Under the empire Arvernia formed part of Prima Aquitania, and the district shared in the fortunes of Aquitaine during the Merovingian and Carolingian periods.
The three provinces were: Aquitania, reaching from the Pyrenees almost to the Loire; Lugudunensis, the land between Loire and Seine, reaching from Brittany in the west to Lyons in the south-east; and Belgica in the north.
Under the Romans Quercy was part of Aquitania prima, and Christianity was introduced therein during the 4th century.
His "semi-Pelagian" opposition to Augustine is dealt with by Prosper of Aquitania in his Pro Augustini doctrina responsiones ad capitula objectionum Vincentiarnarium.
This Neolithic race has consequently been nicknamed " Iberians," and it is now common to speak of the " Iberian " ancestry of the people of Britain, recognizing the racial characteristics of " Iberians " in the" small swarthy Welshman," the " small dark Highlander," and the " Black Celts to the west of the Shannon," as well as in the typical inhabitants of Aquitania and Brittany.
D'Arbois de Jubainville, for example (Les Premiers habitants de l'Europe, Paris, 1877), maintained that besides possessing Spain, Gaul, Italy and the British Isles, " Iberian " peoples penetrated into the Balkan peninsula, and occupied a part of northern Africa, Corsica and Sardinia; and it is now generally accepted that a race with fairly uniform characteristics was at one time in possession of the south of France (or at least of Aquitania), the whole of Spain from the Pyrenees to the straits, the Canary Islands (the Guanches) a part of northern Africa and Corsica.
On his return to Rome at the end of three years he was made censor, raised to the rank of patrician, and appointed governor of Aquitania (74-78).
In ancient Gaul it was the country of the Nitiobroges with Aginnum for its capital, and in the 4th century it was the Civitas Agennensium which was a part of Aquitania Secunda and which formed the diocese of Agen.
The other, territorially distinct from it for reasons of statecraft, was the Temple of Roma and Augustus, to which the inhabitants of the 64 Gallic cantons in the three Roman provinces of Aquitania, Lugudunensis and Belgica - the so-called Tres Galliae - sent delegates every summer to hold games and otherwise celebrate the worship of the emperor which was supposed to knit the provincials to Rome.
Aetate (1886); "Messalla in Aquitania" by J.
C. 400), the presbyter, celebrated as the author of a work, no longer extant, against superstitious practices, which called forth one of the most violent and scurrilous of Jerome's polemical treatises, was born about 370 at Calagurris in Aquitania (the modern Cazeres or perhaps Saint Bertrand de Comminges in the department of Haute-Garonne), where his father kept a "statio" or inn on the great Roman road from Aquitania to Spain.