There were twenty keys in the set, code-named Horsemen, after the biblical Horsemen of the Apocalypse.
The people of the town had barely survived an apocalypse Mr. Tim and others should've prevented.
These are the Epistles of James and Jude, 2 Peter, 2 and 3 John, the Apocalypse of John, and the Epistle to the Hebrews.
The cruel persecutions instituted by the authorities with a view to securing conformity increased the number and fanaticism of the schismatics and heretics, and created among them a widespread belief that the reign of Antichrist, foretold in the Apocalypse, was at hand.
On apocalyptic generally the introductions to Charles's Book of Enoch, Apocalypse of Baruch, Ascension of Isaiah and Book of Jubilees, should be carefully noted.
Dionysius of Alexandria; compare his judicious verdict on the Apocalypse.
These lectures, which dealt with such special subjects as Gnosticism and the Apocalypse, attracted considerable attention, and in 1876 he was appointed professor extraordinarius.
In 1802 he published Reflections upon the State of Religion in Christendom, in which he attempted to explain and illustrate the mysterious foreshadowings of the Apocalypse.
Papias actually confounds expressions of Jesus with verses from the Apocalypse of Baruch, referring to the amazing fertility of the days of the Messianic kingdom (Papias in Iren.
It was only the chronologists and historians of the church who, following Julius Africanus, made use of apocalyptic numbers in their calculations, while court theologians like Eusebius entertained the imperial table with discussions as to whether the dining-hall of the emperor - the second David and Solomon, the beloved of God - might not be the New Jerusalem of John's Apocalypse.
Victorinus wrote a commentary on the Apocalypse of John; and all these theologians, especially Lactantius, were diligent students of the ancient Sibylline oracles of Jewish and Christian origin, and treated them as divine revelations.
As to the canonicity and apostolic authorship of the Johannine Apocalypse no doubts were ever entertained in the West; indeed an Apocalypse of Peter was still retained in the canon in the 3rd century.
The Apocalypse of Hermas was much read till far through the middle ages, and has also kept its place in some Bibles.
The Joachimite ideas were equally persistent among the Spirituals, and acquired new strength with the publication of the commentary on the Apocalypse.
4 a maintainer of the Johannine authorship of the Fourth Gospel; in connexion with this thesis he was one of the first to argue for the early date and non-apostolic authorship of the Apocalypse.
It is in a like laudatory meaning that Gregory reckons the New Testament apocalypse as iv anron: pi flocs (Oratio in swam ordinationem, iii.
In the New Testament, 2 Peter, 2 and 3 John, Jude and the Apocalypse were originally left out, but Syriac versions were made at a later time.
It is plainly Gnostic and may perhaps have been composed by Bardaisan or his son Harmonius.0 Among recent editions of Apocrypha in Syriac may be mentioned those of the Apocalypse of Baruch, the Epistle of Baruch, ' For the later Monophysite versions, none of which attained much popularity, see Wright's Syr.
But his two chief works, posthumously published, are his Cyprian (London, 1897), a work of great learning, which had occupied him at intervals since early manhood; and The Apocalypse, an Introductory Study (London, 1900), interesting and beautiful, but limited by the fact that the method of study is that of a Greek play, not of a Hebrew apocalypse.
Each fresh apocalypse would in the eyes of its writer be in some degree but a fresh edition of the traditions naturally attaching themselves to great names in Israel's past, and thus the books named respectively Enoch, Noah, Ezra would to some slight extent be not pseudonymous.
Apocalypse of Baruch.
Greek Apocalypse of Baruch.
Apocalypse of Zephaniah.
Apocalypse of Abraham.
Apocalypse of Elijah.
This apocalypse is of very great importance, on account of its very full treatment of the theological questions rife in the latter half of the 1st century of the Christian era.
It springs from the same school of thought as the Apocalypse of Baruch, and its affinities with the latter are so numerous and profound that scholars have not yet come to any consensus as to the relative priority of either.
Even the Greek cannot claim to be the original work, but only to be a recension of it; for, whereas Origen states that this apocalypse contained an account of the seven heavens, the existing Greek work describes only five, and the Slavonic only two.
677.) Apocalypse of Elijah.
- This apocalypse is mentioned in two of the lists of books.
If they are right, the apocalypse is pre-Pauline.
32, shows that both have the same source, probably this apocalypse.
108 sqq.) argues for the existence of a Hebrew apocalypse of Elijah from two Talmudic passages.
801810, assigns this apocalypse to the 2nd century A.D.
267-271.) Apocalypse of Zephaniah.
4-8) has shown, these fragments belong most probably to the Zephaniah apocalypse.
- xi., it is really a legend and not an apocalypse.
(i.) Canonical: Apocalypse in Mark xiii.
(ii.) Extra-Canonical: Apocalypse of Peter.
Apocalypse in Mark xiii.
The apocalypse consists of three Acts: Act i.
The apocalypse was written about A.D.
It is not to be confounded with the apocalypse mentioned two sections later.
Apocalypse of John (Tischendorf, Apocalypses Apocr.
It is a feeble imitation of the canonical apocalypse.
Arabic Apocalypse of Peter contains a narrative of events from the foundation of the world till the second advent of Christ.
The Apocalypse of the Virgin, containing her descent into hell, is not published entire, but only several portions of it from Greek MSS.
This late apocalypse, which M.
Holtzmann (1862); (4) his Lectures on the Apocalypse (Vorlesungen fiber die Apokalypse), (Eng.
Convinced of being divinely inspired, he had begun to see visions, and discovered in the Apocalypse symbols of the heavenly vengeance about to overtake this sin-laden people.
In a sermon on the Apocalypse he shook men's souls by his terrible threats of the wrath to come, and drew tears from their eyes by the tender pathos of his assurances of divine mercy.
As one of the Seven Churches of Asia, it was addressed by the author of the Apocalypse in terms which seem to imply that its population was notoriously soft and fainthearted.
His theological writings roughly fall into four groups: (1) books of spiritual philosophy, including The Divine Love and Wisdom, The Divine Providence, The Intercourse between the Soul and the Body, Conjugial Love; (2) Expository, including Arcana Celestia (giving the spiritual sense of Genesis and Exodus), The Apocalypse Revealed, The Apocalypse Explained; (3) Doctrinal, including The New Jerusalem and its Heavenly Doctrines, The Four Chief Doctrines, The Doctrine of Charity, The True Christian Religion, Canons of the New Church; (4) Eschatological, including Heaven and Hell, and The Last Judgment.
(c) A commentary on the Psalms and short notes (complexiones) on the Pauline epistles, the Acts, and the Apocalypse.
One may also be permitted to hold that the mythic figure of the dragon, if used poetically, is a highly serviceable one, and consider that " in the beginning God fought with the dragon, and slew him " would have formed an admirable illustration of the passages just now referred to, especially to those in the Apocalypse.
Not only did an extreme party arise in Asia Minor rejecting all prophecy and the Apocalypse of John along with it, but the majority cf the Churches and bishops in that district appear (c. 178) to have broken off all fellowship with the new prophets, while books were written to show that the very form of the Montanistic prophecy was sufficient proof of its spuriousness.
Instead of this the Church substituted the name of the disciple through whom the message was delivered for that of his Master, and designated our Apocalypse "The Apocalypse of John."
The true Peshitta did not contain the Apocalypse.
The Apocalypse was admitted to the canon, according to Conybeare, in the 12th century through the influence of Nerses, who revised an older version traceable to the opening of the 5th century.
External Evidence and Canonicity, and Century.-It is possible that the Apocalypse was known to Ignatius, Eph.
The learned Cambridge Commentary by Swete (The Apocalypse of John, 2nd ed., 1907) makes use of several of the methods of interpretation enumerated above.
With the school of Auberlen and Benson it will find in the Apocalypse a Christian philosophy of history; with the ` continuous-historical ' school it can see 2 The Jesuit Juan Mariana was the first after Victorinus to explain" the wounded head "as referring to Nero.
Starting from the different dates assigned by tradition to the exile to Patmos and the different chronological relations implied in the book itself, he conjectured that the Apocalypse was composed of several works of St John, written in different places and at different times, some before, some after A.D.
While it is impossible to interpret the Apocalypse scientifically as a whole by the eschatological method, there are undoubtedly some sections in it which must be so interpreted.
If, therefore, the possibilities of exegesis were exhausted in the list of methods already enumerated, science would have to put the New Testament Apocalypse aside as a hopeless enigma.
For in the New Testament Apocalypse there is not that rigid consistency and unity in detail that the past presupposed.
Now modern scholars have with varying success used in turn these three hypotheses with a view to the solution of the problems of the New Testament Apocalypse.
In the same year his pupil Volter (Die Entstehung der Apok., 1882, 1885) put forward the bold theory that the original Apocalypse consisted of 1.4-6, iv.
Instead of the above complex theory this writer now offers another (Die Offenbarung Johannis, 1904), 1 in which he distinguishes an apocalypse of John, A.D.
5-io (pp. 3-56), an apocalypse of Cerinthus A.D.
First of all it should be observed that VSlter was the first to 1 Besides the works mentioned here Volter wrote two other works on the Apocalypse: Die Offenbarung Johannis, 1886; Das Problem der Apokalypse, 1893.
5 to be a Jewish apocalypse revised and edited by a Christian, to whom he assigned i.-iii., v.
In this an editor incorporated a Caligula apocalypse, and a subsequent editor revised the existing work in many passages and made considerable additions, especially in the later chapters.
This writer seeks to establish the existence of an original Christian apocalypse written before A.D.
With this a Jewish apocalypse (x.-xi.
This latter apocalypse consisted of a series of independent prophecies which appeared to have the same crisis in view.
This redactor, moreover, was the first who gave to the Apocalypse the character of an attack on the Roman Empire and the imperial cult by means of a series of small additions.
A very elaborate form of this theory was issued in 1884 (Offenbarung Johannis) by Spitta, who found three main sources in the Apocalypse.
First, there was the primitive Christian apocalypse embracing the letters and the seals written by John Mark soon after A.D.
Fragment Hypothesis.-The previous theories have brought to light and emphasized the fact that within the Apocalypse there are passages inconsistent with the tone and character of the whole.
But, notwithstanding this fact, the Apocalypse gives a strong impression of its unity.
Both these writers assign the Apocalypse to the reign of Domitian.
The labours of these scholars, though to the superficial student they seem to prove that everything is possible and nothing certain, have certainly thrown great light on the literary character of the Apocalypse.
For many of the facts, the discovery of which we owe to the literary critics, have made the assumption of an absolute unity in the details of the Apocalypse a practical impossibility.
He criticizes sharply (pp. 173 sqq., 233 sqq.) former methods of interpretation, and with the ardour of a discoverer of a new truth seeks to establish its currency throughout the entire field of apocalyptic. To such an extreme does he carry his theory that he denies obvious references to historical personages in the Apocalypse, when these are clothed in apocalyptic language.
From this standpoint it may be argued that every apocalypse is in a certain sense pseudonymous; for the materials are not the writer's own, but have come down to him as a sacred deposit - full of meaning for the seeing eye and the understanding heart.
On the other hand, since much of the material of an apocalypse is a reinterpretation, it is necessary to distinguish between its original meaning and the new turn given to it in the Apocalypse.
of the Apocalypse.
the Apocalypse shows dependence on it.
It might be supposed that all possible methods had now been considered, and that a combination of the three methods which have established their validity in relation to the interpretation of the Apocalypse would be adequate to the solution of all the problems of the book, but this is not so; for even when each in turn has vindicated the provinces in the book that rightly belong to it, and brought intelligibility into these areas, there still remain outlying regions which they fail to illumine.
The main problem, which so far has not been satisfactorily solved, may be shortly put as follows: Are the visions in the Apocalypse the genuine results of spiritual experiences, or are they artificial productions, mere literary vehicles of the writer's teaching?
As a result of the preceding inquiry we conclude that the student of the Apocalypse must make use of the following methods - the contemporaryhistorical, the literary-critical (fragmentary hypothesis), the traditional-historical and the psychological.
But such a view is in conflict with the fact that the Apocalypse exhibits a steady movement from a detailed account of the condition of actual individual churches on an ever-widening sweep to the catastrophes that will befall every nation and country till at last evil is finally overthrown and the blessedness of the righteous consummated.
It is noteworthy that the sections on the right hand correspond in the main to the elements which have been those to which 1 Swete divides the Apocalypse first of all into forty-two minor sections.
With the conclusion of these epistles the Apocalypse proper really begins.
But between the sixth and seventh seals and the sixth and seventh trumpets the connexion is more or less disturbed by the insertion of certain interludes containing material foreign in certain aspects to the Apocalypse.
4 is elsewhere unknown in the Apocalypse, and in xi.
Weiss, supported by Bousset in the second edition of his commentary, that 7-12 is a fragment of a Jewish apocalypse, of which lob-11 is an addition of our author.
661), Spitta and Erbes, have contended that 616 was the original reading (I'aios Kaivap= 6r6) and that ' On the possibility of other points of contact between the Apocalypse and Egyptian mythology, see Mrs Grenfell's article, "Egyptian Mythology and the Bible," in the Monist (1906), pp. 169 - zoo.
was part of a Jewish apocalypse written under Caligula between the years 39 and 41.
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