It is true that in the lower Crustacea (Apus, &c.) we have evidence of the gradual movement forward of the nerve-ganglia belonging to these FIG.
Possibly, however, an investigation of the development of the median eyes of some Crustacea(Apus,Palaemon)may prove them to be diplostichous in origin.
A minute entosternite having the above-described structure is found in the Crustacean Apus between the bases of the mandibles, and also in the Decapoda in a similar position, but in no Crustacean does it attain to any size or importance.
It has been insisted, by those who accepted Lankester's original doctrine of the direct or genetic affinity of the Chaetopoda and Arthropoda, that Apus and Branchipus really come very near to the ancestral forms which connected those two great branches of Appendiculate (Parapodiate) animals.
One can imagine the interest and astonishment with which the great Greek would have been filled had some unduly precocious disciple shown to him the red-blood-system of the marine terrestrial Annelids; the red blood of Planorbis, of Apus cancriformis, and of the Mediterranean razor shell, Solen legumen.
The single family Apodidae contains only two genera, Apus and its very near neighbour Lepidurus.
Apus australiensis (Spencer and Hall, 1896) may rank as the largest of the Entomostraca, reaching in the male, from front of shield to end of telson, a length of 70 mm., in the female of 64 mm.
Similarly, in Northern India Apus himalayanus was " collected from a stagnant pool in a jungle four days after a shower of rain had fallen," following a drought of four months (Packard).
4, larva of Apus cancriformis.
In a Phyllopod such as Apus the limbs of the trunk consist of a flattened, unsegmented or obscurely segmented axis or corm having a series of lobes or processes known as endites and exites on its inner and outer margins respectively.
In the Phyllopoda they are for the most part all alike, though one or two of the anterior pairs may be specialized as sensory (Apus) or grasping (Estheriidae) organs.
It is most closely followed by the Phyllopods such as Apus or Branchipus, and by some Copepoda.
It has taken some time to obtain any general acceptance of the view that the parapodia of the Chaetopoda and the limbs of Arthropoda are genetically identi cal structures; yet if we compare the para podium of Tomopteris or of Phyllodoce with one of the foliaceous limbs of Branchipus or __; Apus, the correspond ences of the two are striking.
Lankester (5) has shown (and his views have been accepted by Professors Korschelt and Heider in their treatise on Embryology) that the limb of the lowest Crustacea, such as Apus, consists of a corm or axis which may be jointed, and gives rise to outgrowths, either leaf-like or filiform, on its inner and outer margins (endites and exites).
The endopodite (corresponding to the fifth endite of the limb of Apus, see fig.
In Apus, as the figure shows, there are four of these " antenna-like " palps or filaments on the first thoracic limb.
- The second thoracic (fifth post-oral) appendage of the left side of Apus cancriformis, placed with its ventral or neural surface uppermost to compare with figs.
- The first thoracic (fourth post-oral) appendage of Apus cancriformis (right side).
On the fourteenth post-oral in Apus, on the ninth post-oral in female Astacus and in Cyclops.
Lankester, " Observations and Reflections on the Appendages and Nervous System of Apus Cancriformis," Quart.