Aquinas Sentence Examples
The best modern edition of the works of Aquinas is that prepared at the expense of Leo XIII.
Further, while the genius of Aquinas was constructive, that of Duns Scotus was destructive; Aquinas was a philosopher, Duns a critic. The latter has been said to stand to the former in the relation of Kant to Leibnitz.
But, as Ueberweg points out, it might fairly be urged by Aquinas that he does not pretend to explain how the individual is actually created, but merely states what he finds to be an invariable condition of the existence of individuals.
He carried few books to Holland with him, but a Bible and the Summa of Thomas Aquinas were amongst them.'
In 1245 Albertus was called to Paris, and there Aquinas followed him, and remained with him for three years, at the end of which he graduated as bachelor of theology.Advertisement
Before he left Paris he had thrown himself with ardour into the controversy raging between the university and the Friar-Preachers respecting the liberty of teaching, resisting both by speeches and pamphlets the authorities of the university; and when the dispute was referred to the pope, the youthful Aquinas was chosen to defend his order, which he did with such success as to overcome the arguments of Guillaume de St Amour, the champion of the university, and one of the most celebrated men of the day.
The distinction between these two was made emphatic by Aquinas, who is at pains, especially in his treatise Contra Gentiles, to make it plain that each is a distinct fountain of knowledge, but that revelation is the more important of the two.
Aquinas's conception of reason is in some way parallel with his conception of revelation.
The conception will be made clearer when it is remembered that Aquinas, taught by the mysterious author of the writings of the pseudo-Dionysius, who so marvellously influenced medieval writers, sometimes spoke of a natural revelation, or of reason as a source of truths in themselves mysterious, and was always accustomed to say that reason as well as revelation contained two kinds of knowledge.
Fortified by this exhaustive preparation, Aquinas began his Summa Theologiae, which he intended to be the sum of all known learning, arranged according to the best method, and subordinate to the dictates of the church.Advertisement
The first book, after a short introduction upon the nature of theology as understood by Aquinas, proceeds in 119 questions to discuss the nature, attributes and relations of God; and this is not done as in a modern work on theology, but the questions raised in the physics of Aristotle find a place alongside of the statements of Scripture, while all subjects in any way related to the central theme are brought into the discourse.
The subject is man, treated as Aristotle does, according to his TE¦os, and so Aquinas discusses all the ethical, psychological and theological questions which arise; but any theological discussion upon man must be mainly ethical, and so a great proportion of the first part, and almost the whole of the second, has to do with ethical questions.
In this third part Aquinas discusses the person, office and work of Christ, and had begun to discuss the sacraments, when death put an end to his labours.
In general, Aquinas maintained in different senses the real existence of universals ante rem, in re and post rem.
The importance of Siger in philosophy lies in his acceptance of Averroism in its entirety, which drew upon him the opposition of Albertus Magnus and Aquinas.Advertisement
In view of this, it is curious that Dante should place him in Paradise at the side of Aquinas and Isidore of Seville.
By a bull of 1264 Urban made the festival, hitherto practically confined to the diocese of Liege, obligatory on the whole Church,' and a new office for the festival was written by Thomas Aquinas himself.
Not to speak of the canonists, Thomas Aquinas gives natural law an important place; while Melancthon, drawing from Aquinas, gives it an entrance into Protestant thought.
Richard Hooker, again with traces of Aquinas, uses the conception as a weapon against Puritanism, with its aggressive positivism of scriptural precept.
Thomas Aquinas, following Albertus Magnus, but with greater power and greater influence, occupies substantially intuitionalist ground.Advertisement
The critics of Aquinas - Duns Scotus and the later Nominalists - show some tendency towards rational scepticism.
The Church of Rome has discouraged these daring tactics in favour of the more cautious and probably more defensible positions of Aquinas.
Passing now to the later schoolmen, a bare mention must be made of Thomas Aquinas, who elaborately argues for the absolute creation of the world out of nothing, and of Albertus Magnus, who reasons against the Aristotelian idea of the past eternity of the world.
Undeterred by the offence which these works gave to his ecclesiastical superiors, he published in 1858 the Einleitung in die Philosophie and Grundriss der Metaphysik, in which he assailed the doctrine of Thomas Aquinas, that philosophy was the handmaid of theology.
But, when increased knowledge of Aristotle's texts (and of the commentaries) led to the victory of a supposed Aristotelianism over a supposed Platonism, Albertus Magnus, and his still more distinguished pupil Thomas Aquinas, mark certain doctrines as belonging to faith but not to reason.Advertisement
To the standpoint of Aquinas, however, the Church of Rome (at least in regard to the basis of doctrine) has more and more returned.
The compromise of Aquinas, though not unchallenged, holds the field and that even with Protestants.
The more celebrated and central thesis of the book - this finite universe, the best of all such that are possible - also restates positions of Augustine and Aquinas.
Locke does not break with the compromise of Aquinas.
But by treating the atonement simply as revealed (and unexplained) matter of fact - in spite of some partial analogies in human experience, a thing essentially anomalous - Butler repeats, and applies to the moral contents of Christianity, what Aquinas said of its speculative doctrines.
This is to upset the compromise of Aquinas and go back to a Christian platonism.
In the matter of Universals, Duns was more of a realist and less of an eclectic than Aquinas.
In opposition to Aquinas, who maintained that reason and revelation were two independent sources of knowledge, Duns Scotus held that there was no true knowledge of anything knowable apart from theology as based upon revelation.
He therefore rejected as worthless the ontological proof offered by Aquinas.
Another chief point of difference with Aquinas was in regard to the freedom of the will, which Duns Scotus maintained absolutely.
He maintained, in opposition to Aquinas, that the will was independent of the understanding, that only will could affect will.
A contemporary of Aquinas, he opposed several of the dominant theories of the time, and united with the current Aristotelian doctrines a strong infusion of Platonism.
Alexander of Hales was the oracle of the Franciscans, while the rival order rejoiced in Albertus Magnus and Thomas Aquinas.
Erdmann conjectures Thomas Aquinas, which is extremely improbable, as Thomas was unquestionably not the first of his order to study philosophy.
He is in every way worthy to be placed beside Albertus Magnus, Bonaventura, and Thomas Aquinas.
The principles of the great orthodox philosophers of the later scholastic period which begins in the 13th century, Albertus Magnus and Thomas Aquinas, were those of moderate realism.
The terms, therefore, were not invented by St Thomas Aquinas, and are not mere scholastic subtlety.
The stricter theological training of the Roman Catholic clergy throughout the world on the lines laid down by St Thomas Aquinas was his first care, and to this end he founded in Rome and endowed an academy bearing the great schoolman's name, further devoting about £1 2,000 to the publication of a new and splendid edition of his works, the idea being that on this basis the later teaching of Catholic theologians and many of the speculations of modern thinkers could best be harmonized and brought into line.
Indeed, no sooner was the harmony apparently established by Aquinas than Duns Scotus began this negative criticism, which is carried much farther by William of Occam.
It is the only complete and independent system between the decline of ancient thought and the system of Aquinas in the 13th century, if indeed we ought not to go further, to modern times, to find a parallel.
The Franciscans took the lead in this intellectual movement with Alexander of Hales and Bonaventura, but the Dominicans were soon able to boast of two greater names in Albert the Great and Thomas Aquinas.
The limits of his long life include that of his still greater pupil, Thomas Aquinas (1227-1274).
The monotheistic influence of Aristotle and his Arabian commentators shows itself in Albert and Aquinas, at the outset, in the definitive fashion in which the " mysteries " y sof the Trinity and the Incarnation are henceforth detached from the sphere of rational or philosophical theology.
The existence of God is maintained by Albert and Aquinas to be domonstrable by reason; but here again they reject the ontological argument of Anselm, and restrict themselves to the a posteriori proof, rising after the manner of Aristotle from that which is prior for us to that which is prior by nature or in itself.
Albert and Aquinas alike maintain the beginning of the world in time; time itself only exists since the moment of this miraculous creation.
But Aquinas, though he holds the fact of creation to be rationally demonstrable, regards the beginning of the world in time as only an article of faith, the philosophical arguments for and against being inconclusive.
Albert and Aquinas both profess the moderate Aristotelian Realism which treats genera and species only as substantiae secundae, yet as really inherent in the individuals, and constituting their form or essence.
Albert and Aquinas agree in declaring that the principle of individuation is to be found in matter, not, however, in matter as a formless substrate but in determinate matter (materia signata), which is explained to mean matter quantitatively determined in certain respects.
This conclusion, it is needless to say, is strenuously opposed both by Albert and by Aquinas.
The Franciscan order, on the other hand, early showed their rivalry in attacks upon the doctrines of Albert and Aquinas.
His system is conditioned throughout by its relation to that of Aquinas, of which it is in effect an elaborate criticism.
In general it may be said that Duns shows less confidence in the power of reason than Aquinas, and to that extent Erdmann and others are right in looking upon his system as the beginning of the decline of Scholasticism.
For Scholasticism, as perfected by Aquinas, implies the harmony of reason and faith, in the sense that they both teach the same truths.
To this general position Aquinas, it has been seen, makes several important exceptions; but the exceptions are few in number and precisely defined.
Voluntary action, Aquinas had said, is action originating in self or in an internal principle.
Transferred to the divine activity, Aquinas's doctrine led him to insist upon the perseitas boni.
Aquinas is on the side of rationalism, Scotus on the side of scepticism.
By far the greatest disciple of Aquinas is Dante Alighieri, in whose Divina Commedia the theology and philosophy of the middle ages, as fixed by Saint Thomas, have received the immortality which poetry alone can bestow.
Aquinas had regarded the knowledge of the universal as an intellectual activity which might even be advanced in proof of the immortality of the soul.
St Thomas Aquinas was born in the castle of Roccasecca, 5 m.
Even as a boy he had intense pleasure in reading St Thomas Aquinas and the Arab commentators of Aristotle, was skilled in the subtleties of the schools, wrote verses, studied music and design, and, avoiding society, loved solitary rambles on the banks of the Po.
In 1561 he went to teach theology in Rome, reckoning among his pupils Robert Bellarmine, afterwards cardinal; then passed into Sicily; and in 1569 he was sent to Paris, where his expositions of the writings of Thomas Aquinas attracted large audiences.
In this spirit he wrote commentaries upon portions of Aristotle, and upon the Summa of Aquinas, and towards the end of his life made a careful translation of the Old and New Testaments, excepting Solomon's Song, the Prophets and the Revelation of St John.
Thomas Aquinas was the first theologian to describe the Church as a divinely organized absolute monarchy, whose head concentrated in his person the entire authority of the Church, and was the source of all the ecclesiastical law (conditor juris), issuing the decrees of general councils in his own name, and claiming the right to revoke or modify the decrees of former councils - indeed, to make exceptions or to set aside altogether anything which did not rest upon the dictates of divine or natural law.
In the matter of the pope's supremacy, the council followed the canon law and Thomas Aquinas, not the decrees of the council of Constance.
Aquinas 4 it does not once occur.
For many years Peckham taught at Paris, coming into contact with the greatest scholars of the day, among others St Thomas Aquinas.
In philosophy he represents the Franciscan school which attacked the teaching of St Thomas Aquinas on the "Unity of Form."
The remainder of his life he spent partly in preaching throughout Bavaria and the adjoining districts, partly in retirement in the various houses of his order; in 1270 he preached the eighth Crusade in Austria; almost the last of his labours was the defence of the orthodoxy of his former pupil, Thomas Aquinas.
Dante places him with his pupil Aquinas among the great lovers of wisdom (Spiriti Sapienti) in the Heaven of the Sun.
In the Dominican monastery the cell which St Thomas Aquinas sometimes occupied is shown.
For Aristotle, as interpreted by Albertus Magnus and Thomas Aquinas, Dante has the highest regard.
He studied theology under Thomas Aquinas, Albertus Magnus and Bonaventura, and in 1262 was elected provincial of his order in France.
Innocent V., before he became pope, prepared, in conjunction with Albertus Magnus and Thomas Aquinas, a rule of studies for his order, which was accepted in June 1259.
Thomas Aquinas based his justification of them on the idea of reverent commemoration; since we venerate the saints, we must also show reverence for their relics, for whoever loves another does honour to that which remains of him after death.
As interpreted by Thomas Aquinas, it is now in danger of becoming a dogma.
The Thomist reaction has had a good effect in the way of encouraging the study of Aristotelian philosophy in itself, and as modified by Aquinas.
Nevertheless, the world cannot afford to surrender itself to Aristotle, or to Aquinas.
Now these, on the whole, are the very opinions of Aquinas, except so far as they were clearly inconsistent with the Christian faith.
Aquinas thought, as an article of faith, that the world began, and that God is its Creator.
Aquinas thought that before the creation the one eternal essence of any kind was an abstract form, an idea in the intellect of God, like the form of a house in the mind of a builder, ante rem; that after the creation of any kind it is in re, as Aristotle supposed; and that, as we men think of it, it is post rem, as Aristotle also supposed.
Of this view the part which was not Aristotle's, the state of " universalia ante rem," was due to the Neoplatonists, who interpreted the " separate forms " of Plato to be ideas in intellect, and handed down their interpretation through St Augustine to the medieval Realists like Aquinas, who thus combined Neoplatonism with Aristotelianism.
Hence too Aquinas opposed essence to existence much more than Aristotle did.
The Thomism, therefore, of our day is wrong, from a metaphysical point of view, so far as it elevates Aristotelianism, as seriously modified but not fundamentally corrected by Aquinas, into an authoritative orthodoxy in metaphysics.
Centuries elapsed after Aquinas before Galileo and his successors reformed natural science, and before Bacon destroyed the metaphysical dualism of matter and form by showing that a form in Nature is only a law of the action of matter, and that, as the action of a body is as individual as the body, the form is eternal only in thought (ratione).
The psychology of Aristotle and Aquinas thus became impossible; for, if the form of a body is only a mode of matter, to call one's soul the form of one's body is to reduce it to only a mode of matter, and fall into materialism.
Newman, for whom he worked, helping in the translation of Thomas Aquinas's Catena Aurea, and writing in the British Critic and Christian Remembrances.
He does not enter into the animal comparisons of his predecessors, but occupies himself chiefly with simple descriptive physiognomy as indicative of character; and the same is true of the scattered references in the writings of Duns Scotus and Thomas Aquinas.
In the middle ages there was an extravagance of speculation on this subject, which may be seen in the last division of Aquinas' Summa Theologiae.
The exact relation between the two was, however, a matter of controversy, Aquinas and Duns Scotus holding that both are practical reason, while Bonaventura narrows synderesis to the volitional tendency to good actions.
The sources of this work included the De Contemptu Mundi sive de miseria humanae conditionis of Pope Innocent III., and Rolle also showed a knowledge of Bartholomew Glanville, Thomas Aquinas and Honorius of Awtun.
Through a Latin translation made by Burgundio of Pisa in the 12th century, it was well known to Peter Lombard and Aquinas, and in this way it influenced the scholastic theology of the West.
Marco (now converted into a national museum), a series of frescoes, beginning towards 1443; in the first cloister is the Crucifixion with St Dominic kneeling; and the same treatment recurs on a wall near the dormitory; in the chapterhouse is a third Crucifixion, with the Virgin swooning, a composition of twenty life-sized figures - the red background, which has a strange and harsh effect, is the misdoing of some restorer; an "Annunciation," the figures of about three-fourths of life-size, in a dormitory; in the adjoining passage, the "Virgin enthroned," with four saints; on the wall of a cell, the "Coronation of the Virgin," with Saints Paul, Thomas Aquinas, Benedict, Dominic, Francis and Peter Martyr; two Dominicans welcoming Jesus, habited as a pilgrim; an "Adoration of the Magi"; the "Marys at the Sepulchre."
The book practically discarded all the ideas and practices concerning Indulgences which had come into the medieval church since the beginning of the 13th century, and all the ingenious explanations of the scholastic theologians from Bonaventura and Thomas Aquinas downwards.
The history of logic shows that the linguistic distinction between terms and propositions was the sole analysis of reasoning in the logical treatises of Aristotle; that the mental distinction between conceptions (g vvocac) and judgments (a uiwara in a wide sense) was imported into logic by the Stoics; and that this mental distinction became the logical analysis of reasoning under the authority of St Thomas Aquinas.
Most theologians since Thomas Aquinas and Bonaventura have taught that the souls in purgatory are tormented by material fire, but the Greeks have never accepted this opinion.
One theory emphasized the necessity of grace; having been put together by St Thomas Aquinas, it was known as Thomism, and was especially championed by the Dominicans.
More was done by the gentler missionary zeal of the Franciscans and Dominicans in the early 13th century; but St Thomas Aquinas had seen half a century of that reform and had recognized its limitations; he therefore attenuated as much as possible the decree of Nicholas II.
In his fifteenth year he entered the order of the Dominicans, attracted partly by reading the lives of Albertus Magnus and Aquinas, partly by his love of learning.
Thomas Aquinas followed Augustine.
While Aquinas affirmed the positions of Augustine, he deduced them from his Aristotelian conception of God as "first mover, itself unmoved."
After holding very numerous sessions, the "congregation" was able to decide nothing, and in 1607 its meetings were suspended by Paul V., who in 1611 prohibited all further discussion of the question "de auxiliis," and studious efforts were made to control the publication even of commentaries on Aquinas.
It is generally held that he taught Bonaventura, Duns Scotus and Thomas Aquinas, but a comparison of dates makes it clear that the two latter could nothave been his pupils and that the statement about Bonaventura is open to doubt.
In 1567 and 1568 he was at Padua, studying theology under a master who belonged to the school of St Thomas Aquinas.
Certainly the most able metaphysician and the most influential religious thinker of America, he must rank in theology, dialectics, mysticism and philosophy with Calvin and Fenelon, Augustine and Aquinas, Spinoza and Novalis; with Berkeley and Hume as the great English philosophers of the 18th century; and with Hamilton and Franklin as the three American thinkers of the same century of more than provincial importance.
In the neighbouring monastery is shown the cell of Thomas Aquinas.
Originally erected in 1557 for the use of the Jesuits, the university buildings are regarded as the best work of Marco di Pino; the quadrangle, surrounded by a simple but effective peristyle, contains statues of Pietro della Vigna (Frederick's chancellor), Thomas Aquinas and Giordano Bruno.
John of Damascus and the schoolmen, including Albertus Magnus and Thomas Aquinas, held Nemesius in high esteem, believing his book to be the work of Gregory of Nyssa, with whom he has much in common.
In the Summa Theologiae of Thomas Aquinas the technical sense is fully established.
Especially is that honour due to St Thomas Aquinas's larger Summa Theologiae.
Again, Western theology, very roughly summarized, while accepting the earlier doctrinal tradition, has broken new ground for itself, in affirming as rational necessity that God must punish sin (this is at least latent in Aquinas's - doctrine of natural law), but as contingent fact of revelation that God has in Christ combined the punishment of sin with the salvation of sinners; this is the Reformation or postReformation thought.
Aquinas's Summa has no such clear lines of division.
The democratic principle argued for in the Second Treatise, while in advance of the practice of his age, was in parts anticipated by Aquinas and Bodin, as well as by Grotius and Hooker.
Thomas Aquinas, for example, develops the Platonic Scholas- argument which proves the dependence of the will ticism.
Before, however, we take a brief survey of the progress of systematic ethics from Ambrose to Thomas Aquinas, it may be well to examine the chief features of the new moral consciousness that had spread through Graeco-Roman civilization, and was awaiting philosophic synthesis.
Scholastic ethics, like scholastic philosophy, attained its completest result in the teaching of Thomas Aquinas.
In his treatise, Libri sententiarum, mainly based on Augustinian doctrine, we find a distinct softening of the antithesis between nature and grace and an anticipation of the union of Aristotelian and Christian thought, which was initiated by Albert the Great and completed by Thomas Aquinas.
The moral philosophy of Aquinas is Aristotelianism with a Neoplatonic tinge, interpreted and supplemented by a view of Christian dogma derived chiefly from Augustine.
In the classification of particular virtues and vices we can distinguish very clearly the elements supplied by the different teachings which Aquinas has imbibed.
From the notion of sin - treated in its jural aspect - Aquinas passes naturally to the discussion of Law.
In the brief account above given of the general ethical view of Thomas Aquinas no mention has been made of the detailed.
The same criticism is made by several of the later schoolmen, among others by Aquinas, and is in substance what Kant advances against all ontological proof.
This was probably due to their unsystematic character, for they are generally tracts or dialogues on detached questions, not elaborate treatises like the great works of Albert, Aquinas, and Erigena.
Meanwhile Albertus Magnus and Thomas Aquinas, accepting the exegetical services of the Arabians, did their best to controvert the obnoxious doctrine of the Intellect, and to defend the orthodoxy of Aristotle against the unholy glosses of infidels.
Brian Davies OP, as a follower of Thomas Aquinas, would certainly want to rise above crude anthropomorphism.
For Aquinas also timeless eternity constituted part of the ' grammar ' of talking about God.
Dante gives a refutation of the doctrine of the multiplicity of souls, ascribed to Plato by Thomas Aquinas.
This work, Contra Gentiles, may be taken as an elaborate exposition of the method of Aquinas.
Accordingly Aquinas prepared himself on this side by commentaries on Aristotle's De Inter pretatione, on his Posterior Analytics, on the Metaphysics, the Physics, the De Anima, and on Aristotle's other psychological and physical writings, each commentary having for its aim to lay hold of the material and grasp the method contained and employed in each treatise.
The first and the second parts are wholly the work of Aquinas, but of the third part only the first ninety quaestiones are his; the rest of it was finished in accordance with his designs.
In his ethical discussions (a full account of which is given under Ethics) Aquinas distinguishes theological from natural virtues and vices; the theological virtues are faith, hope and charity; the natural, justice, prudence and the like.
The theological virtues are founded on faith, in opposition to the natural, which are founded on reason; and as faith with Aquinas is always belief in a proposition, not trust in a personal Saviour, conformably with his idea that revelation is a new knowledge rather than a new life, the relation of unbelief to virtue is very strictly and narrowly laid down and enforced.
Aquinas died ere he had finished his great work, and what has been added to complete the scheme is appended as a Supplementum Tertiae Partis.
The doctrine of the Immaculate Conception was the great subject in dispute between the two parties; it was strenuously opposed by Aquinas, and supported by Duns Scotus, although not without reserve.
While Augustine describes miracles as " contra naturam quae nobis est nota," Aquinas without qualification defines them as praeter naturam," " supra et contra naturam."
This affects first of all the existence of angels, in regard to whom Aquinas admits that they are immaterial or separate forms (formae separatae).
D'Artigny says Servetus fit les argumens to a Spanish version of the Summa of Aquinas; this, and divers trait& de grammaire from Latin into Spanish have not been identified.
Raymond Lully, in a dialogue with an infidel thinker, broke a lance in support of the orthodox doctrine, and carried on a crusade against the Arabians in every university; and a disciple of Thomas Aquinas drew up a list (De erroribus philosophorum) of the several delusions and errors of each of the thinkers from Kindi to Averroes.
As far as Aquinas is concerned, if one is to accept that God exists then this must be verifiable in some way.
Aquinas and More carries a complete line of Catholic items for churches and personal use.
Aristotle was named as the source for the virtues that were seen in The Faerie Queene but the influence of Thomas Aquinas is also present.
The purely philosophical theories of Aquinas are explained in the article Scholasticism.
Aquinas regards the souls of men, like the angels, as immaterial forms; and he includes in the soul-unit, so to speak, not merely the anima rationalis of Aristotle, but also the vegetative, sensitive, appetitive and motive functions.