The people of the town had barely survived an apocalypse Mr. Tim and others should've prevented.
Each fresh apocalypse would in the eyes of its writer be in some degree but a fresh edition of the traditions naturally attaching themselves to great names in Israel's past, and thus the books named respectively Enoch, Noah, Ezra would to some slight extent be not pseudonymous.
This apocalypse is of very great importance, on account of its very full treatment of the theological questions rife in the latter half of the 1st century of the Christian era.
Apocalypse of Baruch.
Papias actually confounds expressions of Jesus with verses from the Apocalypse of Baruch, referring to the amazing fertility of the days of the Messianic kingdom (Papias in Iren.
The apocalypse consists of three Acts: Act i.
In the New Testament, 2 Peter, 2 and 3 John, Jude and the Apocalypse were originally left out, but Syriac versions were made at a later time.
The learned Cambridge Commentary by Swete (The Apocalypse of John, 2nd ed., 1907) makes use of several of the methods of interpretation enumerated above.
If they are right, the apocalypse is pre-Pauline.
Apocalypse of Elijah.
(ii.) Extra-Canonical: Apocalypse of Peter.
- This apocalypse is mentioned in two of the lists of books.
How, or by what means, he was connected with the great event foretold in the Apocalypse he did not know, but he did not doubt that connection for a moment.
It is plainly Gnostic and may perhaps have been composed by Bardaisan or his son Harmonius.0 Among recent editions of Apocrypha in Syriac may be mentioned those of the Apocalypse of Baruch, the Epistle of Baruch, ' For the later Monophysite versions, none of which attained much popularity, see Wright's Syr.
Apocalypse of Abraham.
It springs from the same school of thought as the Apocalypse of Baruch, and its affinities with the latter are so numerous and profound that scholars have not yet come to any consensus as to the relative priority of either.
But his two chief works, posthumously published, are his Cyprian (London, 1897), a work of great learning, which had occupied him at intervals since early manhood; and The Apocalypse, an Introductory Study (London, 1900), interesting and beautiful, but limited by the fact that the method of study is that of a Greek play, not of a Hebrew apocalypse.
Apocalypse of Zephaniah.
267-271.) Apocalypse of Zephaniah.
(i.) Canonical: Apocalypse in Mark xiii.
Apocalypse in Mark xiii.
It is not to be confounded with the apocalypse mentioned two sections later.
Apocalypse of John (Tischendorf, Apocalypses Apocr.
Arabic Apocalypse of Peter contains a narrative of events from the foundation of the world till the second advent of Christ.
The Apocalypse of the Virgin, containing her descent into hell, is not published entire, but only several portions of it from Greek MSS.
This late apocalypse, which M.
Holtzmann (1862); (4) his Lectures on the Apocalypse (Vorlesungen fiber die Apokalypse), (Eng.
Convinced of being divinely inspired, he had begun to see visions, and discovered in the Apocalypse symbols of the heavenly vengeance about to overtake this sin-laden people.
In a sermon on the Apocalypse he shook men's souls by his terrible threats of the wrath to come, and drew tears from their eyes by the tender pathos of his assurances of divine mercy.
As one of the Seven Churches of Asia, it was addressed by the author of the Apocalypse in terms which seem to imply that its population was notoriously soft and fainthearted.
His theological writings roughly fall into four groups: (1) books of spiritual philosophy, including The Divine Love and Wisdom, The Divine Providence, The Intercourse between the Soul and the Body, Conjugial Love; (2) Expository, including Arcana Celestia (giving the spiritual sense of Genesis and Exodus), The Apocalypse Revealed, The Apocalypse Explained; (3) Doctrinal, including The New Jerusalem and its Heavenly Doctrines, The Four Chief Doctrines, The Doctrine of Charity, The True Christian Religion, Canons of the New Church; (4) Eschatological, including Heaven and Hell, and The Last Judgment.
The Apocalypse of Hermas was much read till far through the middle ages, and has also kept its place in some Bibles.
Even the Greek cannot claim to be the original work, but only to be a recension of it; for, whereas Origen states that this apocalypse contained an account of the seven heavens, the existing Greek work describes only five, and the Slavonic only two.
These are the Epistles of James and Jude, 2 Peter, 2 and 3 John, the Apocalypse of John, and the Epistle to the Hebrews.
The apocalypse was written about A.D.
His intention of killing Napoleon and his calculations of the cabalistic number of the beast of the Apocalypse now seemed to him meaningless and even ridiculous.
In chapter 13, verse 18, of the Apocalypse, it is said:
The earliest external evidence is practically unanimous in ascribing the Apocalypse to the last years of Domitian.
The rest of the patristic evidence from Clement of Alexandria, Origen, Victorinus, Eusebius and Jerome will be found in Swete's Apocalypse of St John 2, xcix.
According to the words just quoted from the Apocalypse, there was to be a dearth of grain and a superfluity of wine; the price of the wheat was to be seven times the ordinary, according to Reinach's computation, and that of the barley four times.
Reinach's explanation of this ancient crux interpretum, which has been accepted by Harnack, Bousset, Porter, Sanday, Swete and others, fixes the earliest date of the composition of the Apocalypse as A.D.
The author of the Apocalypse has cast aside all national religious prejudices."
But this universal characteristic of apocalyptic is almost wholly lacking in the New Testament Apocalypse.
Hence we conclude that the grounds are lacking which would entitle our assuming a priori that the Apocalypse is pseudonymous.
If the writer of the Fourth Gospel was the Apostle John, then the difficulties for the assumption of an apostolic authorship of the Apocalypse become well-nigh insuperable.
Nay more, the difficulties attending on the assumption of a common authorship of the Gospel and Apocalypse, independently of the question of the apostolic authorship of the Gospel, are practically insuperable.
Some decades ago these difficulties were not insurmountable, when critics assigned a Neronic date to the Apocalypse and a Domitianic or later date to the Gospel.
Again, while the Gospel and the Epistle of John show marks of agreement which suggest a common authorship, the Apocalypse differs widely from both in its ideas and in its way of expressing them; we miss in it the frequent references to ` life,' ` light,' ` truth,' ` grace ' and ` love ' which are characteristic of the Apostle and find ourselves in a totally different region of thought..
Lastly, the linguistic eccentricities of the Apocalypse bar the way against the acceptance of the book as the work of the Evangelist.
The Gospel and the First Epistle are written in correct and flowing Greek, and there is not a barbarism, a solecism, or a provincialism in them; whereas the Greek of the Apocalypse is inaccurate, disfigured by unusual or foreign words and even at times by solecisms."
On the other hand, it is impossible to ignore the signs of a relationship between the Apocalypse and the Gospel in the minor peculiarities of language?
We conclude, therefore, that the Gospel and the Apocalypse See Bousset, Offenbarung Johannis 2, pp. 177-179; Swete 2, pp. cxxv - cxxix.
As regards the John mentioned in the Apocalypse, he is now identified by a majority of critics with John the Presbyter, and further the trend of criticism is in favour of transferring all the Johannine writings to him, or rather to his school in Asia Minor.2 For an independent discussion of the authorship of the Fourth Gospel, see JOHN, GOSPEL OF ST.
From this rule, however, he deviated in the case of the Apocalypse, where, owing to the corrupt state of the text, he felt himself at liberty to introduce certain readings on manuscript authority.
The more important are: Ordo Temporum, a treatise on the chronology of Scripture, in which he enters upon speculations regarding the end of the world, and an Exposition of the Apocalypse which enjoyed for a time great popularity in Germany, and was translated into several languages.
The Lombard sect went farther in (3) and (4), holding that no one in mortal sin could consecrate the sacrament, and that the Roman Church was the scarlet woman of the Apocalypse, whose precepts ought not to be obeyed, especially those appointing fast-days.
3 Naturally angels are most prominent in the Apocalypse.
There seems, however, no parallel to such a use of " angel," and it is doubtful whether the monarchical government of churches was fully developed when the Apocalypse was written.
Note that the term " the Logos " is peculiar to the Apocalypse (xix.
The Preaching and Apocalypse of Peter, for instance, are quite typical of the same period, and help us to read between the lines of the Apostolic Fathers.
Besides translating and editing the New Testament, Erasmus paraphrased the whole, except the Apocalypse, between 1517 and 1524.
14 each cherub has four faces, a view tastefully simplified in the Johannine Apocalypse (Rev. iv.
have a character of their own, and form an apocalypse written not earlier than the 5th century B.C.; chs.
It seems on the whole most probable that 2 Peter is not a genuine work, but that it came from the same factory of pseudonymous Petrine writings as the Apocalypse which bears the same name, though the one has, and the other has not, obtained a place within the Canon.
The Gospel and Epistles that bear the name of John, and the Apocalypse, form a group of writings that stand very much by themselves and are still the subject of active discussion.
The Apocalypse is plausibly dated by Reinach and Harnack near to the precise year 93, and the other writings may be referred to the reign of Domitian (81-96), though many critics would extend the limit to some two decades later.
Can the writer of the Apocalypse be the same as the writer of the Gospel and Epistles ?
Outside this group would come what are called the Apocryphal Gospels and Acts (Gospel according to Hebrews, according to Egyptians, of Peter, of Truth, of the Twelve [or Ebionite Gospel], the recently recovered so-called Logia; the Gospel of Nicodemus, the Protevangelium of James, the Gospel of Thomas, the Acts of Pilate, Acts of Paul, Peter, John, Andrew, Thomas; the Preaching of Peter, the Apocalypse of Peter).
This consciousness receives perhaps its strongest expression in the Apocalypse.
There is really no contradiction between this sense of a high calling and mission, with a special endowment corresponding to it, and the other fact that the writings from this age that have come down to us are all (except perhaps the Apocalypse, and even the Apocalypse, in some degree, as we see by the letters to the Seven Churches) strictly occasional and natural in their origin.
The list recognized four Gospels, Acts, thirteen epistles of Paul, two epistles of John, Jude, Apocalypse of John and (as the text stands) of Peter; there is no mention of Hebrews or (apparently) of 3 John or Epistles of Peter, where it is possible - we cannot say more - that the silence as to t Peter is accidental; the Shepherd of Hermas on account of its date is admitted to private, but not public, reading; various writings associated with Marcion, Valentinus, Basilides and Montanus are condemned.
The Apocalypse was generally accepted in the West.
Later in the centu r y Dionysius of Alexandria applies some acute criticism to justify the Alexandrian dislike of the Apocalypse.
He makes three classes; the first, including the Gospels, Acts, Epistles of Paul, i Peter, t John, is acknowledged; to these, if one likes, one may add the Apocalypse.
The third class, of works to be decidedly rejected, contains the Acts of Paul, Hermas, Apocalypse of Peter, Barnabas, Didache; to these some would add Apoc. of John, and others Ev.
The Eusebian list only wanted the complete admission of the Apocalypse to be identical with the Athanasian; and Athanasius had one stalwart supporter in Epiphanius (ob.
The first method distinguishes between uncial or majuscule, and cursive or minuscule; the second between papyrus, vellum or parchment, and paper (for further details see Manuscript and Palaeography); and the third distinguishes mainly between Gospels, Acts and Epistles (with or without the Apocalypse), New Testaments (the word in this connexion being somewhat broadly interpreted), lectionaries and commentaries.
containing commentaries on the Gospels, 169 on Acts and Epistles, 66 on the Apocalypse, 1072 lectionaries of the Gospels and 287 of Acts and Epistles, making a grand total of 3698 MSS.
(1) New Testaments (the Apocalypse being not regarded as a necessary part), Gospels, and (3) Acts, Epistles and Apocalypse (the latter again being loosely regarded).
containing the Apocalypse, 50 to 99 for those which omit it.
which contain Acts, Catholic Epistles and Pauline Epistles with or without the Apocalypse, the presence or absence of which is indicated as in the 5 MSS.; but when a MS. consists of only one part a " 1 " is prefixed, thus making a four-figure number, and the precise part is indicated by the two last of the four figures; 00-19 means Acts and Catholic Epistles, 20-69 means Pauline Epistles and 7 0 -99 means Apocalypse.
and of the Apocalypse from a MS. belonging to Bessarion.
Hort (Intro- duction, p. 268) has shown from a consideration of displacements in the text of the Apocalypse that it was copied from a very small MS., but this, of course, only holds good of the Apocalypse.
c. 560), from the Apocalypse.
In the Apocalypse it is found in cod.
But he never added 2 Peter, Jude, 2 and 3 John, or the Apocalypse, and the text of these books, which is sometimes bound up with the Peshito, really is that of the Philoxenian or of the Harklean version.
of it have survived except in 2 Peter, Jude, 2 and 3 John and the Apocalypse.
of the Peshito, as the Philoxenian was used to supply these epistles which were not in the older version, and the Apocalypse was published in 1892 by Dr Gwynn from a MS. belonging to Lord Crawford.
(series of articles by Merx); in Gwynn's The Apocalypse of St John in a Syriac Version (Dublin, 1897).] 4.
Luther, like his countrymen of to-day, judged the contents of the New Testament by the light of his leading convictions; and in his German translation, which occupies the same place in Germany as the Authorized Version of 1611 does in English-speaking lands, he even placed four of the books (Hebrews, James, Jude, Apocalypse) in an appendix at the end, with prefaces explanatory of this drastic act of criticism.
The Apocalypse was a genuine work of John the son of Zebedee, one of the leaders of the Judaistic party, but most of the books were late, at least in their present form.
2 The Apocalypse of John was received into it, not as the work of a prophet but as that of an apostle.
and the Prophetic Apocalypse" (1900); Benazech, "Le Prophetisme chretienne depuis les origines jusqu'au pasteur d'Hermas," Thesis, (Paris, 1901).
Amongst the latter was the magnificently illuminated Norman Commentary on the Apocalypse, some of the earliest copies of which were written in an English hand.
Approximately to the same period as these early renderings of the Psalter belongs a version of the Apocalypse with a Commentary, the earliest MS. of which (Harleian 874) is written in the dialect of the North Midlands.
This Commentary, for a long time attributed to Wycliffe, is really nothing but a verbal rendering of the popular and widely-spread Norman Commentary on the Apocalypse (Paul Meyer and L.
Delisle, L' Apocalypse en Frangais au XIII' siecle, Paris, 1901), which dates back as far as the first half of the 13th century, and in its general tenor represents the height of orthodoxy.
The English apocalypse, to judge from the number of MSS.
874) of the Commentary on the Apocalypse gives the owner's name in a coeval hand as " Richard Schepard, presbiter," and the Catholic Epistles of MS. Douce 250 3 were probably glossed for the benefit of men in religious orders, if one may judge from a short Commentary to James ii.
The text of the Gospels was extracted from the Commentary upon them by Wycliffe, and to these were added the Epistles, the Acts and the Apocalypse, all now translated anew.
Prologues were added to all books except the Acts and the Apocalypse, and new marginal glosses were introduced.
We must also pass over the very important questions that arise as to the gradual extrication of the New Testament idea of the Christ from the elements of Jewish political doctrine which had so strong a hold of many of the first disciples - the relation, for example, of the New Testament Apocalypse to contemporary Jewish thought.
Geschichte (1895), pp. 198-204; Charles's Book of Enoch and Apocalypse of Baruch (especially the introductions); Bousset, Religion des Judentums, 2nd ed., pp. 245-277; Volz, Judische Eschatologie von Daniel bis Akiba, pp. 55-68, 213-237: Dalman, Der leidende u.
The first stage of his later development, which resulted in the establishment of the "Irvingite" or "Holy Catholic Apostolic Church," in 1832, was associated with conferences at his friend Henry Drummond's seat at Albury concerning unfulfilled prophecy, followed by an almost exclusive study of the prophetical books and especially of the Apocalypse, and by several series of sermons on prophecy both in London and the provinces, his apocalyptic lectures in 1828 more than crowding the largest churches of Edinburgh in the early summer mornings.
While John's Apocalypse is distinctly eschatological, the Epistles and the Gospels often give these conceptions an ethical and spiritual import, without, however, excluding the eschatological.
The Apocalypse reproduces much of the current Jewish eschatology.
The expectations were often grossly materialistic, as is evidenced by Papias's quotation as the words of the Lord of a group of sayings from the Apocalypse of Baruch, setting forth the amazing fruitfulness of the earth in the Messianic time.
The Alogi in the 2nd century rejected the Apocalypse on account of its chiliasm, its teaching of a visible reign of Christ on earth for a thousand years.
Holtzmann, Die synoptischen Evangelien, p. 373), the Apocalypse (Hitzig, Ueber Johannes Marcus, Zurich, 1843).
Each of the "four living creatures" of Ezekiel and the Apocalypse has been attributed to each of the four evangelists in turn; Augustine and Bede think that Mark is designated by the "man"; Theophylact and others think that he is designated by the eagle; Anastasius Sinaita makes his symbol the ox; but medieval art acquiesced in the opinion of Jerome that he was indicated by the lion.
Apocalypse of Baruch), the whole class is now commonly known as Apocalyptic Literature.
Knights Of The Apocalypse >>
He wrote a work throwing doubt on the canonical authority of the Apocalypse, which called forth a reply from Dr Leonard Twells.
The evidences of this travel (which are really incontestable, though a small minority of critics still decline to admit them) consist of (1) some fine drawings, three of them dated 1494 and others undated, but plainly of the same time, in which Diirer has copied, or rather boldly translated into his own Gothic and German style, two famous engravings by Mantegna, a number of the "Tarocchi" prints of single figures which pass erroneously under that master's name, and one by yet another minor master of the North-Italian school; with another drawing dated 1495 and plainly copied from a lost original by Antonio Pollaiuolo, and yet another of an infant Christ copied in 1495 from Lorenzo di Credi, from whom also Diirer took a motive for the composition of one of his earliest Madonnas; (2) several landscape drawings done in the passes of Tirol and the Trentino, which technically will not fit in with any other period of his work, and furnish a clear record of his having crossed the Alps about this date; (3) two or three drawings of the costumes of Venetian courtesans, which he could not have made anywhere but in Venice itself, and one of which is used in his great woodcut Apocalypse series of 1498 (4) a general preoccupation which he shows for some years from this date with the problems of the female nude, treated in a manner for which Italy only could have set him the example; and (5) the clear implication contained in a letter written from Venice in 1506 that he had been there already eleven years before; when things, he says, pleased him much which at the time of writing please him no more.
Figures of the Virgin and Child, of the apostles and evangelists, the fathers of the Church, the saints and martyrs, with illustrations of sacred history and the Apocalypse, were supplied in endless repetition to satisfy the cravings of a pious and simple-minded people.
After some half - dozen miscellaneous single prints - "Samson and the Lion," the "Annunciation," the "Ten Thousand Martyrs," the "Knight and Men-at-arms," the "Men's Bath," &c. - he undertook and by 1498 completed his famous series of sixteen great designs for the Apocalypse.
The northern mind had long dwelt with eagerness on these phantasmagoric mysteries of things to come, and among the earliest block-books printed in Germany is an edition of the Apocalypse with rude figures.
In 1511 these two works were brought out for the first time, and the Apocalypse series in a second edition; and for the next three years, 1511-1514, engraving both on wood and copper, but especially the latter, took the first place among DUrer's activities.
The Acts of St John, attributed to Prochorus, narrates the miracles wrought by the apostle during his stay on the island, but, strangely enough, while describing how the Gospel was revealed to him in Patmos, it does not so much as mention the Apocalypse.
In the little Jewish Apocalypse, the existence of which is assumed by many scholars, which in Mark xiii.
The author of the Syriac Apocalypse of Baruch (or his source), cap. 36-40, speaks in quite general terms of the last ruler of the end of time.
Finally the author of the Apocalypse of St John also has made use of the new conception of Antichrist as a wonder-worker and seducer, and has set his figure beside that of the "first" Beast which was for him the actual embodiment of Antichrist (xiii.
So) still only refers simply to the heathen belief, the author of the (Jewish?) original of the 17th chapter of the Apocalypse of St John expects the return of Nero with the Parthians to take vengeance on Rome, because she had shed the blood of the Saints (destruction of Jerusalem!).
This is the version of the expectation of Nero's second coming preserved in the form given to the prophecy, under Domitian, by the collaborator in' the Apocalypse of John (xiii., xvii.).
In the little apocalypse of the Ascensio Jesaiae (iii.
But Victorinus of Pettau, who wrote during the persecution under Diocletian, still knows the relation of the Apocalypse to the legend of Nero; and Commodian, whose Carmen Apologeticum was perhaps not written until the beginning of the 4th century, knows two Antichrist-figures, of which he still identifies the first with Nero redivivus.
Thus at the beginning of the Testamentum Domini, edited by Rahmani, there is an apocalypse, possibly of the time of Decius, though it has been worked over (Harnack, Chronol.
To this period belongs the Jewish apocalypse of Elijah (ed.
4 To this time possibly belongs also a recension of the Coptic apocalypse of Elijah, edited by Steindorff (Texte and Untersuchungen, N.
Jewish apocalypse also awakes to fresh developments in the Mahommedan period, and shows a close relationship with the Christian Antichrist literature.
Istrin, The Apocalypse of Methodius of Patara and the Apocryphal Visions of Daniel in Byzantine and Slavo-Russian Literature, Russian (Moscow, 1897); J.
Its touch on classical mythology is original, rarely imitative or pedantic. The art of the Renaissance was an apocalypse of the beauty of the world and man in unaffected spontaneity, without side thoughts for piety or erudition, inspired by pure delight in loveliness and harmony for their own sakes.
The books bearing the names of James, Peter and Jude, together with the Pastorals (though these may contain fragments of genuine Pauline letters) and the Apocalypse, he regards as epistles.
For the other names by which it is referred to, such as The Apocalypse of Moses, The Testament of Moses, The Book of Adam's Daughters and the Life of Adam, the reader may consult Charles's The Book of Jubilees, pp. xvii.-xx.
In the bull Sancta Romana et universa ecclesia (December 28, 1318) John definitively excommunicated them and condemned their principal book, the Postil (commentary) on the Apocalypse' (February 8, 1326).
12-17, which describe the last three weeks of the Ten-Weeks Apocalypse, should be read immediately after xciii.
I-10, which recount the first seven weeks of the same apocalypse.
The Ten-Weeks Apocalypse, xciii.
The attempt (by Clemen and Beer) to place the TenWeeks Apocalypse before 167, because it makes no reference to the Maccabees, is not successful; for where the history of mankind from Adam to the final judgment is despatched in sixteen verses, such an omission need cause little embarrassment, and still less if the author is the determined foe of the Maccabees, whom he would probably have stigmatized as apostates, if he had mentioned them at all, just as he similarly brands all the Sadducean priesthood that preceded them to the time of the captivity.
This Ten-Weeks Apocalypse, therefore, we take to be the work of the writer of the rest of xci.-civ.
We might note besides that it is quoted in the Book of Adam and Eve, the Apocalypse of Moses, the Apocalypse of Paul, the anonymous work De montibus Sina et Sion, the Sibylline Oracles ii.
They include the History of Adam and Eve, the Legend of the Cross, The Apocalypse of Abraham, the History of the Sibyl, the Legends of Solomon; numerous New Testament apocryphal tales, starting with legends of St John the Baptist; a very remarkable version of the Gospel of Nicodemus; and the Epistle of Pilate.
Printed in tens of thousands of copies are certain apocalyptic legends dealing with eschatological problems. The ancient Apocalypse of Peter appears here under the name of Paul, then there is an Apocalypse of the Virgin Mary, who, like Peter, is carried by the Archangel through the torments of Hell and the bliss of Paradise, and through whose intervention sufferers are granted pardon on certain days of the year.
Some scholars think that the Apocalypse at the beginning is pre-Nicene (A.D.
The third section consists of the Apostolic Canons already referred to, the last and most significant of which places the Constitutions and the two epistles of Clement in the canon of Scripture, and omits the Apocalypse.
Sir Isaac Newton left behind him in manuscript a work entitled Observations on the Prophecies of Daniel and the Apocalypse of St John, which was published in London in 1733, in one volume 4to; another work, entitled Lexicon Propheticum, with a dissertation on the sacred cubit of the Jews, which was printed in 1737; and four letters addressed to Bentley, containing some arguments in proof of a Deity, which were published by Cumberland, a nephew of Bentley, in 1756.
He gathered from the Apocalypse a vision of "resurrections" of apostolic Christianity, first under John Hus, and now under himself.
He led the way in the task of discovering the origin of the Gospels, the Epistles, the Acts of the Apostles, and the Apocalypse.
Apocalypse altogether from the canon.
The Johannine Apocalypse is chiefly interesting as an apocalypse.
Here was one of the oldest homes of Christianity and the seat of one of the seven churches of the Apocalypse.
15) alludes to the situation of Laodicea beside Colossae and Hierapolis; and the order in which the last five churches of the Apocalypse are enumerated (Rev. i.
Zimmern and P. Jensen, compares the dragon of the Apocalypse with the Babylonian Tiamat, thinks that some myth is referred to, and finds the µay€Scov of ApµayEbwv in the divine name `YEVEAAcya5wv, a Babylonian god of the underworld.
Apocalypse Of Baruch.
The discovery of this long lost apocalypse was due to Ceriani.
This apocalypse has survived only in the Syriac version of which Ceriani discovered a 6th century MS. in the Milan library.
(Apocalypse of Baruch, 1896, pp. 124 167).
The present writer (Apocalypse of Baruch, 1896, pp. liii.-lxvii.), after submitting the book to a fresh study, has come to the following conclusions: - The book is of Pharisaic authorship and composed of six independent writings - A', A 2, A3, 131713 2, 133.
The first three were composed when Jerusalem was still standing and the Messiah and the Messianic kingdom were expected: A', a mutilated apocalypse = xxvii.
The book begins like the Syriac Apocalypse of Baruch with an account of the removal of the sacredvessels of theTemple before its capture by the Chaldees.
Though the original work was dependent on the Apocalypse of Baruch it cannot have been written much before the close of the 1st cent.
It explores the aftermath of a virtual apocalypse caused by a disease Hitler sends against London after realizing he has lost the war.
The word ' apocalypse ' has come to mean the end of the world, or a major catastrophe.
Buried in this haystack might well be the vital clue necessary to avert an apocalypse.
surfing the apocalypse is just such a site.. .
Guardian Quiz - ' Can you survive the British apocalypse?
After tea, Sue and I watch the film apocalypse Now which we recorded back in January.
The real surprise was seeing apocalypse Now only at number two!
I agreed with Anya - does that mean another apocalypse is around the corner?
Howard Bloom (The Lucifer principle) talks about the coming biological apocalypse.
It involves encountering a personal apocalypse or an ongoing series of them.
Just at the time the threat of a nuclear apocalypse was lifting, ecologists evolved their own expression of end times.
However, in my opinion a global scale apocalypse will not happen.
Monday 27th October 2003: Resident Evil: Apocalypse update: The trailer for Resident Evil: apocalypse update: The trailer for Resident Evil: Apocalypse has been released today.
We've all dreamt of a zombie apocalypse, right?
He now works mainly in non-fiction, tho has been a major script contributor to the children's Kiwi post apocalypse drama The Tribe.
And the end times were evoked by name in Francis Ford Coppola's 1979 film apocalypse Now.
Previously Britain braces for bird flu apocalypse Jesus H. Christ we're all going to die!
Your book apocalypse is the best and only book I have read from you.
avert an apocalypse.
It's a strange brew, but try and imagine CANNIBAL APOCALYPSE tamed and domesticated by Ken Loach.
A succession of collaboratory projects followed in its wake including the cantata commissioned by the Farnham Festival, Mr Smith's Apocalypse.
cantata commissioned by the Farnham Festival, Mr Smith's Apocalypse.
contending with the threat of supervillain Apocalypse.
Back to 3D Graphics The Apocalypse 5D Sonic Display Properties options are all grayed out.
homespun advice on surviving the apocalypse, combined with his thoughts on gravy.
horsemanwe don't just have Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse but an entire cavalry regiment of doom-mongers.
horsemanhe opening of the first seal we meet the first of the famous 'Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse ' .
horsemane four horsemen of the apocalypse about to gallop out of the hole at the bottom of Holyrood Road?
stampede the old pangs of blinkered rationalization stampeding back to me like the Horsemen of the Apocalypse.
Like Colonel Kurtz in Apocalypse Now, his methods had become unsound.
Legion Nigel Williams Gunmen Of The Apocalypse Kryten contracts a deadly computer virus.
zombie apocalypse arcade level: Successfully complete Chapter 7: Clooney Hospital in story mode.
8); he is not quoted directly in the New Testament, but his imagery is employed largely in the Apocalypse and elsewhere.
25) applies the term Antilegomena to the Epistle of James, the Epistle of Jude, 2 Peter, 2 and 3 John, the Acts of Paul, the Shepherd of Hermas, the Teaching of the Apostles, the Apocalypse of John, and the Gospel according to the Hebrews.
It is shown likewise upon a number of maps which illustrate the Commentaries on the Apocalypse, by Beatus, a Benedictine monk of the abbey of Valcavado at the foot of the hills of Liebana in Asturia (776).
According to the Apocalypse of Baruch (xl.
12) "a week" is specified, in the Apocalypse of Ezra (vii.
2; Apocalypse of Baruch (1896), xxix.
He was the author of a Greek commentary on the Apocalypse, avowedly based upon that of Andrew, his predecessor in the archbishopric. In spite of its author's modest estimate, Arethas's work is by no means a slavish compilation; it contains additions from other sources, and especial care has been taken in verifying the references.
5 In the New Testament, 2 Peter, 2 and 3 John, Jude and the Apocalypse were originally left out, but Syriac versions were made at a later time.
Among these are commentaries on the Apocalypse (see Bibl.
19-25, was to be Greek, was now declared to be Roman by the Apocalypse of Baruch (xxxvi.
(See also Moses, Assumption Of.) Apocalypse of Baruch - The Syriac. - This apocalypse has survived only in the Syriac version.
As the original work presupposes 2 Enoch and the Syriac Apocalypse of Baruch and was known to Origen, it was written between A.D.
(See Baruch.) Apocalypse of Abraham.
Dr Perkins found a Syriac MS. of this apocalypse, which he translated into English, and printed in the Journal of the American Oriental Society, 1864, vol.
Kal Euayy€Aicr ov (The word "apocalypse" gives the current title not only to this book, but to a large body of Jewish and Christian writings.
An earlier use is probably to be found in the title of the Syriac Apocalypse of Baruch, which = ypaclyi rris &7roKaXinkcos roil l3apOi x viov Tou Nnpivv.
It is true that tradition largely fixes the form of figures and symbols in apocalyptic. Yet each new apocalypse is to some extent a reinterpretation of traditional material, which the writer uses not wholly freely but with reverence from the conviction that they contained the key to the mysteries of the present and the past.
The above method was adopted by Bousset in his work Der Antichrist in der Uberlieferung des Judenthums, des Neuen Testaments, and der alter Kirche (1895), in which he sought to show that a fixed tradition of the Antichrist originating in Judaism can be traced from New Testament times down to the middle ages, and that this tradition was in the main unaffected by the Apocalypse, though in chap. xi.
Pfleiderer in the second edition of his Urchristentum (1902, pp. 281-335) abandoned his former view on the Apocalypse and followed essentially the lines adopted by Bousset, though the details are differently treated.
Some critics hold that this apocalypse was the apocalyptic groundwork, but Bousset is of opinion that it stood originally in connexion with xi.
Here internal and external evidence are at strife; for from the time of Justin onwards the Apocalypse was received by the church as the work of the Apostle John (see Swete, op. cit.', p. clxxv).
seine Schriften (1843), in which he maintained the chronological priority of the second gospel, and sought to prove that the Apocalypse was written by the same author.
He himself turned for consolation to the Apocalypse, and succeeded in persuading himself (Accomplissement des prophesies, 1686) that the overthrow of Antichrist (i.e.
The last book of the New Testament bears in Greek the title 'A1roKfXv,cs Iceavvov, and is frequently referred to as the Apocalypse of John, but in the English Bible it appears as the Revelation of St John the Divine (see Revelation).
Petri (Petri apostoli apocalypsis per Clementem), the late Syrian apocalypse of Ezra (Bousset, Antichrist, 45 &c.), the Coptic (14th) vision of Daniel (in the appendix to Woide's edition of the Codex Alexandrinus; Oxford, 179 9), the Ethiopian Wisdom of the Sibyl, which is closely related to the Tiburtine Sibyl (see Basset, Apocryphes etlziopiennes, x.); in the last mentioned of these sources long series of Islamic rulers are foretold before the final time of Antichrist.
" All depends on kee p ing the eye steadily fixed upon the facts of nature, and so receiving their images simply as they are; for God forbid that we should give out a dream of our own imagination for a pattern of the world; rather may He graciously grant to us to write an apocalypse or true vision of the footsteps of the Creator imprinted on his creatures."
The Proprium de Tempore contains the office of the seasons of the Christian year (Advent to Trinity), a conception that only gradually grew up. There is here given the whole service for every Sunday and week-day, the proper antiphons, responsories, hymns, and especially the course of daily Scripture-reading, averaging about twenty verses a day, and (roughly) arranged thus: for Advent, Isaiah; Epiphany to Septuagesima, Pauline Epistles; Lent, patristic homilies (Genesis on Sundays); Passion-tide, Jeremiah; Easter to Whitsun, Acts, Catholic epistles and Apocalypse; Whitsun to August, Samuel and Kings; August to Advent, Wisdom books, Maccabees, Prophets.
Charles, Apocalypse of Baruch, pp. xxx.-xliii.
I felt the old pangs of blinkered rationalization stampeding back to me like the Horsemen of the Apocalypse.
Zombie Apocalypse arcade level: Successfully complete Chapter 7: Clooney Hospital in story mode.
He's busy fending off a robot apocalypse by rejecting all modern technology.
I'd go with the robot apocalypse thing, though.
Ford continued to get steady work and was offered a small role in the Francis Ford Coppola blockbuster Apocalypse Now, where Ford met the woman who would be his second wife.
On the set of Apocalypse Now Harrison Ford met Melissa Mathison, Coppola's assistant at the time.
Grand Theft Auto: San Andreas is bigger and badder than ever, which enough content to last you until the apocalypse.
You're crazy if you aren't already bought out by the premise of this year's most anticipated co-operative game, X-Men Legends 2: Rise of the Apocalypse.
Plus, X-Men Legends 2: Rise of the Apocalypse is available for just about any system you own.
As the X-Men try to recuperate from their recent battles, a new enemy emerges: Apocalypse, a powerful and ancient mutant with an agenda that threatens humanity and both the X-Men and Magneto's Brotherhood.
Save the Professor and stop the evil Apocalypse!
X-Men Legends 2 - The Rise of the Apocalypse is an exciting continuation of the game series.
This time, the X-Men and Magneto's team are working together to fight the ancient, evil mutant Apocalypse.
Save the world from the evil Apocalypse!
We're glad it is, because the Apocalypse also boasts a serious price tag of over $100.
Carbs, and The Coming Hormonal Apocalypse.
Methos is over 5000 years old and in prehistoric times was one of the Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse, vicious marauders who preyed on the helpless.
Sheri Tepper posits a different future, one in which, after some nameless apocalypse, the women decide you just can't trust men to run anything.
In spite of the quality, films like Bats: Human Harvest and Alien Apocalypse have still attracted their own fanbase.
There were twenty keys in the set, code-named Horsemen, after the biblical Horsemen of the Apocalypse.
The cruel persecutions instituted by the authorities with a view to securing conformity increased the number and fanaticism of the schismatics and heretics, and created among them a widespread belief that the reign of Antichrist, foretold in the Apocalypse, was at hand.
On apocalyptic generally the introductions to Charles's Book of Enoch, Apocalypse of Baruch, Ascension of Isaiah and Book of Jubilees, should be carefully noted.
Dionysius of Alexandria; compare his judicious verdict on the Apocalypse.
These lectures, which dealt with such special subjects as Gnosticism and the Apocalypse, attracted considerable attention, and in 1876 he was appointed professor extraordinarius.
In 1802 he published Reflections upon the State of Religion in Christendom, in which he attempted to explain and illustrate the mysterious foreshadowings of the Apocalypse.
It was only the chronologists and historians of the church who, following Julius Africanus, made use of apocalyptic numbers in their calculations, while court theologians like Eusebius entertained the imperial table with discussions as to whether the dining-hall of the emperor - the second David and Solomon, the beloved of God - might not be the New Jerusalem of John's Apocalypse.
Victorinus wrote a commentary on the Apocalypse of John; and all these theologians, especially Lactantius, were diligent students of the ancient Sibylline oracles of Jewish and Christian origin, and treated them as divine revelations.
As to the canonicity and apostolic authorship of the Johannine Apocalypse no doubts were ever entertained in the West; indeed an Apocalypse of Peter was still retained in the canon in the 3rd century.
The Joachimite ideas were equally persistent among the Spirituals, and acquired new strength with the publication of the commentary on the Apocalypse.
4 a maintainer of the Johannine authorship of the Fourth Gospel; in connexion with this thesis he was one of the first to argue for the early date and non-apostolic authorship of the Apocalypse.
It is in a like laudatory meaning that Gregory reckons the New Testament apocalypse as iv anron: pi flocs (Oratio in swam ordinationem, iii.
677.) Apocalypse of Elijah.
32, shows that both have the same source, probably this apocalypse.
108 sqq.) argues for the existence of a Hebrew apocalypse of Elijah from two Talmudic passages.
801810, assigns this apocalypse to the 2nd century A.D.
4-8) has shown, these fragments belong most probably to the Zephaniah apocalypse.
- xi., it is really a legend and not an apocalypse.
It is a feeble imitation of the canonical apocalypse.
(c) A commentary on the Psalms and short notes (complexiones) on the Pauline epistles, the Acts, and the Apocalypse.
One may also be permitted to hold that the mythic figure of the dragon, if used poetically, is a highly serviceable one, and consider that " in the beginning God fought with the dragon, and slew him " would have formed an admirable illustration of the passages just now referred to, especially to those in the Apocalypse.
Not only did an extreme party arise in Asia Minor rejecting all prophecy and the Apocalypse of John along with it, but the majority cf the Churches and bishops in that district appear (c. 178) to have broken off all fellowship with the new prophets, while books were written to show that the very form of the Montanistic prophecy was sufficient proof of its spuriousness.
Instead of this the Church substituted the name of the disciple through whom the message was delivered for that of his Master, and designated our Apocalypse "The Apocalypse of John."
The true Peshitta did not contain the Apocalypse.
The Apocalypse was admitted to the canon, according to Conybeare, in the 12th century through the influence of Nerses, who revised an older version traceable to the opening of the 5th century.
External Evidence and Canonicity, and Century.-It is possible that the Apocalypse was known to Ignatius, Eph.
With the school of Auberlen and Benson it will find in the Apocalypse a Christian philosophy of history; with the ` continuous-historical ' school it can see 2 The Jesuit Juan Mariana was the first after Victorinus to explain" the wounded head "as referring to Nero.
Starting from the different dates assigned by tradition to the exile to Patmos and the different chronological relations implied in the book itself, he conjectured that the Apocalypse was composed of several works of St John, written in different places and at different times, some before, some after A.D.
While it is impossible to interpret the Apocalypse scientifically as a whole by the eschatological method, there are undoubtedly some sections in it which must be so interpreted.
If, therefore, the possibilities of exegesis were exhausted in the list of methods already enumerated, science would have to put the New Testament Apocalypse aside as a hopeless enigma.
For in the New Testament Apocalypse there is not that rigid consistency and unity in detail that the past presupposed.
Now modern scholars have with varying success used in turn these three hypotheses with a view to the solution of the problems of the New Testament Apocalypse.
In the same year his pupil Volter (Die Entstehung der Apok., 1882, 1885) put forward the bold theory that the original Apocalypse consisted of 1.4-6, iv.
Instead of the above complex theory this writer now offers another (Die Offenbarung Johannis, 1904), 1 in which he distinguishes an apocalypse of John, A.D.
5-io (pp. 3-56), an apocalypse of Cerinthus A.D.
First of all it should be observed that VSlter was the first to 1 Besides the works mentioned here Volter wrote two other works on the Apocalypse: Die Offenbarung Johannis, 1886; Das Problem der Apokalypse, 1893.
5 to be a Jewish apocalypse revised and edited by a Christian, to whom he assigned i.-iii., v.
In this an editor incorporated a Caligula apocalypse, and a subsequent editor revised the existing work in many passages and made considerable additions, especially in the later chapters.
This writer seeks to establish the existence of an original Christian apocalypse written before A.D.
With this a Jewish apocalypse (x.-xi.
This latter apocalypse consisted of a series of independent prophecies which appeared to have the same crisis in view.
This redactor, moreover, was the first who gave to the Apocalypse the character of an attack on the Roman Empire and the imperial cult by means of a series of small additions.
A very elaborate form of this theory was issued in 1884 (Offenbarung Johannis) by Spitta, who found three main sources in the Apocalypse.
First, there was the primitive Christian apocalypse embracing the letters and the seals written by John Mark soon after A.D.
Fragment Hypothesis.-The previous theories have brought to light and emphasized the fact that within the Apocalypse there are passages inconsistent with the tone and character of the whole.
But, notwithstanding this fact, the Apocalypse gives a strong impression of its unity.
Both these writers assign the Apocalypse to the reign of Domitian.
The labours of these scholars, though to the superficial student they seem to prove that everything is possible and nothing certain, have certainly thrown great light on the literary character of the Apocalypse.
For many of the facts, the discovery of which we owe to the literary critics, have made the assumption of an absolute unity in the details of the Apocalypse a practical impossibility.
He criticizes sharply (pp. 173 sqq., 233 sqq.) former methods of interpretation, and with the ardour of a discoverer of a new truth seeks to establish its currency throughout the entire field of apocalyptic. To such an extreme does he carry his theory that he denies obvious references to historical personages in the Apocalypse, when these are clothed in apocalyptic language.
From this standpoint it may be argued that every apocalypse is in a certain sense pseudonymous; for the materials are not the writer's own, but have come down to him as a sacred deposit - full of meaning for the seeing eye and the understanding heart.
On the other hand, since much of the material of an apocalypse is a reinterpretation, it is necessary to distinguish between its original meaning and the new turn given to it in the Apocalypse.
of the Apocalypse.
the Apocalypse shows dependence on it.
It might be supposed that all possible methods had now been considered, and that a combination of the three methods which have established their validity in relation to the interpretation of the Apocalypse would be adequate to the solution of all the problems of the book, but this is not so; for even when each in turn has vindicated the provinces in the book that rightly belong to it, and brought intelligibility into these areas, there still remain outlying regions which they fail to illumine.
The main problem, which so far has not been satisfactorily solved, may be shortly put as follows: Are the visions in the Apocalypse the genuine results of spiritual experiences, or are they artificial productions, mere literary vehicles of the writer's teaching?
As a result of the preceding inquiry we conclude that the student of the Apocalypse must make use of the following methods - the contemporaryhistorical, the literary-critical (fragmentary hypothesis), the traditional-historical and the psychological.
But such a view is in conflict with the fact that the Apocalypse exhibits a steady movement from a detailed account of the condition of actual individual churches on an ever-widening sweep to the catastrophes that will befall every nation and country till at last evil is finally overthrown and the blessedness of the righteous consummated.
It is noteworthy that the sections on the right hand correspond in the main to the elements which have been those to which 1 Swete divides the Apocalypse first of all into forty-two minor sections.
With the conclusion of these epistles the Apocalypse proper really begins.
But between the sixth and seventh seals and the sixth and seventh trumpets the connexion is more or less disturbed by the insertion of certain interludes containing material foreign in certain aspects to the Apocalypse.
4 is elsewhere unknown in the Apocalypse, and in xi.
Weiss, supported by Bousset in the second edition of his commentary, that 7-12 is a fragment of a Jewish apocalypse, of which lob-11 is an addition of our author.
661), Spitta and Erbes, have contended that 616 was the original reading (I'aios Kaivap= 6r6) and that ' On the possibility of other points of contact between the Apocalypse and Egyptian mythology, see Mrs Grenfell's article, "Egyptian Mythology and the Bible," in the Monist (1906), pp. 169 - zoo.
was part of a Jewish apocalypse written under Caligula between the years 39 and 41.
14-20 originally represented the final judgment and was removed from its rightful place at the close of an apocalypse to its present position.
According to the different methods pursued, some have concluded that Nero was the sixth emperor, and thus dated the Apocalypse before A.D.
And yet the Apocalypse shows in many of its phrases an undoubted affinity to the latter a fact which requires for its explanation the assumption that the book emanated from certain literary circles influenced by John.
But in the Apocalypse we have the experiences of a later date.
We find at least two stages of the Neronic and Antichrist myth in the Apocalypse.
Greek Apocalypse of Baruch.
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