Apparatus Sentence Examples
The normal form of the apparatus is shown in figs.
We have not had an opportunity of testing this, nor Grubb's more recent models; but, should it be found possible to produce such images satisfactorily, without distortion and with an apparatus convenient and rigid in form, such micrometers may possibly supersede the filar micrometer.
A " Geyser " is a very convenient form of apparatus for heating a quantity of water in a short time.
Betsy lined up two likely abductions and she was anxious to get started, Quinn had already performed his part, setting his apparatus appropriately for a rural Iowa location where a twelve year old boy had gone missing.
It takes two of us and an electronic apparatus to create the dream-like trance that lets one of us see episodes from the past.Advertisement
The application of photography to exact astronomy has created the necessity for new forms of apparatus to measure the relative positions of stellar and planetary images on photographic plates, and the relative positions of lines in photographic spectra.
The apparatus for this purpose is shown in fig.
With an apparatus similar to the above, but smaller, made of iron and filled with mercury, Joule obtained results varying from 772.814 foot-pounds when driving weights of about 58 lb were employed to 775.352 foot-pounds when the driving weights were only about 192 lb.
On long circuits wcrked by the Wheatstone fast-speed apparatus, and especially on those in which a submarine cable is included, it.
The embossed books and other apparatus arrived, and I threw myself into the work with renewed confidence.Advertisement
The radioactivity is denoted by A, and A = signifies that the potential of the dissipation apparatus fell I volt in an hour per metre of wire introduced.
Can you hear the apparatus?
The apparatus has been used with complete success at the Royal Observatory, Cape of Good Hope, and at Melbourne, Sydney and Cordoba.
By a modification of this apparatus the message, instead of being immediately re-transmitted into the second cable, can be punched on a paper slip, which can be inserted in the usual way into an automatic transmitter, so as to send either cable or Morse signals.
The large and heavy crop has caused a unique modification of the sternal apparatus.Advertisement
The presence, however, of apparatus or observers upsets the conditions, while above uneven ground or near a tree or a building the equipotential surfaces cease to be horizontal.
Again rain dripping from exposed parts of the apparatus may materially affect the record.
Instruments such as the telautograph and telewriter are apparatus for transmitting a facsimile of handwriting inscribed on a paper at one end of a line, the reproduction being made automatically at the other end of the line at the same time that the message is being written.
To eliminate the sluggish action of the selenium transmitter a selenium cell similar to that at the transmitting station is arranged at the receiving apparatus, and exposed to precisely similar variations of light, the arrangement being such that the lag of this cell counteracts the lag of the transmitting cell.
Other patterns of apparatus are therefore necessary.Advertisement
The arrangement of the apparatus for working some of the most recent cables is shown in Fig.
The indicator was connected with a Ruhmkorff coil or other equivalent apparatus, designed to cause a continual succession of sparks to pass between the indicator and a metal plate situated beneath it and having a plane surface parallel to its line of motion.
Owing to the difficulty of maintaining perfect balance on duplexed cables, curb sending is not now used, but the signals are transmitted by means of an apparatus similar to the Wheatstone automatic transmitter used on land lines and differing from the latter only in regard to the alphabet employed; the signals from the transmitter actuate a relay having heavy armatures which in turn transmit the signals to the cable; this arrangement gives very firm signals, a point of great importance for good working.
In 1894 he exhibited apparatus of this kind in which the tapping back of the tube of filings was effected automatically.
He thus produced in 1896 for the first time an operative apparatus of electric wave telegraphy.Advertisement
Marconi's earliest experiments with this apparatus were made in Italy.
About this time he introduced various improvements into the receiving apparatus.
We now consider the more recent appliances for electric wave telegraphy under the two divisions of transmitting and receiving apparatus.
This consists of a receiving antenna similar to the sending antenna, and in any wireless telegraph station it is usual to make the one and the same antenna do duty as a receiver or sender by switching it over from one apparatus to the other.
This receiving apparatus, with the exception of the Morse printer, was contained in a sheet-iron box, so as to exclude it from the action of the sparks of the neighbouring transmitter.
With this apparatus some of Marconi's earliest successes, such as telegraphing across the English Channel, were achieved, and telegraphic communication at the rate of fifteen words or so a minute established between the East Goodwin lightship and the South Foreland lighthouse, also between the Isle of Wight and the Lizard in Cornwall.
Stations were established on various coast positions and ships supplied with the above-described apparatus to communicate with each other and with these stations.
Marconi exhibited in October 1900 this apparatus in action, and showed that two or more receivers of different tunes could be connected to the same antenna and made to respond separately and simultaneously to the action of separate but tuned transmitters.
The apparatus is exceedingly complicated and can only be understood by reference to very detailed diagrams.
By the middle of 1905 a very large number of vessels had been equipped with the Marconi short distance and long distance wireless telegraph apparatus for intercommunication and reception of messages from power stations on both sides of the Atlantic, and the chief navies of the world had adopted the apparatus.
In this way he was able to produce an apparatus which created continuous trains of oscillations suitable for the purposes of wireless telegraphy.
In recent apparatus, to enable it to be used on board ship, a hydrogeneous spirit is used which is fed drop by drop into the chamber in which the arc is worked.
In Reis's lecture an apparatus was described which has given rise to much discussion as to priority in the invention of the telephone.
In these experiments the electric current passed through the fingers of the operator's hand, which thus took the place of the spring in Edison's apparatus.
The application of this apparatus to the transmission of music was described by Gray.'
It is obvious that this apparatus might be used either as a transmitter or as a receiver, but that the effects must under ordinary circumstances be in either case extremely feeble.
Each connecting-cord circuit had associated with it a clearing-out drop connected between the cord and earth and a key by means of which the operator's speaking and ringing apparatus could be brought into circuit.
This attracted the attention of the attendant, who in response to the call inserted a plug into the spring-jack and connected the speaking apparatus to the circuit by means of the key.
This apparatus has two coils, one of which, connected across the line, is provided for the purpose of projecting the shutter, while the other is intended for its restoration and is joined in a local circuit arranged to be closed when a plug is inserted in any one of the associated jacks.
In the first place it increased the visibility of the signalling instrument; in the second place it brought that instrument into the position in which it could most readily catch the operator's eye; and finally it eliminated the effort involved in associating one piece of apparatus with another and in finding that other.
The operator, whose attention is thus attracted, inserts a peg in the jack, then throws over the speaking key of the cord circuit, and having ascertained particulars of the requirement places the other peg of the pair in the nearest multiple jack of the wanted subscriber, whom she proceeds to ring up. In the meantime the callinglamp has darkened; and each subscriber's line being equipped with a cut-off relay whose function it is to disconnect tl, e calling apparatus while the circuit is in use, the insertion o r a peg is immediately followed by the disappearance of the calling signal.
Its very prompt appearance, as soon as the apparatus became active, led to the opinion formerly held, that the work of the latter was complete only when the starch was formed.
As much sugar as is produced in excess of the immediate requirements of the cell is converted into the insoluble form of starch by the plastidsof the chlorophyll apparatus, and is so withdrawn from the sphere of action, thereby enabling the construction of further quantities of sugar to take place.
Proteid Formation.We have seen that it has been suggested that the chlorophyll apparatus may perhaps be concerned in the manufacture of proteids as well as of carbohydrates.
The principal symptom may show itself in general pallor, including all cases where the normal healthy green hue is replaced by a sickly yellowish hue indicating that the chlorophyll apparatus is deficient.
One general feature of the adult bird's skull is the almost complete disappearance of the sutures between the bones of the cranium proper, whilst another is the great movability of the whole palatal and other suspensorial apparatus.
Owing to this joint the whole upper beak can be moved up and down with extra facility, according to the shoving forwards or backwards of the palato-pterygo-quadrate apparatus which moves sledge - like upon the cranial basis.
The crop is modified into a large and very rugose triturating apparatus, while the gizzard, thereby relieved of its function, is reduced to the utmost.
Sir David Brewster modified his apparatus by moving the object-box and closing the end of the tube by a lens of short focus which forms images of distant objects at the distance of distinct vision.
Such instruments are occasionally found in old collections of philosophical apparatus and they have been used in order to explain to students the formation of multiple images.
It is generally divided into the Great and the Small Masorah, forming together an apparatus criticus which grew up gradually in the course of centuries and now accompanies the text in most MSS.
The following apparatus (invented originally by Michel of Marseilles and improved subsequently by others) enables the manufacturer to produce either of two forms of "refined" sulphur which commerce demands.
The first contains prolegomena on the life and writings of Boetius, on his religion and philosophy, and on the manuscripts and editions, a critical apparatus, and notes.
In the second case, however, there are all the losses due to transmission from the central station to the train to be considered, as well as the cost of the transmitting apparatus itself.
This car is equipped with apparatus by means of which a continuous record of the draw-bar pull is obtained on a distance base; time indications are also made on the diagram from which the speed at any instant can be deduced.
Locomotives have to start with the full load on the engine, consequently an outstanding feature of every compound locomotive is the apparatus or mechanism added to enable the engine to start readily.
This same narrative dwells upon the graven images, ephod and teraphim, as forming the apparatus of religious ceremonial in Micah's household.
His writing apparatus - a noctograph - lay before him, and he kept his ivory style in his hand to jot down notes as the reading progressed.
He superintended every step of the progress of the building and of the purchase of the very valuable collection of apparatus with which it was equipped at the expense of its munificent founder the seventh duke of Devonshire (chancellor of the university, and one of its most distinguished alumni).
To withstand the chemical action of the gases, the " calorimetric bomb " is lined either with platinum, as in Berthelot's apparatus, or with porcelain, as in Mahler's.
S.N., Nerves to sensory apparatus.
In large pans a mechanical stirring apparatus is provided, which in some cases, as in Morfit's steam " twirl," is formed of the steam-heating tubes geared to rotate.
Before commencing the mastication it is generally necessary to warm the apparatus by means of steam; but as the operation proceeds the heat produced requires to be moderated by streams of cold water flowing through channels provided for the purpose.
From all parts of the pyriform sac narrow stalk-like tubes are given off, ending in abundant widely-spread branching glandular caeca, which form the essential renal secreting apparatus.
Apparatus of this kind may be employed for several purposes beyond merely indicating that an earthquake has taken place.
The eye-end carries the micrometer with an illuminating apparatus similar to that described under Micrometer.
All these, although making up an apparently complicated apparatus, are conveniently FIG.
Also, if the axis is made to revolve at half the apparent diurnal motion of the stars, the image of the celestial sphere, viewed by reflection from such a moving mirror, will appear at rest at every point - hence the name coelostat applied to the apparatus.
A calorimeter is any piece of apparatus in which heat is measured.
No specialized system of spermathecae, sperm reservoirs, and copulatory apparatus, as in Oligochaeta; development generally through a larval form; reproduction by budding also occurs.
The distal extremity of this apparatus is sometimes eversible as a penis.
The male ducts are either one pair or two pairs, which open by a common and complicated efferent terminal apparatus furnished with a protrusible penis.
It is true that the dioptric apparatus was perfected independently by Fresnel, who had also the satisfaction of being the first to put it into operation.
McCormick and others in America, and finally perfected about 1879 by the addition of an efficient self-binding apparatus, is the most striking example of the application of mechanics to agriculture.
In 1894, at Cambridge, the awards were for fixed and portable oil engines, potato-spraying and tree-spraying machines, sheep-dipping apparatus and churns.
Still, the idea of the exact measurement of sensation has been a fruitful one, and mainly through his influence on Wundt, Fechner was the father of that "new" psychology of laboratories which investigates human faculties with the aid of exact scientific apparatus.
The last three families constitute the sub-tribe Porostomata, characterized by the reduction of the buccal mass, which is modified into a suctorial apparatus.
The lung-sac serves undoubtedly as a hydrostatic apparatus in the aquatic Pulmonata, as well as assisting respiration.
This is a very disappointing performance, since the author observes that, notwithstanding his new classification of birds is based on a study of the form of the sternal apparatus, yet, because that lies wholly within the body, he is compelled to have recourse to such outward characters as are afforded by the 1 From carin g, a keel.
Important as are the characters afforded by the sternum, that bone even with the whole sternal apparatus should obviously not be.
That the palatal structure must be taken into consideration by taxonomers as affording hints of some utility there can no longer be a doubt; but perhaps the characters drawn thence owed more of their worth to the extraordinary perspicuity with which they were presented by Huxley than to their own intrinsic value, and if the same power had been employed to elucidate in the same way other parts of the skeleton - say the bones of the sternal apparatus or even of the pelvic girdle - either set might have been made to appear quite as instructive and perhaps more so.
He secured an excellent set of scientific apparatus and improved the instruction in the natural sciences; he introduced courses in Hebrew and French about 1772; and he did a large part of the actual teaching, having courses in languages, divinity, moral philosophy and eloquence.
Priestley displayed much ingenuity in devising apparatus suited to his requirements and in carrying out and varying his experiments; it was in the interpretation of results that he was deficient.
This piece of apparatus was introduced by William Morris in 1831, and consists of a long double link with closely-fitting jaws which, however, slide freely up and down.
This apparatus may be described as a steel-pointed coredrill.
The outward set of teeth drill the hole large enough to permit the drilling apparatus to descend freely, and the teeth set inwardly pare down the core to such a diameter as will admit of the body of the cutter passing over it without seizing.
Such an apparatus, in which the oil-cup is uncovered, is known as an open-test instrument.
This apparatus has an oil-cup consisting of a cylindrical brass or gunmetal vessel, the cover of which is provided with three rectangular holes which may be closed and opened by means of a perforated slide moving in grooves; the movement of the slide causes a small oscillating colzaor rape-oil lamp to be tilted so that the flame (of specified size) is brought just below the surface of the lid.
It is still customary to determine the open flash-point and firetest of lubricating oils, but the close flash-point is also usually ascertained, a modification of the Abel or Abel-Pensky apparatus, known as the Pensky-Martens, having been devised for the purpose.
He was, however, an able and conscientious experimenter, and was very fertile and ingenious in devising physical apparatus.
In addition to the nerves starting from the brain-lobes just now especially mentioned, there is a double apparatus which can hardly be treated of in conjunction with the sense organs, because its sensory functions have not been sufficiently made out, and which will therefore rather be considered along with the brain and central nervous system.
This apparatus is usually known under the name of the lateral organs.
What we do find is a slight transverse furrow on each side of the head, close to the tip, but the most careful examination of sections made through the tissues of the head and brain shows the absence of any further apparatus comparable to that described above.
For the Heteronemertines arguments have been adduced to prove that here they have the physiological significance of a special respiratory apparatus for the central nervous tissue, which in all these forms is strongly charged with haemoglobin.
Such could hardly be obtained in any other way by those worms that have no special respiratory apparatus, and that live in mud and under stones where the natural supply of freshly oxygenated sea-water is practicaily limited.
Besides these more highly differentiated organs of vision, more primitive eyes are present in others down to simple stellate pigment specks without any refracting apparatus.
Of the first group the most interesting and possibly the oldest is the Book of Crates; it is remarkable for containing some of the signs used for the metals by the Greek alchemists, and for giving figures of four pieces of apparatus which closely resemble those depicted in Greek MSS., the former being never, and the latter rarely, found in other Arabic MSS.
Here it becomes encysted, and losing its boring apparatus and claw-bearing processes remains for a time quiescent.
Carbon and hydrogen are generally estimated by the combustion process, which consists in oxidizing the substance and absorbing the products of combustion in suitable apparatus.
The space a must allow for the inclusion of a copper spiral if the substance contains nitrogen, and a silver spiral if halogens be present, for otherwise nitrogen oxides and the halogens may be condensed in the absorption apparatus; b contains copper oxide; c is a space for the insertion of a porcelain or platinum boat containing a weighed quantity of the substance; d is a copper spiral.
The end d is connected to an air or oxygen supply with an intermediate drying apparatus.
After having previously roasted the tube and copper oxide, and reduced the copper spiral a, the weighed calcium chloride tube and potash bulbs are put in position, the boat containing the substance is inserted (in the case of a difficultly combustible substance it is desirable to mix it with cupric oxide or lead chromate), the copper spiral (d) replaced, and the air and oxygen supply connected up. The apparatus is then tested for leaks.
Ulrich Kreusler generates the carbon dioxide in a separate apparatus, and in this case the tube is drawn out to a capillary at the end (a).
This method rapidly came into favour on account of its simplicity, both of operation and apparatus.
The apparatus devised by Ramsay and Shields consisted of a capillary tube, on one end of which was blown a bulb provided with a minute hole.
Hero of Alexandria (284-221 B.C.), the ingenious inventor of " Hero's Fountain," is believed to have possessed a similar apparatus.
They were included among the scientific apparatus of ships and of educational establishments.
In the Rocky Mountains surveys photographic apparatus is successfully employed.
It was in connexion with these latter inquiries that he devised his phosphoroscope, an apparatus which enabled the interval between exposure to the source of light and observation of the resulting effects to be varied at will and accurately measured.
In a few days he had completed rough drafts of the necessary apparatus, which he displayed to his fellow-passengers.
It was not until 1836 that he completed any apparatus that would work, and finally, on the 2nd of September 1837, the instrument was exhibited to a few friends in the building of the university of the City of New York, where a circuit of 1700 ft.
In 1871 he had so far advanced as to receive the silver medal of the Edinburgh Society of Arts for a paper suggesting improvements in lighthouse apparatus.
In accordance with this manner of feeding, the mouth is kept permanently open and prevented from collapsing by a pair of skeletal cornua belonging to a sustentacular apparatus (the nuchal skeleton), the body of which lies within the narrow neck of the proboscis; the latter is inserted into the collar and surrounded by the anterior free flap of this segment of the body.
It is found that the most accurate and convenient apparatus to use is a platinum bowl filled with a solution of silver nitrate containing about fifteen parts of the salt to one hundred of water.
Various forms of apparatus have been used, the principle of them all being to secure efficient separation of the two volumes of solution in which the changes occur.
Hence experiments without separating diaphragms are to be preferred, and the apparatus may be considered effective when a consideraable bulk of intervening solution is left unaltered in composition.
It is found that divergence has begun before the concentration has become great enough to enable freezing points to be measured with any ordinary apparatus.
It is now ready either for incorporation with sulphur and other materials, or for agglomeration into solid masses by means of the masticating machine - an apparatus which consists of a strong cylindrical cast-iron casing, inside which there revolves a metal cylinder with a fluted or corrugated surface.
The mixed rubber thus obtained is readily softened by heat, and can be very easily worked into any desired form or rolled into sheets by an apparatus known as the calendering machine.
Some of the principal phenomena of magnetism may be demonstrated with very little apparatus; much may be done with a small bar-magnet, a pocket compass and a few ounces of iron filings.
Hence any apparatus, such as a galvanometer, may be partially shielded from extraneous magnetic action by enclosing it in an iron case.
A plan of the apparatus as arranged by Ewing for the latter purpose is shown diagrammatically in fig.
The inner coil is supplied, through the intervening apparatus, with current from the battery of secondary cells B,; this produces the desired magnetic field inside the tube.
When the magnetizing current is twice reversed, so as to complete a cycle, the sum of the two deflections, multiplied by a factor depending upon the sectional area of the specimen and upon the constants of the apparatus, gives the hysteresis for a complete cycle in ergs per cubic centimetre.
Several pieces of apparatus have been invented for comparing the magnetic quality of a sample with that of a standard iron rod by a zero method, such as is employed in the comparison of electrical resistances by the Wheatstone bridge.
The fact, which will be referred to later, that the electrical resistance of bismuth is very greatly affected by a magnetic field has been applied in the construction of apparatus for measuring field intensity.
Since the demagnetizing factor was o 052, the strongest field due to the coil was about 1340; but though arrangements were pro vided for cooling the apparatus by means of o ice, great difficulty was experienced owing to heating.
He first took up the subject about 1857, and it was in the course of his investigations on it that he devised the apparatus known as the " Deville hot and cold tube."
For the conflicts which accompanied the first intrusion of philosophy into the theological domain more profound and cautious thinkers with a far ampler apparatus of knowledge had substituted a harmony.
Baron Paul Rauch, the Magyar nominee as Ban, failed, with all his official apparatus, to secure a single seat for his creatures at the general election of 1908, and therefore proceeded to govern without Parliament, by an elaborate system of administrative pressure, press persecution and espionage.
Hence a wide beam demands treatment with further apparatus (usually a telescope) of high magnifying power.
That it was very largely used in cookery is evidenced by many writers; thus Laurenbergius (Apparatus plantarum, 1632) makes the large assertion "In re familiari vix ullus est telluris habitatus angulus ubi non sit croci quotidiana usurpatio aspersi vel incocti cibis."
What is understood by a" tone " in this language is distinguished in reality, not by the number of sonorous vibrations which belong to it, but rather by a use of the vocal apparatus special to each.
Guncottons are examined for degree of nitration by the nitrometer, in which apparatus they are decomposed by sulphuric acid in contact with mercury, and all the nitrogen is evolved as nitric oxide, NO, which is measured and the weight of its contained nitrogen calculated.
In 1900 a concession was granted for an exclusive right to fish for pearls, &c., between Margarita and the coast, the contractor to use submarine apparatus.
The "Tom Thumb," as Cooper called the locomotive, was about the size of a modern hand-car; as the natural draft was far from sufficient, Cooper devised a blowing apparatus.
Positive blowers and exhausting apparatus of a great variety of forms have been used in mines for producing artificial ventilation.
The apparatus, after having been carefully cleaned and dried, is charged with pure and dry mercury which must next be worked backwards and forwards between A and B to remove all the air-bells.
In a well-made apparatus the pressure in the exhausted vessel is now reduced to I t o or 2 1, of a millimetre, or even less.
An absolute vacuum cannot be produced on account of the unavoidable air-film between the mercury and the walls of the apparatus.
If the vertical tube, measuring from the point where the branch comes in, is a few inches greater than the height of the barometer, and the glass and mercury are perfectly clean, the apparatus slowly but surely produces an almost absolute vacuum.
Many forms of apparatus have been tried for ascertaining the temperature of glass furnaces.
It is usually essential that some parts of the apparatus shall be made to acquire a temperature identical with the temperature to be measured.
In their coarsest forms such striae are readily visible to the unaided eye, but finer ones escape detection unless special means are taken for rendering them visible; such special means conveniently take the form of an apparatus for examining the glass in a beam of parallel light, when the striae scatter the light and appear as either dark or bright lines according to the position of the eye.
If the glass is very badly annealed, the lenses made from it may fly to pieces during or of ter manufacture, but apart from such extreme cases the optical effects of internal strain are not readily observed except in large optical apparatus.
Among the many developments of the Jena Works, not the least important are the glasses made in the form of a tube, from which gas-chimneys, gauge-glasses and chemical apparatus are fashioned, specially adapted to resist sudden changes of temperature.
Silicon tetraiodide, Si14, is formed by passing iodine vapour mixed with carbon dioxide over strongly-heated silicon (C. Friedel, Comptes rendus, 1868, 67, p. 98); the iodo-compound condenses in the colder portion of the apparatus and is purified by shaking with carbon bisulphide and with mercury.
To make this apparatus more perfectly automatic, an arrangement for continually adding to and mixing with the juice the proper proportion of milk of lime has been adapted to it; and although it may be objected that once the proportion has been determined no allowance is made for the variation in the quality of the juice coming from the mill owing to the variations that may occur in the canes fed into the mills, it is obviously as easy to vary the proportion with the automatic arrangement from time to time as it is to vary in each separate direction, if the man in charge will take the trouble to do so, which he very seldom does with the ordinary defecators, satisfying himself with testing the juice once or twice in a watch.
Forgetful or ignorant of the great principle announced and established by Rilleux, they have mostly devoted their energies and ingenuity to contriving all sorts of complicated arrangements to give the juice the density required, by passing and repassing it over the heating surface of the apparatus, the saving of a few square feet of which would seem to have been their main object.
But this competition among inventors, whatever the incentive, has not been without benefit, because to-day, by means of very simple improvements in details, such as the addition of circulators and increased area of connexions, what may be taken to be the standard type of multiple-effect evaporator (that is to say, vertical vacuum pans fitted with vertical heating tubes, through which passes the liquor to be treated, and outside of which the steam or vapour circulates) evaporates nearly double the quantity of water per square foot of heating surface per hour which was evaporated by apparatus in use so recently as 1885 - and this without any increase in the steam pressure.
That evaporation in vacuo, in a multiple-effect evaporator, is advantageous by reason of the increased amount of sugar obtained from a given quantity of juice, and by reason of economy of fuel, there is no doubt, but whether such an apparatus should be of double, triple, quadruple or quintuple effect will depend very much on the amount of juice to be treated per day, and the cost of fuel.
Thus, supposing that moo lb of coal were required to work a single vacuum pan, evaporating, say, 6000 lb of water in a given time, then 500 lb of coal would be required for a double-effect apparatus to do the same work, 333 lb for a triple effect, 250 for a quadruple effect, and 200 lb for a quintuple effect.
Some crystallizers are made entirely cylindrical, and are connected to the condenser of the vacuum pan; in order to maintain a partial vacuum in them, some are fitted with cold-water pipes to cool them and with steam pipes to heat them, and some are left open to the atmosphere at the top. But the efficiency of all depends on the process of almost imperceptible yet continuous evaporation and the methodical addition of syrup, and not on the idiosyncrasies of the experts who manage them; and there is no doubt that in large commercial processes of manufacture the simpler the apparatus used for obtaining a desired result, and the more easily it is understood, the better it will be for the manufacturer.
This, apart from the effect of the abolition of the sugar bounties, has been mainly the result of the increased employment of improved processes, carried on in improved apparatus, under skilled supervision, and with due regard to the importance of the chemical aspects of the work.
Its manufacture was introduced into England many years ago by Messrs Henry Tate & Sons, and they subsequently adopted and use now the improved process and apparatus patented in March 1890 by M Gustave Adant, a foreman sugar refiner of Brussels.
This apparatus the natives called "tabaco "; but it must be said that the smoking pipe of the continental tribes was entirely different from the imperfect tabaco of the Caribees.
In regard to methods and apparatus, mention should be made of his improvements in the technique of organic analysis, his plan for determining the natural alkaloids and for ascertaining the molecular weights of organic bases b y means of their chloroplatinates, his process for determining the quantity of urea in a solution - the first step towards the introduction of precise chemical methods into practical medicine - and his invention of the simple form of condenser known in every laboratory.
Borchers introduced his resistance-furnace, which, in one sense, is the converse of the Despretz apparatus.
His small work De exceptionibus was probably written before he became pope; but the Apparatus in quinque libros decretalium, which displays both practical sense and a remarkable mastery of the available materials, was written at Lyons immediately after the council.
The Alexandrians prepared oil of turpentine by distilling pine-resin; Zosimus of Panopolis, a voluminous writer of the 5th century A.D., speaks of the distillation of a "divine water" or "panacea" (probably from the complex mixture of calcium polysulphides, thiosulphate, &c., and free sulphur, which is obtained by boiling sulphur with lime and water) and advises "the efficient luting of the apparatus, for otherwise the valuable properties would be lost."
The Arabians greatly improved the earlier apparatus, naming one form the alembic; they discovered many ethereal oils by distilling plants and plant juices, alcohol by the distillation of wine, and also distilled water.
The condensing apparatus must also be conditioned by the volatility.
For more efficient condensation - and also for shortening the apparatus - the central tube may be flattened, bent into a succession of V's, or twisted into a spiral form, the object in each case being to increase the condensing surface.
Practically any vessel may serve as a receiver - test tube, flask, beaker, &c. If noxious vapours come over, it is necessary to have an air-tight connexion between the condenser and receiver, and to pro vide the latter with an outlet tube leading to an absorption column or other contrivance in which the vapours are taken up. If the substances operated upon decompose when heated in air, as, for example, the zinc alkyls which inflame, the air within the apparatus is replaced by some inert gas, e.g.
The apparatus differs very slightly from that employed in ordinary distillation.
In its simplest form the apparatus consists of a straight tube, made of glass, porcelain or iron according to the temperature required and the nature of the reacting substances, heated in an ordinary combustion furnace, the mixture entering at one end and the vapours being condensed at the other.
Apparatus can also be constructed in which the unchanged vapours are continually circulated through the tube.
Dephlegmation of the vapours arising from such mixtures as coaltar fractions, petroleum and the "wash" of the spirit industry, is very important, and many types of apparatus are employed in order to effect a separation of the vapours.
The apparatus and process for distilling ordinary water are very simple.
The body of the still is made of copper, with a head and worm, or condensing apparatus, either of copper or tin.
Apparatus for the economic production of a potable water from sea-water is of vital importance in the equipment of ships.
Among the earlier of the modern forms of apparatus which came into practical adoption are the inventions of Dr Normandy and of Chaplin of Glasgow, the apparatus of Rocher of Nantes, and that patented by Gall& and Mazeline of Havre.
Normandy's apparatus, although economical and producing water of good quality, is very complex in its structure, consisting of very numerous working parts, with elaborate arrangements of pipes, cocks and other fittings.
Chaplin's apparatus, which was invented and patented later, has also since 1865 been sanctioned for use on emigrant, troop and passenger vessels.
Prisms are of great value in cases of double vision due to a slight tendency to squinting, caused by weakness or over-action of the muscular apparatus of the eyeball.
When distant vision remains unaltered, but, owing to gradual failure of the accommodative apparatus of the eye clear vision within 8 in.
The whole apparatus is so exactly analogous in structure to the poison-gland and tooth of a venomous snake as to suggest a similar function, and there is now evidence that it employs this organ as an offensive weapon.
Other sources of employment are the cutting of hair for making hats, the production of fancy goods, type, machinery, soap and perfumery, ready-made clothing, chemicals, electro-technical apparatus, jewelry and metal wares.
Thus in the thirteen years ending in 1897that is to say, the first period when really scientific apparatus for recording purposes was availableshe was visited by no fewer than 17,750 shocks, being an average of something over 33/4 daily.
It is obvious that, with suitable methods and apparatus, the electrolysis of alkaline chlorides may be made to yield chlorine, hypochlorites (bleaching liquors), chlorates or caustic alkali, but that great care must be exercised if any of these products is to be obtained pure and with economy.
Kellner, who in 1886 patented the use of cathode (caustic soda) and anode (chlorine) liquors in the manufacture of cellulose from wood-fibre, and has since evolved many similar processes, has produced an apparatus that has been largely used.
A 10-12% solution of sodium chloride is caused to flow upwards through the apparatus and to overflow into troughs, by which it is conveyed (if necessary through a cooling apparatus) back to the circulating pump. Such a plant has been reported as giving 0.229 gallon of a liquor containing I% of available chlorine per kilowatt hour, or 0.171 gallon per e.h.p. hour.
It was not till the autumn of 1894 that an efficient launching apparatus was devised, and then the wings were found not to be strong enough to bear the pressures to which they were subjected.
As the egg passes at last through the alarmingly distended neck, the snake makes some slight contortions and the swelling collapses, the shell having been filed through by the saw-like apparatus.
Joule failed to observe any change of temperature in his apparatus, and was therefore justified in assuming that the increase of intrinsic energy of a gas in isothermal expansion was very small, and that the absorption of heat observed in a similar experiment in which the gas was allowed to do external work by expanding against the atmospheric pressure was equivalent to the external work done.
Many variations of this apparatus are in use; in one of the commonest there are two cylindrical chambers, joined at the bottom, and each provided at the top with fine tubes bent at right angles; sometimes the inlet and outlet tubes are provided with caps.
To use the apparatus, the long tube is placed in a vapour bath (c) of the requisite temperature, and after the air within the tube is in equilibrium, the delivery tube is placed beneath the surface of the water in a pneumatic trough, the rubber stopper pushed home, and observation made as to whether any more air is being expelled.
Solids may be directly admitted to the tube from a weighing bottle, while liquids are conveniently introduced by means of small stoppered bottles, or, in the case of exceptionally volatile liquids, by means of a bulb blown on a piece of thin capillary tube, the tube being sealed during the weighing operation, and the capillary broken just before transference to the apparatus.
To prevent the bottom of the apparatus being knocked out by the impact of the substance, a layer of sand, asbestos or sometimes mercury is placed in the tube.
By varying the material of the bulb, this apparatus is rendered available for exceptionally high temperatures.
To use the apparatus, a liquid of suitable boiling-point is placed in the jacket and brought to the boiling-point.
All parts of the apparatus are open to the air, and the mercury in the manometer is adjusted so as to come to a fixed mark a.
The substance is now placed on the support already mentioned, and the apparatus closed to the air by inserting the cork at D and turning the cock C. By turning or withdrawing the support the substance enters the bulb; and during its vaporization the free limb of the manometer is raised so as to maintain the mercury at a.
To calculate the result it is necessary to know the capacity of the apparatus to the mark a, and the temperature of the jacket.
To complete the apparatus there is a glass jar which serves to hold the liquid experimented with.
The apparatus is so designed that when the plummet is suspended in air, the index of the beam is at the zero of the scale; if this be not so, then it is adjusted by a levelling screw.
The telegraph cable companies were quick to apply and to extend the oceanographical methods useful in cable-laying, and to their practical acuteness many of the most important improvements in apparatus are due.
The vertical distribution of salinity has only recently been investigated systematically, as the earlier expeditions were not equipped with altogether trustworthy apparatus for collecting water samples at great depths.
The last elaboration of the insulated slip water-bottle by Ekman, Nansen and Pettersson has produced an instrument of great perfection, in which the insulation is effected by layers of water between a series of concentric ebonite cylinders, all of which are closed both above and below when the apparatus encloses a sample, and each of which in turn must be warmed considerably before there is any rise of temperature in the chamber within.
This apparatus has been used at Harecastle in North Staffordshire, and found to work well, but with the disadvantage of bringing down the coal in unmanageably large masses.
The air was continually returned and circulated until it was too much contaminated with carbonic acid to be further used, a condition which limited the use of the apparatus to a very short period.
This apparatus was, however, very heavy and became unmanageable when more than an hour's supply was required.
In another form of apparatus advantage is taken of the property possessed by sodium-potassium peroxide of giving off oxygen when damped; the residue of caustic soda and potash yielded by the reaction is used to absorb the carbonic acid of the expired air.
The volume of gas obtained, however, depends very largely upon the form of apparatus used, and while some will give the full volume, other apparatus will only yield, with the same carbide, 34 feet.
The result is that although the forms of apparatus utilized for this purpose are all based on the one fundamental principle of bringing about the contact of the carbide with the water which is to enter into double decomposition with it, they have been multiplied in number to a very large extent by the methods employed in order to ensure control in working, and to get away from the dangers and inconveniences which are inseparable from a too rapid generation.
Dr P. Wolff has found that when this is used on the large scale there is a risk of the ammonia present in the acetylene forming traces of chloride of nitrogen in the purifying-boxes, and as this is a compound which detonates with considerable local force, it occasionally gives rise to explosions in the purifying apparatus.
The name has been applied generally to all kinds of instruments used in the measurement of a force, as for example electric dynamometers, but the term specially denotes apparatus used in connexion with the measurement of work, or in the measurement of the horse-power of engines and motors.
The apparatus used to measure P or T is the dynamometer.
Apparatus is added to some dynamometers by means of which a curve showing the variations of P on a distance base is drawn automatically, the area of the diagram representing the work done; with others, integrating apparatus is combined, from which the work done during a given interval may be read off directly.
This replaced the propeller of the ship whose engines were to be tested, and the outer casing was held from turning by a suitable arrangement of levers carried to weighing apparatus conveniently disposed on the wharf.
A Morin disk and roller integrator is connected with the apparatus, so that the work done during a journey may be read off.
In spring dynamometers designed to measure a transmitted torque, the mechanical problem of ascertaining the change of form of the spring is complicated by the fact that the spring and the whole apparatus are rotating together.
A recording drum or integrating apparatus may be arranged on the pulley frames.
In the Farcot form the guide pulleys are attached to separate weighing levers placed horizontally below the apparatus.
In a belt dynamometer built for the Franklin Institute from the designs of Tatham, the weighing levers are separate and arranged horizontally at the top of the apparatus.
It is that part of the digestive apparatus which is analogous to the single stomach of other Mammalia, as the food there undergoes the process of chymification, after being macerated and ground down in the three first stomachs.
The text was followed by a critical apparatus, the first part of which consisted of an introduction to the criticism of the New Testament, in the thirty-fourth section of which he laid down and explained his celebrated canon, "Proclivi scriptioni praestat ardua" (" The difficult reading is to be preferred to that which is easy"), the soundness of which, as a general principle, has been recognized by succeeding critics.
The second part of the critical apparatus was devoted to a consideration of the various readings, and here Bengel adopted the plan of stating the evidence both against and in favour of a particular reading, thus placing before the reader the materials for forming a judgment.
An enlarged edition of the critical apparatus was published by Philip David Burk in 1763.
Hence, when in 1850 a hydraulic installation was required for a new ferry station at New Holland, on the Humber estuary, the absence of water mains of any kind, coupled with the prohibitive cost of a special reservoir owing to the character of the soil, impelled him to invent a fresh piece of apparatus, the "accumulator," which consists of a large cylinder containing a piston that can be loaded to give any desired pressure, the water being pumped in below it by a steam-engine or other prime mover.
Mineral, vegetable and animal substances, by means of tools and apparatus of stone, wood and bone - tools for cutting, or edged tools; tools for abrading and smoothing the surfaces of substances, like planes, rasps and sandpaper; tools for striking, that is, pounding for the sake of pounding, or for crushing and fracturing violently; perforating tools; devices for grasping and holding firmly.
Tables, knives, forks and other prandial apparatus were as lacking as they were in the palaces of kings a few centuries before.
Capture begins among the lower tribes with the hand, without devices, developing knack and skill in seizing, pursuing, climbing, swimming, and maiming without weapons; and proceeds to gathering with devices that take the place of the hand in dipping, digging, hooking and grasping; weapons for striking, whether clubs, missiles or projectiles; edged weapons of capture, which were rare in America; piercing devices for capture, in lances, barbed spears, harpoons and arrows; traps for enclosing, arresting and killing, such as pens, cages, pits, pen-falls, nets, hooks, nooses, clutches, adhesives, deadfalls, impalers, knife traps and poisons; animals consciously and unconsciously aiding in capture; fire in the form of torches, beacons, burning out and smoking out; poisons and asphyxiators; the accessories to hunting, including such changes in food, dress, shelter, travelling, packing, mechanical tools and intellectual apparatus as demanded by these arts.
The place, furniture, liturgies and apparatus of worship were hereby suggested.
The old apparatus of hunting and fishing is quite primitive.
Nothing is known of his early history beyond the fact that, after amassing a small competence as a popular lecturer on natural philosophy, he settled in Edinburgh to live a very retired life in the society of his apparatus alone.
By means of a piece of stretched rubber tubing, this crucible is supported in the mouth of an ordinary funnel which is connected with an exhausting apparatus; and water holding in suspension fine scrapings of asbestos, purified by boiling with strong hydrochloric acid and washing with water, is run through it, so that the perforated bottom is covered with a layer of felted asbestos.
Foundry and machine-shop products were valued at $115,876,193 in 1905, and electrical machinery, apparatus,.
The receiving apparatus had what we may term a personal equation, for the break of contact could only take place when the membrane travelled some finite distance, exceedingly small no doubt, from the contact-piece.
But the apparatus was used in such a way that this could be neglected.
In some experiments in which contact was made instead of broken, Regnault determined the personal equation of the apparatus.
Seebeck (1805-1849) is the simplest form of apparatus thus designated, and consists of a large circular disk mounted on a central axis, about which it may be made to revolve with moderate rapidity.
Koenig also used the apparatus to investigate the effect on the frequency of a fork of a resonating cavity placed near it.
This apparatus was used to find the temperature coefficient of the frequency of forks, the value obtained - .00011 being the same as that found by Koenig.
According to this theory, then, when a pure tone is received the auditory apparatus corresponding to that tone is most excited, but the apparatus on each side of it is also excited, though by a rapidly diminishing amount, as the interval increases.
Wien also used the apparatus to find the decrease of intensity with increase of distance, and found that it was somewhat more rapid than the inverse square law would give.
Altberg's sound pressure apparatus and found very satisfactory agreement.
The velocities in different gases may be compared by this apparatus by filling the dust-tube with the gases in place of air.
If, now, the apparatus be so set that the notes from the upper and lower chest are in unison, the upper fixed plate may be placed in four positions, such as to cause the air-current to be cut off in the one chest at the exact instant when it is freely passing through the other, and vice versa.
Koenig, Quelques experiences d'acoustique (1882) describes apparatus and experiments, intended to show, in opposition to Helmholtz, that beats coalesce into tones, and also that the quality of a note is affected by alteration of phase of one of its component overtones relative to the phase of the fundamental.
As compared with copaiba in this connexion cubebs has the advantages of being less disagreeable to take and somewhat less likely to disturb the digestive apparatus in prolonged administration.
As, however, our terrestrial optical apparatus is now all in motion along with the matter, we must dealt .with the rays relative to the moving system, and to these also Fermat's principle clearly applies; thus V+ (lu'--mv'-Fnw') is here the velocity of radiation in the direction of the ray, but relative to the moving material system.
These powerfully-organized priesthoods, as well as the elaborate nature of their ritual and apparatus of worship, must have deeply and permanently impressed the exiled Jewish community.
In the divided state of the nation, indeed, this sanctuary was hardly visited from beyond Mt Ephraim; and every man or tribe that cared to provide the necessary apparatus (ephod, teraphim, &c.) and hire a priest might have a temple and oracle of his own at which to consult Jehovah (Judges xvii., xviii.); but there was hardly another sanctuary of equal dignity.
The apparatus described in the patent specification is an iron cylinder heated by gas rings below, with a narrower cylinder beneath, through which passes upwards a stout iron cathode rod cemented in place by caustic soda solidified in the narrower vessel.
The country is divided into arrondissements and communes, with most of the apparatus of self-government enjoyed by the corresponding units in France.
Such an agreement in the structure of so complicated and specialized an apparatus can only be the result of a community of descent of the families possessing it.
For collection of material the edition of Holmes and Parsons (Oxford, 1798-1827), with its magnificent critical apparatus, is pre-eminent; the preparation of a similar edition, on a rather smaller scale but embodying the results of fresh and more careful collation, was subsequently undertaken by Cambridge scholars.'
The apparatus criticus of the New Testament consists, from one point of view, entirely of MSS.; but these MSS.
The problem which faces the textual critic of the New Testament is to reconstruct the original text from the materials supplied by the MSS., versions, and quotations in early writers, which have been described in the preceding section on the apparatus criticus.
In 1675 John Fell, dean of Christ Church, published the Elzevir text with an enlarged apparatus, but even more important was the help and advice which he gave to the next important editor - Mill.
Wetstein, one of Bentley's assistants, when living in Basel in 1730, published " Prolegomena " to the Text, and in 1751-1752 (at Amsterdam) the text of Stephanus with enlarged Prolegomena and apparatus criticus.
These lines of research have been described in the preceding section on the apparatus criticus.
To Bowdoin College he gave land, money and apparatus; and he made the college his residuary legatee, bequeathing to it his collection of paintings and drawings, then considered the finest in the country.
He especially devoted himself to investigations of the radiation of heat from the sun and its absorption by the earth's atmosphere, and to that end devised various delicate methods and instruments, including his electric compensation pyrheliometer, invented in 1893, and apparatus for obtaining a photographic representation of the infra-red spectrum (1895).
But swiftness, the apparatus necessary for climbing, running and digging, the mechanism of the tongue, the muscles of the jaws (hence modifications of the cranial arches) stand also in correlation with the kind of food and with the way in which it has to be procured.
Scheele's power as an experimental investigator has seldom if ever been surpassed, and his accuracy is most remarkable when his primitive apparatus, his want of assistance, his place of residence, and the undeveloped state of chemical and physical science in his time, are all taken into account.
This board, which is composed of five members appointed by the supreme court for a term of two years, also assesses the taxes on the railways, and on telegraph and telephone lines; for railways the average rate of taxation is assessed on the estimated actual value of the road beds, rolling stock and equipment, and for the telegraph and telephone lines this rate is assessed on the estimated actual value of the poles, wires, instruments, apparatus, office furniture and fixtures.
Notwithstanding the rude character of the apparatus at his disposal, Horrocks was enabled by his observation of it to introduce some important corrections into the elements of the planet's, orbit, and to reduce to its exact value the received estimate of its apparent diameter.
Foot generally provided with a highly developed byssogenous apparatus.
Secondly, since different scribes are prone to different kinds of error, we must ever bear in mind the particular failings of the scribes responsible for the transmission of our text as these failings are revealed in the apparatus criticus.
On the other method the editor will provide all necessary information about the evidence for the text in the notes of his critical apparatus; but in the text itself he will give whatever in each case is supported by the balance of the probabilities.
They are abundantly distinct from the Neuroptera and Mecaptera, through the absence of mandibles in the imago, the maxillae - both pairs of which possess the typical inner and outer lobes and jointed palps - forming a suctorial apparatus.
The silver kettle, which fits on a ring near the top of the outer covering, has a cup-like cover in which rice is placed with a little water; the ginseng is put in the inner vessel with water, a cover is placed over the whole, and the apparatus is put on the fire.
The company possesses one of the finest electric stations in the world, and electrical apparatus for the working of train signals is in operation.
But this advantage is only procured by the sacrifice of some accuracy; for notwithstanding the cumbersome apparatus employed, the conditions of the problem are not always exactly satisfied, nor is it possible that they can be always satisfied by any similar method of proceeding.
We Will Now Show In What Manner This Whole Apparatus Of Methods And Tables May Be Dispensed With, And The Gregorian Calendar Reduced To A Few Simple Formulae Of Easy Computation.
Their lucrative pearl fisheries have been practically monopolized by the Japanese, who use proper diving apparatus.
At the anterior end the head is differentiated; it bears the sense-organs, and contains the muscular pharynx within which is the radular apparatus.
Upon Dee's departure the mob, believing him a wizard, broke into his house, and' destroyed a quantity of furniture and books and his chemical apparatus.
The apparatus used for these purposes in some localities is of a very primitive kind, and the reeling being uneven and lumpy the silk is of inferior quality and low value.
There is some reason to believe that this complicated and variable apparatus is used for stabbing the body of another animal and that beginning as a weapon for catching prey it has become modified for hypodermic impregnation and only gradually adapted for insertion into the bursa copulatrix.
It is well equipped with buildings and apparatus, and has an endowment of about $300,000.
P. Pictet, and exhibited for the first time in Great Britain the working of the Cailletet apparatus.
Olszewski, and illustrated for the first time in public the liquefaction of oxygen and air, by means of apparatus specially designed for optical projection so that the actions taking place might be visible to the audience.
By 1891 he had designed and erected at the Royal Institution an apparatus which yielded liquid oxygen by the pint, and towards the end of that year he showed that both liquid oxygen and liquid ozone are strongly attracted by a magnet.
In commercial establishments where utility is of more importance than ornament, the glass houses and hot water apparatus are not of so elaborate a type as indicated in the foregoing remarks, and in many cases excellent produce is grown in structures more or less dilapidated.
The French maraicher does not use hot-water apparatus for forcing his plants into early growth.
Clean and repair the forcing-houses, and overhaul the heating apparatus to see it is in good working condition.
The principle of this apparatus may be explained thus.
Nicholson described also another apparatus, the "spinning condenser," which worked on the same principle.
With this apparatus he obtained sparks 6 in.
In this apparatus one of the charging rods communicated with one of the field plates, but the other with the neutralizing brush opposite to the other field plate.
Bouchotte have 1 See Lord Kelvin, Reprint of Papers on Electrostatics and Magnetism (1872);" Electrophoric Apparatus and Illustrations of Voltaic Theory,"p. 319;" On Electric Machines Founded on Induction and Convection,"p. 330;" The Reciprocal Electrophorus,"P. 337.
The iron blast furnace, a crude but very efficient piece of apparatus, is an enormous shaft usually about 80 ft.
The working chamber indeed is the furnace proper, in which the whole of the open-hearth process is carried out, and the function of all the rest of the apparatus, apart from the tilting mechanism, is simply to pre-heat the air and gas, and to lead them to the furnace proper and thence to the chimney.
Thus the apparatus is analogous to the common transformers used for inducing from currents of great electromotive force and small quantity, which carry energy through long distances, currents of great quantity and small electromotive force for incandescent lights and for welding.
Palladium and some other metals are capable of absorbing large volumes of hydrogen (especially when the metal is used as a cathode in a water electrolysis apparatus).
The whole is but a clumsy apparatus for displaying the varied and extensive reading of the author.
The methods of the first class may be further subdivided according to the form of apparatus employed.
For these reasons the temperature-coefficient of the conductivity could not be determined satisfactorily on this particular form of apparatus, but the mean results were probably trustworthy to I or 2%.
The apparatus shown in fig.
Fizeau's method, introducing various improvements in the apparatus, which added greatly to the accuracy of the results.
And Faraday devised some simple apparatus which conclusively demonstrated that the movements were due to unconscious muscular action.
The apparatus consisted of two small boards, with glass rollers between them, the whole fastened together by indiarubber bands in such a manner that the upper board could slide under lateral pressure to a limited extent over the lower one.
Tice occurrence of such lateral movement was at once indicated by means of an upright haystalk fastened to the apparatus.
In 1876 he exhibited an apparatus embodying the results of his studies in the transmission of sound by electricity, and this invention, with improvements and modifications, constitutes the modern commercial telephone.
He was the inventor also of the photophone, an instrument for transmitting sound by variations in a beam of light, and of phonographic apparatus.
His apparatus consists of a vacuum vessel containing a magnetic sphere-intended to represent the earth-and the phenomena are produced by sending electric discharges through the vessel.
Although the cults of the old Greek deities in the new cities, with their splendid apparatus of festivals and sacrifice might still hold the multitude, men turned ever in large numbers to alien Art religions, felt as more potent because strange, and the various gods of Egypt and the East began to find larger entrance in the Greek world.
Although this supposition is correct for a certain class of apparatus, as for example that which will record rapid elastic vibrations produced by the movement of a train a mile distant, it is far from being so for the ordinary apparatus employed by the seismologist.
First we will consider the types of apparatus which are used to record the rapid back-and-forth movements of earthquakes which can be distinctly felt and at times are even destructive.
This type of apparatus has been replaced in Japan by what are called duplex pendulum seismographs.
For obtaining an open diagram of an earthquake the best type of apparatus consists of a pair of horizontal pendulums writing their movements upon a moving surface.
The movements of the apparatus, which when complete should consist of two similar pendulums in planes at right angles to each other, are recorded by means of a beam of light, which, after reflection from the mirror or mirrors, passes through a cylindrical lens and is focussed upon a moving surface of photographic paper.
Although such apparatus is far too cumbersome to be used by ordinary observers, it yields valuable results.
An apparatus of great value in measuring slight changes in the vertical which have a bearing upon seismometrical observation is the Darwin bifilar pendulum.
It is possible to adjust the apparatus so that a tilt of Tolua sec. of arc, or a change of slope of t in.
An air-damping apparatus is attached in order to annul the natural oscillations of the pendulum.
On the different days of the year each hour was determined by a fixed star culminating or nearly culminating in it, and the position of these stars at the time is given in the tables as in the centre, on the left eye, on the right shoulder, &c. According to the texts, in founding or rebuilding temples the north axis was determined by the same apparatus, and we may condude that it was the usual one for astronomical observations.
The distinction, therefore, between the movement of the eyeballs, elicited from the occipital (visual) cortex, and that of the hand, elicited from the cortex in the region of the central sulcus (somaesthetic), is not a difference between motor and sensory, for both are sensori-motor in the nature of their reactions; the difference is only a difference between the kind of sense and sense-organ in the two cases, the muscular apparatus in each case being an appanage of the sensual.
With certain of these it stands associated most closely, namely, with the vestibular, representing the sense organs which furnish data for appreciation of positions and movements of the head, and with the channels, conveying centripetal impressions from the apparatus of skeletal movement.
In small therapeutic and in small toxic doses atropine stimulates the motor apparatus of the spinal cord, just as it stimulates the centres in the medulla oblongata.
In two Malayan species of Balanophora, the embryo is developed from a cell of the endosperm, which is formed from the upper polar nucleus only, the egg apparatus becoming disorganized.
The whole functioning of our mental apparatus is directed upon yielding the right response to the stimulations of the environment, and is valuable if and in so far as it does this.
The method once exclusively used consists in mixing the raw materials with a large quantity of water in a wash mill, a machine having radial horizontal arms driven from a central vertical spindle and carrying harrows which stir up and intermix any soft material placed in the pit in which the apparatus revolves.
Another method of making Portland cement which has been proposed and tried with some success consists in fusing the raw materials together in an apparatus of the type of a blast furnace.
The administration of the fund was handed over to a body of trustees, who devote the annual income (L100,000) partly to the payment of students' fees and partly to buildings, apparatus, professorships and research.
The two carried out some of the earliest thermochemical investigations, devised apparatus for measuring linear and cubical expansions, and employed a modification of Joseph Black's ice calorimeter in a series of determinations of specific heats.
The greatest increase of products between 1890 and 1900 was in the manufacture of electrical apparatus (2400%), in which the increase in value of product was 37.2%.
The eggs are laid in the spring as a rule, and after about a week they give rise to a minute, ringed larva with a protrusible boring apparatus consisting of three chitinous rods.
The optical apparatus generally consists of a mirror mounted on an axis parallel to the axis of the earth, and rotated with the same angular velocity as the sun.
The principle of the apparatus may be explained by reference to fig.
The gaseous mixture, issuing from the latter, is washed with water in the usual condensing apparatus, to remove the 40 or 50 parts of hydrochloric acid left unchanged, and can then be immediately employed for the manufacture of chlorate of potash.