Aragon Sentence Examples
When Alphonso died in 1291 James became king of Aragon, and left his brother Frederick as regent of Sicily.
They were fanatical, and their tyranny drove numbers of their Jewish and Christian subjects to take refuge in the growing Christian states of Portugal, Castile and Aragon.
An important event of his pontificate was the capture of Granada (2nd of January 1492), which was celebrated at Rome with great rejoicing and for which Innocent gave to Ferdinand of Aragon the title of "Catholic Majesty."
In his youth he was one of the infantes (princes) of Aragon who took part in the dissensions of Castile during the minority and reign of John II.
Till middle life he was also lieutenant-general in Aragon for his brother and predecessor Alphonso V., whose reign was mainly spent in Italy.Advertisement
He endeavoured to deprive his son of his constitutional right to act as lieutenant-general of Aragon during his father's absence.
In 1496 Philip married Joanna of Aragon, who in 1500 became heiress apparent to Castile and Aragon.
In the following year, by the death, of Ferdinand of Aragon, his maternal grandfather, and the incapacity of his mother Joanna, who had become hopelessly insane, he succeeded to the crowns of Castile and Aragon, which carried with them large possessions in Italy and the dominion, of the New World of America.
His glove was carried to his cousin Constance, wife of Peter of Aragon, the last of th great Norman-Swabian family.
Civil Wan He lost the island, which gave itself to Aragon; and of Gue!phs thus the kingdom of Sicily was severed from that of anj Naples, the dynasty in the one being Spanish and Ghibelline, in the other French and Guelph.Advertisement
The former he held by inheritance, together with that of Aragon.
Therefore, when he died in 1458, he bequeathed Naples to his natural son Ferdinand, while Sicily and Aragon passed together to his brother John, and so on to Ferdinand the Catholic. The twenty-three years of Alfonsos reign were the most prosperous and splendid period of South Italian history.
The princes of the house of Aragon, now represented by Frederick, a son of Ferdinand I., returned to Naples.
No policy could have been less far-sighted; for Charles V., joint heir to Austria, Burgundy, Castile and Aragon, the future overwhelming rival of France, was already born.
Charles V., it must be remembered, achieved his conquest and confirmed his authority far less as emperor than as the heir of Castile and Aragon.Advertisement
Meeting with Cranmer, they were naturally led to discuss the king's meditated divorce from Catherine of Aragon.
In July 1497 Cesare went to Naples as papal legate and crowned Frederick of Aragon king.
Torquemada had always been strong in his advice that she should marry Ferdinand of Aragon and thus consolidate the kingdoms of Spain.
Much of his life was spent in controversy, not only with Christians (in 1293 before the king of Aragon), but also with his own people and on the views of the time.
Fine crystals occur at Conil near Cadiz; whilst in the province of Teruel in Aragon, sulphur in a compact form replaces fresh-water shells and plant-remains, suggesting its origin from sulphur-springs.Advertisement
It was originally founded by the Doria family of Genoa about 1102, but was occupied by the house of Aragon in 1 354, who held it successfully against various attacks until it fell to the house of Savoy with the rest of Sardinia in 1720.
Gregory was on his way to Rome to crown Rudolph and send him out on a great crusade in company with the kings of England, France, Aragon and Sicily, when he died at Arezzo on the 10th of January 1276.
Henry meanwhile, however, had sent William Knight, his secretary, on a separate mission to Rome to obtain facilities for his marriage with Anne; and on the cardinal's return in August he found her installed as the king's companion and proposed successor to Catherine of Aragon.
Froude rejects the whole story, Divorce of Catherine of Aragon, p. 54; and see Friedman's Anne Boleyn, ii.
See also articles on CATHERINE OF ARAGON and HENRY VIII.Advertisement
He successfully resisted encroachments on ecclesiastical jurisdiction by the kings of England, Castile and Aragon.
The weakness of Aragon enabled him to make his superiority effective.
It was not until 1403 that the kings of Aragon were able to conquer the district of Arborea, which, under the celebrated Eleonora (whose code of laws - the so-called Carta de Logu- was famous), offered a heroic resistance.
The castle was erected by Alphonso of Aragon; the cathedral, consecrated in 1088, has a rose window and side portal of 1481.
In 1269 James the Conqueror of Aragon, at the bidding of the pope, turned from the long Spanish Crusade to a Crusade in the East in order to atone for his offences against the law matrimonial.
He returned home at the end of 1272, the last of the western crusaders; and thus all the attempts of St Louis and Charles of Anjou, of James of Aragon and Edward of England left Bibars still in possession of all his conquests.
On the very eve of the Fifth Crusade, Venice had concluded a commercial treaty with Malik-al-Kamil of Egypt; just before the fall of Acre the Genoese, the king of Aragon and the king of Sicily had all concluded advantageous treaties with the sultan Kala`un.
He was expelled in 1311 by his Catalonian mercenaries; the mutineers bestowed the duchy " of Athens and Neopatras " on their leader, Roger Deslaur, and, in the following year, on Frederick of Aragon, king of Sicily.
At Dunstable Cranmer held the court which, in 1 533, declared Catherine of Aragon's marriage invalid.
Among the fiefs destined for the duke of Gandia were Cervetri and Anguillara, lately acquired by Virginio Orsini, head of that powerful and turbulent house, with the pecuniary help of Ferdinand of Aragon, king of Naples (Don Ferrante).
In his own kingdom Charles took some steps to reform the financial and judicial administration and so to increase his revenue; but he was soon occupied once more with foreign entanglements, and in July 1362, in alliance with Peter the Cruel, king of Castile, he invaded Aragon, deserting his new ally soon afterwards for Peter IV., king of Aragon.
Still hankering after Burgundy, Charles saw his French estates again seized; but after some desultory warfare, chiefly in Normandy, peace was made in March 1365, and he returned to his work of interference in the politics of the Spanish kingdoms. In turn he made treaties with the kings of Castile and Aragon, who were at war with each other; promising to assist Peter the Cruel to regain his throne, from which he had been driven in 1366 by his half-brother Henry of Trastamara, and then assuring Henry and his ally Peter of Aragon that he would aid, them to retain Castile.
This schism lasted fully ten years, although the antipope found hardly any adherents outside of his own hereditary states, those of Alphonso of Aragon, of the Swiss confederation and certain universities.
As early as 1450 a company of Jewish converts in Spain, at the head of which were Paul de Heredia, Vidal de Saragossa de Aragon, and Davila, published compilations of Kabbalistic treatises to prove from them the doctrines of Christianity.'
It was in vain that Sigismund journeyed to Perpignan, and that the kings of Aragon, Castile and Navarre ceased to obey the aged pontiff.
Before it landed, the French under Dupont, Moncey and Marshal Bessieres (75,000) had occupied parts of Biscay, Navarre, Aragon and the Castiles, holding Madrid and Toledo, while General Duhesme (14,000) was in Catalonia.
At the opening of 1813, Suchet, with 63,000 men, had been left to hold Valencia, Aragon and Catalonia; and the remainder of the French (about 13 7,000) occupied Leon, the central provinces and Biscay, guarding also the communications with France.
Sarno has the ruins of a medieval castle, which belonged to Count Francesco Coppola, who took an important part in the conspiracy of the barons against Ferdinand of Aragon in 1485.
In 1363, thanks to the support of the king of Navarre, he was given the bishopric of Calahorra in the kingdom of Aragon, which he administered until his death in 1373.
But Alphonso died childless in 1291 before the treaty could be carried out, and James took possession of Aragon, leaving the government of Sicily to the third brother Frederick.
On the occasion of his marriage with Catherine of Aragon the city was gorgeously ornamented with rich silks and tapestry, and Goldsmiths' Row (Cheapside) and part of Cornhill were hung with golden brocades.
Educated at the semi-Oriental provincial court of Juan Manuel, duke of Penafiel, Inez grew up side by side with Costanga, the duke's daughter by a scion of the royal house of Aragon, and her own cousin.
In 1194 the city, with the rest of Sicily, passed to the house of Hohenstaufen under the emperor Henry VI., who died there in 1197; and after the fall of the Hohenstaufen was contended for by Peter I., king of Aragon, and Charles I., count of Anjou.
It contains the Gothic tomb of Isabella of Aragon, wife of Philip III.
Under the will of Corradino a representative of the blood of Roger the Norman, Peter of Aragon claimed the succession, and it came to him by the revolution known as " the Sicilian Vespers " when 28,000 French were exterminated in Sicily.
The knights of St John having been driven from Rhodes by the Turks, obtained the grant of Malta, Gozo and Tripoli in 1530 from the emperor Charles V., subject to a reversion in favour of the emperor's successor in the kingdom of Aragon should the knights leave Malta, and to the annual tribute of a falcon in acknowledgment that Malta was under the suzerainty of Spain.
From Miranda it winds south-eastward through the wide basin enclosed on the right by the highlands of Old Castile and western Aragon, and on the left by the Pyrenees.
Its principal tributaries are - from the right hand the Jalon with its affluent the Jiloca, the Huerva, Aguas, Martin, Guadalope and Matarrana; from the left the Ega, Aragon, Arba, Gallego, and the Segre with its intricate system of confluent rivers.
It was followed in Catalonia till the year i i 80, in the kingdom of Aragon till 1350, in Valencia till 1358, and in Castile till 1382.
The strong measures he took against disorderly elements in Aragon in 1591 were provoked by extreme misconduct on the part of a faction.
He was at last persuaded to accept the military command in Aragon, which he thought below his merits.
Aragon was divided in 1833 into the provinces of Huesca, Teruel and Saragossa; an account of its modern condition is therefore given under these names, which have not, however, superseded the older designation in popular usage.
Aragon consists of a central plain, edged by mountain ranges.
Aragon is divided by the river Ebro, which flows through it in a south-easterly direction, into two nearly equal parts, known as Trans-ibero and Cis-ibero.
Within a recent geological period, central Aragon was undoubtedly submerged by the sea, and the parched chalky soil remains saturated with salt, while many of the smaller streams run brackish.
There are, however, extensive oak, pine and beech forests in the highlands, and many beautiful oases in the deeply sunk valleys, and along the rivers, especially beside the Ebro, which is, therefore, often called the "Nile of Aragon."
Three counties - Sobrarbe, situated near the headwaters of the Cinca, Aragon, to the west, and Ribagorza or Ribagorca, to the east - are indicated by tradition and the earliest chronicles as the cradle of the Aragonese monarchy.
Ramiro soon rid himself of his rival, and welded Sobrarbe, Ribagorza and Aragon into a single kingdom, which thenceforward grew rapidly in size and power and shared with Castile the chief part in the struggle against the Moors.
The history of this period, which was terminated by the union of Castile and Aragon under Ferdinand and Isabella in 1479, is given, along with a full account of the very interesting constitution of Aragon, under Spain.
The literature relating to Aragon is very extensive.
Having declared himself against the king's divorce from Catherine of Aragon, he lost the royal favour and was confined to his house for six weeks.
Joanna refused to adopt Louis owing to the influence of Caracciolo, who hated Sforza; she appealed for help instead to Alphonso of Aragon, promising to make him her heir.
In his Divorce of Catherine of Aragon (1891) he made an unfortunate attempt to show that certain fresh evidence on the subject, brought forward by Dr Gairdner, Dr Friedmann and others, was not inconsistent with the views which he had expressed in his History nearly forty years before.
Among the gifts sent by Menezes was a piece of tapestry representing the marriage of Catherine of Aragon to Arthur, prince of Wales.
Aix, which during the middle ages was the capital of the county of Provence, did not reach its zenith until after the 12th century, when, under the houses of Aragon and Anjou, it became an artistic centre and seat of learning.
The pope's recognition of the claims to Naples of King Alphonso of Aragon withdrew the last important support from the council of Basel, and enabled him to make a victorious entry into Rome on the 28th of September 1443, after an exile of nearly ten years.
Already more than one suitor had made application for her hand, Ferdinand of Aragon, who ultimately became her husband, being among the number; for some little time she was engaged to his elder brother Charles, who died in 1461.
Finally however, in face of very great difficulties, she was married to Ferdinand of Aragon at Valladolid 'on the 19th of October 1469.
But his fall was assured when Philip, who in 1271 lost his first wife, Isabella, daughter of James I., king of Aragon, married in 1274 Marie, daughter of Henry III., duke of Brabant.
This was a mere matter of form; Marie of Brabant and her party had decided the matter beforehand, and the crown of Aragon, which the French pope Martin IV.
On the 28th of May 1262 he married Isabella, daughter of James I., king of Aragon, who died in 1271.
In 1J35 he was sent to Germany, in the hope of inducing Lutheran divines to approve of Henry's divorce from Catherine of Aragon, and four years later he was employed in negotiations connected with Anne of Cleves's marriage.
In 1284 Martin IV., having excommunicated Pedro III., king of Aragon, offered that kingdom to Charles.
In 1290 Charles married Margaret, daughter of Charles II., king of Naples, and renounced his pretensions to Aragon.
Long before his death he had become alienated from the advanced school of Catalan nationalists, and endeavoured to explain away the severe criticism of Castile in which his Historia de Cataluna y de la Corona de Aragon (1860-1863) abounds.
His surname "of Antequera" was given him because he was besieging that town, then in the hands of the Moors, when he was told that the cortes of Aragon had elected him king in succession to his uncle Martin, the last male of the old line of Wilfred the Hairy.
As king of Aragon his short reign of two years left him little time to make his mark.
Having been bred in Castile, where the royal authority was, at least in theory, absolute, he showed himself impatient under the checks imposed on him by the fueros, the chartered rights of Aragon and Catalonia.
When, however, Ferdinand was elected king of Aragon, and the regency remained in the hands of the king's mother, Constance, daughter of John of Gaunt, a foolish and dissolute woman, Alvaro became a very important person.
In 1445 the faction of the nobles allied with Alvaro's main enemies, the Infantes de Aragon, were beaten at Olmedo, and the favourite, who had been constable of Castile and count of Santesteban since 1423, became Grand Master of the military order of Santiago by election of the Knights.
He succeeded to the county of Barcelona in 1162 on the death of his father, at the age of eleven, and in 1164 his mother renounced her rights in Aragon in his favour.
As king of Aragon he took a share in the work of the reconquest, by helping his cousin Alphonso VIII.
His inability to resist the demands of his nobles left a heritage of trouble in Aragon.
Besides his three sons, Bela, Coloman and Andrew, Andrew had a daughter Iolanthe, who married the king of Aragon.
Andalusia has never been, like Castile or Aragon, a separate kingdom.
He was more or less effectively the supreme temporal chief of the kingdom of Sicily and Naples, Sardinia, the states of the Iberian peninsula (Castile, Leon, Navarre and Portugal), Aragon (which, under Peter II., was the type of vassal and tributary kingdom of the Roman power), the Scandinavian states, the kingdom of Hungary, the Slav states of Bohemia, Poland, Servia, Bosnia and Bulgaria, and the Christian states founded in Syria by the crusaders of the 12th century.
But they still continued to desire the restoration of the Angevin dynasty in Sicily and to assist the designs of France on Aragon by preaching a crusade against the masters of Barcelona and Palermo.
The hopes of the Curia were frustrated by the resistance of the Aragonese and Sicilians, and Charles of Valois, to whom the Curia eventually destined the crown of Aragon, had to resign it for that of Constantinople, which he also failed to secure.
Castilian, which is the literary language of Spain, and with certain differences, of Spanish America, is spoken in Old and New Castile, Aragon, Estremadura, and the greater part of Leon; in Andalusia it is subject to various modifications of accent and pronunciation.
Berwick was made a peer of France by Louis XIV., and duke of Liria and of Xereca and lieutenant of Aragon by Philip. Thenceforward Berwick was recognized as one of the greatest generals of his time, and successively commanded in nearly all the theatres of war.
Remains of the former royal state of Barcelona are found in the Palacio Real of the kings of Aragon and the Palacio de la Reina.
But the accession of larger resources due to the union between Catalonia and Aragon in 1149, brought the city to the zenith of its fame and wealth.
But the union of Castile and Aragon in 1479 favoured other cities of Spain at the expense of Barcelona, whose commercial supremacy was transferred to the ports of western Spain by the discovery of America in 1492.
On Barbara's death three years later without male offspring, Sigismund (in April 1518) gave his hand to Bona Sforza, a kinswoman of the emperor and granddaughter of the king of Aragon, who came to him with a dowry of 200,000 ducats and the promise of an inheritance from her mother of half a million more which she never got.
Thence, when the well-drilled Army of be so or not, Lee took part in preparing for the divorce pro Potomac was about to descend upon Richmond, he was ceedings against Catherine of Aragon, and in January 1534 the hurriedly recalled to Richmond.
It was due to his dependence on Charles V., rather than to any conscientious scruples, that Clement evaded Henry VIII.'s demand for the nullification of his marriage with Catherine of Aragon, and so brought about the breach between England and Rome.
In 1508 he concluded against Venice the famous league of Cambray with the emperor Maximilian, Louis of France and Ferdinand of Aragon, and in the following year placed the city of Venice under an interdict.
Julius forthwith formed the Holy league with Ferdinand of Aragon and with Venice against France, in which both Henry VIII.
The rights of the Swabian house were now held to pass to Peter (Pedro), king of Aragon, husband of Manfred's daughter Constance.
The emperor Michael Palaeologus and Peter of Aragon became allies against Charles; the famous John of Procida acted as an agent between them; the costs of Charles's eastern warfare caused great discontent, especially in an island where some might still look to the Greek emperor as a natural deliverer.
Meanwhile Peter of Aragon was watching and pre the citizens of the great cities, a king would be acceptable; Peter was chosen with little opposition in a parliament at Palermo, and a struggle of twenty-one years began, of which Charles and Peter saw only the first stage.
In fact, after Peter had helped the Sicilians to relieve Messina, he was very little in Sicily; he had to defend his kingdom of Aragon, which Pope Martin had granted to another French Charles.
By Peter's death Aragon and Sicily were separated; his eldest son Alphonso took Aragon, and his second son James took Sicily, which was to pass to the third son Frederick, if James died childless.
In 1291 James succeeded Alphonso in the kingdom of Aragon, and left Frederick not king, according to the entail, but only his lieutenant in Sicily.
In 1295 he was reconciled to the church and released from all French claims on Aragon, and he bound himself to restore Sicily to Charles.
His diplomatic relations were more extensive than those of any previous sultan, and included Bulgarian, Indian, and Abyssmn.ian potentates, as well as the pope, the king of Aragon and the king of France.
This led to a naval demonstration on the part of the Venetians, who secured better terms for their trade, and to the seizure of Egyptian vessels by the king of Aragon and the prince of Catalonia.
The power of these favourites was shaken by the influence of the queen's mother, Yolande of Aragon, duchess of Anjou.
La Tremoille had been assassinated in 1433 by the constable's orders, with the connivance of Yolande of Aragon.
He had been betrothed to his brother's widow Catherine of Aragon, and in spite of the protest which he had been made to register against the marriage, and of the doubts expressed by Julius II.
Henry was then particularly anxious to cement his alliance with Francis I., and gain his co-operation as far as possible in the object on which he had secretly set his heart - a divorce from Catherine of Aragon.
In that year he brought to a conclusion marriage negotiations not less momentous in their ultimate results, when Prince Arthur was betrothed to Catherine of Aragon.
In 1412 he was delegated by his native city to take part in the election of a successor to the vacant crown of Aragon; and in 1416 he received a special invitation to attend the council of Constance, where he supported the cause of the Flagellants.
John of Aragon continued the war in Roussillon and Cerdagne, which Louis had seized ten years before, and a most desperate rising of the inhabitants protracted the struggle for two years.
He now became head of the Ghibellines or Imperialists of Italy, and his position was strengthened by the marriage of his daughter Costanza to Peter, son of King James of Aragon.
Peter died the same year, leaving Aragon to his son Alphonso III.
Caracciolo, the queen's new lover, Alphonso of Aragon, whom she adopted as her heir, and Louis III.
He set to work to restore some of these ruins, to reconstitute and pacify the Papal State, to put an end to the Schism, which showed signs of continuing in Aragon and certain parts of southern France; to enter into negotiations, unfortunately unfruitful, with the Greek Church also with a view to a return to unity, to organize the struggle against heresy in Bohemia; to interpose his pacific mediation between France and England, as well as between the parties which were rending France; and, finally, to welcome and act as patron to saintly reformers like Bernardino of Siena and Francesca Romana, foundress of the nursing sisterhood of the Oblate di Tor de' Specchi (1425).
At the same time he endeavoured to bring about a union of Aragon with Navarre, by a contract of mutual adoption between himself and the Navarrese king, Sancho, who was old enough to be his grandfather.
The Llanos de Urgel, which comprise the greater part of southern Lerida, are extensive plains forming part of the Ebro valley, but redeemed by an elaborate system of canals from the sterility which characterizes so much of that region in Aragon.
By situation the key of Catalonia and Aragon, it was from a very early period an important military station.
At this juncture he succeeded in making his escape from prison in Castile into Aragon, where, under the ancient " fueros " of the kingdom he could claim a public trial in open court, and so bring into requisition the documentary evidence he possessed of the king's complicity in the deed.
This did not suit Philip, who, although he instituted a process in the supreme tribunal of Aragon, speedily abandoned it and caused Perez to be attacked from another side, the charge of heresy being now preferred, arising out of certain reckless and even blasphe On the other hand it is suggested that this story of his being the son of Gomez was only circulated by Ruy Gomez's wife, Ana de Mendoza, as a refutation of the possibility of a supposed amour between her and Perez.
But all attempts to remove the accused from the civil prison in Saragossa to that of the Inquisition raised popular tumults, which in the end led to Perez's escape across the Pyrenees, but unfortunately also furnished Philip with a pretext for sending an army into Aragon and suppressing the ancient.
In 1521 Francois (2) acquired a claim on the kingdom of Naples by his marriage with Anne de Laval, daughter of Charlotte of Aragon.
The Spaniards became one nation by the conquest of Granada and the union of the crowns of Castile and Aragon.
In 1291, on the death of his elder brother, Alphonso, to whom Aragon had fallen, he resigned Sicily and endeavoured to arrange the quarrel between his own family and the Angevine House, by marriage with Blanca, daughter of Charles of Anjou, king of Naples.
In the park a cross marks the site of Ampthill Castle, the residence of Catherine of Aragon while her divorce from Henry VIII.
Portugal was not to be regarded as a conquered or annexed province, but as a separate kingdom, joined to Spain solely by a personal union similar to the union between Castile and Aragon under Ferdinand and Isabella.
Asturias had been united with Leon, Leon with Castile, Castile with Aragon.
The close relations that prevailed between the reigning houses of Portugal, Provence and Aragon, cemented by intermarriages, introduced a knowledge of the gay science, but it reached Portugal by many other ways - by the crusaders who came to help in fighting the Moors, by the foreign prelates who occupied Peninsular sees, by the monastic and military orders who founded establishments in Portugal, by the visits of individual singers to court and baronial houses, but chiefly perhaps by the pilgrims who streamed from every country along the Frankish way to the far-famed shrine of Santiago de Compostela.
In 1548 Zurita was nominated official chronicler of the kingdom of Aragon, and in 1566 Philip II.
Zurita resigned these posts on the 21st of January 1571, obtained a sinecure at Saragossa, and dedicated himself wholly to the composition of his Anales de la corona de Aragon, the first part of which had appeared in 1562; he lived to see the last volume printed at Saragossa on the 22nd of April 1580, and died on the 3rd of November following.
Zurita's style is somewhat crabbed and dry, but his authority is unquestionable; he displayed a new conception of an historian's duties, and, not content with the ample materials stored in the archives of Aragon, continued his researches in the libraries of Rome, Naples and Sicily; he founded the school of historical scholarship in Spain.
The old manor house, now demolished, was Catherine's residence; and had been, according to tradition, the place of the retirement of Catherine of Aragon after her divorce from Henry VIII.
He was sent on several weighty embassies, including one to Ferdinand and Isabella of Spain to arrange the marriage between Prince Arthur and Catherine of Aragon, and another to France in 1492, when he signed the treaty of Etaples.
Rene's captivity, and the poverty of the Angevin resources due to his ransom, enabled Alphonso of Aragon, who had been first adopted and then repudiated by Jeanne II., to make some headway in the kingdom of Naples, especially as he was already in possession of the island of Sicily.
The duke of Calabria, after repeated misfortunes in Italy, was offered the crown of Aragon in 1467, but died, apparently by poison, at Barcelona on the 16th of December 1470; the duke's eldest son Nicholas perished in 1473, also under suspicion of poisoning; Rene's daughter Margaret was a refugee from England, her son Prince Edward was murdered in 1471, and she herself became a prisoner, to be rescued by Louis XI.
He was sent to Spain in r 5 r 5 on a very important diplomatic errand; Charles secured his succession to the see of Tortosa, and on the, 4th of November 1516 commissioned him inquisitor-general of Aragon.
The rank of provincial capital was bestowed by Ferdinand of Aragon in acknowledgment of the fidelity of Lecce to his cause.
Clement eventually succeeded in winning to his cause Scotland, Castile, Aragon, Navarre, a great part of the Latin East, and Flanders.
Among his visitors was a fellow-countryman, Cardinal Louis of Aragon, whose secretary has left an account of the day.
For Henry looked to the learning and abilities of Reginald Pole to vindicate before Europe the justice of his divorce from Catherine of Aragon; and, when Pole was conscientiously compelled to declare the very opposite, the king's indignation knew no bounds.
Similarly the lace industry is associated with Catherine of Aragon, who, when trade was dull, burnt her lace and ordered new to be made.
A native of Xativa, he gained a great reputation as a jurist, becoming professor at Lerida; in 1429 he was made bishop of Valencia, and in 1444 a cardinal, owing his promotion mainly to his close friendship with Alphonso V., king of Aragon and Sicily.
During his papacy Calixtus became involved in a quarrel with his former friend, Alphonso of Aragon, now also king of Naples, and after the king's death in June 1458 he refused to recognize his illegitimate son, Ferdinand, as king of Naples, asserting that this kingdom was a fief of the Holy See.
In 1263 Nahmanides was forced to enter into a public disputation with a Jewish-Christian, Pablo Christiani, in the presence of King James of Aragon.
He gathered beneath his banner thousands of adventurers not only from France, Brittany and Flanders, but even from distant regions such as Aragon, Apulia and Germany.
Few diplomatic hagglings have been so long and so sordid as that between England and Spain over the marriage treaty which gave the hand of Catherine of Aragon first to Henrys eldest son Arthur, and then, on his premature death in 1502, to his second son Henry.
It is certain that Henry was tired and wanted to get rid of her; but if she were innocent, why were charges brought against her which were not brought against Catherine of Aragon and Anne of Cleves?
Isabella of Castile, queen of Ferdinand of Aragon; whose descendants were kings of Spain till the accession of the Bourbons in 1700.
In 1436 it was given by Alfonso of Aragon to Don Giovanni de Caro, baron of Montechiaro.
He was taken prisoner at Lucena in 1483, and only obtained his freedom by consenting to hold Granada as a tributary kingdom under Ferdinand and Isabella, king and queen of Castile and Aragon.
Henry had by this time several children, of whom the eldest, Arthur, had been proposed in infancy for a bridegroom to Catherine, daughter of Ferdinand of Aragon.
Tarazona remained in possession of Aragon.
After 1234 Navarre, though the crown was claimed by the kings of Aragon, passed by marriage to a succession of French rulers.
The kingdom of Naples was still left to recapture; and fearing to be thwarted by Ferdinand of Aragon, Louis XII.
The territorial power of Charles V., heir to the houses of Burgundy, Austria, Castile and Aragon, which not only arrested the traditional policy of France but hemmed her Rivalry of in on every side; his pretensions to be the head of Francis I.
In 1 502 she and her husband received the homage of the cortes of Castile and of Aragon as heirs.
On the Spanish side, from north to south, are (1) the zone of Mont Perdu, Upper Cretaceous and Eocene; (2) the zone of Aragon, Eocene; and (3) the zone of the Sierras, Trias, Cretaceous and Eocene.
The zone of the Corbieres has no equivalent in Spain, while in France there is no definite zone of Eocene like that of Aragon.
While, again, continuous mountain ranges and broad plains and table-lands give the prevailing character to the scenery, there are, on the one hand, lofty isolated peaks, such as Monseny, Montserrat and Mont Sant in Catalonia, the Pea Golosa in Valencia, Moncayo on the borders of Aragon and Old Castile, and, on the other hand, small secluded valleys, such as those of Vich and Olot among the Catalonian Pyrenees.
The roads which wind through the Pyrenees in northern Aragon, Navarre and Catalonia had long been the channels of an important traffic, although great inconvenience was caused by the snow which blocks the passes in winter.
Aragon and Estremadura, the two most thinly peopled of all the old provinces, and the eastern half of Andalusia (above Seville), have all suffered particularly in this manner, later occupiers never having been able to rival the Moors in overcoming the sterility of nature, as in Aragon, or in taking advantage of its fertility, as in Andalusia and the Tierra de Barros.
The vine-growing districts had formerly been mostly in the provinces of Cadiz, Malaga, Barcelona, Aragon and Navarre.
But here were the roots of the kingdom of Navarre, of Sobrarbe and Aragon.
On the upper frcntier, which is now Aragon, the Visigoth Beni-Casi ruled, doing homage and paying tribute intermittently, supported by a loyal population of native Mahommedans, whose Christian or nominally Christian fathers had been their followers before the conquest.
The Moors, so called, who afterwards filled the kingdom of Aragon were of native blood.
Navarre was left by Sancho to another son, Garcia, while the small Christian states of the central Pyrenees, Aragon and Sobrarbe with the Ribagorza went to his other sons, Ramiro Sanchez and Gonzalo.
In Aragon the successors of Ramiro Sanchez had begun to press close on Saragossa when the Almorvide invasion took place.
He left his kingdom by will to the Knights of the Temple and the Hospital, but the barons of Aragon paid no attention to his wish, and drew his brother Ramiro, a monk, from his cell to continue the royal line.
Navarre, indeed, which had been united with Aragon since the fratricidal murder of its king Sancho in 1076, preferred to remain independent under a new ruler of its choice.
Aiphonso had conquered Cuenca, in the hill country between Castile and Valencia, in 1177, with the help of the king of Aragon, also an Alphonso, the son of Petronilla and of Ramon Berenguer of Barcelona.
With eminent good sense he rewarded his ally by resigning all claim to feudal superiority over Aragon.
The penitence of Almohdes took the field against Alphonso in force, Aragon.
Aragon was represented by its king Peter II., Navarre by its king Sancho, and Portugal by a strong contingent of Templars and other knights.
Its king was also a ruler of many titlesking in Aragon, in Valencia, and the Balearic Isles (with one interval of separation), count of Barcelona, and in Provence.
From the date of the Sicilian Vespers (1283) Aragon is found mixed in the politics of Italy.
The curious double position of the king of Aragon is fully illustrated by the career of that king Peter who was the father of James the Conqueror.
If the fortunes of Aragon were to be followed in an outline of Spanish history, it would be necessary to wander as far as Athens and Constantinople.
Therefore the distinction of classes was far sharper in Aragon than in nonfeudal Castile and Leon.
Predial slavery, which had disappeared in Castile and Leon in the i3th century, existed unmodified in Aragon, and in its worst form, down to the Bourbon dynasty.
The prevalence of predial slavery in Aragon and Valencia can be largely explained by the number of Mudjares, that is Mahommedans living under Christian rule, and of Moriscoes converted Mohammedans.
It is said with probability that one of the early kings of Aragon, Peter I., could write no other letters than the Arabic. The Mozrabes were treated under the kings of the recunquest as separate bodies with their own judges and law, which they had been allowed to keep by the Moslem rulers.
And what is true of Castile and Leon applies equally to Aragon.
Aragon spoke a dialect of Castilian.
But in this land, where nothing was consistent, there was in reality no sharp division except in the smaller and feudal portioncalled Aragon for convenmenceand save as between Christian and non-Christian, noble and non-noble.
Aragon never advanced so far.
In the kingdom of Aragon the right was secured about the same time.
The check which the justiza, or chief justice, of Aragon imposed on the king was supported by the force of nobles and cities, but it was an exception in Spain.
In Aragon, indeed, the nobles did extort a promise from the king that they should not be put to death or deprived of their estates by his mere decision.
His succession to the throne of Aragon is an event of capital importance in the history of the Peninsula.
The first was to reunite the Balearic Islands and Roussillon, which James the Conqueror had left by will to a younger son, to the crown of Aragon.
Their second task was to reduce their turbulent barons, in Aragon, Catalonia and Valencia alike, to the position of obedient subjects.
The barons of Aragon and Valencia had extorted from his weak father the charter known Peter IV.
The result of his victory was to give Aragon and his other dominions a measure of internal peace unknown in Castile.
The two years of discussion which followed are interesting as a proof that Aragon had The Suereached a higher political level than Cast ile.
The cession in Cortes was able to administer in peace, and the Aragon.
The judges finally decided in favor of Ferdinand, on the ground that his mother, Eleanor, was the daughter of Peter IV., and that though a woman could not reign as a proprietary queen in Aragon, she could convey the right to her husband or transmit it to her son.
As the legitimacy of his alleged daughter Juana was disputed, his sister Isabella claimed the succession, and married her cousin, Fefdinand of Aragon, son of John I., in 1469 in defianceofherbrother.
Castile and Aragon alike royal officers were appointed to adjudicate on disputes within.
One of the first measures adopted by them in Castile, before the union with Aragon, was to stop the nomination of foreigners to Spanish benefices by the pope.
The Inquisition was at first established (in 1480) in the dominions of Castile only, but it was extended in 1486 to Catalonia and in 1487 to Aragon, in spite of strong protests.
They endeavoured to strengthen themselves against France by marriages with the royal family of England (see CATHERINE oF ARAGON) and the Habsburgs.
Aragon, which was poor and tenacious of its rights, would give little; Catalonia and Valencia afforded small help. The Flemish revenue was destroyed by the revolt.
The constitutional rights of Aragon were not entirely suppressed, but they were diminished, and the kingdom was reduced to a greater measure of submission.
But the Conservatives preferred to support the late kings brother Don Carlos, and they had the active aid of the Basques, who feared for their local franchises, and of the mountaineers of Navarre, Aragon, Catalonia and Valencia, who were either quite clerical, or who had become attached, during the French invasion and the troubles of the reign of Ferdinand, to a life of guerrillero adventure.
A civil code was carefully drawn up by Seor Alonzo Martinez, in order to consolidate the very heterogeneous ancient legislation of the monarchy and the local laws of many provinces, especially Catalonia; Aragon, Valencia, Navarre, and the Basque territory.
He inherited, or Sancho el Mayor1000-1035acquired, superiority over the central Pyrenean regions of Aragon and Sobrarbe.
He di vided his various dominions Navarre to Garcia, Castile to I Fernando,Sobrarbeto Gonzalo, and Aragon to Ramiro San chez, a natural son.
The Navarrese then chose Sancho Ramirez of Aragon as king.
Historic kingdom of Aragon Ramiro Sanchez1035-1067Natural son of Sancho ci Mayor of Navarre, who on the death of his legitimate brother Gon zalo, annexed Sobrarbe.
Was betrothed to Petronilla of Aragon, and married her in 1150,
The male line of the kings of Aragon of the House of Barcelona ended with Martin.
Elected by the Navar rese on the death of Alphonso of Aragon without issue.
The Anales de Aragon of Gerbnimo Zurita (1610) are very far superior to the history of Mariana in criticism and research.
Medieval Spain divides itself into three con quistasthat of Castile (much the most considerable), that of Portugal, and that of Aragon.
If a given province now speaks Catalan rather than Castilian, the explanation is to be sought simply and solely in the fact that it was conquered by a king of Aragon and peopled by his Catalan subjects.
The river Segura, which falls into the Mediterranean in the neighborhood of Orihuela, a little to the north of Murcia, is as nearly as possible the southern boundary of the Catalan domain; westward the boundary coincides pretty exactly with the political frontier, the provinces of New Castile and Aragon not being at all encroached on.
Catalan, which by the reunion of Aragon and the countship of Barcelona in 1137 became the official language of the Aragonese monarchyalthough the kingdom of Aragon, consisting of the present provinces of Saragossa, Huesca and Teruel, has always been Castilian in speechestablished a footing in Italy also, in all parts where the domination of the kings of Aragon extended, viz, in Sicily, Naples, Corsica and Sardinia, but it has not maintained itself here except in a single district of the last-named island (Aighero); everywhere else in Italy, where it was not spoken except by the conquerors, nor written except in the royal chancery, it has disappeared without leaving a trace.
In 1208 he was declared of age, and soon afterwards Innocent arranged a marriage, which was celebrated the following year, between him and Constance, daughter of Alphonso II king of Aragon, and widow of Emerich or Imre, king of Hungary.
On the decease of Filippo Maria Visconti in 1447 he joined the Aragonese against Venice and Florence; but, presently changing his flag, fought valiantly against Alphonso of Aragon and forced him to raise the siege of Piombino.
Militarily, this unofficial armistice on the Aragon front only benefitted the enemy.
The queen, Eleanor of Aragon, whom he had left in Cyprus during his long visits to the West, had proved faithless.
Two bedroom apartments at Aragon Tower start at £ 250,000, while two-bedroom penthouses are priced at £ 365,000.
Paul meets his match with a real whopper on the banks of the river Ebro in Aragon, Spain.
One of his first acts as king was to marry his brother's widow, Catherine of Aragon.
He helped to arrange the marriage between Henry's son, Arthur, and Catherine of Aragon; he went to Scotland with Richard Foxe, then bishop of Durham, in 1497; and he was partly responsible for several commercial and other treaties with Flanders, Burgundy and the German king, Maximilian I.
James concluded a shameful treaty, by which, in exchange for being left undisturbed in Aragon and promised possession of Sardinia and Corsica, he gave up Sicily to the Church, for whom it was to be held by the Angevins (1295).
The emperor promised to pay Matthias 00,000 florins as a war indemnity, and recognized him as the legitimate king of Hungary on the understanding that he should succeed him if he died without male issue, a contingency at this time somewhat improbable, as Matthias, only three years previously (Dec. 15, 1476), had married his third wife, Beatrice of Naples, daughter of Ferdinand of Aragon.
Louis I., who became in time count of Provence and king of Naples (see Louis I., king of Naples,) died in 1384, and was succeeded by his son Louis II., who devoted most of his energies to his kingdom of Naples, and left the administration of Anjou almost entirely in the hands of his wife, Yolande of Aragon.
As the king was surrounded by greedy and unscrupulous nobles, among whom his cousins, the sons of Ferdinand, commonly known as the Infantes (princes) of Aragon, were perhaps the worst, his reliance on a favourite who had every motive to be loyal to him is quite, intelligible.
By rejecting the Capetian sovereign that Rome wished to thrust upon it to deliver it from the dynasty of Aragon, the little island of Sicily arrested the progress of French imperialism, ruined the vast projects of Charles of Anjou, and liberated the papacy in its own despite from a subjection that perverted and shook its power.
He had pursued the traditional policy of intermarriage with the royal families of Castile and Aragon, hoping to weld together the Spanish and Portuguese dominions into a single world-wide Sebastianism " became a religion; its' votaries were numbered by thousands, and four impostors arose in succession, each claiming to be the rei encuberto, or " hidden king," whose advent was so ardently desired (see Sebastian).
The third and southernmost province of Aragon is Teruel.
One of his first acts as king was to marry his brother 's widow, Catherine of Aragon.
Calatayud is a relatively obscure appellation (albeit gaining more recognition recently for its New World style reds) located in the Aragon region in northeast Spain.
Queen Mary I was the daughter of Henry VIII and his first wife Catherine of Aragon.
Bloody Mary is the black nickname for Queen Mary I or Queen Mary Tudor, eldest daughter of King Henry VIII and Catherine of Aragon.
Henry VIII cross stitch seems appropriate, because historians believe Catherine of Aragon, one of Henry VIII's many wives, ihave brought black stitch, a precursor to cross stitch, from Spain to England.
Andurial was created from the shards of Narsil and reforged by elvensmiths in Rivendell to become Aragon's sword in the War of the Ring.
Peter died in 1285, leaving Aragon to his eldest son Alphonso, and Sicily to his second son James.