Aquitaine Sentence Examples
The settlement of the claims of the king of England in Aquitaine by the treaty of Amiens in 1279 was a victory for the party of Margaret.
The beginning of his reign was marked by a disastrous irruption of the Hungarians into Burgundy and Aquitaine (937).
Under the empire Arvernia formed part of Prima Aquitania, and the district shared in the fortunes of Aquitaine during the Merovingian and Carolingian periods.
By the marriage of Eleanor of Aquitaine with Henry Plantagenet, the countship passed under the suzerainty of the kings of England, but at the same time it was divided, William VII., called the Young (1145-1168), having been despoiled of a portion of his domain by his uncle William VIII.,called the Old,who was supported by Henry II.
In these buildings, as in those of Aquitaine, the pointed arch is the surest sign of Saracenic influence; it must never be looked on as marking the approach of the Gothic of the North.Advertisement
The duchy of Aquitaine required a strong ruler, and the union with Anjou was eminently desirable.
Louis, who had hoped that Aquitaine would descend to his daughters, was mortified and alarmed by the Angevin marriage; all the more so when Henry of Anjou succeeded to the English crown in 1154.
Although a woman of strong passions and great abilities she is, historically, less important as an individual than as the heiress of Aquitaine, a part of which was, through her second marriage, united to England for some four hundred years.
These instincts and impulses would be at work already among the soldiers during the Crusade, producing a saga all the more readily, as there were poets in the camp; for we know that a certain Richard, who joined the First Crusade, sang its exploits in verse, while still more famous is the princely troubadour, William of Aquitaine, who joined the Crusade of Iloo.
Early in the 6th century it passed under the authority of the Franks, and in the 9th century was part of the Frankish kingdom of Aquitaine.Advertisement
Sir Thomas Beaufort, afterwards earl of Dorset and duke of Exeter (appointed admiral of the fleet 1407, and admiral of England, Ireland and Aquitaine 1412, which latter office he held till his death in 1426), certainly had a court, with a marshal and other officers, and forms of legal process - mandates, warrants, citations, compulsories, proxies, &c. Complaints of encroachment of jurisdiction by the Admiralty Courts led to the restraining acts, 13 Ric. II.
He was disgraced when Dagobert became sole king in 62 9, and had to seek refuge in Aquitaine.
Pippin took Septimania from the Arabs, and after a stubborn war of nearly eight years' duration (760-68) succeeded in taking Aquitaine from its duke, Waifer.
In 763, however, Tassilo abandoned Pippin during an expedition against Aquitaine.
Louis, however, gained sound experience in warfare in the defence of Aquitaine, shared in campaigns against the Saxons and the Avars, and led an army to Italy in 792.Advertisement
Further trouble between Pippin and his father led to the nominal transfer of Aquitaine from Pippin to his brother Charles in 831.
This anachronism arises from the fusion of the epic Guillaume with the champion of Louis IV., and from the fact that he was the military and civil chief of Louis the Pious, who was titular king of Aquitaine under his father from the time when he was three years old.
As early as 1293 trade was carried on with Bayonne, and six years later a receiver of customs on wool and wool-fells is mentioned at Weymouth, while wine was imported from Aquitaine.
Under the English rule the counts of Armagnac were turbulent and untrustworthy vassals; and the administration of the Black Prince, tending to favour the towns of Aquitaine at the expense of the nobles, drove them to the side of France.
Born in September 1157, he received at the age of eleven the duchy of Aquitaine, and was formally installed in 1172.Advertisement
Yet in 1173 Richard joined with the young Henry and Geoffrey of Brittany in their rebellion; Aquitaine was twice invaded by the old king before the unruly youth would make submission.
In a short time he was so powerful that his elder brother Henry became alarmed and demanded, as heir-apparent, that Richard should do him homage for Aquitaine.
Richard, being now the heir to England and Normandy, was invited to renounce Aquitaine in favour of Prince John.
The rule of the Plantagenets was still popular in Normandy and Aquitaine; but these provinces were unable or unwilling to pay for their own defence.
Having in general shared the fortunes of Aquitaine during the Merovingian and Carolingian periods, Agenais next became an hereditary countship in the part of the country now called Gascony (Vasconia).Advertisement
In 1038 this countship was purchased by the dukes of Aquitaine and counts of Poitiers.
The marriage of Eleanor of Aquitaine with Henry Plantagenet in 1152 brought it under the sway of England; but when Richard Cceur-de-Lion married his sister Joan to Raymund VI., count of Toulouse, in 1196, Agenais formed part of the princess's dowry; and with the other estates of the last independent count of Toulouse it lapsed to the crown of France in 1271.
In 1320 he was made earl of Chester, and in 1325 duke of Aquitaine, but he never received the title of prince of Wales.
Immediately after his appointment to Aquitaine, he was sent to France to do homage to his uncle Charles IV., and remained abroad until he accompanied his mother and Mortimer in their expedition to England.
By it Edward renounced his claim to France in return for the whole of Aquitaine.
Meanwhile Aquitaine was gradually lost; the defeat of Pembroke off La Rochelle deprived England of the command of the sea, and Sir Owen ap Thomas, a grand-nephew of Llewelyn ab Gruffyd, planned, with French help, an abortive invasion of Wales.
In 761 he accompanied his father on a campaign in Aquitaine, and in 763 undertook the government of several counties.
Bad feeling had existed for some time between Charles and Carloman, and when Charles early in 769 was called upon to suppress a rising in Aquitaine, his brother refused to afford him any assistance.
At Easter 781, Carloman, his second son by Hildegarde, was renamed Pippin and crowned king of Italy by Pope Adrian, and his youngest son Louis was crowned king of Aquitaine; but no mention was made at the time of his eldest son Charles, who was doubtless intended to be king of the Franks.
In 1257 the twelve peers were the chiefs of the great feudal provinces, the dukes of Normandy, Burgundy and Aquitaine, the counts of Toulouse, Champagne and Flanders, and six spiritual peers, the archbishop of Reims, the bishops of Laon, Chalons-sur-Marne, Beauvais, Langres and Noyon.
After his return the king seems to have regarded him with greater favour, created him duke of Aquitaine, and employed him in repeated embassies to France, which at length resulted in a treaty of peace, and Richard's marriage to the French king's daughter.
Geoffrey Greytunic succeeded in making the count of Nantes his vassal, and in obtaining from the duke of Aquitaine the concession in fief of the district of Loudun.
But Fulk le Rechin (the Cross-looking), brother of Geoffrey the Bearded, who had at first been contented with an appanage consisting of Saintonge and the chcitellenie of Vihiers, having allowed Saintonge to be taken in 1062 by the duke of Aquitaine, took advantage of the general discontent aroused in the countship by the unskilful policy of Geoffrey to make himself master of Saumur (25th of February 1067) and Angers (4 th of April), and cast Geoffrey into prison at Sable.
Having been abruptly recalled into Anjou by a revolt of his barons, he returned to the charge in September 1136 with a strong army, including in its ranks William, duke of Aquitaine, Geoffrey, count of Vendome, and William Talvas, count of Ponthieu, but after a few successes was wounded in the foot at the siege of Le Sap (October 1) and had to fall back.
Thus, on the death of Geoffrey the Handsome (7th of September 1151), his son Henry found himself heir to a great empire, strong and consolidated, to which his marriage with Eleanor of Aquitaine (May 1152) further added Aquitaine.
Malvezin (Michel de Montaigne, son origine et sa famille, 1875) proved the existence of a family of Eyquems or Ayquems before the marriage of Eleanor of Aquitaine to Henry II.
As a continuation of the Chronicon of Prosper of Aquitaine, Marius wrote a short Chronicon dealing with the period from 455 to 581; and although he borrowed from various sources his work has some importance for the history of Burgundy.
In Aquitaine Duke Odo (Eudes) exercised independent authority, but in 719 Charles forced him to recognize the suzerainty of northern France, at least nominally.
After the alliance between Charles and Odo on the field of Poitiers, the mayor of the palace left Aquitaine to Odo's son Hunald, who paid homage to him.
In 853 and the following years Louis made more than one attempt to secure the throne of Aquitaine, which the people of that country offered him in their disgust with the cruel misrule of Charles the Bald.
Agenais and southern Saintonge, which fell to the Crown by the death of Alfonse of Poitiers in 1276, as part of his vast possessions in Aquitaine and Languedoc, were ceded to Edward I.
The pastures of the neighbourhood support a breed of Aquitaine cattle, which is most highly valued in south-western France.
His father died when he was still young, and he as educated at the court of his uncle Richard I., king of Engl nd, under whose leadership he gained valuable experience in ar, being appointed duke of Aquitaine, count of Poitou and earl of Yorkshire.
In 1152 by a marriage with Eleanor of Aquitaine, the divorced wife of the French king Louis VII., he acquired Poitou, Guienne and Gascony; but in doing so incurred the ill-will of his suzerain from which he suffered not a little in the future.
By Eleanor of Aquitaine the king had five sons and three daughters.
Besides this, Charles had to struggle against the incessant rebellions in Aquitaine, against the Bretons, whose revolt was led by their chief Nomenoe and Erispoe, and who inflicted on the king the defeats of Ballon (845) and Juvardeil (851), and especially against the Normans, who devastated the country in the north of Gaul, the valleys of the Seine and Loire, and even up to the borders of Aquitaine.
Tassilo III., who became duke of the Bavarians in 749, recognized the supremacy of the Frankish king Pippin the Short in 757, but soon afterwards refused to furnish a contribution to the war in Aquitaine.
In 623 his father established him as king of the region east of the Ardennes, and in 626 revived for him the ancient kingdom of Austrasia, minus Aquitaine and Provence.
In Aquitaine he gave his brother Charibert the administration of the counties of Toulouse, Cahors, Agen, Perigueux, and Saintes; but at Charibert's death in 632 Dagobert became sole ruler of the whole of the Frankish territories south of the Loire.
In 1366 he joined his eldest brother, Edward the Black Prince, in Aquitaine, and in the year after led a strong contingent to share in the campaign in support of Pedro the Cruel of Castile.
In the following year he went again to Aquitaine, and was present with the Black Prince at the sack of Limoges.
For a year John maintained the war at his own cost, but whilst in Aquitaine a greater prospect was opened to him.
The next eighteen months were spent by John as lieutenant of Aquitaine, and it was not till November 1389 that he returned to England.
Richard, still insecure of his own position, welcomed his uncle, and early in the following year marked his favour by creating him duke of Aquitaine.
The LancelotGuenevere romance took form and shape in the artificial atmosphere encouraged by such patronesses of literature as Eleanor of Aquitaine and her daughter Marie, Comtesse de Champagne (for whom Chretien de Troyes wrote his Chevalier de la Charrette), and reflects the low social morality of a time when love between husband and wife was declared impossible.
In 431 the contemporary Chronica of Prosper of Aquitaine record that Palladius was ordained by Pope Celestine as the first bishop " to the believing Scots," that is, to the Irish.
Chilperic retrieved his position, took from Austrasia Tours and Poitiers and some places in Aquitaine, and fostered discord in the kingdom of the east during the minority of Childebert II.
His dominions not only included the whole of Spain except its north-western corner, but also Aquitaine and the greater part of Provence.
They began to resent this, and one of their chiefs, Munisa (Munuza), made himself independent in the north and allied himself with Odo, king of Aquitaine, who gave him his daughter in marriage.
In France the title duke at one time implied vast territorial power, as with the dukes of Burgundy, Normandy, Aquitaine and Brittany, who asserted a practical independence against the crown, though it was not till the 12th century that the title duke was definitely regarded as superior to others.
In England the title of duke was unknown till the Toth century, though in Saxon times the title ealdorman, afterwards exchanged for "earl," was sometimes rendered in Latin as dux,' and the English kings till John's time styled themselves dukes of Normandy, and dukes of Aquitaine even later.
Shortly afterwards Philip took advantage of a rising against his quondam friend Richard, who was duke of Aquitaine, to seize the county of Berry.
Brittany, Aquitaine and Anjou were conferred on Arthur.
In the middle ages it belonged to the dukes of Aquitaine and then to the kings of England, one of whom, John, granted it full communal rights in 1216.
He soon deserted Geoffrey for Richard, who made him chancellor of the duchy of Aquitaine.
On the 1st of January 1032 he married Agnes, widow of William the Great, duke of Aquitaine, and taking arms against William the Fat, eldest son and successor of William the Great, defeated him and took him prisoner at Mont-Couer near Saint-Jouin-de-Marneson the 20th of September 1033.
He then tried to win recognition as dukes of Aquitaine for the sons of his wife Agnes by William the Great, who were still minors, but Fulk Nerra promptly took up arms to defend his suzerain William the Fat, from whom he held the Loudunois and a tan g S h= - Saintonge in fief against his son.
After the death of his elder brother Charles in 866 he became king of Aquitaine, and in October 877 he succeeded his father as king of the West Franks, but not as emperor.
The " second Aquitaine," with the sea-coast from the mouth of the Garonne to the mouth of the Loire, became the West Gothic kingdom of Toulouse.
When, in 1154, Aquitaine passed to the English crown, this counterseal disappeared, and eventually in subsequent reigns a fleur-de-lis or the shield of arms of France took its place.
The bishop of Laon was sent into exile, probably to Aquitaine, where his eyes were put out by order of Count Boso.
In 1362 he was made constable of Aquitaine, and won the victories of Auray (1364) and Navaret in Spain (1367) over Duguesclin.
But it was his marriage to Eleanor of Aquitaine, two years before his accession to the English throne, which gave him the right to dream of greatness such as his Norman forbears had never enjoyed.
Flis wife Eleanor of Aquitaine had borne him many children.
The old king very naturally preferred to keep his dominions united under his own immediate government, but he had designated his eldest sonas his successor in England and Normandy, while Richard was to have his mothers heritage of Aquitaine, and Geoffreys wifes dowry, the duchy of Brittany, was due to him, now that he had reached the verge of manhood.
Her old subjects in Aquitaine were secretly encouraged by her to follow her son Richard against his father, whom the barons of the south always regarded as an alien and an intruder.
The best proof that King Henrys orderly if autocratic rgime was appreciated at its true value by his English subjects, is that when the second series of rebellions raised by his undutiful sons began In 1182, there was no stir whatever in England, though in Normandy, Brittany and Aquitaine the barons rose in full force to support the young princes, whose success would mean the triumph of particularism and the destruction of the Angevin empire.
Boldly asserting that Richard would never be seen alive again he went to France, and did homage to King Philip for Normandy and Aquitaine, as if.they were already his own.
He wasted his considerable military talents in a series of skirmishes and sieges which had no great results, and after spending countless treasures and harrying many regions, perished obscurely by a wound from a cross-bow-bolt, received while beleaguering Chlus, a castle of a rebellious lord of Aquitaine, the viscount of Limoges (April 6, 1199).
There would have been trouble in Aquitaine also, if the aged Queen Eleanor had not asserted her own primary and indefeasible right to her ancestral duchy, and then declared that she transferred it to her best loved son John.
This act offended the English barons, but in choosing a new queen John gave much greater offence abroad; he Carried off Isabella of Angoulme from her affianced husband, Hugh of Lusignan, the son of the count of Ia Marche, his greatest vassal in northern Aquitaine, and married her despite the precontract.
They had no wish to furnish their master with taxation for French wars, or to follow his banner to distant Aquitaine.
While Lancaster landed in Normandy, and with the aid of local rebels occupied the greater part of the peninsula of the Ctentin, the prince of Wales accomplished greater things on the borders of Aquitaine.
The duchy of Aquitaine was reconstructed, so as to include not only the lands that Edward had inherited, and his recent conquests, but all Poitou, Limousin, Angoumois, Quercy, Rouergue and Saintongea full half of France south of the Loire.
There was to be an end to the power of the courts of Paris to harass the duke of Aquitaine, by using the rights of the suzerain to interfere with the vassals subjects.
Yet the state of the English dominions on the continent was not satisfactory; in building up the vast duchy of Aquitaine Edward had made a radical mistake.
To pay his debts he was obliged to resort to heavy taxation in Aquitaine, which gave his discontented subjects in Poitou and the other outlying districts an excuse for the rebellion that they had been for some time meditating.
But while the duke was executing useless marches across France, the outlying lands of Aquitaine were falling away, one after the other, to the enemy.
This did not prevent Bertrand du Guesclin from expelling from his dominions John of Brittany, the one ally whom King Edward possessed in France, or from pursuing a consistent career of petty conquest in the heart of Aquitaine.
Simultaneously the seneschal of Aquitaine was defeated in battle, and Bergerac, the last great town in the inland which remained in English hands, was captured by the duke of Anjou.
But while France was engaged in the Holy War against the pope, Venice, the emperor, and Ferdinand of Spain, Henry renewed the old claims of the Plantagenets, and hoped, if not to win back the position of Edward III., at least to recover the duchy of Aquitaine, or some parts of it.
He was afterwards governor of Aquitaine and great seneschal of Poitou, and took part in the capture of the town of La Rochesur-Yon by Edmund, earl of Cambridge.
The authority of the new king was quickly recognized in his kingdom, which covered the greater part of France north of the Loire with the exception of Brittany, and in a shadowy fashion he was acknowledged in Aquitaine; but he was compelled to purchase the allegiance of the great nobles by large grants of royal lands, and he was hardly more powerful as king than he had been as duke.
His wife was Adelaide, daughter of William III., duke of Aquitaine, by whom he left a son, Robert, who succeeded him as king of France.
We have also the statement of Prosper of Aquitaine that Palladius was sent by Pope Celestine as first bishop to the Scots that believe in Christ.
In recent times ingenious attempts have been made to trace the descent of the first historic king of Navarre from one Semen Lupus, duke of Aquitaine in the 6th century.
After the passing of this torrent the Visigoths, under their kings Ataulphus, Wallia and Theodoric, still dazzled by the splendours of this immense empire, established themselves like submissive vassals in Aquitaine, with Toulouse as their capital.
Legend adorned his campaign in Aquitaine with miracles; the bishops were the declared allies of both him and his son Theuderich (Thierry) after his conquest of Auvergne.
Recognized, in fact, already as separate provinces were Austrasia, or the eastern kingdom, Neustria, or north-west Gaul and Burgundy; Aquitaine alone was as yet undifferentiated.
One, Pippin of Landen, derived his power from his position as mayor of the palace, from great estates in Aquitaine and between the Meuse and the Rhine, and from the immense number of his supporters; the other, Arnulf, bishop of Metz, sprang from a great family, probably of Roman descent, and was besides immensely wealthy in worldly possessions.
He did subdue Aquitaine completely, thanks to his brother Charibert, with whom he had avoided dividing the kingdom, and he tried to restore his own demesne, which had been despoiled by the granting of benefices or by the pious frauds of the Church.
Aquitaine, hitherto the common prey of all the Frankislh kings, having in vain tried to profit by the struggles between Fredegond and Brunhilda, and set up an independent king, Gondibald, now finally burst her bonds in 670.
The retreat of the Arabs, who were further weakened by religious disputes, enabled him to restore Frankish rule in Aquitaine in spite of Hunald, son of Odo.
Matters being thus settled with Rome, Pippin again took up his wars against the Saxons, against the Arabs (whom he drove from Narbonne in 758), and above all against Wailer, duke of Aquitaine, and his ally, duke Tassilo of Bavaria.
This last war was carried on systematically from 76o to 768, and ended in the death of WaIfer and the definite establishment of the Frankish hold on Aquitaine.
The work of organizing the three great Carolingian conquests Aquitaine, Italy and Saxonyhad yet to be done.
Aquitaine bordered upon Mussulman Spain; the Avars of Hungary threatened Bavaria with their tireless horsemen; beyond the Elbe and the Saul the Slays were perpetually at war with the Saxons, and to the north of the Eider were the Danes.
Charles the Bald thus spent his life sword in hand, fighting unsuccessfully against the Bretons, whose two kings, Nomeno and Erispo, he had to recognize in turn; and against the people of Aquitaine, who, in full revolt, appealed for help to his brother, Louis the German.
Before long, too, Louis the German actually allied himself with the people of Brittany and Aquitaine, and invaded France at the summons of Charles the Balds own vassals.
His own son Charles, king of Aquitaine, revolted, and Salomon proclaimed himself king of Brittany in succession to Erispo, who had been assassinated.
Aquitaine and Brittany were almost independent, Burgundy was in full revolt, and within thirty years Rollo, a Norman leader, was to be master of the whole of the lower Seine from the Cotentin to the Somme.
Thanks to Hughs support and to the good offices of Otto and his brother Bruno, archbishop of Cologne and duke of Lorraine, Lothair was chosen king and crowned at Reims. Hugh exacted, as payment for his disinterestedness and fidelity, a renewal of his sovereignty over Burgundy with that of Aquitaine as well; he was in fact the viceroy of the kingdom, and others imitated him by demanding indemnities, privileges and confirmation of rights, as was customary at the beginning of a reign.
But vassalage could only be a cause of disintegration, not of unity, and that this disintegration did not at once spread indefinitely was due to the dozen or so great military commands Flanders, Burgundy, Aquitaine, &c.which Charles the Bald had been obliged to establish on a strong territorial basis.
France in the 12th century was merely a federation of separate states, jealously independent, which the king had to negotiate with rather than rule; while his own possessions, shorn of the rich heritage of Aquitaine, were, so to speak, swamped by those of the English king.
Then he handed Spain back to the imperial officials, that is to say, to weakness and corruption, and marched with all his people into the Second Aquitaine, the south-west of modern France, which had been assigned to them by Honorius as a home and a reward.
Such was Gregory the Great's teaching, and such also is the purport of the Caroline books, which embody the conclusions arrived at by the bishops of Germany, Gaul arid Aquitaine, presided over by papal legates at the council of Frankfort in 794, and incidentally also reveal the hatred and contempt of Charlemagne for the Byzantine empire as an institution, and for Irene, its ruler, as a person.
But, protected by William IX., duke of Aquitaine, and soon by a great part of the southern nobility, the heretics gained ground in the south, and in 1119 the council of Toulouse in vain ordered the secular powers to assist the ecclesiastical authority in quelling the heresy.
Bordered by beautiful seashore and protected by a long ribbon of rolling dunes, the Aquitaine coastline unfolds a superb and varied landscape.
To both her sons the popularity which she enjoyed in Aquitaine was most valuable.
A comprehensive Timeline and a modern Portrait of Eleanor of Aquitaine are available.
The two brothers presided over the tribunals, convoked the councils at which the Frankish Church was reformed, assembled the host and made war, jointly defeating and subduing Duke Hunald of Aquitaine.
It was conquered by the Vascones in the 6th century, and in 819 became a viscounty dependent on the dukes of Aquitaine - a feudal link which was broken in the 11th century, when the viscounts ceased to acknowledge any suzerain.
Richard having scornfully rejected the demand, a fratricidal war ensued; the young Henry invaded Aquitaine and attracted to his standard many of Richard's vassals, who were exasperated by the iron rule of the duke.
The chief authorities whom Nennius followed were Gildas' De excidio Britonum, Eusebius, the Vita Patricii of Murichu Maccu Machtheni, the Collectanea of Tirechan, the Liber occupationis (an Irish work on the settlement of Ireland), the Liber de sex aetatibus mundi, the chronicle of Prosper of Aquitaine, the Liber beati Germani.
Albeit of illustrious descent, the genealogies which represent Arnulf as an Aquitanian noble, and his family as connected - by more or less complicated devices - with the saints honoured in Aquitaine, are worthless, dating from the time of Louis the Pious in the 9th century.
From 1293 onward Philip and his sons had been striving to make an end of the power of the Plantagenets in Aquitaine, sometimes by the simple argument of war, more frequently by the insidious process of encroaching on ducal rights, summoning litigants to Paris, and encouraging local magnates and cities alike to play off their allegiance to their suzerain against that to their immediate lord.
In 1156 Dermod MacMurrough (Diarmait MacMurchada), deposed for his tyranny from the kingdom of Leinster, repaired to Henry in Aquitaine (see Early History above).
John began operations with an attack from Anjou, supported by the notably capricious nobles of Aquitaine, and was routed by Philips son at La Roche aux Moines, near Angers, on the 2nd of July 1214.
Aeronaut Skyride - Not so much a ride as a way to travel, this skyride travels between Banbury Cross, Rhinefeld, and Aquitaine areas, over part of the Loch Ness Monster roller coaster.