Archaeological sentence example
An Austrian Archaeological Institute was founded in 1898.
The results published in the Archaeological Survey of Nubia 6 by Messrs.
The best maps are those in Die Karten von Attika, published with explanatory text by the German Archaeological Institute (Berlin, 1881).
The reorganization of the Archaeological and Artistic Museum and of the Royal Gallery of Ancient Art coincided with the inauguration in April 1895 of a series of biennial International Art Exhibitions, arranged in order to celebrate the silver wedding of the king and queen of Italy.
The village Bolgari near Kanzan, surrounded by numerous graves in which most interesting archaeological finds have been made, occupies the site of one of the cities - perhaps the capital - of that extinct kingdom.Advertisement
In Tunisia, Carthage early became the object of archaeological investigation.
In 1845 he established at Paris a special archaeological library, and at the same time a manufactory of painted glass.
After 1867 great activity was displayed in history and its allied branches, owing to the direct encouragement given by the Hungarian Historical Society, and by the historical, archaeological, and statistical committees of the academy.
Here you find articles in the encyclopedia on topics related to archaeological sites.
The town also contains the archaeological museum, which, under the direction of Professor Orsi, is now the best arranged in the island.Advertisement
The site has been excavated by the Greek Archaeological Society; it contained a temple, a sacred spring, into which coins were thrown by worshippers, altars and porticoes, and a small theatre, of which the proscenium is well preserved.
In the midst of these multifarious labours Giry found time for extensive archaeological researches, and made a special study of the medieval treatises dealing with the technical processes employed in the arts and industries.
He worked at Athens for the British Archaeological Society from 1892 to 1895, and subsequently in Egypt for the Hellenic Society.
There is also a museum, with natural history, archaeological, and art collections, and among other buildings may be mentioned St Bartholomew's church (1089), the town hall (1562-1564), a lunatic asylum, teachers' seminary and an agricultural academy.
Brandis to accompany him on a journey to Greece for the prosecution of archaeological researches.Advertisement
All that can be said is that both archaeological and epigraphic evidence indicates that no very long interval separated the empire of the Semitic kings of Agade from that of the kings of Sumer and Akkad, whose rule was inaugurated by the founding of the Dynasty of Ur.1 To use caution in accepting the chronological notices of the later kings is very far removed from suggesting emendations of their figures.
Apart from the archaeological value of his work in identifying Kuyunjik as the site of Nineveh, and in providing a great mass of materials for scholars to work upon, these two books of Layard's are among the bestwritten books of travel in the language.
Among the relics of its former importance are the cathedral, built in1420-1424(though originally founded in 1188), restored in 1893 and now housing the archaeological collection of the Altmark, the Gothic church of St Mary, founded in 1447, a "Roland column" of 1535, and two fortified gateways, dating from the 13th century.
Both parties visited many sites where Himyaritic remains and inscriptions were found, but the hostile attitude of the natives, more particularly of the Seyyids, the religious hierarchy of Hadramut, prevented any adequate examination, and much of archaeological interest undoubtedly remains for future travellers to discover.
Although this cannot be said to be proved, the studies, linguistic and archaeological, of Semitic scholars have shown it to be probable.Advertisement
The historical institute of Peru, also at Lima, is charged by the government, from which it receives a liberal subsidy, with the work of collecting, preparing and publishing documents relating to Peruvian history, and of preserving objects of archaeological and historic character.
This building contains an archaeological museum with a collection of Roman stone monuments; the archives of the town; and the principal museum, which, besides valuable paintings and other works of art, contains the magnificent tombs of Philip the Bold and John the Fearless, dukes of Burgundy.
Indexes to English Periodicals.-A large number of periodicals do not preserve literary matter of permanent value, but the highclass reviews and the archaeological, artistic and scientific magazines contain a great mass of valuable facts, so that general and special indexes have become necessary to all literary workers.
A military journal was published at Athens in 1855, and two years later the archaeological periodical conducted by Pittakis and Rangabes.
In 1804 he accepted the post of librarian to Amelia, duchess-dowager of Weimar, which gave him the leisure he desired for the purpose of turning to account the literary and archaeological researches in which he had engaged at Rome.Advertisement
It will be sufficient here to point out in general terms the import of the message of archaeological discovery in the Victorian Era in its bearings upon the great problems of world-history.
Yet the very eagerness with which the champions of the Hebrew records searched for archaeological proofs of their validity was a tacit confession that even the most unwavering faith was not beyond the reach of external evidence.
But even were direct evidence of the knowledge of the art of writing in Greece of the early day altogether lacking, none but the hardiest sceptic could doubt, in the light of recent archaeological discoveries elsewhere, that the inhabitants of ancient Hellas of the "Homeric Age" must have shared with their contemporaries the capacity to record their thought in written words.
The documents in question consist chiefly of letters, and constitute one of the most important of archaeological finds.
In Los Angeles also are the collections of the Southwest Society (1904; for southern California, Arizona and New Mexico) of the Archaeological Institute of America.
On archaeological grounds the Purasati have been connected with the people of Keftiu, i.e.
Archaeological evidence for their influence has indeed been adduced,' but it is certain that some account must be taken also of the influence by land from North Syria and Asia Minor.
Anthrop. iv., 1891; Holmes, Archaeological Studies; see Hodge's List, Bur.
The builders were "ignorant of some of the most essential principles of construction, and are to be regarded as hardly more than novices in the art" (Holmes, Archaeological Studies, &c.).
The fact remains, however, that the curious metal-craft of the narrow strip along the Pacific from Mexico to Titicaca is the greatest of archaeological enigmas.
He also published various treatises of archaeological interest, of which the most important are Die Erfindung des Alphabets (1840), Urgeschichte u.
Through the influence of Cardinal Barberini he next (1635) settled in Rome, where for eight years he taught mathematics in the Collegio Romano, but ultimately resigned this appointment to study hieroglyphics and other archaeological subjects.
The monuments at Sanchi are now under the charge of the archaeological department; they are being well cared for, and valuable photographs have been taken of the bas-reliefs and inscriptions.
The archaeological commission of the Description de l'Egypte visited them in 1799, when the walls of many of the large tombs were still almost intact; in the first half of the 19th century (and to some extent later) an immense amount of destruction was caused by blasting for stone.
Their successful identification by Colebrooke 5 in 1807 had a purely archaeological interest.
There he was still working when the outbreak of the World War and the decision of Turkey to join the Central European Powers put an abrupt stop to all archaeological work and called Lawrence to what proved a wider field.
The Musee Rath contains pictures and sculptures; the Musee Fol, antiquities of various dates; the Musee des Arts Decoratifs, inter alia, a fine collection of prints; the Musee Industriel, industrial objects and models; the Musee Archeologique, prehistoric and archaeological remains; the Musee d'Histoire Naturelle, scientific collections; and the Musee Epigraphique, a considerable number of inscriptions.
And Professor Joseph + epkowski, of Cracow, has greatly enriched the archaeological museum of his native city.
Of the learned societies the more important are the medical (1840), the naturalists' (1869), the juridical (1876), the historical of Nestor the Chronicler (1872), the horticultural (1875), and the dramatic (1879), the archaeological commission (1843), and the society of church archaeology.
The 19th century in Germany was marked by the organization of the great series of Greek and Latin inscriptions, and by the foundation of the Archaeological Institute in Rome (1829), which was at first international in its character.
Besides some archaeological articles in the Nineteenth Century and contributions to the Dictionary of National Biography, he published a History of the Diocese of Norwich (1879); The Coming of the Friars (1885); The Autobiography of Roger North (1887) and Trials of a Country Parson (1890).
Dr Lehmann's archaeological and linguistic researches, especially in Salvador and Nicaragua, also enabled him to prove another very important fact, viz.
The archaeological and linguistic evidence proves also that a great part of Salvador and Honduras was once occupied by peoples of the Maya race - Pokomam, Chorti and perhaps other unknown tribes.
It is noteworthy that archaeological objects of the type characteristic of northern Honduras (Ulloa Valley) have been found on the Pacific coast of Salvador.
Probably the Mexican elements superseded the Maya so completely that there remained no trace of the Maya except archaeological objects; it is to be supposed that the Lenca and Sumo tribes superseded the Chorotega in Salvador.
These remains would, of course, be archaeological or place-names.
Archaeological discoveries in India, Persia, Assyria and Egypt show that in the polished stone age quaternary man had domesticated the horse, while a Chinese treatise, the Goei-leaotse, the fifth book of the Vouking, a sort of military code dating from the reign of the emperor Hoang-Ti (2637 years B.C.), places the cavalry on the wings of the army.
Printed for the Kent Archaeological Society, 1869.
The De baptismo is of special interest from the archaeological point of view.
Thus, whatever evidence may be supplied by archaeological research, the problem of the Exodus must always be studied in the light of the biblical narratives.
From this period Bent devoted himself particularly to archaeological research.
Much light has been thrown on this group of questions in recent years both from linguistic and from archaeological sources.
For the historical and archaeological evidence which connects the Sabines with the patricians of Rome, see Rome, Ancient History.
This is, of course, more true of the middle ages than of the times that preceded and followed them; the Church under the Roman empire hardly as yet realized the possibilities of " sermons in stones," and took over, with little change, the model of the secular and religious buildings of pagan Rome; the Renaissance, essentially a neo-pagan movement, introduced disturbing factors from outside, and, though developing a style very characteristic of the age that produced it, started that archaeological movement which has tended in modern times to substitute mere imitations of old models for any attempt to express in church architecture the religious spirit of the age.
Besides a number of archaeological works, especially in the department of numismatics, he published a compilation from the Arabic, Persian and Turkish, entitled Paroles remarquables, bons mots et maximes des orientaux (1694), and a translation from an Arabic manuscript, De l'origine et du progres du café (1699).
He now became a professor at his old college, and for some years supplemented his salary by giving private lessons and writing on historical and archaeological subjects for local periodicals.
His original mission being abandoned, funds were now advanced for the prosecution of his researches, and he remained in Egypt for four years, excavating, discovering and despatching archaeological treasures to the Louvre, of which museum he was on his return appointed an assistant conservator.
The town contains Orthodox Greek and Roman Catholic seminaries, Jewish colleges, and an archaeological museum for church antiquities, founded in 1890.
In what follows, the archaeological interest of early Britain is dealt with, in connexion with the history of Britain in PreRoman, Roman, and Anglo-Saxon days; this account being supplementary to the articles England; English History; Scotland, &C.
Reference must also be made to the articles on Anglo-Saxon antiquities in the Victoria County Histories, and to various papers in Archaeologia, the Archaeological Journal, the Journal of the British Archaeological Society, the Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries, the Associated Architectural Societies' Reports, and other antiquarian journals.
Here is the museum of the Essex Archaeological Society, with a remarkable collection of Roman antiquities, and a library belonging to the Round family, who own the castle.
The latter's prosperity is still attested by its archaeological remains (notably the "Treasury of Minyas") and the traces of artificial conduits by which its engineers supplemented the natural outlets.
In 1872 he had been appointed secretary to the Archaeological Commission (of Rome), in 1876 vice-director of the Kircherian museum and in 1878 director of excavations.
He was the designer and builder of the archaeological park at Rome.
Not only is it clear, both from literary and archaeological evidence, that they were better armed (see below), but also their power was much more concentrated.
We have evidence, both archaeological and linguistic, that the cultivation of cereals in Teutonic lands goes back to a very remote period, while the antiquity even of the ox-plough is attested by the rock-carvings at Tegneby in Bohuslan (Sweden), which are believed to date from early in the bronze age.
Several of the rooms occupied by the archaeological museum bear traces of the decorations executed under Galeazzo Maria and Lodovico it Moro, and one of them has a splendid ceiling with trees in full foliage, painted so as to cover the whole vaulting, ascribed to Leonardo da Vinci.
An account by Dr James Burgess was published in 1877 as one of the volumes of the Archaeological Survey of Southern India.
From an archaeological point of view Germany is very far from being a homogeneous whole.
Among these may be noted those of the Bureau of Mines and the archaeological reports by David Boyle (1886-1906).
The bulk of Greek historical literature having perished, and in the absence of both archaeological data from Iran, we can only speculate on the inner life of these Greek cities under a strange sky.
Exploration and Research.Owing to its early development of a high civilization with written records, its wealth, and its preservative climate, Egypt is the country which most amply repays archaeological research.
A new period was opened in Egyptian exploration in 1858 when Mariette was appointed director of archaeological works In Egypt, his duties being to safeguard the monuments and prevent their exploitation by dealers.
The annual Archaeological Reports of the Egypt Explbration Fund contain summaries of the work done each year in the several departments of research.
Lepsius, Denkmdler aus Agypten und Athiopien (Berlin, 1849-1859), and Memoirs of the Archaeological Survey of the Egypt Exploration Fund, may be specified.
Together with hunting and fishing it is illustrated in many of the Memoirs of the Archaeological Survey of the same society.
This, however, seems greatly in excess of probability, and several Egyptogists familiar with excavation are willing to accept Meyers figures on archaeological grounds.
The succession of archaeological types revealed in them has been tabulated by Petrie in his Diospolis Parva; and the detailed publication of Reisners unusually careful researches is bringing much new light on the questions involved, amongst other things showing the exact point at which the prehistoric series merges into the 1st Dynasty, for, as might be surmised, in many cases the prehistoric cemeteries continued in use under the earliest dynasties.
A few theological, archaeological and astronomical articles from his pen appeared in the Journal Helvetique and elsewhere, and he contributed several papers to Rousseau's Dictionnaire de musique (1767).
See Ohio Archaeological and Historical Quarterly for April 1909 (Columbus, Ohio) for several articles on the early settlement by Moravian Indians.
Easter Island is famous for its wonderful archaeological remains.
The numerous minor explorations, however, chiefly carried on by Government authorities and local archaeological societies, had been less interrupted.
In the .next war, the landing of the Allied forces at Salonica led to some archaeological discoveries in the occupied territory.
At Goritsa, the ancient Corcyra, in 1911, the Greek Archaeological Society discovered an early archaic temple of Artemis, the excavation of which was continued until 1914 by Doerpfeld at the expense of the former Emperor of Germany.
During the war some show of general work was made by members of the German Archaeological Commission with the Turkish forces, but this came to little more than notes on the preservation or destruction of wellknown monuments.
A report of the work done at Ephesus by the Austrian Archaeological Institute since 1909 was issued in 1913.
Archaeological work in Africa met with little or no interruption during the war, either in French or Italian territory.
Tradition is completely corroborated by archaeological evidence.
The town possesses a museum with good archaeological and natural history collections, a literary institute and a horticultural society.
The striking archaeological discoveries of recent years have both confirmed and added to our knowledge of the earliest period.
Returning to France, he devoted himself for some years to archaeological research.
It has further been established on strong archaeological and linguistic evidence that the long struggle between patricians and plebeians in early Rome was the result of a racial difference between them.
The external evidence does not point to any intervening hiatus, and the archaeological data from the excavations do not reveal any dislocation of earlier conditions; earlier forms have simply developed and the evolution is a progressive one.
This division, it may be added, also seems to leave its mark upon the lengthy archaeological history of Palestine from the earliest times to the Byzantine age.
There is no evidence that the earliest Christians were imbued with the archaeological spirit that interested itself in sites which the Risen Lord had vacated.
An admirable biblical and archaeological school, under the control of the Dominican order, exists at Jerusalem; and German and American archaeological institutions, educational in purpose, are also there established.
In its present form this episode appears to be not very ancient; it resembles Ruth in giving a good deal of curious archaeological detail (the feast at Shiloh) in a form which suggests that the usages referred to were already obsolete when the narrative was composed.
In 1829 he entered the university of Leipzig, and one year later that of Gottingen, where, under the influence of Otfried Miller, he finally decided to devote himself to the archaeological side of philology.
In 1859 the twelve volumes of his vast Denkmciler aus Agypten and Athiopien were finished, supplemented later by a text prepared from the note-books of the expedition; they comprise its entire archaeological, palaeographical and historical results.
These conditions alone account for the extreme archaeological importance of this ancient sanctuary.
All these facts have been verified and illustrated by the excavations of the American Archaeological Institute and School of Athens, which were carried on from 1892 to 1895.
While the buildings give archaeological evidence for every period of Greek life and history from the pre-Mycenaean period down to Roman times, the topography itself shows that the Heraeum must have been constructed before Mycenae and without any regard to it.
There are a number of museums; the historical (archaeological and medieval), the natural history (in which the skin of Barry, the famous St Bernard dog, is preserved), the art (mainly modern Swiss pictures), and the Alpine (in which are collections of all kinds relating to the Swiss Alps).
The only archaeological remains are a few Hindu temples, and it is probable that the early settlement of the south-eastern portion of the island by Hindus dates from some time during the first six centuries of our era.
Also numerous articles in all leading archaeological periodicals, the Geographical Journal, Deutsche Rundschau, Petermann's Geog.
In 1856 he became a Privat-docent, and in 1858 extraordinary professor at Leipzig; in 1861 professor of philology and archaeology at Tubingen; in 1864 professor of classical antiquities at Zurich; in 1869 at Jena, where he was also director of the archaeological museum; in 1874 at Munich, where he remained until his death on the 21st of September 1883.
In the winter of 1873-1874 she visited Egypt, and was profoundly impressed by the new openings for archaeological research.
His L'Antiquite expliquee et representee en figures (1719) laid the foundation of archaeological knowledge.
She studied the remains of Indian civilization in the Ohio and Mississippi valleys, became a member of the Archaeological Institute of America in 1879, and worked and lived with the Omahas as a representative of the Peabody Museum of American Archaeology and Ethnology, Harvard University.
Finland has several scientific societies enjoying a world-wide reputation, as the Finnish Scientific Society, the Society for the Flora and Fauna of Finland, several medical societies, two societies of literature, the FinnoUgrian Society, the Historical and Archaeological Societies, one juridical, one technical and two geographical societies.
Reports of excavations appear in the Cornpte rendu of the Imperial Archaeological Commission of St Petersburg from 1888 and in its Bulletin.
Practically all the archaeological discoveries above detailed have been made since 1877.
It has a cathedral of the same century, a triple Gothic edifice, restored in 1874 and containing the tombs of several grand masters of the Teutonic order; a (Gothic) town-hall (1880); a Roman Catholic basilica (1858); a non-commissioned officers' school; a monument of the war of 1870-71 (1897); an archaeological collection; and a seminary for female teachers.
He took an early interest in archaeological research, and between 1875 and 1880 was busily engaged in studying ancient British remains at Stonehenge and elsewhere; in 1880 he published his book on Stonehenge, with an account of his theories on this subject.
Ramsay's Historical Commentary on Galatians (1899) contains archaeological and historical material which is often illuminating.
With the Slavophils he agreed in advocating the extension of Russian influence in south-eastern Europe, but he carefully kept aloof from them and condemned their archaeological and ecclesiastical sentimentality.
It has several islands, the largest of which bears the same name and contains highly interesting archaeological monuments of a prehistoric civilization usually attributed to the Incas.
The ancient hospital of St Jean (12th century) is occupied by an archaeological museum; and the Logis Barrault, a mansion built about 1500, contains the public library, the municipal museum, which has a large collection of pictures and sculptures, and the Musee David, containing works by the famous sculptor David d'Angers, who was a native of the town.
The original number and position of the stones have suffered in the course of time from wind and weather, in days when archaeological interest was not alive to the importance of preserving so ancient a monument.
For all reasons an attempt to preserve Stonehenge was desirable; and the owner, Sir Edmund Antrobus I was willing, on certain conditions, as to limitations of access, to co-operate with the Society of Antiquaries, Wiltshire Archaeological Society and Society for the Preservation of Ancient Monuments in taking such steps as might be necessary to prevent more stones from falling, and even (if possible) to set up some which had fallen.
Notwithstanding the many attempts, both by excavations and speculative writings, to elucidate the history of this unique monument, the archaeological data available are insufficient to decide definitely between the conflicting opinions held with regard to the date of its construction and the purpose for which it was originally intended.
More recently Dr Vaclav Flaj shans has published some excellent studies on the life and writings of John Huss, and Professors Pic and Niederle have published learned archaeological studies on the earliest period of Bohemian history.
In the case of the Goths a connexion with Gotland is not unlikely, since it is clear from archaeological evidence that this island had an extensive trade with the coasts about the mouth of the Vistula in early times.
For an account of the earthworks see Gerard Fowke, Archaeological History of Ohio (Columbus, 1902).
By his will Christy bequeathed his magnificent archaeological collection to the nation.
There are numerous literary and scientific societies, including the Cork Cuvierian and Archaeological Society.
There are also numerous papers on seals in Archaeologia and in the Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries, and in the archaeological journals.
But given the imperfect medium for investigation and the absence of an archaeological basis for criticism, the work of Herodotus remains a scientific achievement, as remarkable for its approximation to truth as for the vastness of its scope.
The immense increase in available sources, archaeological and literary, has remade historical criticism.
Lastly, chronicles and documentary records, taken in connexion with archaeological relics of the historical period, carry back into distant ages the starting-point of actual history, behind which lies the evidently vast period only known by inferences from the relations of languages and the stages of development of civilization.
The Philosophical and Literary Society, established in 1820, possesses a handsome building in Park Row, known as the Philosophical Hall, containing a laboratory, scientific library, lecture room, and museum, with excellent natural history, geological and archaeological collections.
After studying at Heidelberg, Bonn and Berlin, he graduated at Kiel in 1847, and in the following year went to France, where he was teacher of German at Laval and at Reims. His leisure was given to Oriental studies, in which he had made great progress in Germany, and in 1852 he joined Fresnel's archaeological expedition to Mesopotamia.
The city is the see of a Greek Catholic archbishop and of an Armenian archbishop, and contains a Lamaist monastery, as well as technical schools, an ichthyological museum, the Peter museum, with ethnographical, archaeological and natural history collections, a botanical garden, an ecclesiastical seminary, and good squares and public gardens, one of which is adorned with a statue (1884) of Alexander II.
The ruins of the old city are of great archaeological interest, as are the relics, of which a large collection is housed in the local museum.
A fragment of the once enormous Palazzo Mocenigo, of the 16th century, is now occupied by the important archaeological museum (see Ateste).
The rigorously authentic character of these laws, relating to, and dealing with, the actual realities of life, and with institutions and a state of society nowhere else revealed to the same extent, the extreme antiquity both of the provisions and of the language, and the meagreness of continental material illustrative of the same things, endow them with exceptional archaic, archaeological and philological interest.
Several scholars - notably Bhagvanlal Indraji, Mr Lewis Rice and Hofrath Biihler - have treated of the remarkable archaeological discoveries lately made.
Our earliest information about the land and its people is derived from geological, ethnological and archaeological studies, from the remains in British harrows and caves, Roman roads, walls and villas, coins, place-names and inscriptions.
See History of the Chapel Royal, Stirling (Grampian Club, 1882); Charters of Stirling (1884); John Jamieson, Bell the Cat (Stirling, 1902); The Battle of Stirling Bridge - the Kildean Myth (Stirling Natural History and Archaeological Society, 1905).
Here the explorer traced a Chinese wall with watch-towers, guard-stations, &c., for a considerable distance, and made an important archaeological collection.
The place in Attica which has been the chief scene of excava tions (independently of Athens and its vicinty) is Eleusis, where the remains of the sanctuary of Demeter, the home of the Eleusinian Mysteries, together with other buildings in its neighbourhood, were cleared by the Greek Archaeological Society in 1882-1887 and 1895-1896.
In the neighbourhood of Rhamnus are the remains of two temples that stood side by side, the larger of which was dedicated to Nemesis, the smaller probably to Themis, of which goddess a fine statue was discovered in its ruins in the course of the excavations of the Greek Archaeological Society in 1890.
In 1878 he dug unsuccessfully in Ithaca, and in the same year and the following resumed work at Hissarlik, and summed up his results in a discursive memoir, Ilios, upon which a sequel, Troja, issued in 1884, after Wilhelm D6rpfeld, associated in 1882, had introduced some archaeological method into the explorations, was a considerable improvement.
While Tsountas, for the Greek Archaeological Society, picked up his work at Mycenae in 1886, and gradually cleared the Acropolis, with notable results, Schliemann tried for traces of the Caesareum at Alexandria, of the Palace of Minos at Knossos, in Crete, and of the Aphrodite temple at Cythera (1888); but he was not successful, meeting in the two former enterprises with a local opposition which his wealth was unable to bear down.
In 1889 he entertained at Hissarlik a committee of archaeological experts, deputed to examine B6tticher's absurd contention that the ruins represented not a city, but a cremation necropolis; and he was contemplating a new and more extensive campaign on the same site when, in December 1890, he was seized at Naples with an illness which ended fatally on the morning of Christmas Day.
At the same place there is also a valuable archaeological collection.
Amongst the learned societies are the Icelandic Literary Society (Bokmentafjelag), the society of the Friends of the People, and the Archaeological Society of Reykjavik.
There are no archaeological remains in Viterbo itself, except a few courses of masonry under the bridge which connects the cathedral with the city, near the cathedral, possibly the pier of an older bridge.
The Annals of Clyn, Dowling and Grace have been printed by the Irish Archaeological Society and the Celtic Society.
Upon it, on the side of the inner town and included within it, is the Augusteum, or main building of the university, a handsome edifice containing a splendid hall (1900), lecture rooms and archaeological collections; adjoining it is the Paulinerkirche, the university church.
The Danube between Linz and Vienna is renowned not only for its picturesque beauty but for the numerous medieval and modern buildings of historical and archaeological interest which crown its banks.
During the period in question there is considerable archaeological evidence for intercourse between the west coast of Norway and the regions south of the North Sea, and it is worth noting that this seems to have come to an end early in the 9th century.
In 1888 interesting details as to the Boeotian cult of the Cabeiri were obtained by the excavations of their temple in the neighbourhood of Thebes, conducted by the German archaeological institute.
See Transactions of the Bristol and Gloucestershire Archaeological Society, vols.
The island explored, he betook himself to Florence, Milan, Bologna and Venice, acquiring a complete archaeological knowledge of these and other cities.
The town contains a good archaeological museum.
It was destroyed by fire on the 4 th of October 1893, and though it was subsequently rebuilt, much that was of archaeological and historical interest perished.
The origin and development of the grouping of the stars into constellations is more a matter of archaeological than of astronomical interest.
He offered to send the young scholar on an archaeological mission to Phoenicia.
In Ireland a society was founded in 1849 called the Kilkenny Archaeological Society, holding its meetings at Kilkenny.
In 1869 its name was changed to the Royal Historical and Archaeological Association of Ireland, and in 1890 to the Royal Society of Antiquaries of Ireland, its office being transferred to Dublin.
He was a prolific writer, with a prodigious knowledge and memory, and a most ingenious and confident critic; and his work not only dominated the field of archaeological criticism but also raised its standing both at home and abroad.
His archaeological work included the investigation of lake dwellings and other prehistoric structures; he went with Schliemann to Troy in 1879, fruits of the expedition being two books, ZurLandeskunde der Troas (1880) and Alt-trojanische Gr p ber and Schad (1882); in 1881 he visited the Caucasus, and on his return published Das Graberfeld von Koban im Lande der Osseten; and in 1888 he accompanied Schliemann to Egypt, Nubia and the Peloponnese.
See Victoria County History - Sussex; Sussex Archaeological Society Transactions, vol.
A separate department of this ministry under a director-general has the charge of antiquities and fine arts, making archaeological excavations and supervising those undertaken by private persons (permission to foreigners, even to foreign schools, to excavate in Italy is rarely granted), and maintaining the numerous state museums and picture galleries.
Until a scientific collection of the local and personal names of this district has been made, and until the archaeological evidence is clearly interpreted, it is impossible to go beyond the region of conjecture as to the tribe or tribes occupying the valley of the Po before the two invasions.
It occupies a campus of iio acres, has an adjoining farm of 325 acres, and 18 buildings devoted to instruction, 2 dormitories, and a library containing (1906) 67,709 volumes, besides excellent museums of geology, zoology, botany and archaeology and history, the last being owned jointly by the university and by the state archaeological and historical society.
Modern archaeological discovery, however, is against this belief; and the fact that Mysus, Lydus and Car were regarded as brothers indicates that the three populations who worshipped together in the temple of Mylasa all belonged to the same stock.
The exploit was celebrated by Cormacan, the king's bard, in a poem that has been printed by the Irish Archaeological Society; and a number of Murkertagh's other deeds are related in the Book of Leinster.
On all this the recent archaeological discoveries (see the section on Archaeology) have thrown great light, but the earliest written history of Crete, like that of most parts of continental Greece, is mixed up with mythology and fable to so great an extent as to render it difficult to arrive at any clear conclusions concerning it.
The results of these operations, which were conducted by the Archaeological Society under the direction of Kavvadias and Kawerau, must be summarized with the utmost brevity.
The most striking archaeological monuments of the prehistoric period are the sepulchral mounds, which are found by thousands in various parts of the country, especially in the neighbourhood of the ancient towns.
Archaeological evidence points clearly now to the conclusion that the splendid but overgrown civilization of the Mycenaean or " late Minoan " period of the Aegean Bronze Age collapsed rather suddenly before a rapid succession of assaults by comparatively barbarous invaders from the European mainland north of the Aegean; that these invaders passed partly by way of Thrace and the Hellespont into Asia Minor, partly by Macedon and Thessaly into peninsular Greece and the Aegean islands; that in east Peloponnese and Crete, at all events, a first shock (somewhat later than i soo B.C.) led to the establishment of a cultural, social and political situation which in many respects resembles what is depicted in Homer as the " Achaean " age, with principal centres in Rhodes, Crete, Laconia, Argolis, Attica, Orchomenus and south-east Thessaly; and that this regime was itself shattered by a second shock or series of shocks somewhat earlier than boo B.C. These latter events correspond in character and date with the traditional irruption of the Dorians and their associates.
The parish of Mortlach, in which Dufftown is situated, is rich in archaeological and historical associations.
Beit Jibrin is in the centre of a district of great archaeological interest.
There is an archaeological museum with prehistoric antiquities from the lake-dwellings on an island in the Lake of Varese.
From archaeological discoveries it would appear that the ancient town was preceded by a prehistoric settlement of the Bronze Age, the dwellings of which rested upon piles - one, indeed, of the so-called terremare, which are especially frequent in the neighbourhood of Parma.
The archaeological interest of Aegina is centred in the well-known temple on the ridge near the northern corner of the island.
It remains, therefore, to ask whether any information can be had about the language of this primitive -COfolk, and whether they can be identified as the authors of any of the various archaeological strata now recognized on Italian soil.
It is as yet difficult to determine the part which Rhodes played in prehistoric days during the naval predominance of the neighbouring island of Crete; but archaeological remains dating from the later Minoan age prove that the early Aegean culture maintained itself there comparatively unimpaired until the historic period.
The position of Rhodes as a distributing centre of Levantine and especially of Phoenician goods is well attested by archaeological finds.
Rajputana is of great archaeological interest, possessing some fine religious buildings in ruins and others in excellent preservation.
These materials, imperfect as they are, when combined with the notices derived from ancient writers and the evidence of archaeological excavations, may be considered as having furnished some results of reasonable certainty.
No satisfactory collection has been made of the Celtic inscriptions of Cisalpine Gaul, though many are scattered about in different museums. For our present purpose it is important to note that the archaeological stratification in deposits like those of Bologna shows that the Gallic period supervened upon the Etruscan.
A member of all the chief archaeological societies in Europe, he was given hon.
Moreover, the authorities on whom he relied have had to be corrected since in many points of detail in the light of later archaeological research.
In the light of contemporary monuments, archaeological evidence, the progress of scientific knowledge and the recognized methods of modern historical criticism, the representation of the origin of mankind and of the history of the Jews in the Old Testament can no longer be implicitly accepted.
The critical investigation of these records is the indispensable prelude to all serious biblical study, and hasty or sweeping deductions from monumental or archaeological evidence, or versions compiled promiscuously from materials of distinct origin, are alike hazardous.
Museum at Budapest, where he became distinguished for his archaeological researches.
The archaeological evidence outside Crete points to the actual existence of Minoan plantations as far afield on one side as Sicily and on the other as the coast of Canaan.
The space thus cleared has been used for the rearrangement of the Archaeological and Artistic Museum.
There is considerable material of value, especially for local history, in the Ohio Archaeological and Historical Society Publications (Columbus, 1887), and in Henry Howe, Historical Collections of Ohio (1st ed., Cincinnati, 1847; Centennial edition [enlarged], 2 vols., Columbus, 1889-1891).
During the great migrations many nationalities passed through this territory, or settled within it for some time, leaving traces in numerous archaeological remains.
In 1870 the Greek Archaeological Society undertook a series of excavations in the Outer Ceramicus, which had already been partially explored by various scholars.
The site, which had been accurately determined by Leake, was explored by Strack in 1862, and the researches subsequently undertaken by the Greek Archaeological Society were concluded in 1879.
Immediately west of the theatre of Dionysus is the sacred precinct of Asclepius, which was excavated by the Archaeological Society in 1876-1878.
The German Archaeological Institute, founded in 1874, has carried out excavations at Thebes, Lesbos, Paros, Athens and elsewhere; it has also been associated in the great researches at Olympia, Pergamum and Troy, and in many other important undertakings.
In the Minoan epoch Athens is proved by the archaeological remains to have been a petty kingdom scarcely more important than many other Attic communities, yet enjoying a more unbroken course of development than the leading states of that period.
The new conditions in Palestine should be very favourable to archaeological work there, and it is to be hoped that in Syria the French will give every facility for international work.
The future of archaeological study in Mesopotamia depends upon the political conditions, which have not hitherto been considered favourable to the resumption of excavation in that country.
They were admirable work, and at Sherqat especially have produced results of the greatest historical and archaeological importance.
For such a work, however, considerable funds are necessary, and all archaeological study has had to struggle along with insufficient means.
Encouragement and help have been given by the local Archaeological Society, and by many individuals, notably Greeks justly proud of a city which is one of the glories of their national story.
At the request of the Indian government the Nepalese government had the pillar, which was half buried, excavated for examination; and Dr Fiihrer, then in the employ of the Archaeological Survey, arrived soon afterwards at the spot.
Archaeological study in Cuba has been limited, and has not produced results of great importance.
The excavations at the Hieron have been recorded as they went on in the Ilpaeroat of the Greek Archaeological Society, especially for 1881-1884 and 1889, and also in the 'E4»u€pis 'ApxatoXoynoi, especially for 1883 and 1885; see also Kavvadias, Les Fouilles d'Epidaure and Tb r03'A?KX iv 'E7rukbpq, eat 9Epa7reta7'CJY Defrasse and Lechat, Epidaure.
Roman Africa has been the subject of innumerable historical and archaeological researches, especially since the conquest of Algeria and Tunisia by the French.
Under the title of Musees et collections archeologiques de l'Algerie et de la Tunisie, the Ministry of Public Instruction publishes from time to time illustrated descriptions of all these archaeological treasures.
The archaeological exploration of Algeria has kept pace with the expansion of French dominion.
In 1843 he was appointed professor of philology at Kiel and director of the archaeological museum founded by himself in co-operation with Otto Jahn.
His archaeological and mythological Memoire sur Venus (1775),(1775), which has been ranked with similar works of Heyne and Winckelmann, gained him admission to the Academie des Inscriptions (1778).
Until 1904 archaeological research in Laconia was carried on only sporadically.
In 1904 the British Archaeological school at Athens undertook a systematic investigation of the ancient and medieval remains in Laconia.
The Roman remains at Besancon are of great archaeological value.
In this romance the interest of the narrative is weakened by a superabundance of historical and archaeological detail.
They seem to begin about the 6th century B.C., and to continue till the 2nd century A.D.; that is, they cover the period of the Scythic domination according to the account accepted above, and that of the Sarmatian, and so suggest that, as far as the archaeological evidence goes, there was little more than a change of name and perhaps the substitution of one ruling clan for another - not a real change of population.
His other writings are chiefly archaeological.
There is an archaeological museum in the old abbey buildings.
He was an active member of the Cotteswold Naturalists' Club and of the Warwickshire Natural History and Archaeological Society, and in 1854 he was chief founder of the Warwickshire Naturalists' and Archaeologists' Field Club.
The other principal public buildings are the royal archives and library, containing a library of 200,000 volumes and 3500 manuscripts; the old provincial museum, which houses a variety of collections, such as natural, historical and ethnographical, and a collection of modern paintings; the theatre (built 1845-1852), one of the largest in Germany, the archaeological museum, the railway station, and, in the west, close to Herrenhausen (see below), the magnificent Welfenschloss (Guelph-palace).
The archaeological researches of the past fifty years have shown that such artificial constructions in lakes were used as defensive dwellings by the Celtic people from an early period to medieval times (see Crannog).
The archaeological museum is housed here on the ground floor; besides Roman and pre-Roman objects it contains fragments of the 9th century basilica of Santa Maria in Aurona, one of the first examples of vaulted Lombard architecture; the bas-reliefs of the ancient Porta Romana of Milan, representing the return of the Milanese in 1171 after the defeat of Barbarossa; the remains of the church of Santa Maria in Brera, the work of Balduccio da Pisa; the grandiose sepulchral monument of Bernabo Visconti formerly in the church of San Giovanni in Conca; the tomb of Regina della Scala, the wife of Bernabo; the funeral monument of the Rusca family; the great portal of the palace of Pigello Portinari, seat of the Banco Mediceo at Milan, a work of Michelozzo; a series of Renaissance sculptures, including works by Amadeo Mantegazza, Agostino Busti (surnamed Bambaia), including fragments of the tomb of Gaston de Foix.
Nor can any attempt here be made to summarize the remaining native Egyptian sources, literary and archaeological, that deserve notice.
Other churches with interesting monuments are Sant' Anna dei Lombardi, built in 1411 by Guerrello Origlia, which contains some splendid marble sculpture, especially Rosellino's " Nativity " in the Cappella Piccolomini; Sant' Angelo a Nilo, which contains the tomb of Cardinal Brancaccio, the joint work of Donatello and Michelozzo; San Giovanni a Carbonara, built in 1344 and enlarged by King Ladislaus in 1400, which contains among much other remarkable sculpture the tomb of the king, the masterpiece of Andrea Ciccione (1414), and that of Sergiami Caracciolo, the favourite of Joanna II., who was murdered in 1432 (the chapel in which it stands is paved with one of the earliest majolica pavements in Italy); San Lorenzo (1324), the Royal Church of the House of Anjou; and, for purely archaeological interest, the Church of Sant' Aspreno, thought to be the oldest Christian church in Italy, in the crypt of the new Borsa or exchange.
Paula is also currently working on a fictional story based on an actual archaeological discovery in Oregon.
This game was based on a 1935 archaeological trip by Dr. Jones to Ceylon to search through the Emperor's Tomb.
What makes this archaeological find strange is that there were more headless skeletons found than the number of skulls.
Archaeological digs have uncovered Celtic artistic expressions and the famous Christian Book of Kells displays beautiful Celtic symbols.
Many ancient civilizations used leather for a variety of purposes and the remains are found today in many important archaeological sites.
Such archaeological evidence as can be connected with the linguistic data will there be discussed.
The museum includes 3300 books, many being of the 15th and 16th centuries, a department of engravings, a Virginia Room with portraits and relics, some tapestries, an excellent collection of casts and valuable American archaeological specimens.
Chantre in 1894 picked up lustreless ware, like that of Hissarlik, in central Phrygia and at Pteria, and the English archaeological expeditions, sent subsequently into north-western Anatolia, have never failed to bring back ceramic specimens of Aegean appearance from the valleys of the Rhyndacus, Sangarius and Halys.
Besides the Academy of Science, the Moscow Society of Naturalists, the Mineralogical Society, the Geographical Society, with its Caucasian and Siberian branches, the archaeological societies and the scientific societies of the Baltic provinces, all of which are of old and recognized standing, there have lately sprung up a series of new societies in connexion with each university, and their serials are yearly growing in importance, as, too, are those of the Moscow Society of Friends of Natural Science, the Chemico-Physical Society, and various medical, educational and other associations.
Close to it is the archaeological museum, the most important in the island.
Thereafter, by exact observation of stratification, eight more periods have been distinguished by the explorer of Cnossus, each marked by some important development in the universal and necessary products of the potter's art, the least destructible and therefore most generally used archaeological criterion.