like those of Bologna shows that the Gallic period supervened upon the Etruscan.
Such archaeological evidence as can be connected with the linguistic data will there be discussed.
A member of all the chief archaeological societies in Europe, he was given hon.
Besides the Academy of Science, the Moscow Society of Naturalists, the Mineralogical Society, the Geographical Society, with its Caucasian and Siberian branches, the archaeological societies and the scientific societies of the Baltic provinces, all of which are of old and recognized standing, there have lately sprung up a series of new societies in connexion with each university, and their serials are yearly growing in importance, as, too, are those of the Moscow Society of Friends of Natural Science, the Chemico-Physical Society, and various medical, educational and other associations.
da Fonseca, An Historical and Archaeological Sketch of Goa, Bombay, 1878).
Moreover, the authorities on whom he relied have had to be corrected since in many points of detail in the light of later archaeological research.
Taanach), together with the contemporary archaeological evidence (from Lachish, Gezer, Megiddo, Jericho, &c.), represent advanced conditions of life and culture, the precise chronological limits of which cannot be determined with certainty.
In the light of contemporary monuments, archaeological evidence, the progress of scientific knowledge and the recognized methods of modern historical criticism, the representation of the origin of mankind and of the history of the Jews in the Old Testament can no longer be implicitly accepted.
The critical investigation of these records is the indispensable prelude to all serious biblical study, and hasty or sweeping deductions from monumental or archaeological evidence, or versions compiled promiscuously from materials of distinct origin, are alike hazardous.
Museum at Budapest, where he became distinguished for his archaeological researches.
Halbherr on behalf of the Italian Archaeological Mission and subsequently carried out by L.
The archaeological evidence outside Crete points to the actual existence of Minoan plantations as far afield on one side as Sicily and on the other as the coast of Canaan.
Close to it is the archaeological museum, the most important in the island.
The museum includes 3300 books, many being of the 15th and 16th centuries, a department of engravings, a Virginia Room with portraits and relics, some tapestries, an excellent collection of casts and valuable American archaeological specimens.
Chantre in 1894 picked up lustreless ware, like that of Hissarlik, in central Phrygia and at Pteria, and the English archaeological expeditions, sent subsequently into north-western Anatolia, have never failed to bring back ceramic specimens of Aegean appearance from the valleys of the Rhyndacus, Sangarius and Halys.
Thereafter, by exact observation of stratification, eight more periods have been distinguished by the explorer of Cnossus, each marked by some important development in the universal and necessary products of the potter's art, the least destructible and therefore most generally used archaeological criterion.
- Much of the evidence is contained in archaeological periodicals, especially Annual of the British School at Athens (1900-); Monumenti Antichi and Rendiconti d.
The space thus cleared has been used for the rearrangement of the Archaeological and Artistic Museum.
The reorganization of the Archaeological and Artistic Museum and of the Royal Gallery of Ancient Art coincided with the inauguration in April 1895 of a series of biennial International Art Exhibitions, arranged in order to celebrate the silver wedding of the king and queen of Italy.
There is considerable material of value, especially for local history, in the Ohio Archaeological and Historical Society Publications (Columbus, 1887), and in Henry Howe, Historical Collections of Ohio (1st ed., Cincinnati, 1847; Centennial edition [enlarged], 2 vols., Columbus, 1889-1891).
During the great migrations many nationalities passed through this territory, or settled within it for some time, leaving traces in numerous archaeological remains.
In 1870 the Greek Archaeological Society undertook a series of excavations in the Outer Ceramicus, which had already been partially explored by various scholars.
The site, which had been accurately determined by Leake, was explored by Strack in 1862, and the researches subsequently undertaken by the Greek Archaeological Society were concluded in 1879.
Immediately west of the theatre of Dionysus is the sacred precinct of Asclepius, which was excavated by the Archaeological Society in 1876-1878.
The institu- Greek Archaeological Society, in 1 8.
The German Archaeological Institute, founded in 1874, has carried out excavations at Thebes, Lesbos, Paros, Athens and elsewhere; it has also been associated in the great researches at Olympia, Pergamum and Troy, and in many other important undertakings.
An Austrian Archaeological Institute was founded in 1898.
In the Minoan epoch Athens is proved by the archaeological remains to have been a petty kingdom scarcely more important than many other Attic communities, yet enjoying a more unbroken course of development than the leading states of that period.
The best maps are those in Die Karten von Attika, published with explanatory text by the German Archaeological Institute (Berlin, 1881).
- During 1910-20 advances in Egyptian archaeological knowledge were sure if slow.
The results published in the Archaeological Survey of Nubia 6 by Messrs.
l5 Baron Oppenheim's excavations at Tell Halaf have resulted in the recovery of reliefs of barbaric style, simulating the Syro-Hittite, from the palace of a local king, Kapara, of about the same period as Sinjirli and Sakchegozii (Toth-9th centuries B.C.), and pottery of all ages, going back to the chalcolithic period.ls The neolithic and chalcolithic pottery of Mesopotamia and Persia is one of the chief archaeological discoveries of late years in the Near East, and attention has recently been directed to it again by the important finds at Abu Shahrein (the ancient Eridu) and Tell el `Obeid, near Ur.
The new conditions in Palestine should be very favourable to archaeological work there, and it is to be hoped that in Syria the French will give every facility for international work.
The future of archaeological study in Mesopotamia depends upon the political conditions, which have not hitherto been considered favourable to the resumption of excavation in that country.
They were admirable work, and at Sherqat especially have produced results of the greatest historical and archaeological importance.
For such a work, however, considerable funds are necessary, and all archaeological study has had to struggle along with insufficient means.
Among other important archaeological finds of the past decade are those of several new fragments of the " Palermo Stone " and similar annalistic monuments of the V.
Thomson Paton; the county and municipal buildings; handsome public baths and gymnasium, presented to the town by Mr David Thomson; the accident hospital; the fever hospital; the museum of the Natural Science and Archaeological Society; the academy, the burgh school and a secondary school with the finest technical equipment in Scotland, given by Mr A.
The village Bolgari near Kanzan, surrounded by numerous graves in which most interesting archaeological finds have been made, occupies the site of one of the cities - perhaps the capital - of that extinct kingdom.
Kaupert on behalf of the German Archaeological Institute in Athens (1878), or A.
Encouragement and help have been given by the local Archaeological Society, and by many individuals, notably Greeks justly proud of a city which is one of the glories of their national story.
Benson, Report on Prospects of Research in Alexandria (Egypt Expl.Fund Archaeological Report, 1894-1895); Bulletin de la Societe Archiologique d'Alexandrie(1898 foll.); O.
At the request of the Indian government the Nepalese government had the pillar, which was half buried, excavated for examination; and Dr Fiihrer, then in the employ of the Archaeological Survey, arrived soon afterwards at the spot.
Kulakovsky in Materials for Russian Archaeology (St Petersburg, 1896; a publication of the Russian Imperial Archaeological Commission), but it is written in Russian, as also is the account by V.
Archaeological study in Cuba has been limited, and has not produced results of great importance.
from the town of Epidaurus, has been thoroughly excavated by the Greek Archaeological Society since the year 1881, under the direction of M.
The excavations at the Hieron have been recorded as they went on in the Ilpaeroat of the Greek Archaeological Society, especially for 1881-1884 and 1889, and also in the 'E4»u€pis 'ApxatoXoynoi, especially for 1883 and 1885; see also Kavvadias, Les Fouilles d'Epidaure and Tb r03'A?KX iv 'E7rukbpq, eat 9Epa7reta7'CJY Defrasse and Lechat, Epidaure.
Roman Africa has been the subject of innumerable historical and archaeological researches, especially since the conquest of Algeria and Tunisia by the French.
Under the title of Musees et collections archeologiques de l'Algerie et de la Tunisie, the Ministry of Public Instruction publishes from time to time illustrated descriptions of all these archaeological treasures.
The archaeological exploration of Algeria has kept pace with the expansion of French dominion.
In Tunisia, Carthage early became the object of archaeological investigation.
In 1843 he was appointed professor of philology at Kiel and director of the archaeological museum founded by himself in co-operation with Otto Jahn.
His archaeological and mythological Memoire sur Venus (1775),(1775), which has been ranked with similar works of Heyne and Winckelmann, gained him admission to the Academie des Inscriptions (1778).
Until 1904 archaeological research in Laconia was carried on only sporadically.
In 1904 the British Archaeological school at Athens undertook a systematic investigation of the ancient and medieval remains in Laconia.
The Roman remains at Besancon are of great archaeological value.
In this romance the interest of the narrative is weakened by a superabundance of historical and archaeological detail.
After 1867 great activity was displayed in history and its allied branches, owing to the direct encouragement given by the Hungarian Historical Society, and by the historical, archaeological, and statistical committees of the academy.
Here you find articles in the encyclopedia on topics related to archaeological sites.
Engelmann, Annali of the Archaeological Institute at Rome (1874); O.
They seem to begin about the 6th century B.C., and to continue till the 2nd century A.D.; that is, they cover the period of the Scythic domination according to the account accepted above, and that of the Sarmatian, and so suggest that, as far as the archaeological evidence goes, there was little more than a change of name and perhaps the substitution of one ruling clan for another - not a real change of population.
In 1845 he established at Paris a special archaeological library, and at the same time a manufactory of painted glass.
For archaeological parallels one may compare the tombs of Rekhmire (15th cent.
The town also contains the archaeological museum, which, under the direction of Professor Orsi, is now the best arranged in the island.
The site has been excavated by the Greek Archaeological Society; it contained a temple, a sacred spring, into which coins were thrown by worshippers, altars and porticoes, and a small theatre, of which the proscenium is well preserved.
In the midst of these multifarious labours Giry found time for extensive archaeological researches, and made a special study of the medieval treatises dealing with the technical processes employed in the arts and industries.
He worked at Athens for the British Archaeological Society from 1892 to 1895, and subsequently in Egypt for the Hellenic Society.
Bishop Stillingfleet held that London was of Roman foundation and not older than the time of Claudius (Origines Brit., 1685, p. 43); and Dr Guest affirmed that the notion of a British town having " preceded the Roman camp has no foundation to rest upon " (Archaeological Journal, xxiii.
They may have been deposited either upon the building or repairs of the bridge, as well as upon the accession of a new emperor " (Archaeological Journal, i.
Dr Guest asserted " that good reason may be given for the belief that even London itself for a while lay desolate and uninhabited " (Archaeological Journal, xix.
Fearnside (1838); George Grant, A Comprehensive History of London (Dublin, 1849); John Timbs, Curiosities of London (1855, later editions 1855, 1868, 1875, 1876); Old London Papers, Archaeological Institute (1867); W.
There is also a museum, with natural history, archaeological, and art collections, and among other buildings may be mentioned St Bartholomew's church (1089), the town hall (1562-1564), a lunatic asylum, teachers' seminary and an agricultural academy.
Brandis to accompany him on a journey to Greece for the prosecution of archaeological researches.
His other writings are chiefly archaeological.
All that can be said is that both archaeological and epigraphic evidence indicates that no very long interval separated the empire of the Semitic kings of Agade from that of the kings of Sumer and Akkad, whose rule was inaugurated by the founding of the Dynasty of Ur.1 To use caution in accepting the chronological notices of the later kings is very far removed from suggesting emendations of their figures.
Apart from the archaeological value of his work in identifying Kuyunjik as the site of Nineveh, and in providing a great mass of materials for scholars to work upon, these two books of Layard's are among the bestwritten books of travel in the language.
Among the relics of its former importance are the cathedral, built in1420-1424(though originally founded in 1188), restored in 1893 and now housing the archaeological collection of the Altmark, the Gothic church of St Mary, founded in 1447, a "Roland column" of 1535, and two fortified gateways, dating from the 13th century.
Both parties visited many sites where Himyaritic remains and inscriptions were found, but the hostile attitude of the natives, more particularly of the Seyyids, the religious hierarchy of Hadramut, prevented any adequate examination, and much of archaeological interest undoubtedly remains for future travellers to discover.
Interesting archaeological discoveries were made, and a valuable topographical survey was carried out, covering the whole Midian coast from the head of the Gulf of Akaba to the mouth of the Wadi Hamd, and including both the Tehama range and the Hisma valley behind it; while the importance of the W.
Huber's journal, published after his death from his original notes, contains a mass of topographical and archaeological detail of the greatest scientific value: his routes and observations form, in fact, the first and only scientific data for the construction of the map of northern Arabia.
Hommel's Siid-arabische Chrestomathie, Munich, 1893), but the archaeological value of these remains has not been so fully treated.
Although this cannot be said to be proved, the studies, linguistic and archaeological, of Semitic scholars have shown it to be probable.
The historical institute of Peru, also at Lima, is charged by the government, from which it receives a liberal subsidy, with the work of collecting, preparing and publishing documents relating to Peruvian history, and of preserving objects of archaeological and historic character.
This building contains an archaeological museum with a collection of Roman stone monuments; the archives of the town; and the principal museum, which, besides valuable paintings and other works of art, contains the magnificent tombs of Philip the Bold and John the Fearless, dukes of Burgundy.
Indexes to English Periodicals.-A large number of periodicals do not preserve literary matter of permanent value, but the highclass reviews and the archaeological, artistic and scientific magazines contain a great mass of valuable facts, so that general and special indexes have become necessary to all literary workers.
A military journal was published at Athens in 1855, and two years later the archaeological periodical conducted by Pittakis and Rangabes.
maintained their existence into modern times, and in these only (except at Locri) have archaeological investigations of any importance been carried on; so that there still remains a considerable field for investigation.
In 1804 he accepted the post of librarian to Amelia, duchess-dowager of Weimar, which gave him the leisure he desired for the purpose of turning to account the literary and archaeological researches in which he had engaged at Rome.
C.) Modern Results of Archaeological Research.
It will be sufficient here to point out in general terms the import of the message of archaeological discovery in the Victorian Era in its bearings upon the great problems of world-history.
Yet the very eagerness with which the champions of the Hebrew records searched for archaeological proofs of their validity was a tacit confession that even the most unwavering faith was not beyond the reach of external evidence.
But even were direct evidence of the knowledge of the art of writing in Greece of the early day altogether lacking, none but the hardiest sceptic could doubt, in the light of recent archaeological discoveries elsewhere, that the inhabitants of ancient Hellas of the "Homeric Age" must have shared with their contemporaries the capacity to record their thought in written words.
The documents in question consist chiefly of letters, and constitute one of the most important of archaeological finds.
For a detailed description of these most remarkable crowns the reader must be referred to a paper by the late Mr Albert Way (Archaeological Journal, xvi.
In Los Angeles also are the collections of the Southwest Society (1904; for southern California, Arizona and New Mexico) of the Archaeological Institute of America.
On archaeological grounds the Purasati have been connected with the people of Keftiu, i.e.
4 But there is no reason at present to believe that their entrance caused any break in the archaeological history.
Archaeological evidence for their influence has indeed been adduced,' but it is certain that some account must be taken also of the influence by land from North Syria and Asia Minor.
Anthrop. iv., 1891; Holmes, Archaeological Studies; see Hodge's List, Bur.
The builders were "ignorant of some of the most essential principles of construction, and are to be regarded as hardly more than novices in the art" (Holmes, Archaeological Studies, &c.).
The fact remains, however, that the curious metal-craft of the narrow strip along the Pacific from Mexico to Titicaca is the greatest of archaeological enigmas.
Holmes, Handbook of the Indians North of Mexico; Alice C. Fletcher, Francis la Flesche and John Comfort Fillmore, "A Study of Omaha Indian Music," Peabody Museum Archaeological and Ethnological Papers, i.
Holmes, Archaeological Studies among the Ancient Cities of Mexico (Chicago, 1895); Walter Hough, Archaeological Field Work in N.-E.
Smith, "Archaeological Discoveries in North-Western America," Bull.
Weimar possesses also archaeological, ethnographical and natural science collections and the Liszt Museum (in the gardener's house in the park, for many years the musician's home).
C. P. Bell, Archaeological Reports (Colombo, 1892-1906) Rhys Davids, " Sigiri, the Lion Rock," in Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society (1875), pp. 191-220; H.
There is an archaeological museum in the old abbey buildings.
Much damaged by the earthquake of 1759, they remained a wilderness of fallen blocks till 1901, when their clearance was undertaken by the German Archaeological Institute and entrusted to the direction of Prof. O.
He also published various treatises of archaeological interest, of which the most important are Die Erfindung des Alphabets (1840), Urgeschichte u.
Through the influence of Cardinal Barberini he next (1635) settled in Rome, where for eight years he taught mathematics in the Collegio Romano, but ultimately resigned this appointment to study hieroglyphics and other archaeological subjects.
The monuments at Sanchi are now under the charge of the archaeological department; they are being well cared for, and valuable photographs have been taken of the bas-reliefs and inscriptions.
See also Archaeologia Cantiana (translations of the Kent Archaeological Society, London, from 1858).
On archaeological evidence for human sacrifice from Palestinian soil, see H.
The archaeological commission of the Description de l'Egypte visited them in 1799, when the walls of many of the large tombs were still almost intact; in the first half of the 19th century (and to some extent later) an immense amount of destruction was caused by blasting for stone.
Their successful identification by Colebrooke 5 in 1807 had a purely archaeological interest.
There he was still working when the outbreak of the World War and the decision of Turkey to join the Central European Powers put an abrupt stop to all archaeological work and called Lawrence to what proved a wider field.
of Melanges historiques, part of Documents inedits), &c. These works did not wholly occupy his time: in 1847 he inaugurated a course of archaeological lectures at the Ecole des Chartes, and in 1849 was appointed professor of diplomacy at the same college.
de Lasteyrie, 1886); among these are some important fragments of his archaeological lectures, but his Histoire de la laine, with which he was occupied for many years, is missing.
The Albergo d'Arti, built by Duke Francis III., accommodates the civic collections, comprising the Museo Lapidario (Roman inscriptions, &c.); the valuable archives, the Biblioteca Estense, with 90,000 volumes and 3000 MSS.; the Museo Civico, with large and good palaeo-ethnological and archaeological collections; a fine collection of textile fabrics, and the picture gallery, a good representative collection presented to the city by Francis V.
The Musee Rath contains pictures and sculptures; the Musee Fol, antiquities of various dates; the Musee des Arts Decoratifs, inter alia, a fine collection of prints; the Musee Industriel, industrial objects and models; the Musee Archeologique, prehistoric and archaeological remains; the Musee d'Histoire Naturelle, scientific collections; and the Musee Epigraphique, a considerable number of inscriptions.
And Professor Joseph + epkowski, of Cracow, has greatly enriched the archaeological museum of his native city.
Of the learned societies the more important are the medical (1840), the naturalists' (1869), the juridical (1876), the historical of Nestor the Chronicler (1872), the horticultural (1875), and the dramatic (1879), the archaeological commission (1843), and the society of church archaeology.
Adnitt (Transactions of the Shropshire Archaeological and Nat.
The 19th century in Germany was marked by the organization of the great series of Greek and Latin inscriptions, and by the foundation of the Archaeological Institute in Rome (1829), which was at first international in its character.
Besides some archaeological articles in the Nineteenth Century and contributions to the Dictionary of National Biography, he published a History of the Diocese of Norwich (1879); The Coming of the Friars (1885); The Autobiography of Roger North (1887) and Trials of a Country Parson (1890).
Dr Lehmann's archaeological and linguistic researches, especially in Salvador and Nicaragua, also enabled him to prove another very important fact, viz.
The archaeological and linguistic evidence proves also that a great part of Salvador and Honduras was once occupied by peoples of the Maya race - Pokomam, Chorti and perhaps other unknown tribes.
It is noteworthy that archaeological objects of the type characteristic of northern Honduras (Ulloa Valley) have been found on the Pacific coast of Salvador.
Probably the Mexican elements superseded the Maya so completely that there remained no trace of the Maya except archaeological objects; it is to be supposed that the Lenca and Sumo tribes superseded the Chorotega in Salvador.
These remains would, of course, be archaeological or place-names.
Bandelier, Report on an Archaeological Tour in Mexico, 1881 (Archaeol.
Blake, Catalogue of the Historical and Archaeological Collections of the National Museum of Mexico (Mexico, 1884); Eug.
Holmes, Archaeological Studies among the Ancient Cities of Mexico (Parts I.
149-150, Braunschweig, 1896), and also contributions to American archaeological publications; A.
Archaeological discoveries in India, Persia, Assyria and Egypt show that in the polished stone age quaternary man had domesticated the horse, while a Chinese treatise, the Goei-leaotse, the fifth book of the Vouking, a sort of military code dating from the reign of the emperor Hoang-Ti (2637 years B.C.), places the cavalry on the wings of the army.
Printed for the Kent Archaeological Society, 1869.
The De baptismo is of special interest from the archaeological point of view.
Thus, whatever evidence may be supplied by archaeological research, the problem of the Exodus must always be studied in the light of the biblical narratives.
From this period Bent devoted himself particularly to archaeological research.
Elliott Smith, A Contribution to the Study of Mummification in Egypt (Cairo, 1906); The Archaeological Survey of Nubia Bulletins (Cairo, 1908 seq.); Dr Lortet and M.
Much light has been thrown on this group of questions in recent years both from linguistic and from archaeological sources.
For the historical and archaeological evidence which connects the Sabines with the patricians of Rome, see Rome, Ancient History.
This is, of course, more true of the middle ages than of the times that preceded and followed them; the Church under the Roman empire hardly as yet realized the possibilities of " sermons in stones," and took over, with little change, the model of the secular and religious buildings of pagan Rome; the Renaissance, essentially a neo-pagan movement, introduced disturbing factors from outside, and, though developing a style very characteristic of the age that produced it, started that archaeological movement which has tended in modern times to substitute mere imitations of old models for any attempt to express in church architecture the religious spirit of the age.
Besides a number of archaeological works, especially in the department of numismatics, he published a compilation from the Arabic, Persian and Turkish, entitled Paroles remarquables, bons mots et maximes des orientaux (1694), and a translation from an Arabic manuscript, De l'origine et du progres du café (1699).
He now became a professor at his old college, and for some years supplemented his salary by giving private lessons and writing on historical and archaeological subjects for local periodicals.
His original mission being abandoned, funds were now advanced for the prosecution of his researches, and he remained in Egypt for four years, excavating, discovering and despatching archaeological treasures to the Louvre, of which museum he was on his return appointed an assistant conservator.
The town contains Orthodox Greek and Roman Catholic seminaries, Jewish colleges, and an archaeological museum for church antiquities, founded in 1890.
In what follows, the archaeological interest of early Britain is dealt with, in connexion with the history of Britain in PreRoman, Roman, and Anglo-Saxon days; this account being supplementary to the articles England; English History; Scotland, &C.
C. Bruce, Roman Wall (3rd ed., 1867); reports of excavations by Haverfield in the Cumberland Archaeological Society Transactions (1894-1904); and R.
Reference must also be made to the articles on Anglo-Saxon antiquities in the Victoria County Histories, and to various papers in Archaeologia, the Archaeological Journal, the Journal of the British Archaeological Society, the Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries, the Associated Architectural Societies' Reports, and other antiquarian journals.
Many articles on various sections of the subject have appeared in the journals of archaeological societies; we may mention Nesbitt on the churches of Rome earlier than 1150 (Archaeologia, xl.
Here is the museum of the Essex Archaeological Society, with a remarkable collection of Roman antiquities, and a library belonging to the Round family, who own the castle.
The latter's prosperity is still attested by its archaeological remains (notably the "Treasury of Minyas") and the traces of artificial conduits by which its engineers supplemented the natural outlets.
In 1872 he had been appointed secretary to the Archaeological Commission (of Rome), in 1876 vice-director of the Kircherian museum and in 1878 director of excavations.
He was the designer and builder of the archaeological park at Rome.
degrees from many universities, English, American and European, he was made a member of numerous archaeological and similar societies, including the Royal Institute of British Architects, who bestowed on him their gold medal.
Not only is it clear, both from literary and archaeological evidence, that they were better armed (see below), but also their power was much more concentrated.
We have evidence, both archaeological and linguistic, that the cultivation of cereals in Teutonic lands goes back to a very remote period, while the antiquity even of the ox-plough is attested by the rock-carvings at Tegneby in Bohuslan (Sweden), which are believed to date from early in the bronze age.
of rationalism is based largely upon the results of modern historical and archaeological investigation.
and Norwich Archaeological Soc. xiv.
Several of the rooms occupied by the archaeological museum bear traces of the decorations executed under Galeazzo Maria and Lodovico it Moro, and one of them has a splendid ceiling with trees in full foliage, painted so as to cover the whole vaulting, ascribed to Leonardo da Vinci.
An account by Dr James Burgess was published in 1877 as one of the volumes of the Archaeological Survey of Southern India.
1828) in 1790, a gymnasium, and schools of navigation, art and music. There are learned societies for the study of law (1761) and natural science (1830); an academy of fine arts (1830); an archaeological society; and a central bureau for collecting information concerning the province.
An archaeological department, with an important collection in American archaeology, was founded by Robert S.
From an archaeological point of view Germany is very far from being a homogeneous whole.
Among these may be noted those of the Bureau of Mines and the archaeological reports by David Boyle (1886-1906).
Besides a large number of archaeological papers in periodicals, in the Annali of the Institute of Rome, and in the Transactions of the Berlin Academy, and several illustrated catalogues of Greek, Roman and other antiquities in the Berlin, Naples and Vatican Museums, Gerhard was the author of the following works: Antike Bildwerke (Stuttgart, 1827-1844); Auserlesene griech.
The bulk of Greek historical literature having perished, and in the absence of both archaeological data from Iran, we can only speculate on the inner life of these Greek cities under a strange sky.
Exploration and Research.Owing to its early development of a high civilization with written records, its wealth, and its preservative climate, Egypt is the country which most amply repays archaeological research.
A new period was opened in Egyptian exploration in 1858 when Mariette was appointed director of archaeological works In Egypt, his duties being to safeguard the monuments and prevent their exploitation by dealers.
The admirably conducted Archaeological Survey of the portion of Nubia threatened by the raising of the Assuan dam is in the charge of another departmentthe Survey department, directed for many years up to 1909 by Captain H.
Non-official agencies (supported by voluntary contributions) for exploration in Egypt comprise the Egypt Exploration Fund, started in London in 1881, with its two branches, viz, the Archaeological Survey (1890) for copying and publishing the monuments above ground, and the Graeco-Roman Branch (1897), well known through the brilliant work in Greek papyri of B.
Antiquities, Sites, &c.The remains for archaeological investigation in Egypt may be roughly classified as material and literary: to the latter belong the texts on papyri and the inscriptions, to the former the sites of ancient towns with the temples, fortifications and houses; remains of roads, canals, quarries and other matters falling within the domain of ancient topography; the larger monuments, as obelisks, statues, stelae, &c.; and finally the small antiquitiesutensils, clothes, weapons, amulets, &c. Where moisture can reach the antiquities their preservation is no better in Egypt than it would have been in other countries; for this reason all the papyri in the Delta have perished unless they happen to have been charred by fire.
The annual Archaeological Reports of the Egypt Explbration Fund contain summaries of the work done each year in the several departments of research.
Lepsius, Denkmdler aus Agypten und Athiopien (Berlin, 1849-1859), and Memoirs of the Archaeological Survey of the Egypt Exploration Fund, may be specified.
Together with hunting and fishing it is illustrated in many of the Memoirs of the Archaeological Survey of the same society.
This, however, seems greatly in excess of probability, and several Egyptogists familiar with excavation are willing to accept Meyers figures on archaeological grounds.
The succession of archaeological types revealed in them has been tabulated by Petrie in his Diospolis Parva; and the detailed publication of Reisners unusually careful researches is bringing much new light on the questions involved, amongst other things showing the exact point at which the prehistoric series merges into the 1st Dynasty, for, as might be surmised, in many cases the prehistoric cemeteries continued in use under the earliest dynasties.
Kenyon (British Museum Catalogues); also Mr Kenyons annual summaries in the Archaeological Re port of the Egypt Exploration Fund.
A few theological, archaeological and astronomical articles from his pen appeared in the Journal Helvetique and elsewhere, and he contributed several papers to Rousseau's Dictionnaire de musique (1767).
Unusual archaeological interest attaches to the churchyard.
See Ohio Archaeological and Historical Quarterly for April 1909 (Columbus, Ohio) for several articles on the early settlement by Moravian Indians.
Easter Island is famous for its wonderful archaeological remains.
The numerous minor explorations, however, chiefly carried on by Government authorities and local archaeological societies, had been less interrupted.
- There has been most archaeological activity at Athens, where its results have been mainly topographical.
In the .next war, the landing of the Allied forces at Salonica led to some archaeological discoveries in the occupied territory.
Pharmakovski in the Archaeologischer Anzeiger of the Jahrbuch of the German Archaeological Institute.
At Goritsa, the ancient Corcyra, in 1911, the Greek Archaeological Society discovered an early archaic temple of Artemis, the excavation of which was continued until 1914 by Doerpfeld at the expense of the former Emperor of Germany.
During the war some show of general work was made by members of the German Archaeological Commission with the Turkish forces, but this came to little more than notes on the preservation or destruction of wellknown monuments.
A report of the work done at Ephesus by the Austrian Archaeological Institute since 1909 was issued in 1913.
Archaeological work in Africa met with little or no interruption during the war, either in French or Italian territory.
Thompson, Prehistoric Thessaly (1912); German Archaeological Institute, Tiryns, vols.
Keil, Ephesos, Fithrer durch die Ruinenstdtte (1915); Austrian Archaeological Institute, Forschungen in Ephesos (vol.
Marignan questioned, on archaeological grounds, the date assigned to the tapestry, as the Abbe de la Rue had questioned it ninety years before; but his arguments were refuted by Gaston Paris and M.
Tradition is completely corroborated by archaeological evidence.
The town possesses a museum with good archaeological and natural history collections, a literary institute and a horticultural society.
The striking archaeological discoveries of recent years have both confirmed and added to our knowledge of the earliest period.
Returning to France, he devoted himself for some years to archaeological research.
Except his essay on" The Protestant Church in France," published in 1856 in Cambridge Essays, his remaining works are likewise archaeological.
hospital built between 1847 and 1861; a large penitentiary, insane asylum, orphans' asylum, and beggars' asylum; a law school, artisans' school (Lyceu de Artes e Officios), and archaeological institute; a normal school and school of engineering; and war and naval arsenals.
It has further been established on strong archaeological and linguistic evidence that the long struggle between patricians and plebeians in early Rome was the result of a racial difference between them.
to its interference in Philistia and friendliness to Judah, see Philistine), the chief event was the great invasion by Sheshonk (Shishak) in the latter part of the 10th century; but although it appears to be an isolated campaign, contact with Egypt, to judge from the archaeological results of the excavations, was never intermittent.
The external evidence does not point to any intervening hiatus, and the archaeological data from the excavations do not reveal any dislocation of earlier conditions; earlier forms have simply developed and the evolution is a progressive one.
This division, it may be added, also seems to leave its mark upon the lengthy archaeological history of Palestine from the earliest times to the Byzantine age.
There is no evidence that the earliest Christians were imbued with the archaeological spirit that interested itself in sites which the Risen Lord had vacated.
An admirable biblical and archaeological school, under the control of the Dominican order, exists at Jerusalem; and German and American archaeological institutions, educational in purpose, are also there established.
- C. Clermont-Ganneau, Recueil d'archeologie orientale (from 1885), Archaeological Researches in Palestine, 1873-1874 (2 vols., 1899, 1896); W.
In its present form this episode appears to be not very ancient; it resembles Ruth in giving a good deal of curious archaeological detail (the feast at Shiloh) in a form which suggests that the usages referred to were already obsolete when the narrative was composed.
In 1829 he entered the university of Leipzig, and one year later that of Gottingen, where, under the influence of Otfried Miller, he finally decided to devote himself to the archaeological side of philology.
In 1859 the twelve volumes of his vast Denkmciler aus Agypten and Athiopien were finished, supplemented later by a text prepared from the note-books of the expedition; they comprise its entire archaeological, palaeographical and historical results.
In spite of his scientific training in philology Lepsius left behind few translations of inscriptions or discussions of the meanings of words: by preference he attacked historical and archaeological problems connected with the ancient texts, the alphabet, the metrology, the names of metals and minerals, the chronology, the royal names.
These conditions alone account for the extreme archaeological importance of this ancient sanctuary.
All these facts have been verified and illustrated by the excavations of the American Archaeological Institute and School of Athens, which were carried on from 1892 to 1895.
While the buildings give archaeological evidence for every period of Greek life and history from the pre-Mycenaean period down to Roman times, the topography itself shows that the Heraeum must have been constructed before Mycenae and without any regard to it.
de Cosa, 1905); Excavations of the American School of Athens at the Heraion of Argos (1892); and numerous reports and articles in the American Archaeological Journal since 1892.
de Stainville, afterwards duc de Choiseul, to Italy, where he spent three years in archaeological research.
There are a number of museums; the historical (archaeological and medieval), the natural history (in which the skin of Barry, the famous St Bernard dog, is preserved), the art (mainly modern Swiss pictures), and the Alpine (in which are collections of all kinds relating to the Swiss Alps).
The only archaeological remains are a few Hindu temples, and it is probable that the early settlement of the south-eastern portion of the island by Hindus dates from some time during the first six centuries of our era.
A collection of Nicaraguan antiquities is preserved in the National Museum at Washington, U.S.A.; and the archaeological collection brought to Europe by Dr W.
Archaeological: Palamedes (1836); Telephos u.
Also numerous articles in all leading archaeological periodicals, the Geographical Journal, Deutsche Rundschau, Petermann's Geog.
In 1856 he became a Privat-docent, and in 1858 extraordinary professor at Leipzig; in 1861 professor of philology and archaeology at Tubingen; in 1864 professor of classical antiquities at Zurich; in 1869 at Jena, where he was also director of the archaeological museum; in 1874 at Munich, where he remained until his death on the 21st of September 1883.
In the winter of 1873-1874 she visited Egypt, and was profoundly impressed by the new openings for archaeological research.
His L'Antiquite expliquee et representee en figures (1719) laid the foundation of archaeological knowledge.
- The Archaeological Journal of 1862 (vol.
She studied the remains of Indian civilization in the Ohio and Mississippi valleys, became a member of the Archaeological Institute of America in 1879, and worked and lived with the Omahas as a representative of the Peabody Museum of American Archaeology and Ethnology, Harvard University.
Finland has several scientific societies enjoying a world-wide reputation, as the Finnish Scientific Society, the Society for the Flora and Fauna of Finland, several medical societies, two societies of literature, the FinnoUgrian Society, the Historical and Archaeological Societies, one juridical, one technical and two geographical societies.
v., American series, of the Papers of the Archaeological Institute of America (Cambridge, 1890); George P. Winship, " The Coronado Expedition," in the Fourteenth Annual Report of the Bureau of Ethnology (Washington, 1896); W.
Reports of excavations appear in the Cornpte rendu of the Imperial Archaeological Commission of St Petersburg from 1888 and in its Bulletin.
Practically all the archaeological discoveries above detailed have been made since 1877.
It has a cathedral of the same century, a triple Gothic edifice, restored in 1874 and containing the tombs of several grand masters of the Teutonic order; a (Gothic) town-hall (1880); a Roman Catholic basilica (1858); a non-commissioned officers' school; a monument of the war of 1870-71 (1897); an archaeological collection; and a seminary for female teachers.
He took an early interest in archaeological research, and between 1875 and 1880 was busily engaged in studying ancient British remains at Stonehenge and elsewhere; in 1880 he published his book on Stonehenge, with an account of his theories on this subject.
Haverfield in Archaeological Journal, xlix., 1892), and also that of a god Bergans=Brigans (Ephemeris Epigraphica, vii.
Ramsay's Historical Commentary on Galatians (1899) contains archaeological and historical material which is often illuminating.
in view of archaeological and other discoveries, but still largely uncritical.
- After Wood's superficial explorations, the city remained desolate till 1894, when the Austrian Archaeological Institute obtained a concession for excavation and began systematic work.
With the Slavophils he agreed in advocating the extension of Russian influence in south-eastern Europe, but he carefully kept aloof from them and condemned their archaeological and ecclesiastical sentimentality.
Criticism: The Introductions to the Old Testament by Kuenen, Holzinger, Driver, Cornill, KOnig and the archaeological works of Benzinger and Nowack.
It has several islands, the largest of which bears the same name and contains highly interesting archaeological monuments of a prehistoric civilization usually attributed to the Incas.
The word usage examples above have been gathered from various sources to reflect current and historial usage. They do not represent the opinions of YourDictionary.com.