Aqueous sentence examples

aqueous
  • The aqueous solution is turned bluish black by ferrous sulphate containing a ferric salt.

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  • In aqueous solution it gives a red colour with ferric chloride.

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  • telluric acid forms cubic and monoclinic crystals from a hot nitric acid solution, and ammonium fluosilicate gives cubic and hexagonal forms from aqueous solutions between 6° and 13°.

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  • The precipitation of rain from the aqueous plain.

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  • From these results Baeyer concluded that Claus' formula with three para-linkings cannot possibly be correct, for the Q2.5 dihydroterephthalic acid undoubtedly has two ethylene linkages, since it readily takes up two or four atoms of bromine, and is oxidized in warm aqueous solution by alkaline potassium permanganate.

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  • It is only stable in dilute aqueous solution, for on concentration the acid decomposes with formation of sulphuric acid, sulphur dioxide and sulphur.

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  • Ferric chloride colours its aqueous solution violet.

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  • The colloidal sulphur, Ss, described by Debus as a product of the interaction of sulphuretted hydrogen and sulphur dioxide in aqueous solution, is regarded by Spring (Rec. tra y.

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  • They form yellow or bronze-coloured crystals, which decompose on boiling their aqueous solution.

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  • This product melts at 86° C., and becomes anhydrous when heated to 110° C. The anhydrous compound can also be prepared, as hard crusts melting at 146°, by crystallizing concentrated aqueous solutions at 30 to 35°.

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  • The free acid is obtained (in dilute aqueous solution) by the addition of dilute sulphuric acid to an aqueous solution of the barium salt.

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  • In the ordinary process of soap-making the glycerin remains dissolved in the aqueous liquors from which the soap is separated.

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  • represents the heat of neutralization of one gramme-equivalent of caustic soda with nitric acid, each in dilute aqueous solution before being brought into contact.

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  • Its aqueous solution gradually decomposes with evolution of oxygen, behaves as a strong oxidant, and liberates iodine from potassium iodide.

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  • Cobalt fluoride, CoF 2.2H 2 0, is formed when cobalt carbonate is evaporated with an excess of aqueous hydrofluoric acid, separating in rose-red crystalline crusts.

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  • The aqueous solution of the acid is fairly stable at ordinary temperatures.

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  • Soc., 1888, 53, p. 278) is prepared by passing sulphuretted hydrogen gas into a nearly saturated aqueous solution of sulphur dioxide at about o° C. The solution is then allowed to stand for 48 hours and the process repeated many times until the sulphur dioxide is all decomposed.

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  • Aqueous non-oxidizing acids generally have little or no action on lead in the absence of air.

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  • The alkaloid is obtained from an aqueous extract of tobacco by distillation with slaked lime, the distillate being acidified with oxalic acid, concentrated to a syrup and decomposed by potash.

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  • Nicotimine is a colourless liquid which boils at 250 0 -255° C. Its aqueous solution is alkaline.

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  • In aqueous solutions, for instance, a few hydrogen (H) and hydroxyl (OH) ions derived from the water are always present, and will be liberated if the other ions require a higher decomposition voltage and the current be kept so small that hydrogen and hydroxyl ions can be formed fast enough to carry all the current across the junction between solution and electrode.

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  • The fouling of the air that results from the steam-engine, owing to the production of carbonic acid gas and of sulphurous fumes and aqueous vapour, is well known, and its use is now practically abandoned for underground working.

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  • Thomsen by direct experiment found that the heat-capacity of a dilute aqueous solution diverged in general less than i per cent.

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  • It has already been stated that the heats of neutralization of acids and bases in aqueous solution are additively composed of two terms, one being constant for a given base, the other constant for a given acid.

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  • It is somewhat volatile at ordinary temperature, and its aqueous solution possesses a strongly acid reaction.

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  • Lead acetate, Pb(C2H302)2.3H20 (called "sugar" of lead, on account of its sweetish taste), is manufactured by dissolving massicot in aqueous acetic acid.

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  • The ortho-acid, in the form of its aqueous solution, is sometimes used as an antiseptic, under the name of aseptol.

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  • It behaves as a strong oxidant and in aqueous solution is slowly hydrolysed.

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  • In aqueous solution the free acid acts as an oxidizing agent, bleaching indigo and liberating iodine from potassium iodide, or it may act as a reducing agent since it readily tends to pass into nitric acid: consequently it discharges the colour of acid solutions of permanganates and chromates.

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  • If an aqueous solution of methyl acetate be allowed to stand, a slow decomposition goes on.

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  • The temperature coefficient of conductivity has approximately the same value for most aqueous salt solutions.

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  • Cadmium sulphate, CdSO 4, is known in several hydrated forms; being deposited, on spontaneous evaporation of a concentrated aqueous solution, in the form of large monosymmetric crystals of composition 3CdSO 4.8H 2 O, whilst a boiling saturated solution, to which concentrated sulphuric acid has been added, deposits crystals of composition CdSO 4 4H 2 0.

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  • This substance, and also the preceding compound, is converted by aqueous caustic soda into dichlormaleic acid, trichlorethylene, and hydrochloric acid (5) (Th.

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  • Lead nitrate, Pb(N03)2, is obtained by dissolving the metal or oxide in aqueous nitric acid; it forms white crystals, difficultly soluble in cold water, readily in hot water and almost insoluble in strong nitric acid.

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  • Hyposulphurous acid, H 2 S 2 0 4, was first really obtained by Berthollet in 1789 when he showed that iron left in contact with an aqueous solution of sulphur dioxide dissolved without any evolution of gas, whilst C. F.

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  • Hess now observed that in the process of mixing such neutral solutions no thermal effect was produced - that is, neutral salts in aqueous solution could apparently interchange their radicals without evolution or absorption of heat.

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  • It forms a characteristic explosive silver salt on the addition of ammoniacal silver nitrate to its aqueous solution, and an amorphous precipitate which explodes on warming with ammoniacal cuprous chloride.

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  • The phlogistonists endeavoured to introduce chemical notions to support it: Becher, in his Physica subterranea (1669), stated that mineral, vegetable and animal matter contained the same elements, but that more simple combinations prevailed in the mineral kingdom; while Stahl, in his Specimen Becherianum (1702), held the " earthy " principle to predominate in the mineral class, and the " aqueous " and " combustible " in the vegetable and animal classes.

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  • This leads us to examine more closely the part played by water in the electrolysis of aqueous solutions.

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  • It is also readily soluble in solutions of the caustic alkalis, slightly soluble in aqueous ammonia solution, and almost insoluble in sodium carbonate solution.

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  • Its viscid character, and its non-liability to dry and harden by exposure to air, also fit it for various other uses, such as lubrication, &c., whilst its peculiar physical characters, enabling it to blend with either aqueous or oily matters under certain circumstances, render it a useful ingredient in a large number of products of varied kinds.

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  • Carbon bisulphide combines with primary amines to form alkyl dithiocarbamates, which when heated lose sulphuretted hydrogen and leave a residue of a dialkyl thio-urea, CS 2 +2R NH 2 - R NH CSS NH 3 RCS(NHR)2+H2S; or if the aqueous solution of the dithiocarbamate be boiled with mercuric chloride or silver nitrate solution, a mustard oil (q.v.) is formed, R.NH CSS NH3R+HgC12-Hg(R NH CSS)2->2RNCS-}-HgS+H2S.

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  • These are knocked off, ground up with water, freed from metal-particles by elutriation, and the paste of white lead is allowed to set and dry in small conical forms. The German method differs from the Dutch inasmuch as the lead is suspended in a large chamber heated by ordinary means, and there exposed to the simultaneous action of vapour of aqueous acetic acid and of carbon dioxide.

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  • The lake is nowhere of great depth, and about midway numerous mud-banks, marshes, islands and dense growths of aqueous plants stretch across its surface.

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  • They are yellowish-red solids, which behave as weak bases, their salts undergoing hydrolytic dissociation in aqueous solution.

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  • Soc., 18 9 8, 73, p. 35 2) as a colourless liquid by the addition of hydroxylamine hydrochloride to an aqueous solution of formaldehyde in the presence of sodium carbonate; the resulting solution was extracted with ether and the oxime hydrochloride precipitated by gaseous hydrochloric acid, the precipitate being then dissolved in water, the solution exactly neutralized and distilled.

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  • When heated to above 200 it turns brown and produces caramel, a substance possessing a bitter taste, and used, in its aqueous solution or otherwise, under various trade names, for colouring confectionery, spirits, &c. The specific rotation of the plane of polarized light by glucose solutions is characteristic. The specific rotation of a freshly prepared solution is 105°, but this value gradually diminishes to 52.5°, 24 hours sufficing for the transition in the cold, and a few minutes when the solution is boiled.

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  • Thioaldehydes are also known, and are obtained by leading sulphuretted hydrogen into an aqueous solution of acetaldehyde.

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  • Iron, which stands so well against aqueous alkalis, is most violently attacked by the fused reagents.

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  • Its aqueous solution has a faint sweet taste, and is dextro-rotatory, the rotation of a fresh solution being about twice that of an old one.

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  • By heating the nitrate it is obtained as hemimorphous pyramids belonging to the hexagonal system; and by heating the chloride in a current of steam as hexagonal prisms. It is insoluble in water; it dissolves readily in all aqueous acids, with formation of salts.

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  • It crystallizes in prisms which melt at 36° C. and boil at 201 0.8 C. It is soluble in water, and the aqueous solution gives a blue coloration with ferric chloride.

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  • The Central Cordillera consists mainly of crystalline and volcanic rocks, on each side of which are aqueous, in great part Jurassic, strata thrown up almost vertically.

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  • By electrolysing an aqueous solution of the chloride with a mercury cathode, a liquid and a solid amalgam, SrHgn, are obtained; the latter on heating gives a mixture of Sr 2 Hg 5 and SrHg 5, and on distillation an amalgam passes over, and not the metal.

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  • The amorphous form readily slakes with water, and the aqueous solution yields a crystalline hydrated hydroxide approximating in composition to Sr(OH) 2.8H 2 O or Sr(OH) 2.9H 2 O, which on standing in vacuo loses some of its water of crystallization, leaving the monohydrated hydroxide, Sr(OH) 2 H 2 O.

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  • A hydrated dioxide, approximating in composition to SrO 2.8H 2 O, is formed as a crystalline precipitate when hydrogen peroxide is added to an aqueous solution of strontium hydroxide.

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  • It crystallizes in small colourless needles and is easily soluble in water; the concentrated aqueous solution dissolves bromine and iodine readily.

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  • By concentrating the aqueous solution between 90-130° C., or by passing hydrochloric acid gas into a saturated aqueous solution, a second hydrated form of composition, SrC1 2.2H 2 O, is obtained.

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  • When an aqueous solution of the salt of an alkali metal is electrolysed, the Date.

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  • It is apparent that metallic salts of organic acids would, in aqueous solution, be ionized, the positive ion being the metal, and the negative ion the acid residue.

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  • Weith, Ber., 1882, 15, p. 1513), and by the spontaneous hydrolysis of an aqueous solution of cyanogen gas.

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  • The quantity of alcohol present in an aqueous solution is determined by a comparison of its specific gravity with standard tables, or directly by the use of an alcoholometer, which is a hydrometer graduated so as to read per cents by weight (degrees according to Richter) or volume per cents (degrees according to Tralles).

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  • Aqueous alcohol becomes turbid when mixed with benzene, carbon disulphide or paraffin oil; when added to a solution of barium oxide in absolute alcohol, a white precipitate of barium hydroxide is formed.

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  • By crystallizing an aqueous solution, red crystals of AuC1 3.2H 2 O are obtained.

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  • Thus by adding acid sodium sulphite to, or by passing sulphur dioxide at 50° into, a solution of sodium aurate, the salt, 3Na 2 SO 3 Au 2 SO 3.3H20 is obtained, which, when precipitated from its aqueous solution by alcohol, forms a purple powder, appearing yellow or green by reflected light.

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  • Thoulet's solution, an aqueous solution of potassium and mercuric iodides (potassium iodo-mercurate), introduced by Thoulet and subsequently investigated by V.

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  • Rohrbach's solution, an aqueous solution of barium and mercuric iodides, introduced by Carl Rohrbach, has a density of 3.588.

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  • Klein's solution, an aqueous solution of cadmium borotungstate, 2Cd(OH)2-B203.9W03.16H20, introduced by D.

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  • In modern chemistry alkali is a general term used for compounds which have the property of neutralizing acids, and is applied more particularly to the highly soluble hydrates of sodium and potassium and of the three rarer "alkali metals," caesium, rubidium and lithium, also to aqueous ammonia.

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  • This hypothesis, however, does not accord with the theory of the development of the earth from the state of a sphere of molt s en rock surrounded by an atmosphere of gaseous metals by which the first-formed clouds of aqueous vapour must have been absorbed.

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  • It is manufactured by distilling wood in iron retorts at about 50o C., when an aqueous distillate, containing methyl alcohol, acetone, acetic acid and methyl acetic ester, is obtained.

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  • The aqueous product is then dehydrated with potash or lime.

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  • It is insoluble in acids and exists in several hydrated forms. The osmiates, corresponding to the unknown trioxide 0503, are red or green coloured salts; the solutions are only stable in the presence of excess of caustic alkali; on boiling an aqueous solution of the potassium salt it decomposes readily, forming a black precipitate of osmic acid, H20s04.

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  • It dissolves slowly in water, and the aqueous solution is reduced by most metals with precipitation of osmium.

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  • The aqueous solution decomposes rapidly on boiling.

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  • At ordinary temperatures it crystallizes from aqueous solutions in large colourless monoclinic prisms, which effloresce in dry air, and at 35° C. melt in their water of crystallization.

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  • Aqueous solutions deposit crystals containing 2, 4 or 6 molecules of water.

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  • The strong aqueous solution deposits colourless, four-sided prisms of the hydroxy-hydrosulphide, Ca(OH) (SH).

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  • All the ammonia contained in an aqueous solution of the gas may be expelled by boiling.

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  • The aqueous solution of ammonia is very basic in its reactions, and since it is a weak electrolyte, one must assume the solution to contain a certain amount of ammonium hydroxide NH 4 OH, although it is probably chiefly composed of a solution of ammonia in water.

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  • (On the constitution of aqueous ammonia solutions see also Carl Frenzel, Zeit fiir angew.

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  • It is soluble in dilute aqueous alcohol, but insoluble in strong alcohol.

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  • Ammonia gas passed into a strong aqueous solution of the sesquicarbonate converts it into normal ammonium carbonate, (NH 4) 2 CO 3, which can be obtained in the crystalline condition from a solution prepared at about 30° C. This compound on exposure to air gives off ammonia and passes back to ammonium bicarbonate.

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  • The aqueous solution of this salt liberates carbon dioxide on exposure to air or on heating, and becomes alkaline in reaction.

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  • The aqueous solutions of all the carbonates when boiled undergo decomposition with liberation of ammonia and of carbon dioxide.

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  • It is soluble in water, and the aqueous solution on boiling loses ammonia and the acid phosphate NH 4 H 2 PO 4 is formed.

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  • The aqueous solution on boiling loses some ammonia and forms an acid sulphate.

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  • p. 283), if sulphuretted hydrogen is passed into strong aqueous ammonia at ordinary temperature, the compound (NH 4) 2 S�2NH 4 HS is obtained, which, on cooling to o C. and passing more sulphuretted hydrogen, forms the compound (NH4)2S� i 2NH 4 HS.

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  • Only one compound of hydrogen and fluorine is known, namely hydrofluoric acid, HF or H 2 F 2, which was first obtained by C. Scheele in 1771 by decomposing fluor-spar with concentrated sulphuric acid, a method still used for the commercial preparation of the aqueous solution of the acid, the mixture being distilled from leaden retorts and the acid stored in leaden or gutta-percha bottles.

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  • The aqueous solution is strongly acid to litmus and dissolves most metals directly.

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  • Friend, The Theory of Valency (1909), p. iii.) The aqueous solution behaves on concentration similarly to the other halogen acids; E.

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  • But in consequence of the humidity of the climate of England it is better to suppose the air to be (on the average) two-thirds saturated with aqueous vapour, and then the standard temperature will be reduced to 60° F., so as to secure the same standard density; the density of the air being reduced perceptibly by the presence of the aqueous vapour.

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  • Eltekow, Ber., 1878, 11, p. 414); by the action of metals on the halogen compounds Cn.H 20 Br 2 i by boiling the aqueous solution of nitrites of the primary amines (V.

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  • It Is Soluble In Water; The Aqueous Solution Gradually Decomposes On Standing, Forming Carbon Dioxide And Sulphuretted Hydrogen.

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  • soc. chim., 18 94 (3) 11, p. 1129) obtained anilino-derivatives of the paraquinones by the action of an aqueous solution of potassium chromate on an acetic acid solution of para-aminodimethylaniline and phenol: C 6 H 5 OH+H 2 N C 6 H 4 N (CH 3) 2 - *O:C 6 H 4 :N C 6 H 4 N(CH 3) 2; these compounds yield the quinone when heated with mineral acids.

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  • It forms the acid fluoride KHF 2 when dissolved in aqueous hydrofluoric acid, a salt which at a red heat gives the normal fluoride and hydrofluoric acid.

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  • Iodine dissolves in an aqueous solution of the salt to form a dark brown liquid, which on evaporation over sulphuric acid gives black acicular crystals of the tri-iodide, K1 3.

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  • The carbonate, being insoluble in strong alcohol (and many other liquid organic compounds), is much used for dehydration of the corresponding aqueous preparations.

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  • Abraham Gottlob Werner (1750-1817), the famous exponent of the aqueous theory of earth formation, observed in successive geological formations the gradual approach to the forms of existing species.

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  • When alkali is added to aqueous iodine, followed immediately by either soda water or sodium bicarbonate, most of the original iodine is precipitated (R.

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  • The saturated aqueous solution is colourless and fumes strongly on exposure to air; after a time it darkens in colour owing to liberation of iodine.

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  • The peculiar nature of the action between iodine and chlorine in aqueous solution has led to the suggestion that the product is a base, i.e.

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  • They are more easily reduced than the corresponding chlorates; an aqueous solution of hydriodic acid giving free iodine and a metallic oxide, whilst aqueous hydrochloric acid gives iodine trichloride, chlorine, water and a chloride.

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  • In the former process it is obtained in the form of a dilute aqueous solution, in which also the colouring matters of the wine, salts, &c., are dissolved; and this impure acetic acid is what we ordinarily term vinegar.

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  • From these acyl derivatives the elements of water are removed, either by simple heating or by boiling their aqueous solution; this elimination is accompanied by the formation of the azoxime ring.

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  • obtained by fractional distillation of the aqueous distillate, special precautions being necessary owing to the excessively poisonous nature of the free acid: K 4 Fe(NC),±3H 2 SO 4 = 2K2S04+FeS04+6HCN.

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  • and is readily soluble in water, but the solution is unstable and decomposes on standing, giving amorphous insoluble substances, and ammonium formate, oxalic acid, &c. An aqueous solution of hydrogen peroxide converts it into oxamide, (CONH 2) 2, and reduction by zinc and hydrochloric acid gives methylamine.

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  • It is a very weak monobasic acid, and the aqueous solution has a very low electric conductivity.

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  • The alkali and alkaline earth cyanides are soluble in water and in alcohol, and their aqueous solution, owing to hydrolytic dissociation, possesses an alkaline character.

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  • Its aqueous solution is not an electrolyte, and consequently does not give the reactions of the mercury and cyanogen ions.

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  • Gautier (Ann., 1869, 151, p. 239) by the action of alkyl iodides on silver cyanide, and the distillation of the resulting compound with potassium cyanide in concentrated aqueous solution: RIR Ag(NC) 2 -)R NC+KAg(NC)2.

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  • 15, p. 371), a somewhat similar decomposition being shown by chloral and aqueous potash (J.

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  • The violet form gives a purple solution, and all its chlorine is precipitated by silver nitrate, the aqueous solution containing four ions, probably Cr(OH 2) 6 and three chlorine ions.

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  • The green salt appears to dissociate in aqueous solution into two ions, namely CrC1 2 (OH 2) 4 and one chlorine ion, since practically only one-third of the chlorine is precipitated by silver nitrate solution at o° C. Two of the six water molecules are easily removed in a desiccator, and the salt formed, CrC13.4H20, resembles the original salt in properties, only one-third of the chlorine being precipitated by silver nitrate.

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  • The green salt in aqueous solution, on stand- ing, gradually passes back to the violet form.

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  • Chromium ammonium sulphate, (NH4)2S04 Cr2(S04)3.24H20, results on mixing equivalent quantities of chromic sulphate and ammonium sulphate in aqueous solution and allowing the mixture to crystallize.

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  • Paschen proved that the emission spectra of water vapour as observed in an oxyhydrogen flame, and of carbon dioxide as observed in a hydrocarbon flame may be obtained by heating aqueous vapour and carbon dioxide respectively to a few hundred degrees above the freezing point.

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  • 5), and consequently its salts are appreciably hydrolysed in aqueous solution.

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  • He definitely established the absorptive power of clear aqueous vapour - a point of great meteorological significance.

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  • To explain the electrical properties of sulphuric acid in aqueous solution, the supposition of three ions, two of hydrogen and one of the chemical group S04, is necessary.

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  • The second of these essays opens with the striking remark, "There can scarcely be a doubt entertained respecting the reducibility of all elastic fluids of whatever kind, into liquids; and we ought not to despair of effecting it in low temperatures and by strong pressures exerted upon the unmixed gases"; further, after describing experiments to ascertain the tension of aqueous vapour at different points between 32° and 212° F., he concludes, from observations on the vapour of six different liquids, "that the variation of the force of vapour from all liquids is the same for the same variation of temperature, reckoning from vapour of any given force."

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  • Many metals, of which copper, silver and nickel are types, can be readily won or purified by the electrolysis of aqueous solutions, and theoretically it may be feasible to treat aluminium in an identical manner.

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  • Alumina dissolves readily enough in aqueous hydrochloric acid to yield a solution of the chloride, but neither this solution, nor that containing sodium chloride, can be evaporated to dryness without decomposition.

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  • An aqueous solu tion of fuchsine is decolorized on the addition of sulphurous acid, the easily soluble fuchsine sulphurous acid being formed.

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  • The 1 5 diketones of this type, when heated with aqueous ammonia, form pyridine derivatives.

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  • In these solid solutions, as in aqueous ones, the ratios in which the different chemical substances are present are not fixed or definite, but vary from case to case, not per saltum as between definite chemical compounds, but by infinitesimal steps.

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  • The different substances are as it were dissolved in each other in a state which has the indefiniteness of composition, the absolute merging of identity, and the weakness of reciprocal chemical attraction, characteristic of aqueous solutions.

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  • Replacement of -NH 2 by-OH:-The amine is diazotized and the aqueous solution of the diazonium salt is heated, nitrogen being eliminated and a phenol formed.

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  • Metallic Diazo Derivatives.-Benzene diazonium chloride is decomposed by silver oxide in aqueous solution, with the formation Of benzene diazonium hydroxide, C 6 H 5 N(OH): N.

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  • It has also been shown that when different salts of the amine are used, their catalytic influence varies in amount and is almost proportional to their degree of ionization in aqueous solution.

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  • It is prepared by the action of aqueous or alcoholic solutions of the caustic alkalis on the nitroso-acidyl derivatives of methylamine (such, for example, as nitrosomethyl urethane, NO.

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  • The above methods give a dilute aqueous solution of hydrogen peroxide, which may be concentrated somewhat by evaporation over sulphuric acid in vacuo.

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  • The dilute aqueous solution is very unstable, giving up oxygen readily, and decomposing with explosive violence at 100° C. An aqueous solution containing more than 1.5% hydrogen peroxide reacts slightly acid.

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  • It is a colourless oily liquid of strongly acid reaction; its aqueous solution decomposes on standing and on heating it forms diethyl sulphate and sulphuric acid.

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  • Many tropical plants present on the upper surface of their leaves several layers of compressed cells beneath the epidermis which serve for storage of water and are known as aqueous tissue.

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  • synthetically prepared by the reduction of benzoyl chloride; by the action of nitrous acid on benzylamine; by boiling benzyl chloride with an aqueous solution of potassium carbonate, or by the so-called "Cannizzaro" reaction, in which benzaldehyde is shaken up with caustic potash, one half of the aldehyde being oxidized to benzoic acid, and the other half reduced to the alcohol.

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  • It is easily soluble in water and alcohol, and is thrown out of its aqueous solution by the addition of calcium chloride.

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  • It crystallizes in deliquescent prisms and melts with partial decomposition at 119-120° C. It behaves as a ketonic acid, being reduced in aqueous solution by sodium amalgam to tartronic acid, and also combining with phenylhydrazine and hydroxylamine.

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  • By continued boiling of its aqueous solution it is decomposed into carbon dioxide and glyoxylic acid, C2H404.

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  • On cooling a saturated solution to - 10°, or by cooling a solution in hot hydrochloric acid, the hydrate NaCI.2H 2 O separates; on further cooling an aqueous solution to - 20° a cryohydrate containing 23.7% of the salt is deposited.

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  • It is also decomposed by warm aqueous solutions of caustic alkalis, with evolution of ammonia and carbon dioxide.

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  • Urea may be recognized by its crystalline oxalate and nitrate, which are produced on adding oxalic and nitric acids to concentrated solutions of the base; by the white precipitate formed on adding mercuric nitrate to the neutral aqueous solutions of urea; and by the so-called "biuret" reaction.

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  • Freund, Ber., 1895, 28, p. 94 6; 1896, 29, p. 2501), crystallizes in long needles, which melt at 181-183° C. The addition of sodium nitrite to an aqueous solution of its hydrochloride converts it into amido-triaz / N N sulphol S< 1.

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  • By the action of sodium amalgam on an aqueous solution of the acid, benzyl alcohol, tetrahydrobenzoic acid and hexahydrobenzoic acid are formed.

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  • It is only known in aqueous solution.

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  • The hydrated chloride, MnCl2.4H2O, is obtained in rose-red crystals by dissolving the metal or its carbonate in aqueous hydrochloric acid and concentrating the solution.

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  • The potassium salt, KMnO 4, may be prepared by passing chlorine or carbon dioxide through an aqueous solution of potassium manganate, or by the electrolytic oxidation of the manganate at the anode [German patent 101710 (1898)].

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  • Ammonium Permanganate, NH 4 Mn0 4, explodes violently on rubbing, and its aqueous solution decomposes on boiling (W.

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  • It forms yellow crystals soluble in water; the aqueous solution on standing gradually depositing a basic salt.

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  • We marvel at the obstinacy with which he, with inadequate mathematical knowledge, opposed the Newtonian theory of light and colour; and at his championship of "Neptunism," the theory of aqueous origin, as opposed to "Vulcanism," that of igneous origin of the earth's crust.

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  • When this takes place in an aqueous solution, the alkaline metal at once reacts with the water, so that a solution of an alkaline hydrate is formed while hydrogen escapes.

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  • Gallium forms colourless salts, which in neutral dilute aqueous solutions are converted on heating into basic salts.

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  • On boiling with aqueous caustic soda, it yields ortho-nitrophenol.

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  • It forms yellow crystals, which melt at 57.5° C. When boiled with dilute aqueous caustic soda it yields 2.4 dinitrophenol.

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  • It is readily soluble in acids and in an aqueous solution of ammonia.

    0
    0
  • Ann., 1830, 96, p. 155), or in the form of blue octahedra by evaporating a solution of nickel chloride in aqueous ammonia.

    0
    0
  • Evaporation of the aqueous solution at 15° C. deposits a crystalline hydrated hydroxide of composition RbOH 2H 2 O (R.

    0
    0
  • Rubidium chloride, RbC1, is formed on burning rubidium in chlorine, or on dissolving the hydroxide in aqueous hydrochloric acid.

    0
    0
  • The normal sulphide, Rb 2 S 4H 2 O, is colourless, and when heated in aqueous solution with the requisite amount of sulphur is transformed into the yellow tetrasulphide, Rb 2 S 4.2H 2 O.

    0
    0
  • Tungstic acid, H 2 W0 4, is obtained as H 2 W0 4 H 2 0 by precipitating a tungstate with cold acid; this substance has a bitter taste and its aqueous solution reddens litmus.

    0
    0
  • It is readily soluble in water, and on boiling the aqueous solution a white hydrate is first deposited which after a time is converted into the trioxide.

    0
    0
  • The strongest aqueous solution of hydrochloric acid at 15° C. contains 42.9% of the acid, and has a specific gravity of 1.212.

    0
    0
  • Perfectly dry hydrochloric acid gas has no action on metals, but in aqueous solution it dissolves many of them with evolution of hydrogen and formation of chlorides.

    0
    0
  • The acid is only known in aqueous solution, and only dilute solutions can be distilled without decomposition.

    0
    0
  • A solution of sodium hypochlorite (Eau de Javel), which can be prepared by passing chlorine into a cold aqueous solution of caustic soda, has been extensively used for bleaching purposes.

    0
    0
  • The aqueous solution can be concentrated in vacuo over sulphuric acid until it contains 40% of chloric acid.

    0
    0
  • The crystalline hydrate melts at 50° C. The pure acid decomposes slowly on standing, but is stable in dilute aqueous solution.

    0
    0
  • Aqueous solutions of the acid are decomposed in sunlight by uranium salts, with evolution of carbon dioxide and the formation of propionic acid.

    0
    0
  • The many and extraordinary monuments of aqueous energy include massive columns wrenched from their place in the ceiling and prostrate on the floor; the Hollow Column, 40 ft.

    0
    0
  • He showed that all conductors liquid and solid might be divided into two classes which he called respectively conductors of the first and of the second class, the first embracing metals and carbon in its conducting form, and the second class, water, aqueous solutions of various kinds, and generally those now called electrolytes.

    0
    0
  • The copper is readily replaced by iron, a knife-blade placed in an aqueous solution being covered immediately with a bright red deposit of copper.

    0
    0
  • Common salt precipitates it from aqueous solutions.

    0
    0
  • The tannin of oak, C/9H16010, which is found, mixed with gallic acid, ellagic acid and quercite, in oak bark, is a red powder; its aqueous solution is coloured dark blue by ferric chloride, and boiling with dilute sulphuric acid gives oak red or phlobaphene.

    0
    0
  • It may be detected by the addition of an aqueous solution of potassium cyanide, with which it gives a violet-red coloration, due to the formation of isopurpuric acid.

    0
    0
  • By mixing equal quantities of the two forms in aqueous solution heat is evolved and racemic acid, (C4H606)2.2H20, is obtained.

    0
    0
  • It crystallizes in prisms, and in the anhydrous state melts at 140° C. On prolonged boiling with aqueous hydrochloric acid it yields racemic acid.

    0
    0
  • Barium bromate, Ba(Br03)2, can be prepared by the action of excess of bromine on barytawater, or by decomposing a boiling aqueous solution of loo parts of potassium bromate with a similar solution of 74 parts of crystallized barium chloride.

    0
    0
  • It crystallizes in the monoclinic system, and separates from its aqueous solution as Ba(Br03)2.H20.

    0
    0
  • From a supersaturated aqueous solution of borax, the pentahydrate, Na2B407.5H20, is deposited when evaporation takes place at somewhat high temperatures.

    0
    0
  • Boric acid (q.v.) being only a weak acid, its salts readily undergo hydrolytic dissociation in aqueous solution, and this property can be readily shown with a concentrated aqueous solution of borax, for by adding litmus and then just sufficient acetic acid to turn the litmus red, the addition of a large volume of water to the solution changes the colour back to blue again.

    0
    0
  • Cochineal owes its tinctorial power to the presence of a substance termed cochinealin or carminic acid, C17H18010, which may be prepared from the aqueous decoction of cochineal.

    0
    0
  • Antimony trioxide occurs as the minerals valentinite and senarmontite, and can be artificially prepared by burning antimony in air; by heating the metal in steam to a bright red heat; by oxidizing melted antimony with litharge; by decomposing antimony trichloride with an aqueous solution of sodium carbonate, or by the action of dilute nitric acid on the metal.

    0
    0
  • Antimony trifluoride, SbF 3, is obtained by dissolving the trioxide in aqueous hydrofluoric acid or by distilling antimony with mercuric fluoride.

    0
    0
  • It forms a fine dark orange powder, insoluble in water, but readily soluble in aqueous solutions of the caustic alkalis and alkaline carbonates.

    0
    0
  • Olive oil and aqueous alcohol (sp. g.

    0
    0
  • The rodlets after three hours' culture in a drop of aqueous become septate later, and spores are developed in the segments.

    0
    0
  • 138, 1849) recommends kneading them, when peeled and bruised, in an aqueous solution of to of their weight of sodium carbonate.

    0
    0
  • Ferric chloride colours its aqueous solution a dark violet, and bromine water precipitates tribromresorcin.

    0
    0
  • It crystallizes in shining rhombic prisms from its aqueous solution and as delicate needles from alcohol.

    0
    0
  • The leading solvents are aqueous solutions of thiosulphates, unsystematically but generally termed hyposulphites.

    0
    0
  • A colloidal selenium was obtained by C. Paal and C. Koch (Ber., 1905, 38, p. 526) by reducing selenious acid dissolved in an aqueous solution of sodium protalbate with hydrazine hydrate and hydrochloric acid, the precipitate obtained being then dissolved in sodium carbonate.

    0
    0
  • Its aqueous solution is unstable, gradually depositing red selenium on standing.

    0
    0
  • A more complex cyanide, Se3(CN)2, is obtained by passing a current of chlorine and air into an aqueous solution of potassium selenocyanide (A.

    0
    0
  • Potassium selenocyanide, KSeCN, is obtained by the action of selenium on a concentrated aqueous solution of potassium cyanide, or by heating selenium with anhydrous potassium ferrocyanide (W.

    0
    0
  • Ferric chloride gives a green coloration with the aqueous solution, whilst the alkaline solution rapidly changes to a green and finally to a black colour on exposure to the air.

    0
    0
  • By cooling the aqueous solution, hyacinth-red octahedra of a crystalline hydrate of composition Br 4H 2 O or Br2.8H20 are obtained (Bakhuis Roozeboom, Zeits.

    0
    0
  • For oxidizing purposes bromine is generally employed in aqueous and in alkaline solutions, one of its most important applications being by Emil Fischer (Berichte, 1889, 22, p. 362) in his researches on the sugars.

    0
    0
  • paraffin-wax), while an aqueous solution may be obtained by passing sulphuretted hydrogen through bromine water.

    0
    0
  • It can be condensed to a liquid, which boils at - 64.9°C. (under a pressure of 738.2 mm.), and, by still further cooling, gives colourless crystals which melt at - 88.5° C. It is readily soluble in water, forming the aqueous acid, which when saturated at 0° C. has a specific gravity of 1.78.

    0
    0
  • When boiled, the aqueous acid loses either acid or water until a solution of constant boiling point is obtained, containing 48% of the acid and boiling at 126° C. under atmospheric pressure; should the pressure, however, vary, the strength of the solution boiling at a constant temperature varies also.

    0
    0
  • Hydrobromic acid and its salts can be readily detected by the addition of chlorine water to their aqueous solutions, when bromine is liberated; or by warming with concentrated sulphuric acid and manganese dioxide, the same result being obtained.

    0
    0
  • The aqueous solution is light yellow in colour, and possesses strong bleaching properties.

    0
    0
  • The acid is only known in the form of its aqueous solution; this is, however, very unstable, decomposing on being heated to 100° C. into water, oxygen and bromine.

    0
    0
  • They are stable towards aqueous alkalis, but on digestion with moist silver oxide yield the phosphonium hydroxides, which are stronger bases than the caustic alkalis.

    0
    0
  • It is a monobasic acid forming salts which are permanent in air, but which are gradually oxidized in aqueous solution.

    0
    0
  • Hypophosphoric acid, H 4 P20 6 or H2P03, discovered by Salzer in 1877 among the oxidation products of phosphorus by moist air, may be prepared by oxidizing phosphorus in an aqueous solution of copper nitrate, or by oxidizing sticks of phosphorus under water, neutralizing with sodium carbonate, forming the lead salt and decomposing this with sulphuretted hydrogen (J.

    0
    0
  • The aqueous solution may be boiled without decomposition, but on concentration it yields phosphorous and phosphoric acids.

    0
    0
  • Methyl conine, C 9 H 19 N or C8H14 N(CH3), is synthesized from conine and an aqueous solution of potassium methyl sulphate at

    0
    0
  • It may also be produced by heating an aqueous solution of di-iodosalicylic acid with excess of alkaline carbonate, by acting on dibromosalicylic acid with moist silver oxide, and by other methods.

    0
    0
  • Drewson, Ber., 1883, 16, p. 2207); by passing the vapour of allyl aniline over heated lead oxide; by the condensation of ortho-aminobenzaldehyde with acetaldehyde in the presence of aqueous.

    0
    0
  • Ordinary sulphuric acid, H 2 SO 4, may be prepared by dissolving sulphur trioxide in water, a reaction accompanied by a great evolution of heat; by the gradual oxidation of an aqueous solution of sulphur dioxide, a fact which probably explains the frequent occurrence of sulphuric acid in the natural waters rising in volcanic districts; or by deflagrating a mixture of sulphur and nitre in large glass bells or jars, absorbing the vapours in water and concentrating the solution.

    0
    0
  • The behaviour of aqueous solutions of sulphuric acid is very interesting.

    0
    0
  • This basic acid yields a monobrom derivative which, by the action of aqueous potash, gives the corresponding hydroxycyclo-butane carboxylic acid, C 4 H 6 (OH) CO 2 H.

    0
    0
  • 3.5) is obtained by reducing an aqueous solution of phloroglucin with sodium (W.

    0
    0
  • It is formed by the reduction of triquinoyl by aqueous sulphurous acid, or in the form of its potassium salt by washing potassium hexa-oxybenzene with alcohol (R.

    0
    0
  • When escaping from the acid tower, the gas contains about% NH 3, and has a temperature of about 80° C. and is saturated with aqueous vapour.

    0
    0
  • van Bemmelen has shown that the red hydrates are really colloids, the amount of water retained being such that its vapour pressure equals the pressure of the aqueous vapour in the superincumbent atmosphere.

    0
    0
  • Ferric chloride, FeCl31 known in its aqueous solution to Glauber as oleum martis, may be obtained anhydrous by the action of dry chlorine on the metal at a moderate red-heat, or by passing hydrochloric acid gas over heated ferric oxide.

    0
    0
  • Many oxychlorides are known; soluble forms are obtained by dissolving precipitated ferric hydrate in ferric chloride, whilst insoluble compounds result when ferrous chloride is oxidized in air, or by boiling for some time aqueous solutions of ferric chloride.

    0
    0
  • Alcohol also throws down the salt from aqueous solution, the composition of the precipitate varying with the amount of salt and precipitant employed.

    0
    0
  • The thorough saturation of the narrow space with aqueous vapour, and the presence of drain water in the cutting, were probably their chief preservatives - assisted by the high even temperature always found in the deeper headings of coal mines, and by the enormous compression of the confined air.

    0
    0
  • Its aqueous solution is strongly alkaline, and with acids it forms well-defined stable salts.

    0
    0
  • For example, on boiling an aqueous solution of a hypochlorite, a chlorate and a chloride results, part of the original salt being oxidized and part reduced: 3NaOC1= NaC103-2NaC1.

    0
    0
  • Metavanadic acid is obtained in the form of yellow scales by boiling copper vanadate with an aqueous solution of sulphur dioxide.

    0
    0
  • His aspect of the heavens told him that in that year three planets would meet in the aqueous sign of Pisces.

    0
    0
  • The opinion that it is of aqueous origin (and probably dates from the close of the glacial time) has the weight of authority.

    0
    0
  • Ferric chloride gives a bluishviolet coloration with the aqueous solution.

    0
    0
  • It is laevo-rotatory in aqueous or in alkaline solution, and dextro-rotatory in acid solution (L.

    0
    0
  • It is dextrorotatory in aqueous or alkaline solution, and laevo-rotatory in acid solution.

    0
    0
  • By evaporation of its aqueous solution at temperatures above 30° C. it may be obtained in the anhydrous condition.

    0
    0
  • Concentration of the aqueous solution in a desiccator gives a deposit of crystals of a very deliquescent salt, H21n2(S04)4.8H20.

    0
    0
  • The fat is then drawn off the aqueous (gluey) layer, and strained through sieves or filters.

    0
    0
  • On standing, the distillate separates into two layers, an aqueous and an oily layer, the oil floating on or sinking through the water according to its specific gravity.

    0
    0
  • They are odourless and tasteless, and some yield clear aqueous solutions - the real gums - while others swell up and will not percolate filter paper - the vegetable mucilages.

    0
    0
  • The acid is a "weak" acid, being ionized only to a very slight extent in dilute aqueous solution.

    0
    0
  • The vaccine is suspended in the aqueous phase of an oil adjuvant emulsion.

    0
    0
  • Bibliographic Information The facile hydrolysis of chlorine nitrate in aqueous sulfate aerosols.

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    0
  • The aqueous solution is slightly alkaline, with a pH about 8.2.

    0
    0
  • Usually the pH is made more alkaline by hydrolysis of urea (NH 2 CONH 2) in boiling aqueous solution.

    0
    0
  • Ammonia and its aqueous solution form complexes called amines with many salts.

    0
    0
  • anions in aqueous solution.

    0
    0
  • aqueous solubility of isoflavones is low.

    0
    0
  • aqueous humor.

    0
    0
  • aqueous potassium hydroxide as electrolyte.

    0
    0
  • aqueous corrosion and high temperature degradation.

    0
    0
  • aqueous ethanol, all the hydrocarbons were found to move unimpeded through the columns.

    0
    0
  • aqueous lotions.

    0
    0
  • This very aqueous route has only been partially surveyed.

    0
    0
  • Healthy Direct's Sage tablets have been formulated using aqueous (water-based) extraction methods rather than alcohol-based.

    0
    0
  • Know how to distinguish alkenes (as unsaturated hydrocarbons) from alkanes (as saturated hydrocarbons) using addition reactions with aqueous bromine.

    0
    0
  • Aqueous carboxymethyl cellulose solutions are used, occasionally with the inclusion of bovine serum.

    0
    0
  • This clean, nearly colorless, concentrated aqueous solution will benefit all of your plants.

    0
    0
  • combinatorial optimization of a neutral receptor that binds inorganic anions in aqueous solution.

    0
    0
  • conformation of extracellular matrix molecules in aqueous solution.

    0
    0
  • Also, due to their extended conformation, arabinoxylans exhibit a very high viscosity in aqueous solution.

    0
    0
  • Program areas include: aqueous corrosion of metals, high temperature degradation, degradation of polymers and polymeric coatings and corrosion in concrete.

    0
    0
  • cradle cap can be loosened with a mixture of salicylic acid in aqueous cream, which is then washed out with baby shampoo.

    0
    0
  • dilute nitric acid followed by aqueous silver nitrate solution.

    0
    0
  • Subsequent acid oxidation of the type used on the original material again yielded an aqueous dispersion.

    0
    0
  • In a 0.1 M aqueous solution of NaCl the average distance between the fully dissociated ions is about 0.8 nm.

    0
    0
  • dyeing process can result in up to 60 ppm of color in the aqueous effluent.

    0
    0
  • Know that aqueous solutions of ionic compounds will also undergo electrolysis.

    0
    0
  • For particles in aqueous solution the interparticle forces are predominantly electrostatic in origin.

    0
    0
  • If you are not prescribed an emollient you can buy a big tub of Aqueous Cream for around £ 3 at most pharmacies.

    0
    0
  • Different brands of simple topical emollients such as aqueous cream, oily cream and emulsifying ointment should not influence the efficacy of the treatment.

    0
    0
  • Assuming the corneal thickness = 1 unit, assess the width of the " aqueous gap " from corneal endothelium to iris.

    0
    0
  • The partitioning of natural and synthetic estrogens between aqueous and solid phases in river systems.

    0
    0
  • At 50% aqueous ethanol, all the hydrocarbons were found to move unimpeded through the columns.

    0
    0
  • Positive patch test reactions to the latex and to an aqueous extract of the leaves and latex were observed.

    0
    0
  • fixative most commonly used is a 4% aqueous solution of formaldehyde, at neutral pH.

    0
    0
  • A more reactive halogen can displace a less reactive halogen from an aqueous solution of its salt.

    0
    0
  • The eyes are especially sensitive to microwaves, whose energy is readily absorbed by the internal fluid, the aqueous humor.

    0
    0
  • They use nickel and cadmium as electrodes and aqueous potassium hydroxide as electrolyte.

    0
    0
  • inactivated with formalin and suspended in the aqueous phase of an oil adjuvant emulsion.

    0
    0
  • In addition, the alcohol-based lotions are more effective than the aqueous lotions.

    0
    0
  • membranous vesicles which form spontaneously when many phospholipids are dispersed in aqueous media.

    0
    0
  • The samples were extracted with 80 per cent aqueous methanol at room temperature, using a procedure based on that of Barnes et al.

    0
    0
  • nitric acid followed by aqueous silver nitrate solution.

    0
    0
  • nitrobenzene layer, and discard the upper aqueous layer.

    0
    0
  • Products such as aqueous cream and emulsifying ointment can be used as soap substitutes for hand washing or when bathing.

    0
    0
  • patch test reactions to the latex and to an aqueous extract of the leaves and latex were observed.

    0
    0
  • For neurolytic blocks (arterial insufficiency) 3 - 5 ml 6% aqueous phenol is injected.

    0
    0
  • End Sealing: Ends should be sealed immediately after cutting using a clear aqueous wax end sealer to reduce end checking.

    0
    0
  • self-sealing stab incision in the temporal cornea to release aqueous.

    0
    0
  • Further impurities are removed using aqueous sodium hydroxide to neutralize free acids and steam which removes volatile compounds.

    0
    0
  • Paragraph 3: The aqueous solubility of isoflavones is low.

    0
    0
  • Sulfur hexafluoride is an inert, innocuous gas, poorly soluble in aqueous solutions.

    0
    0
  • soluble in aqueous solutions.

    0
    0
  • sulphurr hexafluoride is an inert, innocuous gas, poorly soluble in aqueous solutions.

    0
    0
  • syrupy solution useful as an aqueous mountant.

    0
    0
  • An aqueous extract of guaraná Paullinia cupana) decreases platelet thromboxane synthesis.

    0
    0
  • The process may be accelerated by exhausting the desiccator; this so-called vacuum desiccation is especially suitable for the concentration of aqueous solutions of readily decomposable substances.

    0
    0
  • Berglund (Berichte, 18 74, 7, p. 469), in aqueous solution, by dissolving ammonium cobaltocobaltisulphite (NH4)2C02 [(S03) 6 'C02] 14H 2 O in dilute hydrochloric or nitric acids, or by decomposition of its silver salt with hydrochloric acid.

    0
    0
  • By the addition of excess of ammonia to its aqueous solution, in the complete absence of air, a blue precipitate of a basic nitrate of the composition 6C00 N 2 0 6 5H 2 O is obtained.

    0
    0
  • From its aqueous solution, concentrated hydrochloric acid precipitates hydrocobalticyanic acid, H 3 Co(CN) 61 as a colourless solid which is very deliquescent, and is not attacked by concentrated hydrochloric and nitric acids.

    0
    0
  • The above series of salts show striking differences in their behaviour towards reagents; thus, aqueous solutions of the luteo chlorides are strongly ionized, as is shown by their high electric conductivity; and all their chlorine is precipitated on the addition of silver nitrate solution.

    0
    0
  • The aqueous solution, however, does not show the ordinary reactions of cobalt or of ammonia, and so it is to be presumed that the salt ionizes into [Co(NH 3) 6] and 3C1'.

    0
    0
  • Thus, Pasteur showed that Penicillium glaucum, when grown in an aqueous solution of ammonium racemate, decomposed the dextro-tartrate, leaving the laevotartrate, and the solution which was originally inactive to polarized light became dextro-rotatory.

    0
    0
  • It dissolves readily in water and the aqueous solution decomposes on standing; a dark-brown flocculent precipitate of azulmic acid, C 4 H 5 N 5 0, separating whilst ammonium oxalate, urea and hydrocyanic acid are found in the solution.

    0
    0
  • Nicotimine is a colourless liquid which boils at 250 0 -255° C. Its aqueous solution is alkaline.

    0
    0
  • Cadmium chloride and iodide have been shown to behave in an anomalous way in aqueous solution (W.

    0
    0
  • All tadpoles are provided with more or less distinct lines of muciferous sensory crypts or canals, which stand in immediate relation to the nerve branches and are regarded as organs of a special sense possessed by aquatic vertebrates, feeling, in its broadest sense, having been admitted as their possible use, and the function of determining waves of vibration in the aqueous medium having been suggested.

    0
    0
  • The aqueous vapour in the atmosphere is transparent to luminous but opaque to obscure heat-rays.

    0
    0
  • Soc., 1888, 53, p. 278) is prepared by passing sulphuretted hydrogen gas into a nearly saturated aqueous solution of sulphur dioxide at about o° C. The solution is then allowed to stand for 48 hours and the process repeated many times until the sulphur dioxide is all decomposed.

    0
    0
  • Aqueous and alcoholic solutions of ammonia convert carbon bisulphide into ammonium dithiocarbamate, which readily breaks down into ammonium thiocyanate and sulphuretted hydrogen (A.

    0
    0
  • telluric acid forms cubic and monoclinic crystals from a hot nitric acid solution, and ammonium fluosilicate gives cubic and hexagonal forms from aqueous solutions between 6° and 13°.

    0
    0
  • This product melts at 86° C., and becomes anhydrous when heated to 110° C. The anhydrous compound can also be prepared, as hard crusts melting at 146°, by crystallizing concentrated aqueous solutions at 30 to 35°.

    0
    0
  • When heated to above 200 it turns brown and produces caramel, a substance possessing a bitter taste, and used, in its aqueous solution or otherwise, under various trade names, for colouring confectionery, spirits, &c. The specific rotation of the plane of polarized light by glucose solutions is characteristic. The specific rotation of a freshly prepared solution is 105°, but this value gradually diminishes to 52.5°, 24 hours sufficing for the transition in the cold, and a few minutes when the solution is boiled.

    0
    0
  • By concentrating the aqueous solution between 90-130° C., or by passing hydrochloric acid gas into a saturated aqueous solution, a second hydrated form of composition, SrC1 2.2H 2 O, is obtained.

    0
    0
  • The present article deals with processes that involve the electrolysis of aqueous solutions, whilst those in which electricity is used in the manufacture of chemical products at furnace temperatures are treated under Electrometallurgy, although, strictly speaking, in some cases (e.g.

    0
    0
  • Thus by adding acid sodium sulphite to, or by passing sulphur dioxide at 50° into, a solution of sodium aurate, the salt, 3Na 2 SO 3 Au 2 SO 3.3H20 is obtained, which, when precipitated from its aqueous solution by alcohol, forms a purple powder, appearing yellow or green by reflected light.

    0
    0
  • At ordinary temperatures it crystallizes from aqueous solutions in large colourless monoclinic prisms, which effloresce in dry air, and at 35° C. melt in their water of crystallization.

    0
    0
  • Ammonia gas passed into a strong aqueous solution of the sesquicarbonate converts it into normal ammonium carbonate, (NH 4) 2 CO 3, which can be obtained in the crystalline condition from a solution prepared at about 30° C. This compound on exposure to air gives off ammonia and passes back to ammonium bicarbonate.

    0
    0
  • p. 283), if sulphuretted hydrogen is passed into strong aqueous ammonia at ordinary temperature, the compound (NH 4) 2 S�2NH 4 HS is obtained, which, on cooling to o C. and passing more sulphuretted hydrogen, forms the compound (NH4)2S� i 2NH 4 HS.

    0
    0
  • But in consequence of the humidity of the climate of England it is better to suppose the air to be (on the average) two-thirds saturated with aqueous vapour, and then the standard temperature will be reduced to 60° F., so as to secure the same standard density; the density of the air being reduced perceptibly by the presence of the aqueous vapour.

    0
    0
  • Large quantities of carbonate used to be manufactured from the aqueous residue left in the distillation of beet-root spirit, i.e.

    0
    0
  • Oxidizing agents (Cl, Br, H202, &c.) convert it into potassium ferricyanide (see below), a similar result being attained by the electrolysis of its aqueous solution: 2K 4 Fe(NC)s + 2H 2 0 = 2KOH + H2 + 2K 3 Fe(NC) 6.

    0
    0
  • The green salt appears to dissociate in aqueous solution into two ions, namely CrC1 2 (OH 2) 4 and one chlorine ion, since practically only one-third of the chlorine is precipitated by silver nitrate solution at o° C. Two of the six water molecules are easily removed in a desiccator, and the salt formed, CrC13.4H20, resembles the original salt in properties, only one-third of the chlorine being precipitated by silver nitrate.

    0
    0
  • The second of these essays opens with the striking remark, "There can scarcely be a doubt entertained respecting the reducibility of all elastic fluids of whatever kind, into liquids; and we ought not to despair of effecting it in low temperatures and by strong pressures exerted upon the unmixed gases"; further, after describing experiments to ascertain the tension of aqueous vapour at different points between 32° and 212° F., he concludes, from observations on the vapour of six different liquids, "that the variation of the force of vapour from all liquids is the same for the same variation of temperature, reckoning from vapour of any given force."

    0
    0
  • It reacts with sodium ethylate to form ortho-formic ester, CH(OC 2 H 5) 3, and when heated with aqueous ammonia for some hours at 200-220° C. gives carbon monoxide and ammonium formate, 2CHC1 3 + 7N11 3 -13H 2 0= NH 4 HCO 2 + C0+6NH4C1 (G.

    0
    0
  • These compounds may be divided into two classes, namely, the true diazo compounds, characterized by the grouping -N=N-, and the diazonium compounds, characterized by the grouping N: N < The diazonium compounds were first discovered by P. Griess (Ann., 1858,, 06, pp. 123 et seq.), and may be prepared by the action of nitrous fumes on a well-cooled solution of a salt of a primary amine, C 6 H 5 NH 2 HNO 3 HNO 2 = C 6 H 5 N 2 .NO 3 2H20, or, as is more usually the case (since the diazonium salts themselves are generally used only in aqueous solution) by the addition of a well-cooled solution of potassium or sodium nitrite to a well-cooled dilute acid solution of the primary amine.

    0
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  • The constitution of the diazonium groupN 2 -X, may be inferred from the following facts :-The group C6H6N2-behaves in many respects similarly to an alkali metal, and even more so to the ammonium group, since it is capable of forming colourless neutral salts with mineral acids, which in dilute aqueous solution are strongly ionized, but do not show any trace of hydrolytic dissociation (A.

    0
    0
  • The dilute aqueous solution is very unstable, giving up oxygen readily, and decomposing with explosive violence at 100° C. An aqueous solution containing more than 1.5% hydrogen peroxide reacts slightly acid.

    0
    0
  • ] Hydrogen peroxide behaves very frequently as a powerful oxidizing agent; thus lead sulphide is converted into lead sulphate in presence of a dilute aqueous solution of the peroxide, the hydroxides of the alkaline earth metals are converted into peroxides of the type MO 2.8H 2 0, titanium dioxide is converted into the trioxide, iodine is liberated from potassium iodide, and nitriles (in alkaline solution) are converted into acid-amides (B.

    0
    0
  • It crystallizes in deliquescent prisms and melts with partial decomposition at 119-120° C. It behaves as a ketonic acid, being reduced in aqueous solution by sodium amalgam to tartronic acid, and also combining with phenylhydrazine and hydroxylamine.

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  • On cooling a saturated solution to - 10°, or by cooling a solution in hot hydrochloric acid, the hydrate NaCI.2H 2 O separates; on further cooling an aqueous solution to - 20° a cryohydrate containing 23.7% of the salt is deposited.

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  • Freund, Ber., 1895, 28, p. 94 6; 1896, 29, p. 2501), crystallizes in long needles, which melt at 181-183° C. The addition of sodium nitrite to an aqueous solution of its hydrochloride converts it into amido-triaz / N N sulphol S< 1.

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  • Chem., 1866, 9 8, p. 340); by the action of chlorine on steam at a bright red heat; by the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide by bleaching powder, manganese dioxide, potassium ferricyanide in alkaline solution, or potassium permanganate in acid solution; by heating barium peroxide with an aqueous solution of potassium ferricyanide (G.

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  • It forms yellow crystals, which melt at 57.5° C. When boiled with dilute aqueous caustic soda it yields 2.4 dinitrophenol.

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  • Evaporation of the aqueous solution at 15° C. deposits a crystalline hydrated hydroxide of composition RbOH 2H 2 O (R.

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  • The strongest aqueous solution of hydrochloric acid at 15° C. contains 42.9% of the acid, and has a specific gravity of 1.212.

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  • The crystalline hydrate melts at 50° C. The pure acid decomposes slowly on standing, but is stable in dilute aqueous solution.

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  • It crystallizes in prisms, and in the anhydrous state melts at 140° C. On prolonged boiling with aqueous hydrochloric acid it yields racemic acid.

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  • It can be condensed to a liquid, which boils at - 64.9°C. (under a pressure of 738.2 mm.), and, by still further cooling, gives colourless crystals which melt at - 88.5° C. It is readily soluble in water, forming the aqueous acid, which when saturated at 0° C. has a specific gravity of 1.78.

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  • When boiled, the aqueous acid loses either acid or water until a solution of constant boiling point is obtained, containing 48% of the acid and boiling at 126° C. under atmospheric pressure; should the pressure, however, vary, the strength of the solution boiling at a constant temperature varies also.

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  • The acid is only known in the form of its aqueous solution; this is, however, very unstable, decomposing on being heated to 100° C. into water, oxygen and bromine.

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  • When escaping from the acid tower, the gas contains about% NH 3, and has a temperature of about 80° C. and is saturated with aqueous vapour.

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  • Limnaea and Planorbis); the existence of belts of dead poplars, patches of dead and moribund tamarisks, and vast expanses of withered reeds, all these crowning the tops of the jardangs, never found in the wind-scooped furrows; the presence of ripple-marks of aqueous origin on the leeward side of the clay terraces and in other wind-sheltered situations; and, in fact, by the general conformation, contour lines, and shapes of the deserts as a whole.

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  • By evaporation of its aqueous solution at temperatures above 30° C. it may be obtained in the anhydrous condition.

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  • A 15º slit knife was used to make a self-sealing stab incision in the temporal cornea to release aqueous.

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  • Fructose without other additives, was proposed by Lillie as a concentrated syrupy solution useful as an aqueous mountant.

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  • Nail-patella syndrome is thought to be associated with open-angle glaucoma, a condition caused by blockage of the outflow of fluid (aqueous humor) from the front chamber of the eyes.

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  • Fluid produced within the eye (aqueous humor) cannot exit normally.

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  • The allergen is applied to the skin as an aqueous extract, usually on the back, forearms, or top of the thighs.

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  • Bromine water in dilute aqueous solution gives a white precipitate of tribromophenol-bromide C 6 H 2 Br 3.

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  • It gives mono-metallic salts of the type NC NHM when treated with aqueous or alcoholic solutions of alkalis.

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  • Silicofluoric acid, H2SiF6, is obtained as shown above, and also by the action of sulphuric acid on barium silicofluoride, or by absorbing silicon fluoride in aqueous hydrofluoric acid.

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  • The anhydrous acid is not known, since on evaporating the aqueous solution it gradually decomposes into silicon fluoride and hydrofluoric acid.

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  • Triethyl silicol, (C2H5),Si OH, is a true alcohol, obtained by condensing zinc ethyl with silicic ester, the resulting substance of composition, (C2H5)3 SiOC2H51 with acetyl chloride yielding a chloro-compound (C2H5)3SiC1, which with aqueous ammonia yields the alcohol.

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  • Silicobenzoic acid, C 6 H 5 S10.0H, results from the action of dilute aqueous ammonia on phenyl silicon chloride (obtained from mercury diphenyl and silicon tetrachloride).

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  • The acid carbonates of the alkali metals can be prepared by saturating an aqueous solution of the alkaline hydroxide with carbon dioxide, M OH+ C02= Mhco 3, and from these acid salts the normal salts may be obtained by gentle heating, carbon dioxide and water being produced at the same time, 2Mhco 3 = M2C03+H02+C02.

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  • Aqueous Sulphuric or Hydrochloric Acid readily dissolves groups I and 2, with evolution of hydrogen and formation of chlorides or sulphates.

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  • Tin dissolves readily in strong hot hydrochloric acid as SnC12; aqueous sulphuric acid does not act on it appreciably in the cold; at 150° it attacks it more or less quickly, according to the strength of the acid, with evolution of sulphuretted hydrogen or, when the acid is stronger, of sulphurous acid gas and deposition of sulphur (Calvert and Johnson).

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  • A group (C) may be formed of mercury, silver, gold and platinum, which are not touched by either aqueous acid in any circumstances.

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  • Of metals not decomposing liquid pure water, only a few dissolve in aqueous caustic potash or soda, with evolution of hydrogen.

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  • But of the rest the majority, when treated with boiling sufficiently strong alkali, are attacked at least superficially; of ordinary metals only gold, platinum, and silver are perfectly proof against the reagents under consideration, and these accordingly are used preferably for the construction of vessels intended for analytical operations involving the use of aqueous caustic alkalis.

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  • It also dissolves in aqueous caustic alkalis, including ammonia, forming "zincates" [e.g.

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  • It solidifies in a freezing mixture, on the addition of a crystal of phenol, and then melts at 3 0 -4° C. It boils at 202° 8 C. Its aqueous solution is coloured bluish-violet by ferric chloride.

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  • In many of these the application of heat is necessary to bring the substances used into the liquid state for the purpose of electrolysis, aqueous solutions being unsuitable.

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  • A better method is Wohler's, in which the finely powdered mineral is fused with twice its weight of potassium carbonate in a platinum crucible, the melt powdered and treated in a platinum basin with aqueous hydrofluoric acid.

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  • They are ionized in aqueous solution to a much greater extent than ammonia, the quaternary ammonium bases being the most ionized, and the secondary bases being more strongly ionized than the primary or tertiary bases.

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  • The aqueous solution of the amines is now shaken up with diethyl oxalate, when the primary amine forms a crystalline dialkyl oxamide and the secondary amine an insoluble liquid, which is an ethyl dialkyl oxamate, the tertiary amine not reacting: (C02C2H5)2+ 2NH 2 R = (CO�NHR) 2 -{- 2C 2 H S OH; (CO 2 C 2 H 5) 2 -}- NHR 2 = C 2 H S O 2 C�Conr 2 -1-C 2 H S Oh.

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  • By warming its aqueous solution with an excess of silver oxide it is converted into tetramethylammonium hydroxide, N(CH3)40H, which crystallizes in hygroscopic needles, and has a very alkaline reaction.

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  • On the other hand, they are much weaker bases than the aliphatic amines, their salts undergoing hydrolytic dissociation in aqueous solution.

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  • It readily forms a sodium salt, from the aqueous solution of which on the addition of a mineral acid an isomeric solid form of the nitro compound (melting at 84° C.) is precipitated.

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  • Alkaline and other stannates when treated with aqueous hydrofluoric acid are converted into fluostannates (e.g.

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  • Tin dissolves readily in strong hot hydrochloric acid as SnC12; aqueous sulphuric acid does not act on it appreciably in the cold; at 150° it attacks it more or less quickly, according to the strength of the acid, with evolution of sulphuretted hydrogen or, when the acid is stronger, of sulphurous acid gas and deposition of sulphur (Calvert and Johnson).

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  • It solidifies in a freezing mixture, on the addition of a crystal of phenol, and then melts at 3 0 -4° C. It boils at 202° 8 C. Its aqueous solution is coloured bluish-violet by ferric chloride.

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  • It crystallizes in prisms which melt at 36° C. and boil at 201 0.8 C. It is soluble in water, and the aqueous solution gives a blue coloration with ferric chloride.

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  • The aqueous solution of the amines is now shaken up with diethyl oxalate, when the primary amine forms a crystalline dialkyl oxamide and the secondary amine an insoluble liquid, which is an ethyl dialkyl oxamate, the tertiary amine not reacting: (C02C2H5)2+ 2NH 2 R = (CO�NHR) 2 -{- 2C 2 H S OH; (CO 2 C 2 H 5) 2 -}- NHR 2 = C 2 H S O 2 C�Conr 2 -1-C 2 H S Oh.

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  • Berthelot, on the other hand, assumed that the heat-capacity of an aqueous solution is equal to that of an equal volume of water, and calculated his results on this assumption, which involves much the same uncertainty as that of Thomsen.

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  • By the action of aqueous alkalis, carbon bisulphide is converted into a mixture of an alkaline carbonate and an alkaline thiocarbonate (J.

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  • An aqueous solution readily dissolves lead oxide, with formation of a strongly alkaline solution containing basic acetates (Acetum Plumbi or Saturni).

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  • It readily forms a sodium salt, from the aqueous solution of which on the addition of a mineral acid an isomeric solid form of the nitro compound (melting at 84° C.) is precipitated.

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