At last Pan, the old god of Arcadia, discovered her hiding-place, and informed Zeus, who sent the Moirae (Fates) to fetch her out.
Among his books may be mentioned Mogreb-elAcksa: a Journey in Morocco (1898); The Ipane (1899); A Vanished Arcadia (1901); Faith (1909); Hope (1910); Charity (1912); A Life of Bernal Diaz del Castillo (1915); A Brazilian Mystic (1920); Cartagena and the Books of the Sinu (1920).
His original home was supposed to have been Arcadia, where he married Chryse, who brought him as dowry the Palladium or image of Pallas, presented to her by the goddess herself.
The Attic bouleutae took the oath by Athena Boulaia; at Sparta she was ayopaia, presiding over the popular assemblies in the market-place; in Arcadia µnXavZTts, the discoverer of devices.
The only positive piece of evidence produced is the passage from Thomas Nash's "Epistle to the Gentlemen of the Two Universities," prefixed to Greene's Arcadia, 1859, in which he upbraids somebody (not known to be Shakespeare) with having left the "trade of Noverint" and busied himself with "whole Hamlets" and "handfuls of tragical speeches."
According to one account he was lost at sea, according to another he died at Stymphalus in Arcadia, and according to a third at Leucas, from grief at the loss by shipwreck of his baggage, containing a number of new plays which he had translated from Menander.
East of the Aapies and on the slopes of the hills are the residential districts of Arcadia, Sunnyside and Muckleneuk.
New literary and scientific reviews are: L'Alighieri, rivista di cose dantesche (1889); Giornale dantesco (1894); Giornale storico della letteratura italiana (1883); Studi di letteratura italiana (1899); Studi medievali (1904); L' Arcadia, periodico mensile di scienze, lettere, ed arti (1889); Periodico di matematica per l'insegnamento secondario (1885); Rivista di matematica (1891); Rivista philosofica (1899); Rivista d'Italia, monthly at Rome.
In 366 Athens lost Oropus, a blow which she endeavoured to repair by forming an alliance with Arcadia and by an attack on Corinth.
The conquest of Corinth and Megara was placed a generation later: Arcadia alone claimed to have escaped invasion.
Pausanias, however (following Sosibius), interprets a long series of conflicts in Arcadia as stages in a gradual advance southward, ending with the conquest of Amyclae by King Teleclus (c. 800 B.C.) and of Helos by King Alcamenes (c. 770 B.C.).
Arcadia, on the other hand, in the heart of Peloponnese, retained till a late date a quite different dialect, akin to the ancient dialect of Cyprus, and more remotely to Aeolic. This distribution makes it clear (r) that the Doric dialects of Peloponnese represent a superstratum, more recent than the speech of Arcadia; (2) that Laconia and its colonies preserve features alike, -n and -w which are common to southern Doric and Aeolic; (3) that those parts of " Dorian " Greece in which tradition makes the pre-Dorian population " Ionic," and in which the political structure shows that the conquered were less completely subjugated, exhibit the Ionic -a and -ov; (4) that as we go north, similar though more barbaric dialects extend far up the western side of central-northern Greece, and survive also locally in the highlands of south Thessaly; (5) that east of the watershed Aeolic has prevailed over the area which has legends of a Boeotian and Thessalian migration, and replaces Doric in the northern Doris.
TEGEA, an ancient Greek city of Arcadia, situated on a plateau which is enclosed by Mts.
For several centuries Tegea served as a bulwark of Arcadia against the expanding power of Sparta; though ultimately subdued about 550 B.C. it was allowed to retain its independence and its Arcadian nationality.
In Augustus' time Tegea was the only important town of Arcadia, but its history throughout the Roman and Byzantine periods is obscure; it ceased to exist as a Greek city after the Gothic invasion of 395.
MANTINEIA, Or Mantinea, an ancient city of Arcadia, Greece, situated in the long narrow plain running north and south, which is now called after the chief town Tripolitsa.
After the withdrawal of the Thebans from Arcadia Mantineia failed to recover its pre-eminence from Megalopolis, with which city it had frequent disputes.
The Old-Dorian Hercules is represented in three cycles of myth, the Argive, the Boeotian and the Thessalian; the legends of Arcadia, Aetolia, Lydia, &c., and Italy are either local or symbolical and comparatively late.
The earliest centres of his cult were Arcadia, where Mt.
In Arcadia he was specially worshipped as the god of fertility, and his images were ithyphallic, as also were the "Hermee" at Athens.
It is impossible to adopt the view that the Homeric poets turned the rude shepherd-god of Arcadia into a messenger, in order to provide him with a place in the Olympian circle.
On his arrival at Psophis in Arcadia, he was purified by its king Phegeus, whose daughter Arsinoe (or Alphesiboea) he married, making her a present of the fatal necklace and the peplus of Harmonia.
The praises of the park and the house have been sung in Sir Philip Sidney's Arcadia, and by Ben Jonson, Edmund Waller and Robert Southey.
Diaphorti), a mountain in Arcadia, sacred to Zeus Lycaeus, who was said to have been born and brought up on it, and the home of Pelasgus and his son Lycaon, who is said to have founded the ritual of Zeus practised on its summit.
In 220-219 the Aetolians defeated him in Arcadia and harried the Peloponnese unchecked.
His cult early disappeared; in Arcadia his place was taken by Poseidon.
Writings of Poliziano, the Hypnerotomachia Poliphili, Dante's Divine Comedy, Petrarch's poems, a collection of early Latin poets of the Christian era, the letters of the younger Pliny, the poems of Pontanus, Sannazzaro's Arcadia, Quintilian, Valerius Maximus, and the Adagia of Erasmus were printed, either in first editions, or with a beauty of type and paper never reached before, between the years 1495 and 1514.
Not only were cities called after him, medals struck with his effigy, and statues erected to him in all parts of the empire, but he was raised to the rank of the gods, temples were built for his worship in Bithynia, Mantineia in Arcadia, and Athens, festivals celebrated in his honour and oracles delivered in his name.
Cunninghame Graham, A Vanished Arcadia (London, 1901); C. A.
The Penestae in Thessaly, the Helots in Laconia and the Gymnesii at Argos, whilst it practically composed the whole population of Arcadia and Attica, which never came under either Achaean or Dorian rule.
Such were the sanctuaries of Zeus Lycaeus in Arcadia, of Poseidon in the island of Calauria, and of Apollo at Delos; they were, however, numerous in Asia Minor.
Palaeokastro or Siderokastro), a city of Arcadia, reputed to be the most ancient city in Greece, and to have been founded by Lycaon the son of Pelasgus.
A body of Dorians under Cresphontes invaded the country from Arcadia, and, taking as their capital Stenyclarus in the northern plain, extended first their suzerainty and then their rule over the whole district.
After the battle of Leuctra (371 B.C.) Epaminondas invited the exiled Messenians scattered in Italy, Sicily, Africa and elsewhere to return to their country: the city of Messene was founded in 369 to be the capital of the country and, like Megalopolis in Arcadia, a powerful check on Sparta.
TRIPOLITSA, officially Tripolis, a town of Greece, capital of the nomarchy of Arcadia, and the seat of an archbishop, situated in a plain over 2,000 ft.
The chief Greek federations were those of Thessaly, Boeotia, Acarnania, Olynthus, Arcadia, Aetolia, Achaea, the most important as well as the most complete in respect of organization being the Aetolian League and the Achaean League.
The Greek colonists traced their descent, at Curium, from Argos; at Lapathus, from Laconia; at Paphos, from Arcadia; at Salamis, from the Attic island of that name; and at Soli, also from Attica.
The Greek dialect of Cyprus points in the same direction; it shows marked resemblances with that of Arcadia, and forms with it a " South Achaean " or " South Aeolic " group, related to the " Northern Aeolic " of Thessaly and other parts of north Greece.'
The oldest city, the oldest cultus (that of Zeus Lycaeus), and the first civilization of Arcadia are attributed to Lycaon.
Robertson Smith considers the sacrifices offered to the wolf-Zeus in Arcadia to have been originally cannibal feasts of a wolf-tribe, who recognized the wolf as their totem.
Berard) take Zeus Lycaeus for a Semitic Baal, whose worship was imported into Arcadia by the Phoenicians; Immerwahr identifies him with Zeus Phyxios, the god of the exile who flees on account of his having shed blood.
Another explanation is that the place of the sacred wolf once worshipped in Arcadia was taken in cult by Zeus Lycaeus, and in popular tradition by Lycaon, the ancestor of the Arcadians, who was supposed to have been punished for his insulting treatment of Zeus.
In 1756 Cruz e Silva, with the aid of friends, established the Arcadia Ulysiponense, " to form a school of good sayings and good examples in eloquence and poetry."
The most considered poets of the day joined the Arcadia and Lyric individually wrote much excellent verse, but they Latin authors were the models they chose, and Gargao, the most prominent Arcadian, composed the Cantata de Dido, a gem of ancient art, as well as some charming sonnets to friends and elegant odes and epistles.
After a chequered existence, internal dissensions caused the dissolution of the Arcadia in 1774.
In 1790 a New Arcadia came into being.
The only other poet of the New Arcadia who ranks high is Curvo Semedo; but the Dissidents, a name bestowed on those who stood outside the Arcadias, included two distinguished men now to be cited, the second of whom became the herald of a poetical revolution.
Meanwhile the Arcadia also took up the task of raising the tone of the stage, but though the ancients and the classic writers of the 16th century were its ideals, it drew immediate inspiration from the contemporary French theatre.
Lopes de Mendonga treats of the literature of the 16th and 17th centuries in articles in the Annaes das sciencias e letras; and the Memorias de litteratura portugueza printed by the Lisbon Academy of Sciences (1792-1814) contain essays on the drama and the Arcadia, but the 19th century has naturally received most attention.
Most of all did it profit by the statesmanship of Aratus, who initiated its expansive policy, until in 228 it comprised Arcadia, Argolis, Corinth and Aegina.
Athena Polias was the patron-goddess of Pergamum, and the legend combines the ethnological record of the connexion claimed between Arcadia and Pergamum with the usual belief that the hero of the city was son of its guardian deity, or at least of her priestess.
After twice defeating the forces of the Achaean League in Arcadia, near Mount Lycaeum and at Leuctra,he strengthened his position by assassinating four of the ephors, abolishing the ephorate, which had usurped the supreme power, and banishing some eighty of the leading oligarchs.
Yet traces of a pre-deistic and animistic period survived here and there; for instance, in Arcadia we find the thunder itself called Zeus (ZEUs Kepavvos) in a Mantinean inscription, 2 and the stone near Gythium in Laconia on which Orestes sat and was cured of his madness, evidently a thunder-stone, was named itself Zeus Kainreoras, which must be interpreted as " Zeus that fell from heaven "; 3 we here observe that the personal God does not yet seem to have emerged from the divine thing or divine phenomenon.
ARCADIA, a district of Greece, forming the central plateau of Peloponnesus.
In eastern or "locked" Arcadia these heights run in parallel courses intersected by cross-ridges, enclosing a series of upland plains whose waters have no egress save by underground channels or zerethra.
Thus Arcadia lagged behind the general development of Greece, and its political importance was small owing to chronic feuds between the townships (notably between Mantineia and Tegea) and the readiness of its youth for mercenary service abroad.
The importance of Arcadia in Greek history was due to its position between Sparta and the Isthmus.
During the Hellenistic age Megalopolis stood staunchly by Macedonia; the rest of Arcadia rebelled against Antipater (330, 323) and Antigonus Gonatas (266).
In Arcadia, when I was there, I did not see any hammering stone.
From this form the transition is simple to the rounded C, which is generally found in the same localities as the pointed form, but is more widely spread, occurring in Arcadia and on Chalcidian vases of the 6th century B.e., in Rhodes and Megara with their colonies in Sicily.