(a) The origin of Apocalyptic is to be sought in unfulfilled prophecy.
It was, however, in regard to the destiny of the individual that apocalyptic rendered its chief service.
Thus the books of which we have to treat will be classed as: (a) Historical, (b) Legendary (Haggadic), (c) Apocalyptic, (d) Didactic or Sapiential.
under separate article on Apocalyptic Literature.
The classical model for all apocalyptic is to be found in Dan.
of the Cathari, and in Calabria the apocalyptic gospel of Joachim of Floris, all bearing witness to the commotion of the time.
clearly bear the apocalyptic character; so also Isa.
(r) Midrashic. Jellinek published in the six parts of his Beth ha-Midrasch (1853-1878) a large number of smaller Midrashi, ancient and medieval homilies and folk-lore records, which have been of much service in the recent revival of interest in Jewish apocalyptic literature.
It led to the last apocalyptic age that predated my predecessor here. It was not a good time, Rhyn. I'm hoping I can calm the waters down.
This idea that the Messianic kingdom of the future on earth should have a definite duration has - like the whole eschatology of the primitive Church - its roots in the Jewish apocalyptic literature, where it appears at a comparatively late period.
It was only the chronologists and historians of the church who, following Julius Africanus, made use of apocalyptic numbers in their calculations, while court theologians like Eusebius entertained the imperial table with discussions as to whether the dining-hall of the emperor - the second David and Solomon, the beloved of God - might not be the New Jerusalem of John's Apocalypse.
Thus, whereas prophecy had to deal with temporary reverses at the hands of some heathen power, apocalyptic arose at a time when Israel had been subject for generations to the sway of one or other of the great worldpowers.
Apocalyptic thus forms the indispensable preparation for the religion of the New Testament.
These books do not display the apocalyptic style which, partly borrowed from Lamennais, characterizes Michelet's later works, but they contain in miniature almost the whole of his curious ethicopolitico-theological creed - a mixture of sentimentalism, communism, and anti-sacerdotalism, supported by the most eccentric arguments, but urged with a great deal of eloquence.
In such a movement as early Christian gnosticism, Babylonian elements - modified, to be sure, and transformed - are largely present, while the growth of an apocalyptic literature is ascribed with apparent justice by many scholars to the recrudescence of views the ultimate source of which is to be found in the astral-theology of the Babylonian and Assyrian priests.
Together with these statements in our sources are still mingled fragments of the more ordinary cataclysmic, apocalyptic conceptions, which in spite of much ingenious exegesis, cannot be brought into harmony with Christ's predominant teaching, but remain as foreign elements in the words of the Master, possibly brought back through his disciples, or, more probably, used by Jesus uncritically - a part of the current religious imagery in which he shared.
But to judge from the Apocalyptic Letter to this Church (as shown by Sir W.
The first of these sense-divisions deals only with narratives regarding the reign of Nebuchadrezzar and his supposed son Belshazzar, while the second section consists exclusively of apocalyptic prophecies.
4 The first chapter, which is just as much in the narrative style as are the following Aramaic sections, is in Hebrew, while the distinctly apocalyptic chapter vii.
This is the true apocalyptic system.
Printed in tens of thousands of copies are certain apocalyptic legends dealing with eschatological problems. The ancient Apocalypse of Peter appears here under the name of Paul, then there is an Apocalypse of the Virgin Mary, who, like Peter, is carried by the Archangel through the torments of Hell and the bliss of Paradise, and through whose intervention sufferers are granted pardon on certain days of the year.
It falls into three distinct parts: an apocalyptic introduction (book i.
But the unity of thought and atmosphere is such as to show that the work is one whole (subject no doubt to a certain amount of redaction and interpolation), and that the apocalyptic part was composed as an introduction to the rest.
Persecution usually begets hysteria in its victims; and the more extravagant members of the party were far advanced on the road which leads to apocalyptic prophecy and "speaking with tongues."
He was a good scholar and a keen student of biblical apocalyptic literature and himself "prophesied" to Queen Anne, Robert Harley, earl of Oxford, William Whiston, and John Evelyn the diarist.
He fails, however, in many cases to recognize the difficulties at issue, and those which cannot be ignored he sets down to the conflicting apocalyptic traditions, on which the author was obliged to draw for his subject-matter.
apocalyptic prophecies of the near future are revealed for the first time.
apocalyptic vision of the world.
Problem is, she's not the only mutant who wants to get her hands on this potentially apocalyptic bio-weapon!
Although a natural optimist, I am going to make a prediction that is almost apocalyptic.
Those 12 years were truly apocalyptic in the biblical sense.
Some people were trying to present the constitutional treaty in rather apocalyptic overtones.
Once used in this fashion, they were readily available for incorporation into the emerging apocalyptic of later OT times.
calamity against a backdrop of social breakdown and apocalyptic despair.
epilogueucifixion itself is depicted graphically, alternating apocalyptic outbursts and restrained lament; an extended epilog finally establishes the latter mood.
familiar with apocalyptic literature.
Their mortal cleaning lady becomes the catalyst for apocalyptic events.
medieval monasticism was one such effort to adapt Jesus ' apocalyptic agenda to the world.
postexilic era: theocratic and apocalyptic.
Thus IT can be viewed as a reinforcement of existing power structures rather than an apocalyptic scythe.
Had I been too apocalyptic in my dire predictions about what the future held for us?
prophecymust surely be very few people in the Western World who have not heard of Nostradamus and his apocalyptic prophecies.. .
purveyed simple truths appropriate to the apocalyptic circumstances he saw.
They were both apocalyptic sects, which despised Roman occupation.
The following chapters (xxxiv.- xxxix.) are devoted to reconstruction: Edom, the detested enemy of Israel, is to be crushed; the nation, politically raised from the dead, with North and South united (xxxvii.), is to be established under a Davidide king; a final assault, made by Gog, is to be successfully met, 4 and then the people are to dwell in their own land in peace for ever; this Gog section is regarded by some as the beginning of Jewish apocalyptic writing.
In this way we perceive the transformation of the old Messianic doctrine through apocalyptic. Of apocalyptic literature we have numerous examples extending from the 2nd century B.C. to the 2nd century A.D.
" The use which was made in Apocalyptic literature of the traditions of Moses, Isaiah and others finds its analogy within the Old Testament itself; cf.
The apocalyptic "Testamenta duodecim patriarcharum" was a favourite reading-book; and Latin versions of ancient apocalypses are being continually brought to light from Western libraries (e.g.
(c) Apocalyptic. 1 (i.e.
This pessimism and want of faith limited and defined the form in which religious enthusiasm should manifest itself, and prescribed as a condition of successful effort the adoption of pseudonymous authorship. The apocalyptic writer, therefore, professedly addressed his book to future generations.
It was in crises of national anguish that men turned most eagerly to the prophecies, and sought to construe their teachings as a promise of speedy deliverance (see Apocalyptic Literature).
This we may consider as one of the striking parallels which meet us in other religions to that "hope of the advent of an ideal king which was one of the features of that larger hope of the salvation of Israel from all evils, the realization of perfect reconciliation with Jehovah and the felicity of the righteous in Him," to which reference was made in an early portion of this article and which constitutes the essential meaning of Messiahship. The form in which the Indian conception presents itself in the above quoted lines is more closely analogous amid many differences to the later and apocalyptic type of the Messianic idea as it appears in Judaism.
The sayings of Jesus purveyed simple truths appropriate to the apocalyptic circumstances he saw.
Christianity, moreover, moved by the same apocalyptic tendency as Judaism, gave birth to new Christian apocryphs, though, in the case of most of them, the subject matter was to a large extent traditional and derived from Jewish sources.
We have remarked above that the Jewish apocrypha - especially the apocalyptic section and the host of Christian apocryphsbecame the ordinary religious literature of the early Christians.
Apocalypse of Baruch), the whole class is now commonly known as Apocalyptic Literature.
But this version of the idea of Antichrist, hostile to the Jews and better expressing the relation of Christianity to the Roman empire, was prevented from obtaining an absolute ascendancy in Christian tradition by the rise of the belief in the ultimate return of Nero, and by the absorption of this outcome of pagan superstition into the Jewish-Christian apocalyptic conceptions.
This idea of Nero's return was in the first instance taken up by the Jewish apocalyptic writers.
This period, as is well known, was inaugurated, at the end of the 12th century, by the apocalyptic writings of the abbot Joachim of Floris.
ASSUMPTION OF MOSES, an extra-canonical apocalyptic work of the Old Testament.
Again 1666 was given as the apocalyptic year.
But the non-fulfilment of prophecies relating to this or that individual event or people served to popularize the methods of apocalyptic in a very slight degree in comparison with the nonfulfilment of the greatest of all prophecies - the advent of the Messianic kingdom.
The fact of such visionary experience can hardly be questioned: the only difficulty lies in determining to what extent it underlies the revelations of apocalyptic. For a short discussion of this question we might refer to Bousset's Offenbarung Johannis 2, pp. 8 sqq., and Porter's article on Revelation "in Hastings' Bible Dictionary, iv.
SIBYLLINE ORACLES, a collection of Apocalyptic writings, composed in imitation of the heathen Sibylline books (see Sibyls) by the Jews and, later, by the Christians in their efforts to win the heathen world to their faith.
Many discussions about the consequences of global warming degenerate into apocalyptic warnings, but this purpose of this article is not to scare you.
Savage is a science fiction battle game that takes place soon after an apocalyptic event.
With the Terminator 2 soundtrack, Brad Fiedel creates appropriately effective electronic sounds that more than adequately represent the technological and apocalyptic horrors that take place on screen.
So early as the year '70, a church party in Asia Minor - the so-called Alogi - rejected the whole body of apocalyptic writings and denounced the book of Revelation as a book of fables.
In the Semitic churches of the East (the Syrian, Arabian and Ethiopian), and in that of Armenia, the apocalyptic literature was preserved much longer than in the Greek Church.
Now the current religious literature of Judaism outside the canon was composed of apocryphal books, the bulk of which bore an apocalyptic character, and dealt with the coming of the Messianic kingdom.
The Apocalyptic literature of Judaism and Christianity embraces a considerable period, from the centuries following the exile down to the close of the middle ages.
Thus the inner development of Jewish apocalyptic was always conditioned by the historical experiences of the nation.
We have already dwelt on certain notable differences between apocalyptic and prophecy; but there are certain others that call for attention.
Apocalyptic, as Baldensperger has shown, formed a counterpoise to the normal current of conformity to law.
Persian influence is also responsible for the vast multiplication of good spirits or angels, Gabriel, Raphael, Michael, &c., who play their part in apocalyptic works, such as the Book of Daniel and the Book of Enoch.
On apocalyptic generally the introductions to Charles's Book of Enoch, Apocalypse of Baruch, Ascension of Isaiah and Book of Jubilees, should be carefully noted.
But from a comparison of prophetic passages of the Old Testament learned apocalyptic writers came to the conclusion that a distinction must be drawn between the earthly appearance of the Messiah and the appearance of God Himself amongst His people and in the Gentile world for the final judgment.
Only we must not form our ideas of the great apocalyptic and chiliastic movement of the first decades of the 16th century from the rabble in Munster.
How millennarianism nevertheless found its way, with the help of apocalyptic mysticism and Anabaptist influences into the churches of the Reformation, chiefly among the Reformed sects, but afterwards also in the Lutheran Church, how it became incorporated with Pietism, how in more recent times an exceedingly mild type of "academic" chiliasm has been developed from a belief in the verbal inspiration of the Bible, how finally new sects are still springing up here and there with apocalyptic and chiliastic expectations - these are matters which cannot be fully entered upon here.
The transition from prophecy to apocalyptic (Corot(aXi 7rrecv, to reveal something hidden) was gradual and already accomplished within the limits of the Old Testament.
The way, however, had in an especial degree been prepared for the apocalyptic type of thought and literature by Ezekiel, for with him the word of God had become identical with a written book (ii.
This is essentially the apocalyptic conception of history, and Ezekiel may be justly represented as in certain essential aspects its founder in Israel.
Sources of Apocalyptic. - The origin of Apocalyptic is to be sought in (a) unfulfilled prophecy and in (b) traditional elements drawn from various sources.
But as this northern foe had failed to appear Ezekiel re-edited this prophecy in a new form as a final assault of Gog and his hosts on Jerusalem, and thus established a permanent dogma in Jewish apocalyptic, which in due course passed over into Christian.
(b) Another source of apocalyptic was primitive mythological and cosmological traditions, in which the eye of the seer could see the secrets of the future no less surely than those of the past.
Of primitive mythological traditions we might mention the primeval serpent, leviathan, behemoth, while to ideas native to or familiar in apocalyptic belong those of the seven archangels, the angelic patrons of the nations (Deut.
Object and Contents of Apocalyptic. - The object of this literature in general was to solve the difficulties connected with the righteousness of God and the suffering condition of His righteous servants on earth.
But later, with the growing claims of the individual and the acknowledgment of these in the religious and intellectual life, both problems, and especially the latter, pressed themselves irresistibly on the notice of religious thinkers, and made it impossible for any conception of the divine rule and righteousness to gain acceptance, which did not render adequate satisfaction to the claims of both problems. To render such satisfaction was the task undertaken by apocalyptic, as well as to vindicate the righteousness of God alike in respect of the individual and of the nation.
Though the individual might perish amid the disorders of this world, he would not fail, apocalyptic taught, to attain through resurrection the recompense that was his due in the Messianic kingdom or in heaven itself.
The form of apocalyptic is a literary form; for we cannot suppose that the writers experienced the voluminous and detailed visions we find in their books.
The message of the prophets was primarily a preaching of repentance and righteousness if the nation would escape judgment; the message of the apocalyptic writers was of patience and trust for that deliverance and reward were sure to come.
The apocalyptic writer on the other hand despairs of the present, and directs his hopes absolutely to the future, to a new world standing in essential opposition to the present.
- Apocalyptic took an indefinitely wider view of the world's history than prophecy.
OLD Testament Apocalyptic i.
' See the separate headings for the various apocalyptic books mentioned in this article.
NEW Testament Apocalyptic When we pass from Jewish literature to that of the New Testament, we enter into a new and larger atmosphere at once recalling and transcending what had been best in the prophetic periods of the past.
While the characteristic features of apocalyptic literature were derived from Judaism, those of Gnosticism sprang partly from Greek philosophy, partly from oriental religions.
(d) Apocalypses: see under Apocalyptic Literature.
Apocalyptic - Its Origin And General Characteristics i.
The first part treats of Abraham's conversion, and the second forms an apocalyptic expansion of Gen.
But though Christianity was in spirit the descendant of ancient Jewish prophecy, it was no less truly the child of that Judaism which had expressed its highest aspirations and ideals in pseudepigraphic and apocalyptic literature.
Hence we shall not be surprised to find that the two tendencies are fully represented in primitive Christianity, and, still more strange as it may appear, that New Testament apocalyptic found a more ready hearing amid the stress and storm of the 1st century than the prophetic side of Christianity, and that the type of the forerunner on the side of its declared asceticism appealed more readily to primitive Christianity than that of Him who came "eating and drinking," declaring both worlds good and both God's.
It was Christianity that preserved Jewish apocalyptic, when it was abandoned by Judaism as it sank into Rabbinism, and gave it a Christian character either by a forcible exegesis or by a systematic process of interpolation.
Though apocalyptic served its purpose in the opening centuries of the Christian era, it must be confessed that in many of its aspects its office is transitory, as they belong not to the essence of Christian thought.
But Christianity was no less assuredly the heir of ancient prophecy, and thus as spiritual representative of what was true in prophecy and apocalyptic; its essential teaching was as that of its Founder that both worlds were of God and that both should be made God's.
He starts from the fundamental thought of Jewish apocalyptic that the end of the world will be brought about by the direct intervention of God when evil has reached its climax.
The writer belongs really to the prophetic and not to the apocalyptic school.
The style is very vigorous and the materials of a strongly apocalyptic character.
But Lightfoot's reading of the apocalyptic passage in ch.
But the whole style of the work, with its use of conventional apocalyptic forms, favours the more symbolic view.
For the authorship see APOCALYPTIC LITERATURE, sect.
The prophetic, even apocalyptic, note of his preaching was particularly impressive.
He criticizes sharply (pp. 173 sqq., 233 sqq.) former methods of interpretation, and with the ardour of a discoverer of a new truth seeks to establish its currency throughout the entire field of apocalyptic. To such an extreme does he carry his theory that he denies obvious references to historical personages in the Apocalypse, when these are clothed in apocalyptic language.
This theory, which we have already dealt with in other connexions, is undoubtedly helpful, but here we require something more, and Gunkel has in consequence of Weinel's work (Wirkungen des Geistes and der Geister, 1899) subsequently acknowledged that actual spiritual experiences lie behind some of the visions in apocalyptic (Kautzsch, Pseud.
Next he groups these sections into fourteen larger masses of apocalyptic matter, and by a process of synthesis seeks to arrive at the plan on which the author constructed his book.
It is to be observed that our author follows the apocalyptic scheme of two judgments which is first attested about ioo B.C. The first judgment precedes the establishment of the temporary Messianic kingdom, as here in xix.
In the articles on Apocalyptic Literature and Apocryphal Literature (qq.v.) we have shown the large lines of differentiation between apocalyptic and prophecy.
But this universal characteristic of apocalyptic is almost wholly lacking in the New Testament Apocalypse.
An apocalyptic pamphlet of 1508 shows on its cover the Church upside down, with the peasant performing the services, while the priest guides the plough outside and a monk drives the horses.
circ. 1500) succeeded in bringing the scattered Anabaptist communities into a species of association; he discouraged the earlier apocalyptic hopes, inculcated non-resistance, denounced the evils of State control over religious matters, and emphasized personal conversion, and adult baptism as its appropriate seal.
In it some genuine sayings of Christ appear to have been worked up along with matter taken from Jewish Apocalypses and in accordance with an Apocalyptic model.
This prophetic and apocalyptic note, which characterizes Hermas among the Apostolic Fathers (though there are traces of it also in the Didache and in Ignatius, ad Eph.
G.) APOCALYPTIC LITERATURE
See also Apocalyptic Lit.
51, and the whole view of revelation presupposed in the Apocalyptic literature.
In spite of superficial resemblances, mainly due to the unavoidable influence of current exegetical methods, the conception of prophecy as fulfilled in Christ is fundamentally different from the Jewish apocalyptic view of unfulfilled prophecy.
On the one hand we have the revival of apocalyptic exegesis by Cocceius and his school,.
It is worthy of notice that according to the old Persian myth also, the development of the world begins with the slaying of the primal man Gayomart by Angra-Mainyu (Ahriman); further, that the Primal Man (" son of man "= man) also plays a part in Jewish apocalyptic literature (Daniel, Enoch, iv.
It is not therefore safe to measure the general growth of eschatological doctrine by the apocalyptic books, of which Daniel alone attained a canonical position.
The first stage of his later development, which resulted in the establishment of the "Irvingite" or "Holy Catholic Apostolic Church," in 1832, was associated with conferences at his friend Henry Drummond's seat at Albury concerning unfulfilled prophecy, followed by an almost exclusive study of the prophetical books and especially of the Apocalypse, and by several series of sermons on prophecy both in London and the provinces, his apocalyptic lectures in 1828 more than crowding the largest churches of Edinburgh in the early summer mornings.
During the centuries preceding the birth of Christ there grew up an apocalyptic literature which regarded as a primary truth the conception of a 1 Lactantius, Inst.
It is in the apocryphal and apocalyptic literature of Judaism that the fullest development of eschatology can be traced.
Montanism also brought these apocalyptic expectations into discredit in orthodox ecclesiastical circles.
As the election of any cardinal seemed impossible, on the 5th of July 1294 the Sacred College united on Pietro di Morrone; the cardinals expected to rule in the name of the celebrated but incapable ascetic. Apocalyptic notions then current doubtless aided his election, for Joachim of Floris and his school looked to monasticism to furnish deliverance to the church and to the world.
But even in the Talmud the reign of Alexandra is described in apocalyptic language such as is commonly applied to the future age, and if allowance be made for the symbolism proper to revelations it is clear that essentially the scribe and the seer have the same purpose and even the same doctrines.
To the 4th century also perhaps belongs a series of apocalyptic pieces and homilies which have been handed down under the name of Ephraem.
4), a visional or apocalyptic discourse (Num.
With these chief reasons why the Book of Daniel cannot have originated in the Babylonian period, if the reader will turn more especially to the apocalyptic sections (vii.
As a specimen of the apocalyptic method followed in Daniel, the celebrated prophecy of the seventy weeks (ix.
25-27) of the same apocalyptic character as the introduction.
They'd kill half the planet to obtain the apocalyptic collection you have.
apocalyptic sects, which despised Roman occupation.
Just because one doesn't like Bush doesn't mean there are not apocalyptic and violent fanatics out to get us.
Motivated by extreme, even apocalyptic ideologies, some terrorists ' ambitions to inflict mayhem seem unlimited.
Yea, he will at once avenge them of their enemies. ***** The following eight verses describe the apocalyptic battle waged by God himself.
March, in keeping with the apocalyptic saying about lions and lambs, came in with a leonine roar.
He may feel bound to admit an element of illusion in Christ's vision of the future; but he will contend that the apocalyptic form did not destroy the spiritual content of Christ's revelations - nay, that it was itself the H.
The Testaments of the Twelve Patriarchs (see Apocalyptic Literature: Ii.
(c) Apocalyptic. History of Johannes Hyr- (See separate article.) canus.
The tone and spirit of the prophecy as a whole point to the same late apocalyptic period to which chap. xxxiv.
It is true that tradition largely fixes the form of figures and symbols in apocalyptic. Yet each new apocalypse is to some extent a reinterpretation of traditional material, which the writer uses not wholly freely but with reverence from the conviction that they contained the key to the mysteries of the present and the past.
Some critics hold that this apocalypse was the apocalyptic groundwork, but Bousset is of opinion that it stood originally in connexion with xi.
All this was quite in the vein of later Judaism, and so at length the unfulfilled predictions of the prophets served as the raw material for the elaborate eschatology of the apocalypses (see Apocalyptic Literature).
So with a bit of magic, voila, a magical setting for your apocalyptic battle between good and evil to take place.
The Stand begins in typical apocalyptic sci-fi horror fashion, with a run-away man-made plague threatening the survival of mankind.
We shall now consider (I.) Apocalyptic, its origin and general characteristics; (II.) Old Testament Apocalyptic; (III.) New Testament Apocalyptic.
We have already touched on this characteristic of apocalyptic. The prophet stood in direct relations with his people; his prophecy was first spoken and afterwards written.
The apocalyptic writer could obtain no hearing from his contemporaries, who held that, though God spoke in the past, "there was no more any prophet."
Determinism thus became a leading characteristic of Jewish apocalyptic, and its conception of history became severely mechanical.
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