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applied

applied

applied Sentence Examples

  • Lifting the hair off the back of her neck, he applied the cool towel.

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  • She applied the brakes and the dust cloud caught up, cloaking the road so thickly that visibility was down to the front of the car.

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  • The begum was charged with having abetted Chait Sing in his rebellion; and after the severest pressure applied to herself and her attendant eunuchs, a fine of more than a million sterling was exacted from her.

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  • The division of labor applied to science will yield substantial results.

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  • She applied light colored lipstick and then put some on Destiny's lips.

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  • When a person was bleeding, you applied pressure.

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  • If pressure was applied to Daniel Brennan, it was never passed on to us.

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  • The Port Royalists, Pierre Nicole (1625-1695) and Antoine Arnauld (1612-1694), had applied it to grammar and logic; Jean Domat or Daumat (1625-1696) and Henri Francois Daugesseau (1668-1751) to jurisprudence; Fontenelle, Charles Perrault (1628-1703) and Jean Terrasson (1670-1750) to literary criticism, and a worthier estimate of modern literature.

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  • The Port Royalists, Pierre Nicole (1625-1695) and Antoine Arnauld (1612-1694), had applied it to grammar and logic; Jean Domat or Daumat (1625-1696) and Henri Francois Daugesseau (1668-1751) to jurisprudence; Fontenelle, Charles Perrault (1628-1703) and Jean Terrasson (1670-1750) to literary criticism, and a worthier estimate of modern literature.

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  • That God is love and that the purpose of His love is the moral organization of humanity in the "Kingdom of God" - this idea, with its immense range of application-.-is applied in Ritschl's initial datum.

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  • This state of things is continually becoming worse and makes one fear that unless a prompt remedy is applied the troops will no longer be under control in case of an engagement.

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  • The word is also sometimes applied to a heavy timber fitted with iron spikes or projections to be thrown down upon besiegers, and to the large work known as a "cavalier."

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  • From mining the clay to make the lead, to the lacquer applied to the pencil, to the rubber eraser, to the metal band holding the eraser to the yellow paint, no one person knows how to make a complete pencil.

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  • µcxp6s, small, i tthrpov, a measure), an instrument generally applied to telescopes and microscopes for measuring small angular distances with the former or the dimensions of small objects with the latter.

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  • She pulled her hair into a simple French twist, the kind she wore to work, and applied her make-up carefully.

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  • The term is used in this general sense in certain rubrics of the English Book of Common Prayer, in which it is applied equally to rectors and vicars as to perpetual curates.

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  • The varnish to fix the webs is applied, not on the surface T as is usual, but on a bevel for the purpose,' the position of the webs depending on their tension to keep them in their furrows.

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  • But as the captain had the wine they had taken while passing through Moscow, he left the kvass to Morel and applied himself to the bottle of Bordeaux.

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  • In Africa the name of flying-squirrel is applied to the members of a very different family of rodents, the Anomaluridae, which are provided with a parachute.

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  • From the foregoing it will be seen that the term fermentation has now a much wider significance than when it was applied to such changes as the decomposition of must or wort with the production of carbon dioxide and alcohol.

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  • Repsolds' more recent form of the spider-line micrometer (since 1 The marks of varnish so applied will he seen in fig.

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  • In Norwood and Rogers's process a thin coating of tin is applied to the iron before it is dipped in the zinc, by putting the plates between layers of granulated tin in a wooden tank containing a dilute solution of stannous chloride, when tin is deposited on them by galvanic action.

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  • He then applied for permission to start a paper of his own.

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  • It now seemed clear to him that all his experience of life must be senselessly wasted unless he applied it to some kind of work and again played an active part in life.

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  • The present name, derived from Clarus Mons and originally applied only to the citadel, was used of the town as early as the 9th century.

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  • When Captain Keller applied to the director for a teacher, Mr. Anagnos recommended her.

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  • He organized the national guard, applied the civil constitution of the clergy, and regulated the finances of the city so as to tax the rich heavily and spare the poor.

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  • The name is also applied to a special kind of wall-paper, which has an appearance almost like cloth, or, in the more expensive kinds, of velvet.

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  • The science of Descartes was physics in all its branches, but especially as applied to physiology.

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  • It is said that the terms Whig and Tory were first applied to English political parties in consequence of this dispute.

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  • It is said that the terms Whig and Tory were first applied to English political parties in consequence of this dispute.

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  • And it can be applied by any teacher to any healthy deaf child, and in the broadest interpretation of the principles, can be applied to the teaching of language of all kinds to all children.

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  • As a general on duty on Kutuzov's staff, he applied himself to business with zeal and perseverance and surprised Kutuzov by his willingness and accuracy in work.

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  • As the garage door lifted, sunlight reflected off the polish she and her siblings had applied that last day of their lives.

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  • The latter selected a position a few hundred yards to the north-east of the old city of Chung-tu or Yenking, where he founded the new city of Ta-tu ("great capital"), called by the Mongols Taidu or Daitu, but also KhanBalik; and from this time dates the use of the latter name as applied to this site.

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  • A term, "techno-utopian," is often applied to people who believe a technology will bring about a perfect world.

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  • By his will he directed that all the presents he had received should be sold, and the proceeds applied to the completion of Thorwaldsen's monument of Pius VII.

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  • The name "firefly" is often applied also to luminous beetles of the family Lampyridae, to which the well-known glow-worm belongs.

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  • The term was, however,, particularly applied, in O.E., to a gallows or cross, especially to the Holy Cross on which Christ was crucified, the sense in which the word survives.

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  • In June Shaftesbury applied for a writ of habeas corpus, but could get no release until the 26th of February 1678, after his letter and three petitions to the king.

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  • An, matter, 'coii, life), in philosophy, a term applied to any system which explains all life, whether physical or mental, as ultimately derived from matter ("cosmic matter," Weldstoff).

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  • For, as the medieval Portuguese stated, it is merely a generic term for the capital of any considerable chief, and it has been applied even by them to several distinct places.

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  • Different techniques could be applied to different plants side by side to constantly be refining agricultural processes.

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  • Then with no less fear and delight they saw how the young count, red in the face and with bloodshot eyes, dragged Mitenka out by the scruff of the neck and applied his foot and knee to his behind with great agility at convenient moments between the words, shouting, Be off!

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  • In the domain of jurisprudence, which consists of discussions of how a state and power might be arranged were it possible for all that to be arranged, it is all very clear; but when applied to history that definition of power needs explanation.

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  • CARMAGNOLE (from Carmagnola, the town in Italy), a word first applied to a Piedmontese peasant costume, well known in the south of France, and brought to Paris by the revolutionaries of Marseilles in 1798.

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  • During his tenancy of office the system adopted at Shanghai was applied to the other treaty ports, so that when on Mr Lay's resignation Mr Hart was appointed inspector-general of foreign customs, he found himself at the head of an organization which collected a revenue of upwards of eight million taels per annum at fourteen treaty ports.

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  • An ardent opponent of Catholic Emancipation, he delivered in 1807 a speech on the subject which helped to give the deathblow to the Grenville administration, upon which he became chancellor of the exchequer under the duke of Portland, whom in 1809 he succeeded in the premiership. Notwithstanding that he had the assistance in the cabinet of no statesman of the first rank, he succeeded in retaining office till he was shot by a man named Bellingham, a bankrupt with a grievance, who had vainly applied to him for redress, in the lobby of the House of Commons on the 11th of May 1812.

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  • In the second he not only enlarges his matter and gives multiplied applications of his ideas, but also follows the synthetic method, first expounding the laws he had discovered and then proving them by the facts to which they are applied.

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  • (2) The acceleration of the element at the origin is - n 2 sin nt; so that the force which would have to be applied to the parts where the density is D' (instead of D), in order that the waves might pass on undisturbed, is, per unit of volume, (D' - D)n 2 sin nt.

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  • Prytaneis) is generally applied specially to those who, after the abolition of absolute monarchy, held the chief office in the state.

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  • In the sense of "flowing water," the word is applied to the inflow of the tide, as opposed to "ebb."

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  • HEATHEN, a term originally applied to all persons or races who did not hold the Jewish or Christian belief, thus including Mahommedans.

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  • the people of the pagus or village, applied to the dwellers in the country where the worship of the old gods still lingered, when the people of the towns were Christians (but see Pagan for a more tenable explanation of that term).

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  • His brother, Siegmund Jacob Baumgarten (1706-1 7 57), was professor of theology at Halle, and applied the methods of Wolff to theology.

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  • fleah, or flea, cognate with flee, to run away from, to take flight), a name typically applied to Pulex irritans, a well-known blood-sucking insect-parasite of man and other mammals, remarkable for its powers of leaping, and nearly cosmopolitan.

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  • The Latin editions of part of these works have been modified by the corrections which the monkish editors confess that they applied.

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  • Justiciarius meant simply "judge," and was originally applied, as Stubbs points out (Const.

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  • that the title summus or capitalis justiciarius, or justiciarius totius Angliae was exclusively applied to the king's chief minister.

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  • The principles are the same as those applied to low-pressure work, but all fittings and appliances must, of course, be made to stand the higher strain to which they are subjected.

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  • A "methodist" is one who follows a "method," the term being applied not only to the Wesleyan body, but earlier to the Amyraldists, and in the 17th century to certain Roman Catholic apologists.

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  • The elder was not an officer inferior and subordinate to the bishop. The elder was a bishop. The two titles are applied to the same persons.

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  • 340), wherein he gave an account of it under the name of "Saria," which it bore among the Guaranis, - that of "Cariama" being applied to it by the Portuguese settlers, and both expressive of its ordinary cry.'

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  • The name is generally applied not only to the order of Ku Klux Klan, but to other similar societies that existed at the same time, such as the Knights of the White Camelia, a larger order than the Klan; the White Brotherhood; the White League; Pale Faces; Constitutional Union Guards; Black Cavalry; White Rose; The '76 Association; and hundreds of smaller societies that sprang up in the South after the Civil War.

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  • ARABIAN SEA (anc. Mare Erythraeum), the name applied to the portion of the Indian Ocean bounded E.

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  • Cabot himself, after an absence of more than three years, came back in 1530, and applied to Charles V.

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  • articles in the customs list; this value is estimated at the end of the year in accordance with the variations that have taken place and is applied provisionally to the following year.

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  • ARCHIPELAGO, a name now applied to any island-studded sea, but originally the distinctive designation of what is now generally known as the Aegean Sea (Aiyaiov 7rEXayos), its ancient name having been revived.

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  • Cavalier in English was early applied in a contemptuous sense to an overbearing swashbuckler - a roisterer or swaggering gallant.

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  • The same term is applied to the acts passed by the state legislatures for correcting and redistributing the representation of the counties.

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  • The term is also applied to the descendants of the Diadochi, the successors of Alexander the Great.

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  • In it we find the principles of a general interpretation, formed without the assistance of any particular philosophy, but consisting of observations and rules which, though already enunciated, and applied in the criticism of the profane writers, had never rigorously been employed in biblical exegesis.

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  • Fur short and closely applied to the skin.

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  • It was applied to those who advocated a policy of "cowardly moderation," and feuillantisme was associated with aristocratic in the mouths of the sansculottes.

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  • This name shabattu was certainly applied to the 15th day of the month, and am nuh libbi could mean "day of rest in the middle," referring to the moon's pause at the full.

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  • He was a pupil of Azo, and the master of Odofredus, of Hostiensis, and of Jacobus de Ravanis, the last of whom has the reputation of having first applied dialectical forms to legal science.

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  • It is not to be supposed that this antarctic element, to which Professor Tate has applied the name Euronotian, entered a desert barren of all life.

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  • But that party among the Parthian magnates which was hostile to Artabanus applied to Tiberius for a king of the race of Phraates.

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  • GUACO, Huaco or Guao, also Vejuco and Bejuco, terms applied to various Central and South American and West Indian plants, in repute for curative virtues.

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  • TAPACULO, the name 1 given in Chile to a bird of singular appearance - the Pteroptochus albicollis of ornithology, and applied in an extended sense to its allied forms, which constitute a small family, Pteroptochidae, belonging to the Clainatores division of Passeres, peculiar to South America.

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  • Oak was thus applied at a very early date; the shrine of Edward the Confessor, still existing in the abbey at Westminster, sound after the lapse of Boo years, is of dark-coloured oak-wood.

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  • A bitter principle to which the name of quercin has been applied by Gerber, its discoverer, has also been detected in the acorn of the common oak; the nutritive portion seems chiefly a form of starch.

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  • It was on this occasion that he earned the nickname of "Ironsides," applied to him now by Prince Rupert, and afterwards to his soldiers, "from the impenetrable strength of his troops which could by no means be broken or divided."

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  • Others again, like Michaelis and Rosenmiiller, have supposed that the name Cush was applied to tracts of country both in Arabia and in Africa, but the defective condition of the ancient knowledge of countries and peoples, as also the probability of early migrations of "Cushite" tribes (carrying with them their name), will account for the main facts.

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  • That the term was also applied to parts of Arabia is evident from Gen.

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  • Possibly the lamentable events of the campaigns of 1589 in Gex and Chablais have been applied to the ' This, at least, is the account given by Catholic authorities.

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  • This general law, known as the principle of the "dissipation of energy," was first adequately pointed out by Lord Kelvin in 1852; and was applied by him to some of the principal problems of cosmical physics.

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  • The narrower term "orchestration" is applied to the instrumentation of orchestral music. Since the most obvious differences of timbre are in those of various instruments, the art which blends and contrasts timbre is most easily discussed as the treatment of instruments; but we must use this term with philosophic breadth and allow it to include voices.

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  • There are three Li ting - typical methods: (I) A direct pull may be applied to the hook, either by screws, or by a cylinder fitted with is piston and rod and actuated by direct hydraulic or other pressure, as shown diagrammatically in fig.

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  • In the first, the pressure is applied by a handle or treadle, and is removed by a spring or weight; this is called " braking on."

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  • In the second, or " braking off " method, the brake is automatically applied by a spring or weight, and is released either mechanically or, in the case of electric cranes, by the pull of a solenoid or magnet which is energized by the current passing through the motor.

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  • Faraday's term " electrode," literally " a way (650s) for electricity to travel along," might be well applied to designate the insulated conductor along which the electric messenger is despatched.

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  • A second coating is then laid on, and after it passes through a similar process of examination a third coating is applied, and so on until the requisite number is completed.

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  • When this has been done an electrical test is applied, and if the original fracture is between ship and shore the heaving in of cable will continue until the end comes on board.

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  • Recorders vary in details of construction, but all have the same object, namely, to record the intervals during which the current is applied to the line.

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  • By a modification of the bridge method, applied with excellent results by Dr Muirhead to submarine work, condensers are substituted for a and b, one being also placed in the circuit between P and Q.

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  • In a subsequent modification introduced in 1875 an electromotor was applied to drive the printing mechanism.

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  • Poulsen's method of producing continuous or undamped electrical waves has been applied by him in radio-telegraphy.

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  • In the specification of the patent applied for on the list of July 1877 he showed a sketch of an instrument which consisted of a diaphragm, with a small platinum patch in the centre for an electrode, against which a hard point, made of plumbago powder cemented together with india-rubber and vulcanized, was pressed by a long spring, the pressure of the carbon against the platinum disk being adjusted by a straining screw near the base of the spring.

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  • In the manufacture of the cable the wires are first enclosed in the paper, which is applied sometimes longitudinally and sometimes spirally.

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  • As a result only eight companies out of over seventy that had applied obtained or accepted licences.

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  • The United Telephone Company again applied unsuccessfully for right to lay wires underground.

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  • The National Telephone Company applied to the London County Council for permission to lay wires underground and continued efforts till 1899 to obtain this power, but without success.

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  • The National Telephone Company again applied to parliament for powers to lay wires underground; public discontent with inadequate telephone services was expressed, and at the same time the competition of the telephone with the Post Office telegraph became more manifest.

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  • The National Telephone Company again applied to parliament for power to lay wires underground, but was refused.

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  • In February the Postmaster-General applied for an injunction to restrain the company from opening any street or public road within the county of London without the consent of the Postmaster - General and the London County Council, which injunction was granted in July.

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  • The name Archipelago (q.v.) was formerly applied specifically to this sea.

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  • Gamal), the name of the single-humped Arabian Camelus dromedaries, but also applied to the two-humped central Asian C. bactrianus and to the extinct relatives of both.

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  • ITALY (Italia), the name1 applied both in ancient and in modern times to the great peninsula that projects from the mass of central Europe far to the south into the Mediterranean Sea, where the island of Sicily may be considered as a continuation of he continental promontory.

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  • The space thus included was known in ancient times as Venetia, a name applied in the middle ages to the well-known city; the eastern portion of it became known in the middle ages as the Frioul or Friuli.

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  • Schiavanza, either simple or with a share in the crops, is a form of contract similar to the boaria, but applied principally to large holdings.

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  • Special contracts, known as colonie immovibili and colonie tern poranee are applied to the latifondi or huge estates, the owners of which receive half the produce, except that of the vines, olive-trees and woods, which he leases separately.

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  • Italy has only unimportant lignite and anthracite mines, but water power is abundant and has been largely applied to industry, especially in generating electricity.

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  • A reform of late years is the cond~anna condizionale, equivalent to the English being bound over to appear for judgment if called upon, applied in 94,489 cases in 1907.

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  • e The external taxation is not only strongly protectionist, but i applied to goods which cannot be made in Italy; hardly anything comes in duty free, even such articles as second-hand furniture paying duty, unless within six months of the date at which the importer has declared domicile in Italy.

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  • 1), the name of Italy was first still more limited, being applied only to the southern portion of the Bruttium peninsula (now known as Calabria).

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  • We have seen that the name of Italy was originally applied only to the southernmost part of the peninsula, and was only gradually extended so as to comprise the central regions, such as Latium and Campania, which were designated by writers as late as Thucydides and Aristotle as in Opicia.

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  • Cisalpine Gaul, including the whole of northern Italy, still constituted a province, an appellation never applied to Italy itself.

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  • Sonnino applied, and subsequently amended, the Bank Reform Bill passed by the previous Administration (August 10, 1893) for the creation of a supreme state bank, the Bank of Italy, which was entrusted with the liquidation.

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  • But at present the word "leech" is applied to every member of the group Hirudinea, for the general structure and classification of which see Chaetopoda.

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  • Brahma (n.) is the designation generally applied to the Supreme Soul (paramatman), or impersonal, all-embracing divine essence, the original source and ultimate goal of all that exists; Brahma (m.), on the other hand, is only one of the three hypostases of that divinity whose creative activity he represents, as distinguished from its preservative and destructive aspects, ever apparent in life and nature, and represented by the gods Vishnu and Siva respectively.

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  • Wallace's Gifford Lecture, 6 chap. i., may also be consulted; but Wallace does not distinguish the unusual sense which the term bears as applied to Raymond's book.

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  • 4 Evolution, repelled by the older intuitionalism, was thus incorporated in the greatest of all idealisms. It has also been largely applied to empiricism.

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  • The new method of definition which Socrates applied to problems of human conduct was extended by Plato to the whole universe of the knowable.

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  • The so-called "pure" acid is applied to infected living tissues, especially to tuberculous sinuses or wounds, after scraping them, in order to destroy any part of the tuberculous material still remaining.

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  • This or the biniodide of mercury is the last antiseptic applied to the surgeon's and assistants' hands before an operation begins.

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  • The chief timber of indigenous growth is padouk (Pterocarpus dalbergioides) used for buildings, boats, furniture, fine joinery and all purposes to which teak, mahogany, hickory, oak and ash are applied.

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  • But it seems possible that the tradition of marine nomenclature had never perished; that the 'AyaOov SaL�ovos vijvos was really a misunderstanding of some form like Agdaman, while Ni crot Bapouavac survived as Lanka Balus, the name applied by the Arabs to the Nicobars.

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  • Lucretius thus recognizes the whole range of existence to which the doctrine of evolution may be applied.

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  • First of all, his genetic method as applied to the mind's ideas - which laid the foundations of English analytical psychology - was a step in the direction of a conception of mental life as a gradual evolution.

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  • This conception of an immanent spontaneous evolution is applied alike both to nature and to mind and history.

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  • The conception of evolution is being applied more rigidly to the comparative anatomy of organs and systems of organs.

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  • The bishop or, failing him, the metropolitan, was to see such legacies properly paid and applied and might appoint persons to administer the funds (Pollock and Maitland, op. cit.

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  • This rule was applied even where both litigants were " spiritual."

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  • They were to be applied to pious uses.

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  • lemures, " ghosts"), the name applied by Linnaeus to certain peculiar Malagasy representatives of the order PRIMATES which do not come under the designation of either monkeys or apes, and, with allied animals from the same island and tropical Asia and Africa, constitute the sub-order Prosimiae, or Lemuroidea, the characteristics of which are given in the article just mentioned.

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  • In the modern signification it is applied to the act of preparing, preserving and compounding medicines, according to the prescriptions of physicians.

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  • The same belief is shown in the botanical names applied to many plants, e.g.

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  • From his German descent he was surnamed Ashkenazi (the German), and we find that epithet applied to him in a recently discovered document of date 1559.

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  • yOXv13Sos, lead, and was originally employed to denote many substances containing or resembling lead; ultimately the term was applied to graphite and to molybdenum sulphide.

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  • TADPOLE, a term often, but wrongly, applied indiscriminately to all Batrachian larvae.

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  • While at Oxford Wren distinguished himself in geometry and applied mathematics, and Newton, in his Principia, p. 19 (ed.

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  • SPARASSODONTA, a zoological name applied to a group of primitive carnivorous mammals from the Santa Cruz beds of Patagonia, represented by the genera Borhyaena, Prothylacinus, Amphiproviverra, &c. By their first describer, Dr F.

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  • Milne-Edwards removed the Polyzoa; the group was soon further thinned by the exclusion of the Protozoa on the one hand and the Entozoa on the other; while in 1848 Leuckart and Frey clearly distinguished the Coelenterata from the Echinodermata as a separate sub-kingdom, thus condemning the usage by which the term still continued to be applied to these two groups at least.

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  • In the most generally used sense, a plant is a member of the lower or vegetable order of living organized things; the term is also popularly applied to the smaller herbaceous plants, thus excluding trees and shrubs.

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  • Such a system is called a tissuesystem, the word tissue being employed for any collection of cells with common structural, developmental, or functional characters to which it may be conveniently applied.

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  • The term parenchyma is applied to tissues whose cells are isodiametric or cylin.drical in shape, prosenchyma tissues consisting of long narrow cells, with pointed ends.

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  • For this reason a stem in which as pot ystelic, the term stele being transferr~d from the primary I central cylinder of the i~xis and applied to the vascular strands just described.

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  • and to these the general name Cycadofilices has been applied.

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  • The study of the differentiation of protoplasm was at that time seldom undertaken, and no particular attention was paid either to fixing it, to enable staining methods to be accurately applied to it, or to studying the action of chemical reagents upon it.

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  • It is only comparatively recently that the methods of histological investigation used by animal physiologists have been carefully and systematically applied to the study of the vegetable organisms. They have, however, been attended with wonderful results, and have revolutionized the whole study of vegetable structure.

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  • The mechanism is applied to the capture of insects alighting on the leaf.

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  • The response made by the adult parts of plants, to which reference has been made, is brought about by a mechanism similar in nature though rather differently applied.

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  • the application of ordinary antiseptic powders to leaves inside which a Fungus, such as a Uredo or Ustilago, is growing can only result in failtire, and similarly if tobacco fumes, for instance, are applied when the insects concerned are hibernating in the ground beneath.

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  • The French term "quillon," apparently formed from quille, ninepin, is applied to the projecting arms or cross guards of the hilt of a sword.

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  • Beyond the limits of his personal travels Herodotus applied the characteristically Greek theory of symmetry to complete, in the unknown, outlines The ides of lands and rivers analogous to those which had been of symexplored.

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  • Although the name of continent was not applied to large portions of land for any physical reasons, it so happens that there is a certain physical similarity or homology between them which is not shared by the smaller islands or peninsulas.

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  • been made to arrive at a definite international agreement on this subject, and certain terms suggested by a committee were adopted by the Eighth International Geographical Congress at New York in 1904.4 The forms of the ocean floor include the " shelf," or shallow sea margin, the " depression," a general term applied to all submarine hollows, and the " elevation."

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  • But apart from the applied science, there is an aspect of pure geography which concerns the theory of the relation of economics to the surface of the earth.

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  • When a solution of the strength of about i in zo is applied to the skin it produces a local anaesthesia which lasts for many hours.

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  • The so-called "beetle-stones" of the coal-formation of Newhaven, near Leith, which have mostly a coprolite nucleus, have been applied to various ornamental purposes by lapidaries.

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  • " Bird," when it passed from its earliest meaning of " nestlings," seems to have been applied to the smaller, and " fowl " to the larger species, a distinction which was retained by Johnson.

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  • Indeed, the very name Australasia, often applied to this part of the world, would induce the belief that all the countless islands, be they large or small - and some of them are among the largest on the globe - were but a southern prolongation of the mainland of Asia.

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  • Colchicum or colchicine, when applied to the skin, acts as a powerful irritant, causing local pain and congestion.

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  • He was one of the first to see that for Biblical exegesis it was necessary to reconstruct the social environment of olden times, and he skilfully applied his practical knowledge of statecraft to the elucidation of the books of Samuel and Kings.

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  • In America the name of dace is also applied to members of other genera of the family; the "horned dace" (Semnotilus atromaculatus) is a well-known variety.

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  • Begriff), in philosophy, a term applied to a general idea derived from and considered apart from the particulars observed by the senses.

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  • Purple corundum, or sapphire of amethystine tint, is called Oriental amethyst, but this expression is often applied by jewellers to fine examples of the ordinary amethystine quartz, even when not derived from Eastern sources.

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  • The term is thus applied to a metal bar, slender in proportion to its length, used as a tie, brace or connecting shaft between different parts, of a machine.

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  • The university of Orihuela, founded in 1568 by the archbishop of Valencia, was closed in 1835, part of the revenue being applied to the support of a college affiliated to the university of Valencia.

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  • After completing these reductions, Airy made inquiries, before engaging in any theoretical investigation in connexion with them, whether any other mathematician was pursuing the subject, and learning that Hansen had taken it in hand under the patronage of the king of Denmark, but that, owing to the death of the king and the consequent lack of funds, there was danger of his being compelled to abandon it, he applied to the admiralty on Hansen's behalf for the necessary sum.

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  • NORMANS, the softened form of the word "Northman," applied first to the people of Scandinavia in general, and afterwards specially to the people of Norway.

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  • To get at the female and the ova prolonged soaking in soap and water is necessary, the epiderm being rubbed away and the ointment then applied.

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  • It has departments of pharmacy, chemistry, electrical wiring, lithography, house-painting, printing, carpentry, moulding, tile-setting, bricklaying, machinery and applied science.

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  • Servius made voting power depend on income; by Solon the same rule was applied to qualification for office.

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  • But, further still, philosophy offered a vehicle which could be applied to the contents of Christianity.

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  • In 1744 Alembert applied this principle to the theory of the equilibrium and the motion of fluids (Trcite de l'equilibre et du mouvement des fluides), and all the problems before solved by geometricians became in some measure its corollaries.

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  • In 1747 he applied his new calculus to the problem of vibrating chords, the solution of which, as well as the theory of the oscillation of the air and the propagation of sound, had been given but incompletely by the geometricians who preceded him.

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  • The forest vegetation, largely confined to the "Isle of Isles" and the southern uplands, includes the Adansonia (baobab), which in the Fazogli district attains gigantic proportions, the tamarind, of which bread is made, the deleb palm, several valuable gum trees (whence the term Sennari often applied in Egypt to gumarabic), some dyewoods, ebony, ironwood and many varieties of acacia.

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  • - The families of beetles included by Kolbe in this group are distinguished by the possession of six malpighian tubes, and a great reduction in one or two of the tarsal segments, so that there seem to be only four or three segments in each foot; hence the names Tetramera and Trimera formerly applied to them.

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  • He dwells with great force upon the different treatment applied by Ford to the characters of the two miserable lovers - brother and sister.

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  • A nearer view will reveal the rich chestnut of the mantle and upper wing-coverts, and the combination of colours thus exhibited suggests the term "tortoise-shell" often applied to it - the quill-feathers being mostly of a dark brown and its lower parts pure white.

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  • Although the name is thus correctly applied, both in English and Russian, to the whole area of the Russian empire, its application is often limited, no less correctly, to European Russia, or even to European Russia exclusive of Finland and Poland.

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  • What added to the practical difficulties of this arrangement was that the post of grand-prince was not an hereditary dignity in the sense of descending from father to son, but was always to be held by the senior member of the dynasty; and in the subordinate principalities the same principle of succession was applied, so that reigning princes had to be frequently shifted about from one district to another, according as they could establish the strongest claim to vacant principalities.

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  • From the earliest times the term tsar - a contraction of the word Caesar - had been applied to the kings in Biblical history and the Byzantine emperors, and Ivan III.

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  • But, partly from the usual laxity of the administration and partly from the readiness of the Jews to conciliate the needy officials, the rules had been by no means strictly applied.

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  • i) was known as the plate-rail, tramway-plate or barrowway-plate - names which are preserved in the modern term " platelayer " applied to the men who lay and maintain the permanent way of a railway.

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  • Miller, delivered to the South Carolina railroad in 1834, presented a feature which has remained characteristic of American locomotives - the front part was supported on a four-wheeled swivelling bogie-truck, a device, however, which had been applied to Puffing Billy in England when it was rebuilt in 1815.

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  • So much of the expense of the handling, both of freight and of passengers, was independent of the length of the journey that a mileage rate sufficiently large for short distances was unnecessarily burdensome for long ones, and was bound to destroy long-distance traffic, if the theory were consistently applied.

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  • Rightly applied, however, it is the only sound economic principle.

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  • In whatever form energy is produced and distributed to the train it ultimately appears as mechanical energy applied to turn one or more axles against the resistance to their rotation imposed by the weight on the wheels and the motion of the train.

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  • The rate at which work is done on a particular axle is measured by the product where T is the torque or turning moment exerted on the axle by the motor or mechanism applied to it for this purpose, and is the angular velocity of the axle in radians per second.

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  • Hence if all the energy supplied to the train is utilized at one axle there is the fundamental relation RV (I) Continuing the above arithmetical illustration, if the wheels to the axle of which the torque is applied are 4 ft.

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  • The fundamental condition governing the design of all tractive machinery is that the wheels belonging to the axles to which torque is applied shall roll along the rails without slipping, and exert a tractive force on the train.

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  • The fundamental relation between the applied torque and the tractive force F will be understood from fig.

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  • Let a couple be applied to the axle tending to turn it in the direction shown by the arrow.

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  • The coefficient of friction is a variable quantity depending upon the state of the rails, but is usually taken to be This is the fundamental equation between the forces acting, however the torque may be applied.

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  • Motors may be applied to every axle in the train, and their individual torques adjusted to values suitable to the weights naturally carried by the several axles.

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  • This perfection of distribution is practically attained in present-day practice by the multiple control system of operating an electric train, where motors are applied to a selected number of axles in the train, all of them being under the perfect control of the driver.

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  • The fundamental difference between the two methods is that while the mechanical energy developed by a steam engine is in the first case applied directly to the driving-axle of the locomotive, in the second case it is transformed into electrical energy, transmitted over relatively long distances, and retransformed into mechanical energy on the driving-axles of the train.

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  • - The power of the engine is applied to the vehicles through the draw-bar, so that the draw-bar pull is a measure of the vehicle resistance.

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  • If the draw-bar pull is known to be R v, then applying the same principles to the vehicle alone which above are applied to the whole train, total draw-bar pull = Wvry 2240Wv 2240Wva.

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  • A complete account of Webb's engines will be found in a paper, " The Compound Principle applied to Locomotives," by E.

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  • When the service is frequent enough to give a good power factor continuously, the steam locomotive cannot compete with the electric motor for the purpose of quick acceleration, because the motors applied to the axles of a train may for a short time absorb power from the central station to an extent far in excess of anything which a locomotive boiler can supply.

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  • R.) Intra-Urban Railways The great concentration of population in cities during the 19th century brought into existence a class of railways to which the name of intra-urban may be applied.

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  • Electricity is applied through a separate locomotive attached to the head of the train, or through motor carriages attached either at one end or at both ends of the train, or by putting a motor on every axle and so utilizing the whole weight of the train for traction, all the motors being under a single control at the head of the train, or at any point of the train for emergency.

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  • With electricity, power can be applied to as many axles in the train as desired, and so the whole weight of the train, with its load, may be utilized if necessary.

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  • Since the passing of the Light Railways Act of 1896, which did not apply to Ireland, it is possible to give a formal definition by saying that a light railway is one constructed under the provisions of that act; but it must be noted that the commissioners appointed under that act have authorized many lines which in their physical characteristics are indistinguishable from street tramways constructed under the Tramways Act, and to these the term light railways would certainly not be applied in ordinary parlance.

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  • Meanwhile John III., king of Portugal, had resolved on sending a mission to his Indian dominions, and had applied through his envoy Pedro Mascarenhas to the pope for six Jesuits.

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  • Precipitation is largely confined to local showers, often of such violence as to warrant the name "cloud bursts," commonly applied to the heavy down-pours of this desert region.

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  • The designations and epithets which are in earlier times applied.

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  • to the fruits of the earth are applied to the body and blood.

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  • Allowing for this interval of military service, he applied himself exclusively for twenty-four years to his legal work.

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  • He initiated in 1866 the spectroscopic observation of sunspots; applied Doppler's principle in 1869 to determine the radial velocities of the chromospheric gases; and successfully investigated the chemistry of the sun from 1872 onward.

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  • To these curves, which were also applied to effect some quadratures, Evangelista Torricelli gave the name of "Robervallian lines."

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  • (2) It is merely a plural of dignity (pluralis majestatis) parallel to adonim (applied to a king in i Kings xviii.

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  • 8, whereas in the previous verse the singular form adoni is applied to the prophet Elijah).

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  • (3) The Tell el-Amarna inscriptions indicate that the term Elohim might even be applied in abject homage to an Egyptian monarch as the use of the term ilani in this connexion obviously implies.3 The religion of the Arabian tribes in the days of Mahomet, of which a picture is presented to us by Wellhausen in his Remains of Arabic Heathendom, furnishes some suggestive indications of the religion that prevailed in nomadic Israel before as well as during the lifetime of Moses.

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  • Religion, 4th ed., p. 24, Kautzsch in his Religion of Israel already cited, p. 613, and recently Addis in his Hebrew Religion, p. 33 foll., have abandoned the theory as applied to Israel. ?

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  • 13) in which ElOhim is the term which is applied to departed spirits.

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  • the like epithet of " mother " applied to the prophetess Deborah, Judges v.

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  • 15), but the ecstatic and orgiastic dervish who was meshuggah or " frenzied," a term which was constantly applied to him from the days of Elisha to those of Jeremiah (2 Kings ix.

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  • The word holiness (qodesh) in primitive Hebrew usage partook of the nature of taboo, and came to be applied to whatever, whether thing or person, stood in close relation to deity and belonged to him, and could not, therefore, be used or treated like other objects not so related, and so was separated or stood apart.

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  • The snake, however, to which the word "asp" has been most commonly applied is undoubtedly the haje of Egypt, the spy-slange or spitting snake of the Boers (Naja haje), one of the very poisonous Elarinae, from 3 to 4 ft.

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  • " The subsidiary rays of medals and inscriptions, of geography and chronology, were thrown on their proper objects; and I applied the collections of Tillemont, whose inimitable accuracy almost assumes the character of genius, to fix and arrange within my reach the loose and scattered atoms of historical information."

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  • It is important to understand clearly the criterion which he applied; it is frequently misapprehended.

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  • NEVADA (a Spanish word meaning " snow-clad " or " snowy land," originally applied to a snow-capped mountain range on the Pacific slope), one of the far western states of the American Union, lying between 35° and 42° N.

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  • in length and only a few inches deep. Such bodies often become nothing but vast sheets of liquid mud, and are called " mud lakes," a term most frequently applied to the sloughs fed by Quinn's river.

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  • An unusual: provision in the constitution, a result of its adoption in the midst of the Civil War, gives soldiers and sailors in the service of the United States the right to vote; their votes to be applied to the township and county in which they were bona fide residents at the time of enlistment.'

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  • The receiver of the Cincinnati, New Orleans & Texas Pacific railway applied for an injunction against Phelan and others, which was granted.

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  • Appointed to a lectureship at the Ecole Normale Superieure in February 1870, to a professorship at the Paris faculty of letters in 1875, and to the chair of medieval history created for him at the Sorbonne in 1878, he applied himself to the study of the political institutions of ancient France.

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  • During the commonwealth and empire aes grave was used to denote the old as in contradistinction to the existing depreciated coin; while aes rude was applied to the original oblong coinage of primitive times.

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  • It is well known that if energy disappears in one form it reappears in another, and this principle applied to the sun will explain the famous difficulty.

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  • From his early youth he applied himself to historical studies and literature in general.

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  • For history, applied mathematics - for anything, in fact, outside the exact sciences - he felt something approaching to contempt.

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  • Four out of his five papers on applied mathematics were sent up absolutely blank.

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  • It is generally applied to the definite unhealthy condition of body known by a variety of names, such as ague, intermittent (and remittent) fever, marsh fever, jungle fever, hill fever, "fever of the country" and "fever and ague."

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  • In spite of the difficulties, however, there is no doubt that a great deal can be done to reduce, if not stamp out, malaria by the methods indicated, which should be applied according to circumstances.

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  • If this factor could be discovered it might be applied to the suppression of the disease in malarious localities.

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  • The term is also applied specifically to an offer to do a specified piece of work or to supply certain goods for a certain sum or at a certain rate or to purchase goods at a certain rate.

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  • The term is also sometimes applied to the written minutes of a meeting or assembly.

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  • Neither of the above rules can be applied to carbon compounds containing nitrogen.

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  • The cathedral of Sodor was on St Patrick's Isle at Peel, and it is possible that the name Sodor being lost, its meaning was applied to the isle as the seat of the bishop. The termination "and Man" seems to have been added in the 17th century by a legal draughtsman ignorant of the proper application of the name of Sodor to the bishopric of Man.

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  • Ettmiiller first applied Lachmann's ballad-theory to the poem (1841), and K.

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  • Jason sent money for a sacrifice to Heracles at Tyre; and the only recorded opposition to his policy came from his envoys, who pleaded that the money might be applied to naval expenditure.

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  • In the early middle ages the title prelate was applied to secular persons in high positions and thence it passed to persons having ecclesiastical authority.

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  • The De prelates of Valerian is concerned with secular princes, and even as late as the 14th century the title was occasionally applied to secular magistrates.

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  • In medieval ecclesiastical usage the term might be applied to almost any person having ecclesiastical authority; it was very commonly given to the more dignified clergy of a cathedral church, but often also to ordinary priests charged with the cure of souls and, in the early days of monasticism, to monastic superiors, even to superiors of convents of women.

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  • But gradually the title was extended to ecclesiastical persons having a prominent office even without jurisdiction, and later still it has come to be applied to ecclesiastical persons marked by some special honour though without any definite office or jurisdiction.

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  • In the Church of England the term prelate has been since the Reformation applied only to archbishops and bishops.

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  • Theword "prelacy," meaning no more originally than the office and dignity of a prelate, came to be applied in Presbyterian Scotland and Puritan England - especially during the 17th century - to the episcopal form of church government, being used in a..

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  • To part or the whole of this peninsula the name Italia was first applied.

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  • From the 6th century, after the fall of the Ostrogothic power, and the establishment of that of Byzantium in its place in south Italy, the name Calabria was applied to the whole of the south Italian possessions of the Eastern empire, and the name-of the Brittii entirely disappeared; and after the eastern peninsula (the ancient Calabria) had been taken by the Lombards about A.D.

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  • It was applied by the Moslems in Spain to the Christian communities existing among them, in Cordova, Seville, Toledo and other large cities, in the exercise of their own laws and religion.

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  • Owing to the skill shown on this occasion he seems to have been applied to when any manifesto of unusual ability was required.

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  • While he was in London he had a personal interview with the king, with the view of obtaining assistance for the Scottish universities from the money formerly applied to the support of the bishops.

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  • During Charles's second state-visit to Scotland, in the autumn of 1641, Henderson acted as his chaplain, and managed to get the funds, formerly belonging to the bishopric of Edinburgh, applied to the metropolitan university.

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  • Unlike the " National Covenant " of 1638, which applied to Scotland only, this document was common to the two kingdoms. Henderson, Baillie, Rutherford and others were sent up to London to represent Scotland in the Assembly at Westminster.

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  • To the university were added schools of pharmacy and of applied social science, and a department of religious education.

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  • Of other institutions of higher education, Case school of applied science had 67 instructors and 690 students, St.

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  • ROUNDHEAD, a term applied to the adherents of the parliamentary party in England during the great Civil War.

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  • Hamann (1730-1788), the term mysticism may be fitly applied.

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  • He was thus led to conclude that chemistry is a branch of applied mathematics and to endeavour to trace a law according to which the quantities of different bases required to saturate a given acid formed an arithmetical, and the quantities of acids saturating a given base a geometrical, progression.

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  • As applied to the Roman Catholic Church the word embraces the whole hierarchy, whether its clerici be in holy orders or merely in minor orders.

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  • nasi, prince, chief) was given to the head of the sanhedrim in Palestine, and is sometimes, though wrongly, applied to the " exilarch," a head of the Jewish college at Babylon.

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  • The broad mountainous slope by which it is connected with the lower levels of Hindostan contains the ranges known as the Himalaya; the name Kuen-lun is generally applied to the northern slope that descends to the central plains of the Gobi, though these mountains are not locally known under those names, Kuen-lun being apparently a Chinese designation.

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  • It is also applied to those brecciated and stalagmitic deposits on the floor of caves, which frequently contain osseous remains.

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  • The "Essay on Quantity, occasioned by reading a Treatise in which Simple and Compound Ratios are applied to Virtue and Merit," denies the possibility of a mathematical treatment of moral subjects.

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  • The province is officially divided into the three districts of Stralsund, Stettin and Koslin, but more historical interest attaches to the names of Vorpommern and Hinterpommern, or Hither and Farther Pomerania, the former being applied to the territory to the west, and the latter to that to the east of the Oder.

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  • Hence the term is applied to states in which the supreme authority is vested in a single person, the monarch, who in his own right is the permanent head of the state.

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  • It exhibits an accurate knowledge of French constitutional history skilfully applied in an attempt to show that an existing actual grievance was not only philosophically unjust but constitutionally illegal.

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  • Pasteur had the good fortune, and just reward, of seeing the results of his work applied to the benefit both of the human race and of the animal world.

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  • Sir Charles Wheatstone discovered its principle and applied it as early as 1838 to the construction of a cumbrous but effective instrument, in which the binocular pictures were made to combine by means of mirrors.

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  • The name was also applied to the great plain (Esdraelon) dominated by the city ("valley of Jezreel," Josh.

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  • The name wooden pear is applied to the fruits of Xylomelum (nat.

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  • The steam-engine first took the place of horses as a threshing power in 1803, but it was not until after 1850 that it was applied to the plough and cultivator.

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  • Similar stringent conditions applied as regards the sale of feeding-stuffs for live stock.

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  • In the case of plants the method of procedure was to grow some of the most important crops of rotation, each separately year after year, for many years in succession on the same land, (a) without manure, (b) with farmyard manure and (c) with a great variety of chemical manures; the same description of manure being, as a rule, applied year after year on the same plot.

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  • The results show that, unlike leguminous crops such as beans or clover, wheat may be successfully grown for many years in succession on ordinary arable land, provided suitable manures be applied and the land be kept clean.

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  • Of the twenty plots into which this land is divided, two were left without manure from the outset, two received ordinary farmyard manure for a series of years, whilst the remainder each received a different description of artificial or chemical manure, the same being, except in special cases, applied year after year on the same plot.

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  • So much, indeed, does the character of the herbage vary from plot to plot that the effect may fairly be described as kaleidoscopic. Repeated analyses have shown how greatly both the botanical constitution and the chemical composition of the mixed herbage vary according to the description of manure applied.

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  • In every age economists have applied the methods ordinarily in use amongst scientific men.

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  • The methods applied to economics in the 18th and the early part of the 19th century were no more invented with a special view to that subject than the principles of early railway legislation, in the domain.

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  • In its modern form the doctrine is far too general to be serviceable without the closest scrutiny of all the facts relating to the particular case to which it is applied.

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  • Economic studies should be as relevant to existing needs as those of engineering and other applied sciences.

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  • Hence ius Quiritium in Roman law is full Roman citizenship. Subsequently the term lost the military associations due to the original conception of the people as a body of warriors, and was applied (sometimes in a deprecatory sense, cf.

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  • By the peasantry of its native countries the Norway spruce is applied to innumerable purposes of daily life.

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  • Yakub's family did not continue long in power; but the Samanid princes who succeeded applied themselves zealously to the same work, and Prince Nuh II., who came to the throne in 365 A.H.

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  • There is no reason in the actual significance of the word why the term " proboscis " should be applied to an alternately introversible and eversible tube connected with an animal's body, and yet such is a very customary use of the term.

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  • Rabl has with remarkable skill applied the method of sections to the study of the minute embryos of Planorbis.

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  • ancient animal), a name applied by Cuvier to the remains of ungulate mammals recalling tapirs in general appearance, from the Lower Oligocene gypsum quarries of Paris.

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  • Napoleon applied himself with more zest to his studies, in the hope of speedily qualifying himself for the artillery.

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  • The promulgation of the Concordat (18th of April 1802) and the institution of what was in all but name a state religion tended strongly in the same direction, the authority of the priests being generally used in support of the man to whom Chateaubriand applied the epithet "restorer of the altars."

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  • We shall try to indicate the extent to which it can legitimately be applied.

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  • dpoE, a pickaxe, hence applied to the animal), the scientific name of a group of African antelopes of relatively large size with long straight or scimitar-shaped horns, which are present in both sexes, and long tufted tails.

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  • In specialized biting insects, such as beetles (Coleo C ptera), the labium tends to become a hard transverse plate bearing the pair of palps, a median structure - known as the ligula - formed of the conjoined laciniae, and a pair of small rounded processes - the reduced galeae - often called the " paraglossae," a term better avoided since it has been applied also to the maxillulae of Aptera, entirety different structures.

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  • The term nymph is applied by many writers on the Hexapoda to all young forms of insects that are not sufficiently unlike their parents to be called larvae.

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  • This was William Sharpe Macleay, a man of education and real genius, who in 1819 and 1821 brought out a work under the title of Horae Entomoiogicae, which was soon after hailed by Vigors as containing a new revelation, and applied by him to ornithology in some vigoes.

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  • Further on (pp. 101, 102) we find observations :as to the number of ribs which are attached to each of the " annexes " - there being sometimes more of them articulated to the anterior than to the posterior, and in certain forms no ribs belonging to one, all being applied to the other.

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  • To enable the reader to compare the several groups of Nitzsch with the families of L'Herminier, the numbers applied by the latter to his families are suffixed in square brackets to the names of the former; and, disregarding the order of sequence, which is here immaterial, the essential correspondence of the two systems is worthy of all attention, for it obviously means that these two investigators, starting from different points, must have been on the right track, when they so often coincided as to the limits of what they considered to be, and what we are now almost justified in calling, natural groups.'

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  • Herein he divided the class A y es into two subclasses, to which he applied the names of Insessores and Grallatores (hitherto used by their inventors Vigors and Illiger in a different sense), in the latter work relying chiefly for this division on characters which had not before been used by any systematist, namely that in the former group monogamy generally prevailed and the helpless nestlings were fed by their parents, while the latter group were mostly polygamous, and the chicks at birth were active and capable of feeding themselves.

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  • These terms were explained in his great work L' Organisation du regne animal, oiseaux, begun in 1855, to mean exactly the same as those applied by Merrem to his two primary divisions.

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  • Of this contribution to science, as of all the rest which have since proceeded from him, may be said in the words he himself has applied (ut supra, p. 271) to the work of another labourer in a not distant field: " This is a model paper for unbiassed observation, and freedom from that pleasant mode of supposing instead of ascertaining what is the true nature of an anatomical element."

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  • 3 In reply to some critical remarks (Ibis, 1868, pp. 8 5-9 6), chiefly aimed at showing the inexpediency of relying solely on one set of characters, especially when those afforded by the palatal bones were not, even within the limits of families, wholly diagnostic, the author (Ibis, 1868, pp. 357-362) announced a slight modification of his original scheme, by introducing three more groups into it, and concluded by indicating how its bearings upon the great question of " genetic classification" might be represented so far as the different groups of Carinatae are concerned: - 1 These names are compounded respectively of Dromaeus, the generic name applied to the emeu, 7xQ-a, a split or cleft, SEVµa, a bond or tying, a finch, and, in each case, yvaBos, a jaw.

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  • God is incomprehensible, and the categories cannot be applied to determine his existence.

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  • Sculptured ornamentation, flowing scrollwork of semi-conventional foliage mingled with grotesque animals, birds or dragons, is freely applied to arches and string courses.

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  • The richest ornamentation was applied to the arches and string courses, while plaques of sculpture, roundels and coats of arms adorned the facades.

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  • The word Fondaco (derived through Arabic from the Greek iravSoxE-ov), as applied to some of the Venetian palaces, denotes the mercantile headquarters of a foreign trading nation.

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  • We find it retaining some traces of Byzantine influence in the decorated surfaces of applied marbles, and in the roundels of porphyry and verd antique, while it also retained certain characteristics of Gothic, as, for instance, in the pointed arches of the Renaissance facade in the courtyard of the ducal palace designed by Antonio Rizzo (1499).

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  • When the Fourth Crusade was proclaimed at Soissons, it was to Venice that the leaders applied for transport, and she agreed to furnish transport for 4500 horses, 9000 knights, 20,000 foot, and provisions for one year: the price was 85,000 silver marks of Cologne and half of all conquests.

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  • Accordingly when Gian Galeazzo's widow applied to the republic for help against Carrara it was readily granted, and, after some years of fighting, the possessions of the Carraresi, Padua, Treviso, Bassano, commanding the Val Sugana route, as well as Vicenza and Verona, passed definitely under Venetian rule.

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  • The works sent to Clement he regarded as preliminaries, laying down principles which were afterwards to be applied to the sciences.

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  • This fruitful thought he illustrates by showing how geometry is applied to the action of natural bodies, and demonstrating by geometrical figures certain laws of physical forces.

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  • Clearly, then, the exact meaning of the term varies according to those who use it and those to whom it is applied.

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  • Xnyviaicos, ribbon), a quartic curve invented by Jacques Bernoulli (Acta Eruditorum, 1694) and afterwards investigated by Giulio Carlo Fagnano, who gave its principal properties and applied it to effect the division of a quadrant into 2 2 m, 3.2 m and 5.2 m equal parts.

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  • Though nominalism is properly a medieval theory, the tendency has passed over into modern philosophy: the term "nominalist" is often applied to thinkers of the empirical, sensationalist school, of whom J.

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  • These early schools, which consist chiefly of one-year and two-year-old fishes, yield sometimes enormous catches, whilst in other years they escape the drift-nets altogether, passing them, for some hitherto Unexplained reason, at a greater depth than that to which the nets reach, 1 The term "Spanish mackerel" is applied in America to Cybium maculatum.

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  • - These may be subdivided into two classes - covenants not to assign or underlet without the lessor's consent (it may be noted that such consent must be applied for even if, under the covenant, it cannot be withheld); and covenants in restraint of trade, e.g.

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  • The tenant may have added to its value by buildings, by labour applied to the land, or by the use of fertilizing manures, but, whatever be the amount of the additional value, he is not entitled to any compensation whatever.

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  • 1827-1830); (iv.) the term " cheptel " is also improperly applied to a contract by which cattle are given to be housed and fed - here the lessor retains the ownership, but has only the profit of the calves (Art.

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  • Dusting with Paris green is, however, an efficient remedy if promptly applied at the outset of the attack.

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  • If the test of the settlement were not frequently applied, speculators who were unfortunate would be tempted to plunge deeper until finally some became insolvent for large sums. As it is, the speculator who has incurred losses beyond his means tends to be discovered before his creditors are heavily involved.

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  • occasio, an event), in philosophy, a term applied to that theory of the relation between matter and mind which postulates the intervention of God to bring about in the one a change which corresponds to a similar change in the other.

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  • The original significance of the name remains in dispute, but the first of the family to whom it was applied was Hugh, who was elected king of the Franks in 987.

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  • In 1853 and 1854 patents for the preparation of this substance from petroleum were obtained by Warren de la Rue, and the process was applied to the " Rangoon oil " brought to Great Britain from Yenangyaung in Upper Burma.

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  • The device employed for this purpose is known as the water-packer, and consists in its simplest form of an india-rubber ring, which is applied between the tubing and the well-casing, so that upon compression it makes a tight joint.

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  • As early as 1823 the brothers Dubinin erected a refinery in the village of Mosdok, and in 1846 applied to Prince Woronzoff for a subsidy for extending the use of petroleum-distillates in the Caucasus.

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  • A large number of physical and chemical tests are applied both to crude petroleum and to the products manufactured therefrom.

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  • To illuminating oil or kerosene a series of tests is applied in order that the colour, odour, specific gravity and flash-point or fire-test may be recorded.

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  • The earliest form of testing instrument employed for this purpose was that of Giuseppe Tagliabue of New York, which consists of a glass cup placed in a copper water bath heated by a spirit lamp. The cup is filled with the oil to be tested, a thermometer placed in it and heat applied, the temperatures being noted at which, on passing a lighted splinter of wood over the surface of the oil, a flash occurs, and after further heating, the oil ignites.

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  • This instrument is so constructed that the higher temperature needed can be readily applied, and it is fitted with a stirrer to equalize the heating of the contents of the oil-cup.

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  • But the conception of the equality of the king and his peers in the long run led to hereditary monarchy; for if the king held his kingdom as a fief, like other nobles, the laws of descent which applied to a fief applied to the kingdom, and those laws demanded heredity.

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  • The name Coelesyria (n KmXrt /vpia), no doubt, was applied originally to the valley (" hollow ") between Lebanon and Anti-Lebanon, but was afterwards extended to the district stretching eastwards from the latter range.

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  • The aspect of the country is everywhere grand, and often beautiful, fully justifying the title, "The Switzerland of South Africa," often applied to it.

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  • The latter applied to Sir Philip Wodehouse at the Cape for protection, but he declined to interfere.

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  • In Carinella, Cephalothrix and Polia, as well as in all Metanemertines, the basement membrane of the skin already alluded to is particularly strong and immediately applied upon the muscular layers.

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  • In certain cases, however, the walls of the oesophagus appear to be very closely applied to the muscular body-wall and this vascular space thereby considerably reduced.

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  • His name is chiefly known in connexion with ozone, which he began to investigate in 1839, and with guncotton, which he prepared and applied as a propellant in fire-arms early in 1846.

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  • The name is taken from that of a Gallic tribe, the Cadurci, and was applied to a small district watered by the Dordogne, the Lot and the Tarn.

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  • It is due to the memory of the judges of Lord Coke's time to say that, at any rate as regards contracts made in partibus transmarinis, the same rule appears to have been applied at least as early as 1544, the judges then holding that "for actions transitory abroad action may lie at common law."

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  • santap, to eat (of a raja) instead of makan; beradu, to sleep, instead of tidor; gring, unwell, instead of sakit; mangkat, to die, instead of mati, &c. The use is different as regards the term Jawi as applied to the Malay language.

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  • Numerous varieties of soaps are made; the purposes to which they are applied are varied; the materials employed embrace a considerable range of oils, fats and other bodies; and the processes adopted undergo many modifications.

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  • Lard yields lard oil, which is mainly applied in making hard toilet soaps.

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  • Direct firing is used for the second boiling of the soap mixture; but for this superheated steam may with advantage be substituted, either applied by a steam-jacket round the pan or by a closed coil of pipe within it.

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  • FAKIR (from Arabic faqir, " poor"), a term equivalent to Dervish or Mahommedan religious mendicant, but which has come to be specially applied to the Hindu devotees and ascetics of India.

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  • After the death of Newton, in 1728, his nephew, John Conduitt, applied to Maclaurin for his assistance in publishing an.

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  • But of all the Hildebrandine statesmen who applied their teacher's ideas within the sphere of a particular national church he was the most successful.

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  • That the Israelites even applied the title of Baal to Yahweh himself is proved by the occurrence of such names as Jerubbaal (Gideon), Eshbaal (one of Saul's sons) and Beeliada (a son of David, 1 Chron.

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  • in GENTILE the English Bible, the term generally applied to those who were not of the Jewish race.

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  • The chloro-bromide and bromide of silver were also included under this term until they were distinguished chemically in 1841 and 1842, and described under the names embolite and bromargyrite (or bromyrite) respectively; the chloride then came to be distinguished as chlorargyrite, though the name cerargyrite is often now applied to this alone.

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  • To this enlarged city was applied, probably about the second half of the 6th century, the special designation To ceITV, which afterwards distinguished Athens from its port, the Peiraeus; the Acropolis was already 17 7roAts (Thucyd.

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  • The name was subsequently applied to the cella, or eastern chamber, of the Parthenon, which is exactly ioo ft.

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  • Becoming convinced that the common law in America, and particularly in New York state, needed radical changes in respect to the unification and simplification of its procedure, he visited Europe in 1836 and thoroughly investigated the courts, procedure and codes of England, France and other countries, and then applied himself to the task of bringing about in the United States a codification of the common law procedure.

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  • The name was applied to the coast from the river Hermus to the promontory of Lectum, i.e.

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  • With Sydney Young and others he investigated the critical state and properties of liquids and the relationship between their vapour pressures and temperature, and with John Shields he applied measurements of the surface tension of liquids to the determination of their molecular complexity.

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  • The settlers who had flocked to California after the discovery of gold in 1848 adopted an antislavery state constitution on the 13th of October 1849, and applied for admission into the Union.

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  • 7) Amalek is mentioned among the enemies of Israel - just as Greek writers of the 6th century of this era applied the old term Scythians to the Goths (Noldeke), - and the traditional hostility between Saul and Amalek is reflected still later in the book of Esther where Haman the Agagite is pitted against Mordecai the Benjamite.

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  • In 1790 he applied for and received the post of consul at New York.

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  • Hist., iv., Boston, 1885) applied this term in a new wider sense to all the Ratitae, and recently W.

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  • de la Boë Sylvius (1614-1672), who regarded medicine as applied chemistry, and Otto Tachenius, who elucidated the nature of salts.

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  • It consisted in heating metallic chlorides with potassium, and was first applied to aluminium, which was isolated in 1827; in the following year, beryllium chloride was analysed by the same method, beryllium oxide (berylla or glucina) having been known since 1798, when it was detected by L.

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  • The term allotropy has also been applied to inorganic compounds, identical in composition, but assuming different crystallographic forms. Mercuric oxide, sulphide and iodide; arsenic trioxide; titanium dioxide and silicon dioxide may be cited as examples.

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  • B aeyer has suggested that his hypothesis may also be applied to explain the instability of acetylene and its derivatives, and the still greater instability of the polyacetylene compounds.

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  • When applied to benzene, a twofold conjugated system is suggested in which the partial valencies of adjacent atoms neutralize, with the formation of a potential double link.

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  • The centric hypothesis has been applied to these rings by Bamberger and others; but as in the previous rings considered, the ordinary (3) (4) (5) representation with double and single linkages generally represents the syntheses, decompositions, &c.; exceptions, however, are known where it is necessary to assume an oscillation of the double linkage.

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  • He applied himself more particularly to the oxygen compounds, and determined with a fair degree of accuracy the ratio of carbon to oxygen in carbon dioxide, but his values for the ratio of hydrogen to oxygen in water, and of phosphorus to oxygen in phosphoric acid, are only approximate; he introduced no new methods either for the estimation or separation of the metals.

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  • The quantitative precipitation of metals by the electric current, although known to Michael Faraday, was not applied to analytical chemistry until O.

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  • This law-purely empirical in origin-was strengthened by Berzelius, who redetermined many specific heats, and applied the law to determine the true atomic weight from the equivalent weight.

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  • The brilliant success of Humperdinck's Hansel and Gretel, in which Wagnerian technique is applied to the diatonic style of nursery songs with a humorous accuracy undreamed of by Wagner's imitators, points a moral which would have charmed Wagner himself; but until the revival of some rudiments of musical common sense becomes widespread, there is little prospect of the influence of Wagner's harmonic style being productive of anything better than nonsense.

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  • During his residence in London he applied himself to the discovery of methods for curing smoky chimneys and the contrivance of improvements in the construction of fireplaces.

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  • 'BAIRAM, a Perso-Turkish word meaning "festival," applied in Turkish to the two principal festivals of Islam.

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  • The name of "Clemency Canning," which was applied to him during the heated animosities of the moment, has since become a title of honour.

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  • The name "sea-unicorn" is sometimes applied to the narwhal.

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  • In the years following the peace she applied herself to finding allies in France and Russia who would help her to recover Silesia.

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  • In botany, the word is applied to leaves divided into two parts near the base.

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  • The tail, usually applied to sheepdogs.

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  • A term for the tail, applied to a setter.

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  • A term applied to soft coat.

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  • The revenues of the provinces which were ° now being organized by Pompey, and the booty and money taken or received by generals during war were also to be applied to this purpose.

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  • Vespasian, who had a strong vein of superstition, was made to believe that he was himself to fulfil this expectation, and all manner of omens and oracles and portents were applied to him.

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  • and 2° 19' N., and are known generically as El-Benadir (the ports), a name also applied to the coast between the ports.

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  • The name is also applied to a district situated on the same river and on the former (1867) boundary line between Bolivia and Brazil.

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  • Already the principles of reason and humanity had been applied to the subject by Seneca.

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  • The various uses to which the papyrus plant was applied are also enumerated by Theophrastus.

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  • The chief points to be attended to are to have a plentiful supply of botanical drying paper, so as to be able to use about six sheets for each specimen; to change the paper at intervals of six to twelve hours; to avoid contact of one leaf or flower with another; and to increase the pressure applied only in proportion to the dryness of the specimen.

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  • A light but strong portfolio, to which pressure by means of straps can be applied, and a few quires of this paper, if the paper be changed night and morning, will be usually sufficient to dry all except very succulent plants.

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  • Specimens may be judged to be dry when they no longer cause a cold sensation when applied to the cheek, or assume a rigidity not evident in the earlier stages of preparation.

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  • For use, the mixture is warmed to render it fluid, and applied by means of a camel's hair brush to the under side of the specimen, which is then laid neatly on paper.

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  • He was a voluminous writer on subjects directly connected with his chair, and, besides contributing almost weekly to the technical journals, such as the Engineer, brought out a series of standard textbooks on Civil Engineering, The Steam-Engine and other Prime Movers, Machinery and Millwork, and Applied Mechanics, which have passed through many editions, and have contributed greatly to the advancement of the subjects with which they deal.

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  • These are the adjective vigadabhi applied to the stone, and rendered in our translation "flawless"; and secondly, the last word, rendered in our translation "one-eighth part (of the crop)."

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  • According to Porter (Journal Soc. Lit., 18 54, p. 303), the name is locally restricted to the plain south of the Leja and the narrow strip on the west; although it is loosely applied by strangers to the whole country east of the Jaulan.

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  • WISDOM LITERATURE, the name applied to the body of Old Testament and Apocryphal writings that contain the philosophical thought of the later pre-Christian Judaism.

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  • Sugar is grown also in St Landry and the eastern part of Attakapas - a name formerly loosely applied to what are now St Mary, Iberia, Vermilion, St Martin and Lafayette parishes.

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  • the new possession was named " Louisiana " - a name then and until 1812 applied to a much larger area than that of the present state.

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  • tobacco of Cuba comes from Pinar del Rio province; Tobacco the rest mainly from the provinces of Havana and Santa Clara, - the description de partido being applied to the leaf not produced in Havana and Pinar del Rio provinces, and sometimes to all produced outside the vuelta abajo.

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  • In 1815 Surat Singh's tyranny led to a general rising of his thakurs, and in 1816 the maharaja again applied for British protection.

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  • In one sense there is no science of applied mathematics.

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  • For no one can doubt the essential difference between characteristic treatises upon "pure" and "applied" mathematics.

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  • In "applied mathematics" the "deductions" are given in the shape of the experimental evidence of natural science, and the hypotheses from which the "deductions" can be deduced are sought.

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  • Accordingly, every treatise on applied mathematics, properly so-called, is directed to the criticism of the "laws" from which the reasoning starts, or to a suggestion of results which experiment may hope to find.

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  • Under the general heading "Analysis" occur the subheadings "Foundations of Analysis," with the topics theory of functions of real variables, series and other infinite processes, principles and elements of the differential and of the integral calculus, definite integrals, and calculus of variations; "Theory of Functions of Complex Variables," with the topics functions of one variable and of several variables; "Algebraic Functions and their Integrals," with the topics algebraic functions of one and of several variables, elliptic functions and single theta functions, Abelian integrals; "Other Special Functions," with the topics Euler's, Legendre's, Bessel's and automorphic functions; "Differential Equations," with the topics existence theorems, methods of solution, general theory; "Differential Forms and Differential Invariants," with the topics differential forms, including Pfaffians, transformation of differential forms, including tangential (or contact) transformations, differential invariants; "Analytical Methods connected with Physical Subjects," with the topics harmonic analysis, Fourier's series, the differential equations of applied mathematics, Dirichlet's problem; "Difference Equations and Functional Equations," with the topics recurring series, solution of equations of finite differences and functional equations.

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  • Number must indeed ever remain the great topic of mathematical interest, because it is in reality the great topic of applied mathematics.

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  • Mechanics (including dynamical astronomy) is that subject among those traditionally classed as "applied" which has been most completely transfused by mathematics - that is to say, which is studied with the deductive spirit of the pure mathematician, and not with the covert inductive intention overlaid with the superficial forms of deduction, characteristic of the applied mathematician.

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  • The Greeks created the sciences of geometry and of number as applied to the measurement of continuous quantities.

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  • The applied mathematical sciences of light, electricity and electromagnetism, ' Cf.

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  • The names of Chulmia and Chelmo, applied to this region by later Latin and Italian chroniclers, are occasionally adopted by English writers.

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  • "the gilded one"), a name applied, first, to the king or chief priest of a South American tribe who was said to cover himself with gold dust at a yearly religious festival held near Santa Fe de Bogota; next, to a legendary city called Manoa or Omoa; and lastly, to a mythical country in which gold and precious stones were found in fabulous abundance.

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  • The sinking fund was to work as follows: First 4% on the whole reduced capital was to be applied to group i.; if there were any surplus this was to be applied to group ii., until that also received the same full 4%, and so on for group iii.

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  • It was to be applied by redemption at the best price possible on the market, until that price stood at £T66.66, when, if the rate of interest served were 1%, it was to proceed by drawings; if the interest were anything more than 1%, and less than 3%, the limit of price for redemption was to be raised to U75; if the interest were between 3% and 4% inclusive, the limit was to be raised to par.

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  • Shortly after Murad's accession the emperor Manuel, having applied in vain for the renewal of the annual subsidy paid him by the late sultan for retaining in safe custody Mustafa, an alleged son of Bayezid, released the pretender.

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  • Dissensions among the Cossacks led to the recognition by Turkey of Doroshenko, the hetman of the Sari Kamish, as ruler of the Ukraine; the Zaporog Cossacks, his antagonists, applied for aid to Russia.

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  • He had also created in1811-1812a new National Guard, organized in " cohorts " to distinguish it from the regular army, and for home defence only, and these by a skilful appeal to their patriotism and judicious pressure applied through the prefects, became a useful reservoir of half-trained men for new battalions of the active army.

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  • The history of his youth reveals no special predilection for the military service - the bent of his mind was political far more than military, but unlike the politicians of his epoch he consistently applied scientific and mathematical methods to his theories, and desired above all things a knowledge of facts in their true relation to one another.

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  • In 1907-1908 Western Reserve University had 193 instructors and 914 students (277 in Adelbert College; 269 in College for Women; 20 in graduate department; and 102 in medical, 133 in law, 75 in dental and 51 in Library school); and the Case School of Applied Science 40 instructors and 440 students.

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  • The name Atlas given to these mountains by Europeans - but never used by the native races - is derived from that of the mythical Greek god represented as carrying the globe on his shoulders, and applied to the high and distant mountains of the west, where Atlas was supposed to dwell.

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  • for a berry), a term in botany applied to such fruits as the blackberry or raspberry, composed of small seedlike berries, and also to those berries themselves, or to grapestones.

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  • The college has departments for arts, pure and applied science and technology, medicine, public health, music, and for the training of men and women teachers for elementary and secondary schools.

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  • In the forcing of peaches fire heat is commonly applied about December or January; but it may, where there is a demand, begin a month sooner.

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  • In addition to these departments provided for in the organic act, the university included in 1909 colleges of dentistry (three-year course), pharmacy (two-year and three-year courses), a school of mines (1891; four-year course, leading to the degree of Engineer of Mines or Metallurgical Engineer), a school of analytical and applied chemistry (four-year courses, leading to the degree of Bachelor in Science in Chemistry, or in Chemical Engineering), a college of education (1906; three-year course, after two years of college work, leading to a Master's degree), a graduate school (with courses leading to the degrees of Master of Arts, of Science and of Laws, and of Doctor of Philosophy, of Science and of Civil Law), and a university summer school.

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  • a v, portrait, image), generally any image or portrait-figure, but specially the term applied to the representations in the Eastern Church of sacred personages, whether in painting or sculpture, and particularly to the small metal plaques in archaic Byzantine style, venerated by the adherents of the Greek Church.

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  • THRACE, a name which was applied at various periods to areas of different extent.

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  • Both by Catholics and by Protestants blessings may be applied to things inanimate as well as animate; but while in the reformed Churches this involves no more than an appeal to God for a special blessing, or a solemn "setting apart" of persons or objects for sacred purpoes, in the Catholic idea it implies a special power, conferred by God, of the priests over the invisible forces of evil.

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  • By anglers the common English species of Ephemera (vulgata and danica, but more especially the latter, which is more abundant) is known as the "may-fly," but the terms "green drake" and "bastard drake" are applied to conditions of the same species.

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  • In the latter sense the word has come to be applied to great ceremonial gatherings like Lord Lytton's durbar for the proclamation of the queen empress in India in 1877, or the Delhi durbar of 1903.

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  • Under the influence of an applied electric force, he imagined that the B part of the first molecule was liberated at the anode, and that the A part thus isolated united with the B part of the second molecule, which, in its turn, passed on its A to the B of the third molecule.

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  • These views were applied to the theory of electrolysis by R.

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  • Similar investigations applied to the general case of chemical equilibrium lead to an expression of exactly the same form as that given by C. M.

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  • Let an electromotive force exactly equal to that of the cell be applied to it in the reverse direction.

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  • When the applied electromotive force is diminished by an infinitesimal amount, the cell produces a current in the usual direction, and the ordinary chemical changes occur.

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  • Only when the applied electromotive force exceeds this reverse force of polarization, will a permanent steady current pass through the liquid, and visible chemical decomposition proceed.

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  • To pass a steady current in the direction opposite to this electromotive force of polarization, the applied electromotive force E must exceed that of polarization E', and the excess E - E' is the effective electromotive force of the circuit, the current being, in accordance with Ohm's law, proportional to the applied electromotive force and represented by (E - E')/ R, where R is a constant called the resistance of the circuit.

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  • The present article can only give a brief outline of a subject as intricate as it is vast, frequently also extremely obscure, and rendered still more obscure by the fact that those who have applied themselves to it have too often done so in anything but a scientific spirit.

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  • The name is applied in commerce to a complex mixture of carbohydrates obtained by boiling starch with dilute mineral acids; in chemistry, it denotes, with the prefixes d, 1 and d+l (or i), the dextro-rotatory, laevo-rotatory and inactive forms of the definite chemical compound defined above.

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  • It is a curious inversion of terms that in recent years has led to the name Sacramentarians being applied to those who hold a high or extreme view of the efficacy of the sacraments.

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  • This separation can be rapidly effected with some latices by the use of a centrifugal machine, but this method has not yet been applied to any extent commercially.

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  • The enormous increase in the commercial demand for rubber and the probability of the continuance of this increase in view of the great variety of purposes to which the material can be applied, has led to great activity in rubber planting in other parts of the world, especially in Ceylon and the Malay Peninsula and Archipelago, where the Para rubber trees (Hevea brasiliensis) has been successfully introduced, and numerous plantations; many of which have not been in existence for more than ten or fifteen years, are now contributing to the world's supply.

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  • The tests of the physical properties of crude rubber usually applied to determine its value in the market are also very rough and cannot be relied upon.

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  • In English history the system of appanages never played any great part, and the term is now properly applied only to the appanages of the crown: the duchy of Cornwall, assigned to the king's eldest son at birth, or on his father's accession to the crown, and the duchy of Lancaster.

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  • Electrolysis has in a few instances been applied to processes of manufacture.

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  • may be, as in Cistella, applied flat to the inner surface of the dorsal mantle fold, but more usually they are raised free from the body like a pair of moustaches, and as they are usually far too long to lie straight in the mantle cavity, they are folded or coiled up. The brachial skeleton which in many cases supports the arms has been mentioned above.

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  • The name Isis has indeed the authority of Spenser as applied to the Thames in its course above Dorchester (Faerie Queen, Bk.

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  • His lucid style and the perfection of his experimental demonstrations drew to his lectures a crowd of enthusiastic scholars, on whom he impressed the importance of applied science by conducting them round the factories and workshops of the city; and he further found time to hold weekly "colloquies" on physical questions at his house with a small circle of young students.

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  • Applied externally lead salts have practically no action upon the unbroken skin, but applied to sores, ulcers or any exposed mucous membranes they coagulate the albumen in the tissues themselves and contract the small vessels.

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  • Farther south it includes the Gerbier des Joncs (5089 ft.), the Mont de Mezenc (5755 ft.), the culminating point of the entire range, and the Tanargue group. South of the Mont Lozere, where the Pic Finiels reaches 55 8 4 ft., lies that portion of the range"to which the name Cevennes is most strictly applied.

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  • It is, in short, applied morality; anybody is a casuist who reflects about his duties and tries to bring them into line with some intelligible moral standard.

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  • Human nature seldom resists the charms of a fixed standard - least of all when it is applied by a live judge in a visible court.

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  • When these two words are at last found in the texts in their precise signification, Austrasia is applied to that part of the Frankish kingdom which Clotaire II.

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  • At the time of Charlemagne, the word Austrasia underwent a change of meaning and became synonymous with Francia orientalis, and was applied to the Frankish dominions beyond the Rhine (Franconia).

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  • His philosophical doctrines are not known, though some have inferred from the epithet ebSac�ovuais (" fortunate"), usually applied to him, that he held the end of life to be eiSaa�ovia.

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  • The word " form " is also applied to certain definite objects: in printing a body of type secured in a chase for printing at one impression (" form " or " forme "); a bench without a back, such as is used in schools (perhaps to be compared with O.

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  • In the 19th century the term "eclectic" came to be applied specially to a number of French philosophers who differed considerably from one another.

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  • Newcomb, was used from 1882 to 'goo; and since then the value 8.80" has been employed, having been adopted at a Paris conference in 1896.1 Five fundamentally different methods of determining the distance of the sun have been worked out and applied.

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  • In Englishspeaking countries the ore is commonly known as magnetite, and pieces which exhibit attraction as magnets; the cause to which the attractive property is attributed is called magnetism, a name also applied to the important branch of science which has been evolved from the study of phenomena associated with the magnet.

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  • Although the above useful formulae, (io) to (15), are true only for an infinitely small magnet, they may be practically applied whenever the distance r is considerable compared with the length of the magnet.

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  • We get therefore M 2 = MH X M/H = 27r 2 A(d 2 - l 2) 2 tan 0/t 2 d (42) s H 2 =Mhxh/M = 87r 2 Ad/tt 2 (d 2 -1 2) 2 tan B} (43) When a high degree of accuracy is required, the experiments and calculations are less simple, and various corrections are applied.

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  • Trans., 1885, 176, 455) introduced a modification of the usual ballistic arrangement which presents the following advantages: (I) very considerable magnetizing forces can be applied with ordinary means; (2) the samples to be tested, having the form of cylindrical bars, are more easily prepared than rings or wires; (3) the actual induction at any time can be measured, and not only changes of induction.

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  • He applied his method with good effect, however, in testing a large number of commercial specimens of iron and steel, the magnetic constants of which are given in a table accompanying his paper.

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  • Several instruments in which the traction method is applied have been devised for the rapid measurement of induction or of magnetization in commercial samples of iron and steel.

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  • The fact, which will be referred to later, that the electrical resistance of bismuth is very greatly affected by a magnetic field has been applied in the construction of apparatus for measuring field intensity.

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  • On the application of a small magnetizing force to a bar of soft annealed iron, a certain intensity of magnetization is instantly produced; this, however, does not remain constant, but slowly increases for some seconds or even minutes, and may ultimately attain a value nearly twice as great as that observed immediately after the force was applied.'

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  • The elongation is generally found to reach a maximum under a magnetizing force of 50 to 120 units, and to vanish under a force of 200 to 400, retraction occurring when still higher forces are applied.

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  • Finally, experiments were made to ascertain the effect of ' The loads were successively applied in decreasing order of magnitude.

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  • It has been suggested 2 that an iron rod under magnetization may be in the same condition as if under a mechanically applied longitudinal stress tending to shorten the iron.

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  • regarded as a " correction " to be applied to the results of experiments on magnetic change of length, the magnetic stress being no less an extraneous effect than a stress applied mechanically.

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  • Heydweiller, 2 which appeared to indicate a reversal in weak fields (corresponding to I= 5, or thereabouts), have been shown by Honda and Shimizu to be vitiated by the fact that his specimen was not initially in a magnetically neutral state; they found that when the applied field had the same direction as that of the permanent magnetization, Heydweiller's fallacious results were easily obtained; but if the field were applied in the direction opposite to that of the permanent magnetization, or if, as should rightly be the case, there were no permanent magnetization at all, then there was no indication of any Villari reversal.

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  • Changes of elasticity are in all cases dependent, not only upon the field, but also upon the tension applied; and, owing to hysteresis, the results are not in general the same when the magnetization follows as when it precedes the application of stress; the latter is held to be the right order.

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  • Weber therefore supposed each molecule to be acted on by a force tending to preserve it in its original direction, the position actually assumed by the axis being in the direction of the resultant of this hypothetical force and the applied magnetizing force.

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  • If now a gradually increasing magnetizing force is applied, the needles at first undergo a stable deflection, giving to the group a small resultant moment which increases uniformly with the force; and if the current is interrupted while the force is still weak, the needles merely return to their initial positions.

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  • As a consequence of the structure of the molecule, which is an aggregation of atoms, the planes of the orbits around the latter may be oriented in various positions, and the direction of revolution may be right-handed or left-handed with respect to the direction of any applied magnetic field.

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  • When the fluids inside a particle were mixed together, the particle was neutral; when they were more or less completely separated, the particle became magnetized to an intensity depending upon the magnetic force applied; the whole body therefore consisted of a number of little spheres having north and south poles, each of which exerted an elementary action at a distance.

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  • Ewing's Experimental Researches of 1885; throughout the whole of his work special attention was directed to that curious lagging action to which the author applied the now familiar term " hysteresis."

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  • The term equites, originally confined to the purely military equestrian centuries of Servius Tullius, now came to be applied to all who possessed the property qualification of 400,000 sesterces.

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  • There is a very definite criterion of the simplicity due to degeneration, which can in most cases be applied.

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  • Sutures are stated to mark off some of these pieces, but in the proper sense of that term as applied to the skeletal structures of the Vertebrata, no sutures exist in the chitinous cuticle of Arthropods.

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  • (2) But the word was applied to writings that were kept from public circulation not because of their transcendent, but of their secondary or questionable value.

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  • liv., 1857) in which he applied the theory developed in his doctor's dissertation to the Abelian functions.

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  • 2 The hypothesis of an Arabian Javan, applied to Joel iii.

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  • A fresh arbitration might have to be entered on to decide (I) what the law was, (2) whether it applied to the matter in hand.

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  • The title of earl, applied by the English to the foreign counts established in England by William the Conqueror, is dealt with elsewhere (see Earl).

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  • In France, by the 10th century, the process of decomposition of the old organization had gone far, and in the 11th century titles of nobility were still very loosely applied.

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  • As alum and green vitriol were applied to a variety of substances in common, and as both are distinguished by a sweetish and astringent taste, writers, even after the discovery of alum, do not seem to have discriminated the two salts accurately from each other.

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  • In the writings of the alchemists we find the words misy, sory, chalcanthum applied to alum as well as to iron sulphate; and the name atramentum sutorium, which ought to belong, one would suppose, exclusively to green vitriol, applied indifferently to both.

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  • The same law provided an emancipation fund, to be annually applied to the ransom of a certain number of slaves owned by private individuals.

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  • Siena applied to Manfred, obtained from him a strong body of German horse, under the command of Count Giordano, and likewise sought the aid of its Ghibelline allies.

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  • The name doctor scholasticus was applied originally to any teacher in such an ecclesiastical gymnasium, but gradually the study of dialectic or logic overshadowed the more elementary disciplines, and the general acceptation of " doctor " came to be one who occupied himself with the teaching of logic. The philosophy of the later Scholastics is more extended in its scope; but to the end of the medieval period philosophy centres in the discussion of the same logical problems which began to agitate the teachers of the 9th and 1 oth centuries.

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  • In other words, we note philosophy gradually extending its claims. Dialectic is, to begin with, a merely secular art, and only by degrees are its terms and distinctions applied to the subject-matter of theology.

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  • Straw (from strew, as being used for strewing), is the general term applied to the stalky residue of grain-plants (especially wheat, rye, oats, barley).

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  • He described the reflecting goniometer in 1809 and the camera lucida in 1812, provided microscopists with the "Wollaston doublet," and applied concavo-convex lenses to the purposes of the oculist.

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  • Soon after his deliverance he applied to be called to the bar, but his application was negatived on the ground that his orders in the Church were indelible.

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  • Excluding the territory to which the name of Mongolia is geographically applied, but which is included in the provinces of Shansi and Chihli, Mongolia is divided into inner and outer divisions.

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  • From the last-mentioned river are derived the terms Cisleithania and Transleithania, applied to Austria and Hungary respectively.

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  • (1074-1077) shrewdly applied to Pope Gregory VII.

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  • The theory of probabilities, which Laplace described as common sense expressed in mathematical language, engaged his attention from its importance in physics and astronomy; and he applied his theory, not only to the ordinary problems of chances, but also to the inquiry into the causes of phenomena, vital statistics and future events.

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  • Having studied law at Toulouse and lectured there on jurisprudence, he settled in Paris as an advocate, but soon applied himself to literature.

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  • The extension of the range of subjects to which mathematical methods can be applied, accompanied as it is by an extension of the range of study which is useful to the ordinary worker, has led in the latter part of the 19th century to an important reaction against the specialization mentioned in the preceding paragraph.

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  • There are also cases in which graphics and mensuration are used jointly; a variable numerical quantity is represented by a graph, and the principles of mensuration are then applied to determine related numerical quantities.

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  • For Geber, in Syriac, is a name applied to men, and is sometimes a term of honour, as master or doctor among us.

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  • The name l'arte magiore, the greater art, is designed to distinguish it from l'arte minore, the lesser art, a term which he applied to the modern arithmetic. His second variant, la regula de la cosa, the rule of the thing or unknown quantity, appears to have been in common use in Italy, and the word cosa was preserved for several centuries in the forms toss or algebra, cossic or algebraic, cossist or algebraist, &c. Other Italian writers termed it the Regula rei et census, the rule of the thing and the product, or the root and the square.

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  • The Arabians more closely resembled the Hindus than the Greeks in the choice of studies; their philosophers blended speculative dissertations with the more progressive study of medicine; their mathematicians neglected the subtleties of the conic sections and Diophantine analysis, and applied themselves more particularly to perfect the system of numerals, arithmetic and astronomy.

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  • His method for determining approximate values of the roots of equations is far in advance of the Hindu method as applied by Cardan, and is identical in principle with the methods of Sir Isaac Newton and W.

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