Arabia Sentence Examples
Having at last got into trouble with the authorities he fled from Sicily, and visited in succession Greece, Egypt, Arabia, Persia, Rhodes - where he took lessons in alchemy and the cognate sciences from the Greek Althotas - and Malta.
That the term was also applied to parts of Arabia is evident from Gen.
Still more diversity of opinion prevails as to the southern gold-exporting port of Ophir, which some scholars place in Arabia, others at one or another point on the east coast of Africa.
William Gifford Palgrave (1826-1888) went to India as a soldier after a brilliant career at Charterhouse School and Trinity College, Oxford; but, having become a Roman Catholic, he was ordained priest and served as a Jesuit missionary in India, Syria, and Arabia.
He entered the Persian Gulf, and rejoined Alexander at Susa, when he was ordered to prepare another expedition for the circumnavigation of Arabia.Advertisement
In fact, while Robertson Smith (in Kinship and Marriage in Early Arabia, as well as his Religion of the Semites, followed by Stade and Benzinger) strongly advocated the view that clear traces of totemism can be found in early Israel, later writers, such as Marti, Gesch.
We are justified in supposing that the cult of the moon-god was brought into Babylonia by the Semitic nomads from Arabia.
From the periplus of the Erythraean Sea 33-37 we learn that their authority extended over the shores of Carmania and the opposite coasts of Arabia.
In Asia they held Asia Minor and Syria, had sent expeditions into Arabia, and were acquainted with the more distant countries formerly invaded by Alexander, including Persia, Scythia, Bactria and India.
We speak of the Saracen very much as we speak of the Norman; for of the Mussulman masters of Sicily very many must have been only artificial Arabs, Africans who had adopted the creed, language and manners of Arabia.Advertisement
Calicut is of considerable antiquity; and about the 7th century it had its population largely increased by the immigration of the Moplahs, a fanatical race of Mahommedans from Arabia, who entered enthusiastically into commercial life.
There are no valuable oyster-banks in Persian waters, and all the Persian Gulf pearls are obtained from banks on the coast of Arabia and near Bahrein.
It has a population of about 5000, almost wholly occupied with the manufacture and sale of rose-water, which is largely exported to many parts of Persia as well as to Arabia, India and Java.
Semitic tribes wandered northwards from their home in Arabia to seek sustenance in its more fertile fields, to plunder, or to escape the pressure of tribes in the rear.
This age, with its regular maritime intercourse between the Aegean settlements, Phoenicia and the Delta, and with lines of caravans connecting Babylonia, North Syria, Arabia and Egypt, presents a remarkable picture of life and activity, in the centre of which lies Palestine, with here and there Egyptian colonies and some traces of Egyptian cults.Advertisement
Commercial intercourse with Asia Minor, Arabia, Tarshish (probably in Spain) and Ophir filled his coffers, and his realm extended from the Euphrates to the border of Egypt.
Hebrew religious institutions can be understood from the biblical evidence studied in the light of comparative religion; and without going afield to Babylonia, Assyria or Egypt, valuable data are furnished by the cults of Phoenicia, Syria and Arabia, and these in turn can be illustrated from excavation and from modern custom.
Among those who paid tribute were Rasun (the biblical Rezin) of Damascus, Menahem of Samaria, the kings of Tyre, Byblos and Hamath and the queen of Aribi (Arabia, the Syrian desert).
Continued intercourse between Egypt, Gaza and north Arabia is natural in view of the trade-routes which connected them, and on several occasions joint action on the part of Edomites (with allied tribes) and the Philistines is recorded, or may be inferred.
If Judah was compelled to take part in the Assyrian campaigns against Egypt, Arabia (the Syrian desert) and Tyre, this would only be in accordance with a vassal's duty.Advertisement
Offering an ineffectual resistance to the passage of the Syrian troops, Alexander was driven back by Aretas, king of Arabia, against whom they had marched.
A great circle, drawn through East Cape and the southern point of Arabia, passes nearly along the coast-line of the Arctic Ocean, over the Ural Mountains, through the western part of the Caspian, and nearly along the boundary between Persia and Asiatic Turkey.
Asia Minor and the north-western half of Arabia lie outside such a great circle, which otherwise indicates, with fair accuracy, the north-western boundary of Asia.
The portion of Asia west of British India, excluding Arabia and Syria, forms another extensive plateau covering an area as large as that of Tibet, though at a much lower altitude.
The peninsula of Arabia, with Syria, its continuation to the northwest, has some of the characteristics of the hottest and driest parts Arabia.Advertisement
The whole tract, excepting south-eastern Arabia, is nominally subject to Turkey, but the people are to no small extent practically independent, living a nomadic, pastoral and freebooting life under petty chiefs, in the more arid districts, but settled in towns in the more fertile tracts, where agriculture becomes more profitable and external commerce is established.
In still more western fields of research much additional light has been thrown since 1875 on the physiography of the great deserts and oases of Arabia.
In Arabia progress has been slower, although the surveys carried out by Colonel Wahab in connexion with the boundary determined in the Aden hinterland added more exact geographical Arabia.
Commercial relations with Arabia remain much as they were in 1875.
In the south, in Syria, Arabia and the peninsula of India, none but the oldest rocks are folded, and the Upper Palaeozoic, the Mesozoic and the Tertiary beds lie almost horizontally upon them.
The greater part of western Asia, including the basin of the Obi, the drainage area of the Aral Sea, together with Afghanistan, Baluchistan, Persia and Arabia, was covered by the sea during the later stages of the Cretaceous period; but a considerable part 3f this region was probably dry land in Jurassic times.
In the southern region of unfolded beds are found the lavas of the " harras " of Arabia, and in India the extensive flows of the Deccan Trap. In the central folded belt lie the great volcanoes, now mostly extinct, of Asia Minor, Armenia, Persia and Baluchistan.
The cessation of the rains on the southern border of Baluchistan, west of Karachi, obviously arises from the projection of the south-east coast of Arabia, which limits the breadth of the south-west monsoon air current and the length of the coast-line directly exposed to it.
The extremely dry and hot tracts which constitute an almost unbroken desert from Arabia, through south Persia and Baluchistan, to Sind, are characterized by considerable uniformity in the types of life, which closely approach to those of the neighbouring hot and dry regions of Africa.
It includes the peninsula of Arabia, the shores of the Persian Gulf, south Persia, and Afghanistan and Baluchistan.
The more common plants in the most characteristic part of this region in southern Arabia are Capparidaceae, Euphorbiaceae, and a few Leguminosae, a Reseda and Dipterygium; palms, Polygonaceae, ferns, and other cryptogams, are rare.
The cultivated plants of Arabia are much the same as those of northern India - wheat, barley, and the common Sorghum, with dates and lemons, cotton and indigo.
Among the more mountainous regions of the south-western part of Arabia, known as Arabia Felix, the summits of which rise to 6000 or 7000 ft., the rainfall is sufficient to develop a more luxuriant vegetation, and the valleys have a flora like that of similarly situated parts of southern Persia, and the less elevated parts of Afghanistan and Baluchistan, partaking of the characters of that of the hotter Mediterranean region.
The extreme south-west part of the continent constitutes a separate zoological district, comprising Arabia, Palestine and southern Persia, and reaching, like the hot desert botanical tract, to Baluchistan and Sind; it belongs to what Dr Sclater calls the Ethiopian region, which extends over Africa, south of the Atlas.
The Ethiopian fauna plays but a subordinate part in Asia, intruding only into the south-western corner, and occupying the desert districts of Arabia and Syria, although some of the characteristic species reach still farther into Persia and Sind, and even into western India.
The horse is produced, in the highest perfection in Arabia and the hot and dry countries of western Asia.
Next in numerical importance to the Mongolians are the races which have been called by Professor Huxley Melanochroic and Xanthochroic. The former includes the dark-haired people of southern Europe, and extends over North Africa, Asia Minor, Syria to south-western Asia, and through Arabia and Persia to India.
It is also probable that the Australoid family extends into south Arabia and Egypt.
Persia, including Syria and Arabia, besides extending into North Africa.
The few cases where the government is not monarchical, as Arabia, seem to represent the persistence of every ancient conditions.
Islam is paramount in Turkey, Persia, Arabia and Afghanistan.
The language and writing of the Semites who, at an unknown period, settled in what is now Abyssinia, show affinities with those of South Arabia, and these Semites may have been immigrants into Africa from that region.
It is plain from early Moslem literature that Persian, Christian and especially Jewish ideas had penetrated into Arabia.
The Caliphate, though Arabian, was always geographically outside Arabia, and on its fall Arabia remained as it was before Islam, isolated and inaccessible.
Except that the use of Arabic inscriptions is one of its principal methods of decoration, it owes little to Arabia and much to Byzantium.
For they, too, as well as Saphon, can be plausibly shown to represent regions of North Arabia.
We know that he was in Rome in the time of Zephyrinus, again in Arabia,.
He betook himself to Palestine, where his condemnation had not been acknowledged by the churches any more than it had been in Phoenicia, Arabia and Achaea.
We find him again in Nicomedia, in Athens, and twice in Arabia.
At this point the great trade routes met in ancient times, the one crossing from the Phoenician ports to the Persian Gulf, the other coming up from Petra and south Arabia.
The chief luxuries of the ancient world, silks, jewels, pearls, perfumes, incense and the like, were drawn from India, China and southern Arabia.
Under Odenathus Palmyra had extended her sway over Syria and Arabia, perhaps also over Armenia, Cilicia and Cappadocia; but now the troops of Zenobia, numbering it is said 70,000, proceeded to occupy Egypt; the Romans under Probus resisted vigorously but without avail, and by the beginning of A.D.
Zbtieir frontier obliquely from the Gulf of Akeba to Rakka (Raqqa) on Euphrates, and thus placed the Hamad in Arabia.
Hauran and the Moabite hills to Horeb and the Midianite Mountains of the Hebrews, which run into Arabia.
The traffic with Arabia has ceased to be important, being limited to the time of the going and returning of the great pilgrimage to Mecca, which continues to have its musteringplace at Damascus, but leaves mainly by rail.
Through the kingdom of the Nabataeans Roman influence penetrated from Syria far into northern Arabia.
Thus special parts are reserved for natives of the various provinces of Egypt, of Morocco,Syria, Arabia, India, Turkey, &c. Each student can, FIG.
It may be that these belong in reality to the old Nilotic inhabitants, who were probably related to the true Semites of Arabia; but the hieroglyphic system seems to have developed in the Delta, and is very probably to be ascribed to the " Armenoids.
One of these routes was by sea to south-west Arabia (Yemen), and thence up the Red Sea to Alexandria.
An alternative route went from the Indian ports to the Persian Gulf, and thence found the Mediterranean by caravan across Arabia from the country of Gerrha to Gaza; and to control it was no doubt a motive in the long struggle of the Ptolemaic and Seleucid houses for Palestine, as well as in the attempt of Antiochus III.
Among historians who looked upon geography as an important aid in their work are numbered Polybius (c. 210-120 B.C.), Diodorus Siculus (c. 30 B.C.) and Agathachidus of Cnidus (c. 120 B.C.) to whom we are indebted for a valuable account of the Erythrean Sea and the adjoining parts of Arabia and Ethiopia.
The principal centres from which the supply was furnished to Egypt, Turkey, Arabia, and Persia were three in number.
It was believed in 1862 that about 19,000 passed every year from the Nyasa regions to Zanzibar, whence large supplies were drawn for the markets of Arabia and Persia up to 1873.
The complete control of the seaboard by European powers has rendered the smuggling of slaves to Arabia and Persia a difficult and dangerous occupation.
That the Kenites, too, were a race of metal-workers is quite uncertain, although even at the present day the smiths in Arabia form a distinct nomadic class.
Kolzum retained some of the trade of Egypt with Arabia and countries farther east long after the canal was closed, but by the 13th century it was in ruins and Suez itself, which had supplanted it, was also, according to an Arab historian, in decay.
They comprise the geographically distinct regions of the Anatolian plateau (Asia Minor), the Armenian and Kurdish highlands, the Mesopotamian lowlands, the hilly and partly mountainous territory of Syria and Palestine and the coast lands of west and north-east Arabia.
Asiatic Turkey is conterminous on the east with Russia and Persia; in the southwest it encloses on the west, north and north-east the independent part of Arabia.
In Palestine and elsewhere there is a large orange trade, and Basra, in Turkish Arabia, has the largest export of dates in the world.
Throughout Arabia and in Tripoli (Africa) the principal money used is the silver Maria Theresa dollar tariffed by the Ottoman government at 12 piastres.
In 1843 the corps d'armee of Constantinople, Rumelia, Anatolia and Arabia were formed, and a military council was appointed.
In Arabia Ratib Pasha, the Turkish commander-in-chief, joined the enemies of the new regime; he was defeated and captured in the autumn of 1908, but in the following year frequent raids upon the Hejaz railway were made by Bedouin tribesmen, while a Mandist rebellion broke out and was crushed in Yemen.
Three or four days' journey east and southeast of Besha are the encampments of the Bani Kahtan, one of the most ancient tribes of Arabia; their pastures extend into the adjoining district of Nejd, where they breed camels in large numbers, as well as a few horses.
No part of Arabia would better repay exploration.
Little is known of him except that he belonged to a family of Yemen, was hold in repute as a grammarian in his own country, wrote much poetry, compiled astronomical tables, devoted most of his life to the study of the ancient history and geography of Arabia, and died in prison at San'a in 945.
In Arabia it is the chief source of national wealth, and its fruit forms the staple article of food in that country.
From the Scandinavian peninsula and the British Islands the range of the fox extends eastwards across Europe and central and northern Asia to Japan, while to the south it embraces northern Africa and Arabia, Persia, Baluchistan, and the northwestern districts of India and the Himalaya.
In the time of Amos the slaves collected by Philistines and Tyr'ans were sold en masse to Edom, and presumably went to Egypt or Arabia,.
In hot dry districts such as Arabia and north-east tropical Africa, genera have been developed with a low, much-branched, dense, shrubby habit, with small hairy leaves and very small flowers.
The integration of the scattered tribes of Arabia in the 7th century by the stirring religious propaganda of Mahomet was accompanied by a meteoric rise in the intellectual powers of a hitherto obscure race.
The other, which has been often edited,' is an account of a severe persecution which the Himyarite Christians of Najran in south-west Arabia underwent in 523, at the hands of the king of Yemen.
It may be compared in its general form with the woollen jubba of Arabia, which reached to the knees and was sewn down the front (except at the top and bottom).
It is quite possible therefore that, in the course of their widely extended commerce during the one thousand years of their ascendancy, the Buddhists imported the true frankincense trees from Africa and Arabia into India, and that the accepted Indian species are merely varieties of them.
His native home was probably Arabia; hence Eridu (" the good city ") and Ur (" the city ") would have been built in Semitic territory, and their population may have included Semitic elements from the first.
Gudea was also a great builder, and the materials for his buildings and statues were brought from all parts of western Asia, cedar wood from the Amanus mountains, quarried stones from Lebanon, copper from northern Arabia, gold and precious stones from the desert between Palestine and Egypt, dolerite from Magan (the Sinaitic peninsula) and timber from Dilmun in the Persian Gulf.
Sumuabi (" Shem is my father "), from southern Arabia (or perhaps Canaan), made himself master of northern Babylonia, while Elamite invaders occupied the south.
Arabia, whose 'name was rendered by the Greek geographers as Abaseni and Abissa.
This style implies considerable conquests in South Arabia, which, however, must have been lost to the Axumites by A.D.
Ordinary Saltpetre or Potassium Nitrate, KN03, occurs, mingled with other nitrates, on the surface and in the superficial layers of the soil in many countries, especially in certain parts of India, Persia, Arabia and Spain.
Its mountains are insufficient in elevation and extent to attract their full share of the monsoon rains, which fall so abundantly on the Abyssinian highlands on the other side of the Red Sea; for this reason Arabia has neither lakes nor forests to control the water-supply and prevent its too rapid dissipation, and the rivers are mere torrent beds sweeping down occasionally in heavy floods, but otherwise dry.
Akhdar in the east, which with a temperate climate, due to their great elevation and their proximity to the sea, deserve, if any part of Arabia does, the name of Arabia Felix - the population is settled and agricultural, and the soil, wherever the rainfall is sufficient, is productive.
Before entering on a detailed description of the several provinces of Arabia, our sources of information will be briefly indicated.
In northern Arabia the Syrian desert and the great Nafud (Nefud) have been crossed by several travellers, though a large area remains unexplored in the north-east between Kasim and the gulf.
Returning to Arabia a year later, he visited Oman and the shores of the Persian Gulf, and travelling from Basra through Syria and Palestine he reached Denmark in 1764 after four years' absence.
The outburst of fanaticism which convulsed Arabia twenty years later had not then reached Yemen, and Europeans, as such, were not exposed to any special danger.
The results published in 1772 gave for the first time a comprehensive description not only of Yemen but of all Arabia; while the parts actually visited by Niebuhr were described with a fulness and accuracy of detail which left little or nothing for his successors to discover.
Burckhardt had hoped in 1815 that the advance of the Egyptian expedition would have given him the opportunity to see something of Nejd, but he had already left Arabia before the overthrow of the Wahhabi power by Ibrahim Pasha had opened Nejd to travellers from Hejaz, and though several European officers accompanied the expedition, none of them left any record of his experience.
If the political results of the mission were nil, the value to geographical science was immense; for though no geographer himself, Sadlier's route across Arabia made it possible for the first time to locate the principal places in something like their proper relative positions; incidentally, too, it showed the practicability of a considerable body of regular troops crossing the deserts of Nejd even in the months of July and August.
From the wells of Shakik he crossed the waterless Nafud in four days to Jubba, and after a halt there in the nomad camps, he moved on to Hail, already a thriving town, and the capital of the Shammar state whose limits included all northern Arabia from Kasim to the Syrian border.
Early in 1848 he again returned to Arabia, avoiding the long desert journey by landing at Muwela, thence striking inland to Tebuk on the pilgrim road, and re-entering Shammar territory at the oasis of Tema, he again visited Hail; and after spending a month there travelled northwards to Kerbela and Bagdad.
Finally,"a voyage to the Oman coast and a brief stay there brought his adventures in Arabia to a successful ending.
Charles Doughty, the next Englishman to visit northern Arabia, though he covered little new ground, saw more of the desert life, and has described it more minutely and Doughty.
His narrative thus, while containing much of general interest on the climate and on the animal life of northern Arabia, its horses and camels in particular, adds little to those of his predecessors as regards topographical detail.
Both are generally bare and unproductive, the uplands, however, contain the fertile valleys of Khaibar and Medina, draining to the Wadi Hamd, the principal river system of western Arabia; and the Wadi Jadid or Es Safra, rising in the Harra between Medina and Es Safina, which contain several settlements, of which the principal produce is dates.
The great central province of Nejd occupies all inner Arabia.
South-western Arabia, from the twenty-first parallel down to the Gulf of Aden, including the Taif district of Hejaz, Asir and Yemen, South forms one province geographically.
Throughout its length it consists of three zones, a narrow coastal strip, rarely western Arabia.
The jvbel or mountain-land is, however, the typical Yemen, the Arabia Felix of the ancients.
The great desert known as the Dahna or the Rub`a el Khali (" the empty quarter ") is believed to cover all the interior of southern Arabia from the borders of Yemen in the west to those of Oman in the east.
In the northern part of Arabia the crystalline rocks form a broad area extending from the peninsula of Sinai eastwards to Hail and southwards at least as far as Mecca.
In the south of Arabia the crystalline floor appears at intervals along the southern coast and on the shores of the Gulf of Oman.
Generally, however, the Cretaceous beds do not appear, and the greater part of southern Arabia seems to be formed of Alveolina and nummulite limestones of Tertiary age.
Throughout the whole of Arabia, so far as is known, the sedimentary beds show no signs of any but the most gentle folding.
In the interior of northern and central Arabia, however, where the average level of the country exceeds 3000 ft., the fiery heat of the summer days is followed by cool nights, and the winter climate is fresh and invigorating; while in the highlands of Asir and Yemen in the south-west, and of Oman in the east, the summer heat is never excessive, and the winters are, comparatively speaking, cold.
The rainfall throughout northern and central Arabia is chiefly in the winter months between October and April, and is scanty and irregular.
Snow falls on the Harra and on the Tehama range in northern Arabia, and Nolde records a fall of snow which lay on the Nafud on the 1st of February 1893.
The prevailing winds in northern Arabia as far as is known are from the west; along the southern coast they are from the east; at Sana there is generally a light breeze from the north-north-west from 9 to II A.M., from noon till 4 P.M.
The pure-bred riding camel is only found in perfection in inner Arabia; for some unexplained reason when taken out of their own country or north of the 30th degree they rapidly degenerate.
In the cultivated upland valleys all over Arabia the Zizyphus j ujuba, called by some travellers lotus, grows to a large tree; its thorny branches are clipped yearly and used to fence the cornfields among which it grows.
Among fruit trees the vine, apricot, peach, apple, quince, fig and banana are cultivated in the highlands, and in the lower country the date palm flourishes, particularly throughout the central zone of Arabia, in Hejaz, Nejd and El Hasa, where it is the prime article of food.
Another plant universally used as a stimulant in Southern Arabia is khat (Catha edulis).
The aromatic gums for which Arabia was famed in ancient times are still produced, though the trade is a very small one.
This distinction between the characteristics of the two races is only true in a general sense, for a considerable population of true Bedouin origin has settled down to agricultural life in the oases of Hejaz and Nejd, while in southern Arabia the tribes dwelling on the fringe of the great desert have to a certain extent adopted the nomad life.
Apart from the tribesmen there is in Hejaz and south Arabia a privileged, religious class, the Sharifs or Seyyids, who claim descent from Mahomet through his daughter Fatima.
Railway construction has begun in Arabia, and in 1908 the Hejaz line, intended to connect Damascus with Mecca, had reached Medina, Soo m.
But the principal means of commercial communication for a country like Arabia must always be by sea.
The difficulties in the way of travelling in Arabia with a view to scientific investigation are such that little or nothing is being done, and the systematic work which has given such good results in Egypt, Palestine and Babylonia-Assyria is unknown in Arabia.
Bent (Southern Arabia, pp. 24 ff.) explored one of several mounds in Bahrein.
In the south of Arabia, where an advanced civilization existed for centuries before the Christian era, the ruins of castles and city-walls are still in existence, and have been mentioned, though not examined carefully, by several travellers.
The famous well Zemzem at Mecca is said to belong to the early times, when the eastern traffic passed from the south to the north-west of Arabia through the Hejaz, and to have been rediscovered shortly before the time of Mahomet.
The dispersion from Arabia is easy to imagine.
Until recently the Arab traditions were practically the only source for the pre-Islamic history of Arabia.
The classical accounts of the invasion of Aelius Gallus in 26 B.C. threw little light on the state of Arabia at the time, still less on its past history.
At the same time the facts that the inscriptions are undated until a late period, that few are historical in their contents, and for the most part yield only names of gods and rulers and domestic and religious details, and that our collection is still very incomplete, have led to much serious disagreement among scholars as to the reconstruction of the history of Arabia in the pre-Christian centuries.
An Assyrian inscription mentions Ith`amara the Sabaean who paid tribute to Sargon in 715 B.C. At this time the Sabaeans must have been in north Arabia unless the inscription refers to a northern colony of the southern Sabaeans.
The great prosperity of south-west Arabia at this time was due in large measure to the fact that the trade from India with Egypt came there by sea and then went by land up the west coast.
The decay that followed caused a number of Sabaeans to migrate to other parts of Arabia.
As inscriptions in the Minaean language are found in al-`Ula in north Arabia, it is probable that they had colonies in that district.
About 115 B.C. the power over south Arabia passed from the Sabaeans to the Himyarites, a people from the extreme southwest of Arabia; and about this time the kingdom of Katabania came to an end.
In this period the Romans made their one attempt at direct interference in the affairs of Arabia.
During the latter part of this time the Abyssinians, who had earlier migrated from Arabia to the opposite coast of Africa, began to flow back to the south of Arabia, where they seem to have settled gradually and increased in importance until about A.D.
Of the Christian Abyssinian kings in Arabia tradition tells of four, one only of whom is mentioned in inscriptions.
Outside the territory of the powers mentioned above, Arabia in the 6th century was in a state of political chaos.
On the west coast of Arabia the influence of the kingdom of Yemen was felt in varying degree according to the strength of the rulers of that land.
It is enough here to outline his actions in so far as he attempted to create a united, and then a conquering, Arabia.
But the task of carrying out these threats fell to the lot of his successors; the work of the prophet was to be the subjugating and uniting of Arabia.
At his death in 623 Mahomet left Arabia practically unified.
It is true that rival prophets were leading rebellions in various parts of Arabia, that the tax-collectors were not always paid, and that the warriors of the land were much distressed for want of work owing to the brotherhood of Arabs proclaimed by Mahomet.
The power of the foreigner in Arabia was broken..
The successful reduction of the rebels in Arabia enabled him in his first year to send his great general Khalid with his Arab warriors first against Persians, then against Romans.
The reign of the third caliph Othman (644-656) was marked by the beginning of that internal strife which was to ruin Arabia; but the foreign conquests continued.
At the end of the first year of his caliphate Abu Bekr saw Arabia united under Islam.
The new national feeling demanded that all Arabs should be free men, so the caliph ordained that all Arab slaves should be freed on easy terms. The solidarity of Arabia survived the first foreign conquests.
The taxes with the booty from conquests were to be sent to Arabia for distribution among the Moslems. Omar tried to prevent the advance of conquests lest Arabia should suffer.
Kufa attracted chiefly men of south Arabia, Basra those of the north.
Yet so long as the caliphs lived in Medina, the capital of Arabia was the capital of the expanding Arabian empire.
He, too, desired that Mahomet's wish should be carried out and that Arabia should be purely Moslem.
The secondary position that Arabia was beginning to assume in the Arabian empire is clearly marked in the progress of events during the caliphate of Othman.
But the quarrels which led to the murder of Othman were fomented not so much in Arabia as in Kufa and Basra and Fostat.
Arabia itself counted for little in the strife.
In the struggle that ensued upon the election of 'Ali, Arabia was involved.
In the south of Arabia 'Ali succeeded in establishing his own governor in Yemen, though the government treasure was carried off to Mecca.
But the centre of strife was not to be Arabia.
With the success of Moawiya Damascus became the capital of the caliphate (658) and Arabia became a mere province, though always of importance because of its possession, of the two sacred cities Mecca and Medina.
The early years of the Omayyads were years of constant strife in Arabia.
They broke up into many sects, and were long a disturbing political force in Arabia as elsewhere.
Abdalmalik was now supreme in Arabia and throughout the Moslem world.
In the contest between the two sons of Harun al Rashid all Arabia sided with Mamun (812).
In 845-846 the lawless raids of Bedouin tribes compelled the caliph Wathiq to send his Turkish general Bogha, who was more successful in the north than in the centre and south of Arabia in restoring peace.
Towards the close of the 9th century Arabia was disturbed by the rise of a new movement which during the next hundred years dominated the peninsula, and at its close left it shattered never to be united again.
In Arabia he subjugated Oman, and swooping down on the west in 92 9 he horrified the Moslem world by capturing Mecca and carrying off the sacred black stone to Bahrein.
So long as Abu Tahir lived the Carmathians controlled Arabia.
Three years later Katif, at that time their chief city, was besieged and taken by a Bedouin sheik, and subsequently their political power in Arabia came to an end.
Arabia was now completely disorganized, and was only nominally subject to the caliphate.
The few remaining Egyptian troops were ejected from Riad, and with them all semblance of Egyptian or Turkish rule disappeared from central Arabia.
This victory placed the whole of northern and central Arabia under the supremacy of Mahommed Ibn Rashid, which he held undisputed during the rest of his life.
European influence was not felt in Arabia until the arrival of the Portuguese in the eastern seas, following on the discovery of the Cape route.
The opening of the overland route to India again brought the west coast of Arabia into importance.
The Hejaz coast and some of the Yemen ports were still held by Mehemet Ali, as viceroy of Egypt, but on his final withdrawal from Arabia in 1845, Hejaz came under direct Turkish rule, and the conquest of Yemen in 1872 placed the whole Red Sea littoral (with the exception of the Midian coast, ceded by Egypt on the accession of Abbas Hilmi Pasha)under Ottoman administration.
This delimitation places the whole of southern Arabia, east of this line, within the British sphere of influence, which thus includes the district surrounding Aden (q.v.), the Hadramut and Oman with its dependencies.
Palgrave, Central and Eastern Arabia (aondon, 1865); C. Doughty, Arabia Deserta (Cambridge, 1888), and an abridgment, containing mainly the personal narrative, under the title of Wanderings in Arabia (aondon, 1908); a.
Wellsted, Travels in Arabia (aondon, 1838); Capt.
Two poets of the Koreish attained celebrity in Arabia itself at this time.
His poems were very popular throughout Arabia.
Hamdani (q.v.) was led to write his great geography of Arabia by his love for the ancient history of his land.
They showed a zeal for evangelization which resulted in the establishment of their influence throughout Asia, as is seen from the bishoprics founded not only in Syria, Armenia, Arabia and Persia, but at Halavan in Media, Mer y in Khorasan, Herat, Tashkent, Samarkand, Baluk, Kashgar, and even at Kambaluk (Pekin) and Singan fu Hsi`en fu in China, and Kaljana and Kranganore in India.
It is probable that Yahweh was at one time worshipped by various tribes south of Palestine, and that several places in that wide territory (Horeb, Sinai, Kadesh, &c.) were sacred to him; the oldest and most famous of these, the mountain of God, seems to have lain in Arabia, east of the Red Sea.
Bushire carries on a considerable trade, particularly with India, Java and Arabia.
They formerly traded with Arabia and Malaysia, and many Arabs settled amongst them, so that they betray a strong strain of Semitic blood in their features.
From that time until his death in 1881 the Aga Khan, while leading the life of a peaceful and peacemaking citizen, under the protection of British rule, continued to discharge his sacerdotal functions, not only among his followers in India, but towards the more numerous communities which acknowledged his religious sway in distant countries, such as Afghanistan, Khorasan, Persia, Arabia, Central Asia, and even distant Syria and Morocco.
Arabia (whence the Israelites may have come) and in Canaan prior to the great extension of Babylonian influence.
He was said to have been the son of Belos or Bel, to have conquered in seventeen years the whole of western Asia with the help of Ariaeus, king of Arabia, and to have founded the first empire.
After this event Hussein Kuprili, surnamed "the Wise," devoted himself to the suppression of the revolts which had broken out in Arabia, Egypt and the Crimea, to the reduction of the Janissaries, and to the institution of administrative and financial reform.
His administration of Egypt was moderate and statesmanlike, and under his rule the produce of the Nile Valley was a constant source of supply to the cities of Arabia.
Dioscorides refers to it as agallochon, a wood brought from Arabia or India, which was odoriferous but with an astringent and bitter taste.
At this period, also, under its patesis, Ur-bau and Gudea, Lagash had extensive commercial communications with distant realms. According to his own records, Gudea brought cedars from the Amanus and Lebanon mountains in Syria, diorite or dolorite from eastern Arabia, copper and gold from central and southern Arabia and from Sinai, while his armies, presumably under his over-lord, Ur-Gur, were engaged in battles in Elam on the east.
The region of Damascus, hitherto a dependency, and the last remaining fragment of the Jewish kingdom, were incorporated with Syria; Bostra and Petra were permanently occupied, and a great portion of the Nabataean kingdom was organized as the Roman province of Arabia.
When the internal disorders had been repressed and Arabia completely subdued, he directed his generals to foreign conquest.
For four or five centuries it became the entrepot of trade between India, Arabia and Upper Egypt.
Assyria under Sargon defeated the southern confederation at Rapihi (Raphia on the border of Egypt) and captured Hanun; the significance of the victory is evident from the submission of the queen of Aribi (Arabia), the Sabaean Itamara, and Musri.
It was at Athens that he seriously began to think of religion, and resolved to seek out the most famous hermit saints in Syria and Arabia, in order to learn from them how to attain to that enthusiastic piety in which he delighted, and how to keep his body under by maceration and other ascetic devices.
This Lakhmid kingdom was more or less dependent, during the four centuries of its existence, on the Sassanian empire, to which it formed a sort of buffer state towards Arabia.
This originated in the East, and was in early use in India, Persia and Arabia, and was introduced into Europe by the Arabs, who had perfected it - perhaps as early as A.D.
South-western Arabia, where the Imam Iahya of the Iernen and the Idrisi of Asir rebelled at the end of 1910, was another region marked down for "Turkification."
Italian warships blockaded and bombarded Turkish ports on the Red Sea coast of Arabia and supplied arms and munitions to the Idrisi of Asir, to the great advantage of that ruler.
German commercial undertakings had been encouraged and assisted by the German Government to acquire immense and valuable interests within Ottoman domains; among them the construction and working of the great line of railway designed to connect Constantinople with Syria, Arabia and Bagdad.
Much had been hoped for from Arabia by Turko-German leaders, both as giving opportunities for offensive operations against the British line of communications passing along the Red Sea, and as the seat of a great spiritual influence in Islam to be exerted against the Allied Powers.
In Arabia were the Holy Cities of Mecca and Medina, governed by the Sherif of Mecca, a dignitary and ruler of great influence in the Mahommedan world.
From this time onward, Arabia, instead of being a possible source of strength to the Ottoman Empire, became the theatre of hostile, operations which presently extended northward to southern Palestine and endangered the left flank of the Turkish army threatening Egypt.
Muller show that there were Minaean colonies in North Arabia.
When the prologue to Job speaks of plundering Sabaeans (and Chaldaeans) on the northern skirts of Arabia, these may be either colonists or caravans, which, like the old Phoenician and Greek traders, combined on occasion robbery with trade.
Similarly Sargon (715 B.C.) in his Annals mentions the tribute of Shamsi, queen of Arabia, and of Itamara of the land of Saba' - gold and fragrant spices, horses and camels.
Instead of showing the Romans the caravan route, he induced them to sail from Cleopatris to Leucocome, and then led them by a circuitous way through waterless regions, so that they reached South Arabia too much weakened to effect anything.
But the expedition brought back a considerable knowledge of the country and its products, and the Roman leader seems to have perceived that the best entrance to South Arabia was from the havens on the coast.
That Abyssinia was peopled from South Arabia is proved by its language and writing; but the difference between the two languages is such as to imply that the settlement was very early and that there were many centuries of separation, during which the Abyssinians were exposed to foreign influences.
In the inscription of Adulis (2nd century) the king of Ethiopia claims to have made war in Arabia from Leucocome to the land of the Sabaean king.
With the exception of what the South-Arabian Hamdani relates of his own observation or from authentic tradition, the Mahommedan Arabic accounts of South Arabia and Sabaea are of little worth.
The inscriptions seem to indicate that the monarchies of South Arabia were hereditary, the son generally following the father, though not seldom the brother of the deceased came between, apparently on the principle of seniority, which we find also in North Arabia.
The inland gods lost importance with the failure of the overland trade, and Judaism and Christianity seem for a time to have contended for the mastery in South Arabia.
He particularly relies upon an account of early history which he discovered on a golden pillar in a temple on the island of Panchaea when on a voyage round the coast of Arabia, undertaken at the request of Cassander, his friend and patron.
North Arabian influence must also have been strong among the Israelites, at least while they sojourned in North Arabia.
The interesting narrative appears in another light when we consider Solomon's commercial activity and the trading intercourse between Palestine and south Arabia.
Many of the inhabitants are the well-known Banyan merchants of the east coast of Africa and Arabia.
Ammon, Moab, Edom and the queen of Sheba sent tribute, and Teima in northern Arabia was captured by the Assyrian troops.
A Hindu strain is evident in Java and others of the western islands; Moors and Arabs (that is, as the names are used in the archipelago, Mahommedans from various countries between Arabia and India) are found more or less amalgamated with many of the Malay peoples; and the Chinese form, from an economical point of view, one of the most important sections of the community in many of the more civilized districts.
As for Nestorius himself, immediately after his deposition he withdrew into private life in his old monastery of Euprepius, Antioch, until 435, when the emperor ordered his banishment to Petra in Arabia.
Meanwhile already before the beginning of the 3rd century it went beyond the confines of the Empire in Asia, and by the end of our period was strong in Armenia, Persia, Arabia and even farther east.
Soothsaying was no modern importation in Arabia; its characteristic form - a monotonous croon of short rhyming clauses - is the same as was practised by the Hebrew " wizards who peeped and muttered " in the days of Isaiah, and that this form was native in Arabia is clear from its having a technical name (saj`), which in Hebrew survives only in derivative words with modified sense.'
The remaining three years of his life were consequently spent in exile at Taif in Arabia, where he died, probably by violence, on the 8th of May 1884.
To leave the locks unshorn during an arduous undertaking in which the divine aid was specially implored, and to consecrate the hair after success, was a practice among various ancient nations, but the closest parallel to the Hebrew custom is found in Arabia?
These examples show the influence of those architects who, in the 6th century, built the splendid basilicas at Sanaa and elsewhere in Arabia.
Meanwhile, during the " dark age " of secular learning at Constantinople (641-850), the light of Greek learning had spread eastwards to Syria and Arabia.
The apostle tells us that on his conversion he retired from Damascus into Arabia, and thence returned to Damascus; then after three years (from his conversion) he went up to Jerusalem, but stayed only a fortnight, and went to the regions of Syria and Cilicia.
This family contains only one genus, Varanus, with nearly 30 species, in Africa, Arabia and southern Asia, and Australia, but not in Madagascar.
He, no doubt, like al-Asma`i and Abu `Ubaida, also himself visited the areas occupied by the tribes for their camping grounds in the neighbouring desert; and adjacent to Kufa was al-IIIra, the ancient capital of the Lakhmid kings, whose court was the most celebrated centre in pre-Islamic Arabia, where, in the century before the preaching of the Prophet, poets from the whole of the northern half of the peninsula were wont to assemble.
The collection is one of the highest importance as a record of the thought and poetic art of Arabia during the time immediately preceding the appearance of the Prophet.
The Mahommedan Era, Or Era Of The Hegira, Used In Turkey, Persia, Arabia, &C., Is Dated From The First Day Of The Month Preceding The Flight Of Mahomet From Mecca To Medina, I.E.
Bent now visited at considerable risk the almost unknown Hadramut country (1893-1894), and during this and later journeys in southern Arabia he studied the ancient history of the country, its physical features and actual condition.
While on another journey in South Arabia (1896-1897), Bent was seized with malarial fever, and died in London on the 5th of May 1897, a few days after his return.
Mrs Bent, who had contributed by her skill as a photo grapher and in other ways to the success of her husband's journeys, published in 1900 Southern Arabia, Soudan and Sakotra, in which were given the results of their last expedition into that region.
He was permitted in 33 B.C. to return to Jerusalem, where on a charge of treasonable correspondence with Malchus, king of Arabia, he was put to death in 30 B.C.
Long before Constantine we find her employing it in aid of the most distant churches, Territorial as far afield as Cappadocia and Arabia.
About that time parts of a confederation of tribes which had taken the name of Shammar from a moun tain in their neighbourhood, moved northwards from Central Arabia in search of better pasture, &c. Successfully displacing their forerunners, they made themselves at home in the Syrian steppe - until their possession was in turn disputed by a later emigrant from Arabia, for whom they finally made room by moving on into Mesopotamia, over which they spread, driving before them their predecessors the Tai (whose name the Mesopotamian Aramaeans had adopted as a designation for Arab in general), partly north of the Sinjar, partly over the Tigris.
One of Sufug's widows had fled to her Tai kindred in Central Arabia with her youngest son Faris; but when he grew up she brought him back in the seventies, and he immediately attracted a great following.
Being on the high road from Massawa to central Abyssinia, it is a meeting-place of merchants from Arabia and the Sudan for the exchange of foreign merchandise with the - products of the country.
Three missions just touch the border of Arabia, viz.
Oman and Hasa between them occupy the eastern coast districts of Arabia to the head of the Persian Gulf.
Beyond the mountains which flank the cultivated valleys of Semail and Tyin, to the west, there stretches the great Ruba el Khali, or Dahna, the central desert of southern Arabia, which reaches across the continent to the borders of Yemen, isolating the province on the landward side just as the rugged mountain barriers shut it off from the sea.
The sultan, a descendant of those Yemenite imams who consolidated Arab power in Zanzibar and on the East African coast, and raised Oman to its position as the most powerful state in Arabia during the first half of the 19th century, resides at Muscat, where his palace directly faces the harbour, not far from the British residency.
These skins are found in Africa, Arabia and part of India, and are every year becoming scarcer.
The movement, recognized by Ibn Saud, Emir of Nejd, had taken definite shape after 1910; and in 1921 it still seemed likely to have far-reaching effects upon the attitude of the people of Central Arabia towards other Arabian communities and even to the outer world.
Even within the historic period the geographical range of the lion covered the whole of Africa, the south of Asia, including Syria, Arabia, Asia Minor, Persia and the greater part of northern and central India.
Thus we have in the northern hemisphere the Sahara desert, the deserts of Arabia, Iran, Turan, Takla Makan and Gobi, and the desert regions of the Great Basin in North America; and in the southern hemisphere the Kalahari desert in Africa, the desert of Australia, and the desert of Atacama in South America.
It is probably a native of Egypt and Arabia but has been cultivated in Egypt, Asia and southern Europe from prehistoric times.
In the former he was from the first the leader of a powerful party, and gradually became the autocratic ruler of Arabia; in the latter he was only the despised preacher of a small congregation.
The Arabic spoken by the middle and higher classes is generally inferior in grammatical correctness and pronunciation to that of the Bedouins of Arabia, but is purer than that of Syria or the dialect spoken by the Western Arabs.
Domestic A nimals.-The Egyptians are not particularly a pastora people, though the wealth of the Bedouin in the Eastern or Arabia, i Desert consists in their camels, horses, sheep and goats.
Then Mehemet Ali, a small tobacconist of Kavala, Macedonia, coming with Albanian mercenaries, made himself governor, and later (1811), by massacring the Mamelukes, became the actual master of the country, and after seven years war brought Arabia under Egypts rule.
Cedar wood was brought from the forests of Lebanon, ivory, leopard skins and gold from the south, all kinds of spices and ingredients of incense from Somaliland and Arabia, fine linen and beautifully worked vessels from Syria and the islands.
Assurbani-pals energies throughout this crisis were entirely occupied with revolts nearer home, in Babylon, Elam and Arabia.
His authority was before his death recognized all over Syria (with the exception of the few cities still in the power of the Franks), over Arabia, with the exception of Yemen, on the Euphrates from Birah to Kerkesia (Circesium) on the Chaboras (Khabur), whilst the amirs of north-western Africa were tributary to him.
A certain Ahmed Pasha, who was about to proceed to a province in Arabia, of which he had been appointed governor, was raised to the important post of pasha of Egypt, through the influence of the Turks and the favor of the sheiks; but Mehemet Ali, who with his Albanians held the citadel, refused to assent to their choice; the Mamelukes moved over from El-Giza, whither they had been invited by Thir Pasha, and Ahmed Paslia betook himself to the mosque of al-Zflhir, which the French had converted into a fortress.
Early in the year I 811, the preparations for an expedition against the Wahhbis in Arabia being complete, all the Mameluke beys then in Cairo were invited to the ceremony of investing Mehemet Alis favorite son, TUslin, with a pelisse and the command of the army.
In Arabia he encountered serious obstacles from the nature of the country and the harassing mode of warfare adopted by his adversaries.
His return was hastened by reports that the Turks, whose cause he was upholding in Arabia, were treacherously planning an invasion of Egypt.
Mehemet Au, lissatisfied with the treaty concluded with the Wahhabis, and vith the non-fulfilment of certain of its clauses, determined to end another army to Arabia, and to include in it the soldiers who had recently proved unruly.
At the close of the year 1819, Ibrahim returned to Cairo, having subdued all present opposition in Arabia.
The Sunnites, who accept the orthodox tradition (Sunna) as well as the Koran as a source of theologico-juristic doctrines, predominate in Arabia, the Turkish Empire, the north of Africa, Turkestan, Afghanistan and the Mahommedan parts of India and the east of Asia; the Shi`ites have their main seat in Persia, where their confession is the state religion, but are also scattered over the whole sphere of Islam, especially in India and the regions bordering on Persia, except among the nomad Tatars, who are all nominally Sunnite.
Except !in India, where it is controlled by the government, In 1878 seventeen lecture-rooms of the Azhar had 3707 students, of whom only 64 came from Constantinople and the northern parts of the Ottoman Empire, 8 from North Arabia, I from the government of Bagdad, 12 from Kurdistan, and 7 from India with its thirty million Sunnites.
So too are the religious orders now found everywhere except in some parts of Arabia.
Great Britain assumed control of his foreign relations outside Arabia.
Nejd, or Central Arabia, is the principal horse-breeding country adjacent to the Persian Gulf, and is the only one in the world, except the adjacent Syrian desert, where the genuine Arab is produced on any considerable scale.
On the Arab coast the rupee is legal tender, and is almost exclusively used for commercial transactions, but the Maria Teresa dollar circulates freely, and is preferred by the inhabitants of the interior of Arabia.
Political complications arising out of the work of the Arabian mission have been singularly few, a happy circumstance which must be attributed chiefly to the missionaries themselves, whose general opinion is that for a Mahommedan country the Persian Gulf and eastern Arabia are peculiarly free from religious fanaticism.
After the Phoenicians, Babylonians, and Arabs came the Persians; though they never aspired to command of the seas and are indeed not a maritime race, the Persian Gulf was no obstacle to them, and at one time or another they occupied Muscat and parts of Oman and Bahrein, and penetrated into the greater part of Arabia.
The arms traffic has been responsible for much of the prevailing anarchy of the Middle East and indeed of Arabia.
In subsequent years over 700 slaves were rescued at sea and more than 2,000 otherwise released; the traffic was by 1920 virtually dead in the Gulf, but slavery as an institution seemed likely to continue for many decades to come to flourish inland in Muscat, in Central Arabia, and in a modified form in part of Persia.
She travelled extensively in the Near East, making a specially adventurous journey across northern Arabia in 1913-4 over a practically unknown route, whereby she obtained a knowledge of the country which proved of great value to the British Government when information concerning routes was required for the advance of the British army into Palestine during the World War.
The camel, the horse and the donkey are the draught animals; the flesh of the first Geology and Geography of Arabia Petraea, Palestine and adjoining Districts (London, 1886).
Those from southern Arabia were known as the Yaman tribe, those from northern Arabia the Kais (Qais).
Thus Palestine lay at the gate of Arabia and Egypt, and at the tail end of a number of small states stretching up into Asia Minor; it was encircled by the famous ancient civilizations of Babylonia,.
With the siege and fall of Damascus (733-32) Assyria gained the north, and its supremacy was recognized by the tribes of the Syrian desert and Arabia (Aribi, Tema, Sheba).
Judah itself was next involved in an anti-Assyrian league (with Edom, Moab and Philistia), but apparently submitted in time; nevertheless a decade later (70r), after the change of dynasty in Assyria, it participated in a great but unsuccessful effort from Phoenicia to Philistia to shake off the yoke, and suffered disastrously.3 With the crushing blows upon Syria and Samaria the centre of interest moves southwards and the history is influenced by Assyria's rival Babylonia (under Marduk-baladan and his successors), by north Arabia and by Egypt.
At this stage disturbances, now by Aramaean tribes, now by Arabia, combine with the new rise of Egypt and the weakness of Assyria to mark a turning-point in the world's history.
But the Judaean historians have successfully concealed the course of events, although, as has long been recognized, there was some movement upwards from the south of Judah of groups closely tion of related to Edomite and kindred peoples of South New Palestine and Northern Arabia.
Smith brings Israel into closer relationship with Arabia "; cf.
The separate tribal units of Arabia, more or less impotent when divided and at war with one another, received for the first time an indissoluble bond of union from the prophet Mahomet, whose perfect knowledge of human nature (at least of Arab human nature) enabled him to formulate a religious system that was calculated.
His successor, Abu Bekr, called on the tribes of Arabia to unite and to capture the fertile province.
For in the background of all is the vast peninsula of Arabia, which at long intervals fills with its wild, untamable humanity to a point beyond which it cannot support them.
They speak a language allied to the Mahra of the opposite coast of Arabia.
The chief export is ghi or clarified butter, which is sent to Arabia, Bombay and Zanzibar.
A certain dependence (at least of places on the coast) on some sovereign of the Arabian coast had endured before the occupation of Tamarida by da Cunha, and on the withdrawal of the Portuguese this dependence on Arabia was resumed.
Two groups of islands in the Bay of Bengal, the Andamans and the Nicobars; one group in the Arabian Sea, the Laccadives; and the outlying station of Aden at the mouth of the Red Sea, with Perim, and protectorates over the island of Sokotra, along the southern coast of Arabia and in the Persian Gulf, are all politically included within the Indian empire; while on the coast of the peninsula itself, Portuguese and French settlements break at intervals the continuous line of British territory.
The flora is a poor one in number of species, and is essentially identical with that of Persia, southern Arabia and Egypt.
The Malabar coast has always enjoyed a direct commerce with Arabia, and at an early date gave many converts to Islam.
It is a gregarious animal, living in considerable colonies in burrows, which it excavates with its nails and teeth in the sandy soil of Egypt and Arabia.
The zibeth (Viverra zibetha) is a widely distributed species extending from Arabia to Malabar, and throughout several of the larger islands of the Indian Archipelago.
Of this type there exist close parallels in the tomb-towers at el-Ilejr in north Arabia, which bear long Nabataean inscriptions,' and so supply a date for the corresponding monuments at Petra.
En-Nejr, with the theatre at its foot, must have been the sacred mountain, the original sanctuary of Petra, perhaps " the very high mountain of Arabia called Dusare after the god Dusares " referred to by Steph.
The Christianity of Petra, as of north Arabia, was swept away by the Mahommedan conquest in A.D.
All former descriptions are now superseded by the magnificent work of Brunnow and Domaszewski, Die Provincia Arabia (1904), who have minutely surveyed the whole site, classified the tombs, and compiled the accounts of earlier investigations; and by the independent researches of Dalman, Petra and seine Felsheiligtiimer (1908), and of Musil, Arabia Petraea (1907-1908).
The Axumites belonged originally to the Hamitic race, but the immigration of the Himyaritic tribes of southern Arabia speedily imposed a new language and civilization.
When thirty-eight he travelled in Egypt, Arabia, Bagdad, Mosul and Asia Minor, after which he lived in Damascus for the rest of his life.
The internal consolidation of Islam in Arabia was, strange to say, brought about by its diffusion abroad.
The capital of Islam continued indeed for a while to be Medina, but soon the Hejaz (Hijaz) and the whole of Arabia proper lay quite on the outskirt of affairs.
Through the Ghassanids these latter had become habituated to monarchical government and loyal obedience, and for a long time much better order had prevailed amongst them than elsewhere in Arabia.
He was soon acknowledged throughout Arabia, in Egypt and in Irak.
Henceforward we shall find temporal interests, represented by Damascus, predominating over those of religion, and the centre of Islam, now permanently removed beyond the limits of Arabia, more susceptible to foreign influence, and assimilating more readily their civilizing elements.
Ilanzala defeated his army; Ibn Moawiya fled to Khorasan, where he met his death; the chief of the Kharijites, Shaiban Yashkori went to eastern Arabia; Suleiman b.
Musa, received orders to march against him, entered Arabia, and captured Medina, which, fortified by Mahommed by the same means as the Prophet had employed against the besieging Meccans, could not hold out against the well-trained Khorasanians.
The former was decapitated, the latter was sent to Khorasan, the revolt in Arabia was quickly suppressed, and peace seemed within reach.
Abu Sa`id al-Jannabi, who had founded a Carmathian state in Bahrein, the north-eastern province of Arabia (actually called Lahsa), which could become dangerous for the pilgrim road as well as for the commerce of Basra, in the year 900 routed an army sent against him by Motadid, and warned the caliph that it would be safer to let the Carmathians alone.
The empire was by this time practically reduced to the province of Bagdad; Khorasan and Transoxiana were in the hands of the Samanids, Fars in those of the Buyids; Kirman and Media were under independent sovereigns; the Hamdanids possessed Mesopotamia; the Sajids Armenia and Azerbaijan; the Ikshidites Egypt; as we have seen, the Fatimites Africa, the Carmathians Arabia.
If it be possible to assign to some of the monuments discovered in Arabia by Glaser a date not later than 1500 B.C., the origin of the alphabet and its dissemination are carried back to a much earlier period than had hitherto been supposed.
Probably the earliest example of the Aramaic script in Arabia is the stele of Tema, in north-western Arabia, whereon is commemorated the establishment of a worship of an Aramaic divinity.
The travels of two English naval officers, Wellsted and Cruttenden, through Yemen in southern Arabia in 1835, first called attention to the earlier monuments of Arabia.
In 1853 plague appeared in a district of western Arabia, the Asir country in North Yemen, and it is known to have occurred in the same district in 1815, as it did afterwards in 1874 and 187 9.
With regard to origin, several endemic centres are now recognized in Asia and Africa, namely, (I) the district of Assyr in Arabia, on the eastern shore of the Red Sea; (2) parts of Mesopotamia and Persia; (3) the district of Garwhal and Kumaon in the North-West Provinces of India; (4) Yunnan in China; (5) East and Central Africa.
Outside China and India plague has caused no great mortality in any of the countries in which it has appeared, with the exception perhaps of Arabia, about which very little is known.
After visiting other parts of the gulf he crossed the breadth of Arabia to Mecca, making the haj for the third time.
Arabia; the identification of Musri is uncertain, see below.
It was traversed by an important trade-route from Elath (the junction for routes to Egypt and Arabia) which ran northwards by Mean and Moab; but cross-routes turned from Ma`an and Petra to Gaza or up the Ghor (south end of Dead Sea) to Hebron and Jerusalem.'
Thus Edom formed a prominent centre for traffic from Arabia and its seats of culture to Egypt, the Philistine towns, Palestine and the Syrian states, and it enjoyed a commercial importance which made it a significant factor in Palestinian history.
Tristram (Fauna and Flora of Palestine, p. 139) regards it as but a straggler from central Arabia, though we have little information as to its distribution in that country.
The wali of Arabia commanded the right, and the itimadu d-daulah, or prime minister, the left wing.
The wali of Arabia commenced the battle by attacking the left wing of the Afghans with great fury, routing it, and plundering their camp. The prime minister immediately afterwards attacked the enemys right wing, but was routed, and the Afghans, taking advantage of the confusion, captured the Persian guns and turned them on the Persian centre, who fled in confusion without striking a blow.