The Senate is composed of 24 members, one from each senatorial district, and these districts are formed so as to be approximately equal with respect to the amount of direct taxes paid in each; representation in this body is therefore apportioned on the basis of property.
Senators and delegates are elected by single districts (into which the state is apportioned once every ten years, according to population), the senators for a term of four years, the delegates for a term of two years.
One important point of difference is that under the latter act the council may resolve that the expenses shall be apportioned among the owners not merely according to frontage, but according to the greater or less degree of benefit to be derived by any premises from the works.
The effect of this was that in January 1835 the legislature passed a bill for submitting the question legally to all the voters of the state, although this bill itself limited the proposed convention's power relating to representation by providing that it should so amend the constitution that senators be chosen by districts according to public taxes, and that commoners be apportioned by districts according to Federal representation, i.e.
On the conquest of a country the lands were apportioned by the nishanjis, who first computed the tithe revenueof each village, its population, woods, pasturage, &c.; and divided it into the three classes of fiefs (khas, ziamet and timar), or into vakilf (pious endowments) or pasturage.
An Italian officer, General De Giorgis, was appointed to the chief command in the reorganization, and the three vilayets were apportioned among the great powers into districts, in each of which was appointed a staff officer with a number of subordinate officers of his nationality under his orders.
2 The cost was apportioned between the commonwealth and the local government in the proportion of 3 to I.
Since 1846 both senators and assemblymen have been elected by single districts, and ever since the state government was established they have been apportioned according to population, but the present constitution limits the representation of New York City in the Senate by declaring that no county shall have more than one-third of all the senators nor any two adjoining counties more than one-half of them.
Who was their great organizer; by his bull Immensa of the 22nd of January 1587, he apportioned all the business of the Church (including that of the papal states) among fifteen Congregations of cardinals, some of which were already in existence, but most of which were established by him; and these commissions, or those of them at least which are concerned with spiritual matters, are still working.
The following has been accepted as a clear definition of what proportional representation is:- " Each electoral district has the number of its members apportioned in accordance with the total strength of each party or political programme in that district.
The gradations which follow are apportioned with some uncertainty amongst the religions of the East.
But if not lightened, taxation is at least better apportioned than formerly.
The members of the General Assembly are elected annually, are limited to sixty (the actual number in 1909), and are apportioned among the counties according to population, with the important proviso, however, that every county shall have at least one member.
At the end of the 5th century Maine, a relative of the king of Tara, was apportioned a tract of Firbolg territory to the west of the Suck in Connaught, which formed the nucleus of a powerful state known as Hy Maine (in English commonly called the " O'Kelly's country ").
The House of Representatives is composed of 124 members elected every two years and apportioned among the counties according to population; the Senate of one member from each county, elected for a term of four years, the term of one-half of the senators ending every two years.
Of this fund is apportioned among the several counties according to their school population, and 10 per cent.
The legislative department consists of a senate of 30 members, apportioned among the counties according to population, but with the proviso that each county must have at least one senator, and a House of Representatives of 245 members, one from each township. Since 1870 elections and legislative sessions have been biennial.
All fines collected under the penal laws, all escheats and 2% of the receipts of toll roads and bridges go into the school fund, which is invested in state and Federal securities and the interest apportioned among the counties according to their school population.
Augustus apportioned Herod's dominions among his sons in accordance with the provisions of his latest will.
Representation in the lower house of the legislature was apportioned according to population, but only on condition that no city or town should ever elect more than one-sixth of the total number of members.
It does not appear that the position had been systematically examined, or apportioned to the several corps in accordance with any predetermined plan.
The state school fund, ranging from about $150,000 to $160,00o a year, is apportioned among the school districts, according to the number of teachers employed, and is used exclusively for teachers' salaries and the supplying of free text-books.
The provision of the Constitution on the subject is as follows:- "Representatives and direct taxes shall be apportioned among the several states which may be included within this Union according to their respective numbers, which shall be determined by adding to the whole number of free persons, including those bound to service for a term of years and excluding Indians not taxed, three-fifths of all other persons.
The proceeds of the sale of public lands donated to the state for educational purposes, and all escheats to the state, constitute a trust fund, the interest from which, with the proceeds of all fines for the violation of state laws, is annually apportioned among the school districts according to the school population; the total apportionment from the State Tuition Fund in 1908 was $357,238.
The schools are maintained chiefly out of the proceeds of a district school tax, which must not be less in any district than seven hundred and fifty dollars for every dollar of public taxes apportioned to the town or district, a proportion which has gradually increased from five to one in 1789 and from ninety to one in 1817.
The seats would, therefore, be apportioned as follows: four Catholic, two Liberal, one Socialist and one Catholic-Democrat.
C. 93) a gross rent charge can be substituted for a commutation of tithes on common rights at a fixed sum per head; a gross rent charge made payable in respect of the tithes of a gated or stinted pasture rated to the relief of the poor may be apportioned thereupon and enforced in the method prescribed by the other Tithe Acts; a rent charge on commons may be commuted for part of the land or redeemed, if the landowners and persons liable for tithe so agree; and upon enclosure, a rate per head may be converted into a rent charge on the lands allotted.
Of the net profits, a dividend of 31/2% is first payable to the shareholders, 20% of the remainder is transferred to the reserve until this has reached a total of 3,000,000, and of the remainder again a quarter is apportioned to the shareholders and three-quarters falls to the imperial exchequer.
Having apportioned his money among the poor, and settled his lands upon the church, with the exception of making his sister Marcellina tenant during life, and having committed the care of his family to his brother, he entered upon a regular course of theological study, under the care of Simplician, a presbyter of Rome, and devoted himself to the labours of the church, labours which were temporarily interrupted by an invasion of Goths, which compelled Ambrose and other churchmen to retire to Illyricum.
The state representatives are usually apportioned among the several counties according to population and not by geographical position.
Carriage duties in carts and on horseback were also apportioned according to the time they took as a part of the week-work.
The government, when money was wanted for public works, informed the lord mayor, who apportioned the sums required among the various societies, and issued precepts for its payment.
The school tax is apportioned among the counties in proportion to their taxable property.
Both senators and representatives are apportioned according to population, and are elected by districts in November of each even-numbered year for a term of two years.
The budget is apportioned among twelve committees which have almost invariably given close and conscientious examination to the actual needs of the departments.
These parsissoks, elected at the rate of about one representative to 120 voters, wear a cap with a badge (a bear rampant), and aid the European members of the council in distributing the surplus profit apportioned to each district, and generally in advising as, to the welfare of that part of Greenland under their partial control.
They were called the " media of the whole circle of the zodiac "; 11 each ten-day period of the Egyptian year was consecrated to the decanal god whose section of the ecliptic rose at its commencement; the body was correspondingly apportioned, and disease was cured by invoking the zodiacal regent of the part affected.
The fund is administered by a board consisting of the governor, the secretary of state and the state treasurer, and the income from it is apportioned among the counties according to the number of children of school age.
Of it constitutes a special fund to be apportioned among eligible counties in proportion to their school population but in inverse ratio to their taxable property; to have the use of any portion of this special fund a county must levy for the maintenance of common schools a tax not less than forty cents on each $loo of taxable property, a tax of $2 on each taxable poll, and such privilege taxes as the state permits it to levy for school purposes.
Both senators and representatives are apportioned among the several counties according to their population; each county, however, is entitled to at least one senator and one representative.
A special tax not exceeding 3 mills on the dollar may be levied on all taxable property for school purposes, and the proceeds apportioned among the school districts according to the number of school children.
Excavation is permitted under government supervision, and the finds are apportioned in thirds, between the excavator, the landowner (who is usually bought out by the former), and the government.
The judgment, indeed, with which this style of ornament is apportioned to the various parts, is almost as remarkable as the ornament itself, and conveys a high idea of the taste and skill of the architects of this age."
The income from the state school fund is divided among the counties on the basis of the total number of days of attendance of the public school pupils; the legislative appropriation, however, is apportioned among the counties according to their assessed property values.
Then a tier of 5-acre lots was apportioned to mechanics, and ioand 20-acre parcels of land were given to farmers, according to the size of their families.
The amount of revenue to be raised for state purposes each year by this tax is computed by a board consisting of the governor, the secretary of state and the state treasurer, and it is apportioned among the counties on the basis of their average expenditures for the previous five years.
The phanerogams number 570, apportioned to 314 genera, and of these over 220 species and 98 genera are unknown elsewhere.
The first of these divisions was akin to that of former first-class misdemeanants; the second division was allotted to persons guilty of trivial offences not amounting to moral depravity, the third division was apportioned to serious crime calling for severe repression, involving strict separation for the first twenty-eight days with "hard labour" (now an obsolete expression, since all prison labour is nowadays accounted "hard").
At the conclusion of its work it recommended greater military control for each of the several states and that the Federal constitution be so amended that representatives and direct taxes should be apportioned among the several states " according to their respective numbers of free persons," that no new state should be admitted to the Union without the concurrence of two-thirds of both Houses of Congress, that Congress should not have the power to lay an embargo for more than sixty days, that the concurrence of two-thirds of the members of both Houses of Congress should be necessary to pass an act " to interdict the commercial intercourse between the United States and any foreign nation or the dependencies thereof " or to declare war against any foreign nation except in case of actual invasion, that " no person who shall hereafter be naturalized shall be eligible as a member of the Senate or House of Representatives of the United States, nor capable of holding any civil office under the authority of the United States," and that " the same person shall not be elected president of the United States a second time; nor shall the president be elected from the same state two terms in succession."
The almspeople consisted of six " poor brethren " and six " poor sisters," and the teaching and governing staff of a master and a warden, who were always to be of the founder's surname, and four fellows, all " graduates and divines," among whom were apportioned the ministerial work of the chapel, the instruction of the boys, and the supervision of the almspeople.