The perfect female or " queen " ants (figs.
One noteworthy feature in Liberia, however, is the relative absence of mosquitoes, and the white ants and some other insect pests are not so troublesome here as in other parts of West Africa.
Several battalions of soldiers, in their shirt sleeves despite the cold wind, swarmed in these earthworks like a host of white ants; spadefuls of red clay were continually being thrown up from behind the bank by unseen hands.
Other ants, such as the British black garden species (L.
Of insects there are relatively few kinds; but ants, beetles and mosquitoes abound.
It is supposed that these beetles secrete a sweet substance on which the ants feed, but they have been seen to devour the ants' eggs and grubs.
In many of those ants whose third abdominal segment forms a second " node," the basal dorsal region of the fourth segment is traversed by a large number of very fine transverse striations; over these the sharp hinder edge of the third segment can be scraped to and fro, and the result is a stridulating organ which gives rise to a note of very high pitch.
- Different kinds of ants vary greatly in the substances which they use for food.
A similar engagement between great and small ants is recorded by Olaus Magnus, in which the small ones, being victorious, are said to have buried the bodies of their own soldiers, but left those of their giant enemies a prey to the birds.
The Paussidae are a very remarkable family of small beetles, mostly tropical, found only in ants' nests, or flying by night, and apparently migrating from one nest to another.
Yates killed ants, ants stung Yates.
After examining a rock for ants or other insects, she leaned against it, drawing in the clean smell of the forest.
he latter are mixed associations, such as fens, where different :cies are produced by the varying abundance of characteristic ants, such as Cladium Mariscus, Phragmites communis, Molinia~ erulea, Calamagrostis lanceolata, and Juncus obtusiftorus.
Many Staphylinidae are constant inmates of ants' nests.
Wood is the material most widely used, but steel is employed in some countries where timber is scarce or liable to destruction by white ants, though it is still regarded as too expensive in comparison with wood for general adoption.
I'd better get this stuff back into the house before it's crawling with ants.
Ants form a distinct and natural family (Formicidae) of the great order Hymenoptera, to which bees, wasps and sawflies also belong.
But there are several subfamilies of ants whose females have the lancets of the sting useless for piercing, although the poison-glands are functional, their secretion being ejected by the insect, when occasion may arise, from the greatly enlarged reservoir, the reduced sting acting as a squirt.
The single species, which is a native of western and southern Australia, is about the size of an English squirrel, to which its long bushy tail gives it some resemblance; but it lives entirely on the ground, especially in sterile sandy districts, feeding on ants.
varieties of ants.
520), who were called Myrmidones (murmekes = ants).
aberrant species are dependent on the workers of other ants.
- Leaf-cutting and Foraging Ants.
Moller - serves as the substratum for a special fungus (Rozites gongylophora), the staple food of the ants.
Guests of Ants.
Biisgen that the sweet secretion (honey-dew) of the aphids is not derived, as generally believed, from the paired cornicles on the fifth abdominal segment, but from the intestine, whence it exudes in drops and is swallowed by the ants.
Wasmann, who has compiled a list of nearly 1 50o species of insects, arachnids and crustaceans, inhabiting ants' nests.
The warmth, shelter and abundant food in the nests, due both to the fresh supplies brought in by the ants and to the large amount of waste matter that accumulates, must prove strongly attractive to the various " guests."
Some of the inmates of ants' nests are here for the purpose of preying upon the :ants or their larvae, so that we find all kinds of relations between the owners of the nests and their companions, from mutual benefit to active hostility.
Among these associations or guests other species of ants are not wanting.
Several species of ants are found in association with another species which stands to them in the relation of slave to master.
Senses and Intelligence of Ants.
- That ants possess highly developed senses and the power of communicating with one another has long been known to students of their habits; the researches of P. Huber and Sir J.
Lubbock's experiments of inLlucing ants to seek objects that had been removed show that they are guided by scent rather than by sight, and that any disturbance of their surroundings often causes great uncertainty in their actions.
In all probability the actions of ants are for the most part instinctive or reflex, and some observers, such as A.
Nevertheless, ants can teach " rational beings " many valuable lessons.
But since ants are not persecuted by these two families of Hymenoptera, the greatest enemies spiders have to contend with, it is evident that mimicry of ants is of supreme advantage to spiders.
Ants, however, are not the only animals mimicked by spiders.
Beetles (Scarabaei) are the subjects of some of the oldest sculptured works of the Egyptians, and references to locusts, bees and ants are familiar to all readers of the Hebrew scriptures.
What in popular usage are spoken of as the instincts of animals, for example, the hunting of prey by foxes and wolves, or the procedure of ants in their nests, are generally joint products of hereditary and acquired factors.
It is stated to live usually in pairs, and to eat rats, birds, frogs, white ants and various insects, and in the north of India it is accused of digging out dead bodies, and several of the native names mean "grave-digger."
The most numerous of all, however, and perhaps the most harmful to civilized man, are the termites and ants, which are found everywhere in the uninhabited campo and forest regions, as well as in the cultivated districts.
The termites, or " white ants," are exceptionally destructive because of their habit of tunnelling through the softer woods of habitations and furniture, while some species of ants, like the sadba, are equally destructive to plantations because of the rapidity with which they strip a tree of its foliage.
Algebraic Forms; Binomial; Combinatorial Analysis; Determin Ants; Equation; Continued Fraction; Function; Theory of groups; Logarithm; Number; Probability; Series.
Mosquitoes, locusts and ants are also common.
However that may be, they are known to be used in the folding of the wings; and their importance as weapons of defence is attested by the precision and effect with which they are wielded against assailants like ants.
Ants and beetles too are very numerous, and anthills are prominent features in many places.
The public works suffer from the ravages of white ants.
The second (so-called " first ") abdominal segment is often very constricted, forming the " waist " so characteristic of wasps and ants for example.
The sting of wasps, ants and bees is a modified ovipositor and is used for egg-laying by the fertile females, as well as for defence.
Thus we find throughout the order a degree of care for offspring unreached by other insects, and this family-life has, in the best known of the Hymenoptera - ants, wasps and bees - developed into an elaborate social organization.
In the hive-bee and among ants, on the other hand, there are constant structural distinctions between queen and worker, and the function of the queen bee in a hive is confined to egg-laying, the labour, of the community being entirely done by the workers.
Many ants possess several different forms of worker, adapted for special duties.
Thus, wasps catch flies; worker ants make raids and carry off weak insects of many kinds; bees gather nectar from flowers and transform it into honey within their stomachs - largely for the sake of feeding the larvae in the nest.
Fragments of wings from the Lias and Oolitic beds have been referred to ants and bees, but the true nature of these remains is doubtful.
The Formicoidea are the ants.
The ants which form this group are readily distinguished by the differentiation of the females into winged " queens" and wingless " workers."
This section includes a number of families characterized by the backward extension of the prothorax to the tegulae and distinguished from the ants by the absence of " nodes " at the base of the abdomen.
The Vespidae or social wasps have " queens " and " workers " like the ants, but both these forms of female are winged; the claws on their feet are simple.
Most of the genera are " solitary " in habit, the female sex being undifferentiated; but among the humble-bees and hive-bees we find, as in social wasps and ants, the occurrence of workers, and the consequent elaboration of a wonderful insect-society.
Lubbock (Lord Avebury), Ants, Bees and Wasps (9th ed., London, 1889); C. Janet, Etudes sur les fourmis, les guepes et les abeilles (Paris, &c., 1893 and onwards); and G.
For the Fossores, wasps, ants and bees see E.
sought as a food by ants, is secreted from the FIG.
His dominions contained the monstrous ants that dug gold and the fish that gave the purple; they produced all manner of precious stones and all the famous aromatics.
Locusts occasion much damage, and ants of various kinds are often a plague.
His attention having been drawn to the blighting of the young shoots of fruit-trees, which was commonly attributed to the ants found upon them, he was the first to find the Aphides that really do the mischief; and, upon searching into the history of their generation, he observed the young within the bodies of their parents.
He carefully studied also the history of the ant and was the first to show that what had been commonly reputed to be "ants' eggs" are really their pupae, containing the perfect insect nearly ready for emersion, whilst the true eggs are far smaller, and give origin to "maggots" or larvae.
Insects are comparatively few, but ants swarm destructively in the heat of the year.
The idea of an Incarnation of God is absurd; why should the human race think itself so superior to bees, ants and elephants as to be put in this unique relation to its maker?
Scorpions and tarantulas are numerous, and lizards, frogs, beetles, ants, butterflies, moths and flies are abundant.
The food consists of fruits, honey and white ants.
To the traveller, the most conspicuous among the Mexican insects, perhaps, are the butterflies, beetles, ants and the myriads of mosquitoes, midges, fleas and chinches.
In pleasing contrast to such pests are the butterflies of all sizes and colours, beetles of an inconceivable variety of size, shape and colouration, and ants of widely dissimilar appearance and habits.
These ants will strip a tree in a few hours and are very destructive to fruit plantations.
Most destructive, also, are the termites or white ants, whose ravages are to be seen in the crumbling woodwork and furniture of all habitations in the hot zones.
It occurs naturally in red ants (Lat.
The Termitidae (so-called " white ants ") are the other family of Isoptera.
Insects are numerous, and of about 500 species of beetle some 80% are not known to exist elsewhere; cockroaches and green locusts are pests, as are, also, mosquitoes,' wasps, scorpions, centipedes and white ants, which have all been introduced from elsewhere.
birds - but also in ants, spiders, the higher crabs and molluscs.
between spiders and ants or spiders and beetles; yet even in this case both mimic and model have in common certain fundamental structural points to which the finishing touches completing the mimetic likeness are superadded.
Coleoptera (beetles) supply instances of mimicry of ants, wasps and Ichneumonids, and some defenceless forms of this order mimic others that are protected.
The early larval stage of the " Lobster Moth " (Stauropus fagi), for example, presents a general resemblance, due to a combination of shape, colour, attitude and movements, to black ants, the swollen head and the caudal disk with its two tentacles representing respectively the abdomen and antenna-bearing head of the model.
The most perfect cases, however, are exhibited by those species which imitate ants.
Sometimes it is only the males of a species of spider that mimic ants, as in the case of Ildebaha mutilloides and I.
Many other spiders belonging to the Theridiidae and Linyphiidae also mimic ants; but it is needless to enumerate them, the most perfect examples of this phenomenon being found in the families Clubionidae and Salticidae.
It has therefore been suggested by some and taken for granted by others that the resemblance comes under the category of aggressive mimicry and that the ants are deluded by this resemblance into regarding the spiders as members of their own species.
That the ants do not destroy them is certain; but that they are deceived by the superficial similarity of the spiders to themselves is highly improbable, for these insects are capable of distinguishing a strange ant belonging to the same species if it comes from another colony.
Hence it may be inferred that the insects which imitate ants profit in the same way that spiders do from this form of mimicry.
In this little coterie the ants are beyond question the models towards which the bug and the grasshopper have converged in appearance.
12) with their ascending and descending buckets disappeared, and with it the cosmopolitan crowd of busy miners working like ants at the bottom of the pit.
A characteristic of the country in the neighbourhood of the lake are the "hills" of the termites (white ants).
Ants are very numerous.
2, a) are divided into "scape" and "flagellum" as in the ants, and the mandibles vary greatly in size and sharpness in different genera.
Its food consists of ants, honey and fruit.
Mosquitoes are innumerable, and moths and ants of the most destructive kind, as well as others equally noxious and disagreeable.
The number of species of ants is.very large.
The termites, or socalled " white ants," inflict great damage on wooden buildings.
There are also two kinds of ants, the semut dpi (" fire ant") and the semut ldda (" pepper ant"), whose bites are peculiarly painful.
The bacillus has been demonstrated in the bodies of fleas, flies, bugs and ants.
spadicigera, the large thorn-like stipules are hollow and afford shelter for ants, which feed on a secretion of honey on the leaf-stalk and curious food-bodies at the tips of the leaflets; in return they protect the plant against leaf-cutting insects.
Mosquitoes, termites, bees, ants, centipedes, millipedes, locusts, grasshoppers, butterflies, dragonflies, sandflies and spiders' are found in immense numbers.
The tongue of the vast majority of the Dutch-speaking inhabit ants may thus be said to be a degenerate dialect of the 17th-century Dutch of Holland, with a very limited vocabulary.
Ants, bees and wasps of many species, and flies and gnats abound, particularly during the summer rainy season, and at all elevations.
White and red ants are very prevalent, as are mosquitos, centipedes, spiders and beetles.
The animal lives mostly underground, burrowing in soft earth, and feeds on ants and other small animals.
Flies, ants, mosquitoes, scorpions, centipedes and crickets abound.
Mosquitoes, butterflies, spiders, beetles and ants are infinitely numerous, and some of the species are indescribably troublesome.
There is also a scaly ant-eater and various species of pangolins, of arboreal habit, which live on ants.
Large toads and frogs are common, as are scorpions, tarantula spiders, butterflies, hornets and stinging ants.
Lastly, the symbiotic relation between the plant and ants is found in Ferns, the rhizome of Polypodium carnosum containing cavities inhabited by these insects.
He struck snakes with his staff and turned them into men, as Zeus did with the ants in Aegina.
Of insects Africa has many thousand different kinds; of these the locust is the proverbial scourge of the continent, and the ravages of the termites or white ants are almost incredible.
His passion for absolu- the Protism, a religious zeal that was the more active because test ants.
The opening of the mouth is small, and from it the echidna puts forth its long slender tongue, lubricated with a viscous secretion, by means of which it seizes the ants and other insects on which it feeds.
These tubes were formerly supposed to secrete the sweet substance known as "honey-dew" so much sought after by ants; but this is now known to come from the alimentary canal.
The sign of a good film is killer androids or giant ants.
I walked in about 20 feet and there they were in their favored halls of swarming army ants.
The hollow stems have been found to be inhabited by ants (Wheeler 1942 ).
If you put your hand down it will be covered with stinging ants or leeches.
There was one statement which I noticed about argentine ants getting into bedding.
ants nests to get rid of them.
Must go and do a night time survey of out leaf-cutter ants!
Harpy and Crested Eagles hunt here and we'll see colonies of leafcutter ants and myriad butterflies.
This method is particularly useful for the control of cockroaches and Pharaohs ants, where the bait is also taken back to the nest.
Swarming is not the only means for carpenter ants to produce new nests.
queen ants should not be used in Ant world - just workers!
Its effect on Pharaoh's ants is to make the queen lay sterile eggs.
giant anteaters consume up to 30,000 ants per day.
The outstanding wildlife interest includes aspen, juniper, capercaillie, red squirrel, crested tit, blood red slave maker ants and otter.
The ants went berserk their tails flicking high, all swarming to the point of contact with the bush.
bestiaryGould * According to medieval Bestiaries, ants do have a purpose beyond the parables of political economy in Aesop and the Bible.
carpenter ants to produce new nests.
The ants return the favor by guarding the caterpillar against the many predatory insects which enjoy eating juicy young caterpillars.
colony of ants.
critters that the fire ants haven't driven out or eaten.
It's nice to see critters that the fire ants haven't driven out or eaten.
cutter ants, which we set up in February 2000.
When the tourists move on their corrupting influence leaves desolation and death - but the ants live on.
determinespan>determining where the ants were and where they were going, I found a good spot and sat and stared.
ferocious predators attack other ants rather than people.
foragedcast spraying around the perimeter of the house targets only the foraging adult ants in the colony.
Watch your ants create 3D tunnels and a home in the specially made clear non-toxic gel.
Garden ants tend not carry harmful germs or disease.
gland secretions of leaf-cutting ants: role in defense against alien fungi.
Yucatan's hammocks are as ubiquitous as its ants, even in luxury hacienda hotels.
The ants are usually active between March and October and can be seen climbing trees where they collect honeydew produced by aphids.
infected by accidental ingestion of ants.
Large numbers of ants can prevent the effectiveness of lacewing larvae.
louseithologists believe the formic acid that the ants release may kill feather lice.
mimicry of ants and beetles by spiders is also, on its face, not easily categorized.
The Council will treat black and red ants ' nests in domestic properties.
peppermint flavor with ants.
pheromone trail to food sources for other ants to follow.
Wood ants will use pine needles for making their nest mounds, and decayed tree stumps will be frequented by weevils.
pontoon party, which was to follow the briefing, had to be canceled due to swarms of flying ants.
Your problems are our opportunities we always find a solution Communication within a colony of ants is always incredibly precise and focussed.
These larvae mature then pupate to form the first cohort of worker ants.
Most animals make noises: cows go ' moo ', cats purr, etc. Ants make noises too.
red ants ' nests in domestic properties.
red antSharon J, UK We had red biting ants and black pavement ants nesting in our walls when we moved in.
red anting in the shadows passing mixtures of unknown plants, Receiving sudden pain when attacked by red biting ants.
reworking classics such as " Prince Charming " by Adam and The Ants.
rob brown ants nests to maintain the number of slaves in the colony.
seetheaps they had their eyes on the flying ants seething up the fence posts as thunder approached across the Channel.
spraying insecticides indoors where you see ants.
The ants go up the inside of the hollow stem of the flower stalks and literally eat the flower to pieces.
swarming army ants.
swarms of mating ants may cause great distress to people who do not know what they are.
This is no joke when the ants are fierce when provoked and have some of the most potent toxins around, wear your shoes.
Some birds use stones to crush animal shells, chimpanzees use twigs to extract ants.
Suddenly a colony of extremely voracious ants were crawling across my legs.
walking around on the forest floor, or looking for ants in the crowns of the highest rainforest trees.
woodpecker's tongue is extremely long and sticky for extracting insects, such as ants, from their nest chambers and crevices.
worker ants Army ant queens may lay 2 million eggs in a month.
The island having been depopulated by a pestilence, Zeus changed the ants upon it into human beings (Ovid, Met.
the curious little Pselaphidae, with three-segmented tarsi, elongate palpi, and shortened abdomen; the latter are usually found in ants' nests, where they are tended by the ants, which take a sweet fluid secreted among little tufts of hair on the beetles' bodies; these beetles, which are carried about by the ants, sometimes devour their larvae.
In all ants the second (apparently the first) abdominal segment is very markedly constricted at its front and hind edges, so that it forms a "node " at the base of the hind-body (fig.
I), and in many ants the third abdominal segment is similarly " nodular " in form (fig.
The larvae of ants (fig.
Very many ants live by preying upon various insects, such as the British " red ants " with well-developed stings (Myrmica rubra), and the notorious " driver ants " of Africa and America, the old-world species of which belong to Dorylus and allied genera, and the new-world species to Eciton (fig.
Into these underground chambers the ants carry seeds of grasses and other plants of which they accumulate large stores.
Perhaps no ants have such remarkable habits as those of the genus Atta, - the leaf-cutting ants of tropical America (fig.
The number of species of beetles that inhabit ants' nests is almost incredibly large, and most of these are never found elsewhere, being blind, helpless and dependent on the ants' care for protection and food; these beetles belong for the most part to the families Pselaphidae, Paussidae and Staphylinidae.
Includes two families, formerly reckoned among the Neuroptera - the Embiidae and the Termitidae or " White Ants " (see Termite).
Comprises gall-flies, ichneumon-flies, ants, wasps, bees.
all naturalists in the sense proposed by him, to include the sawflies, gall-flies, ichneumon-flies and their allies, ants, wasps and bees.
The differentiation of the females leads to a complex social life, the nesting habits of ants and the various industries that they pursue being of surpassing interest (see ANT).
puff-adders and cobras, are met with, enormous frogs are common, and walking and flying locusts, mosquitoes, white ants, flying beetles, scorpions, spiders and tarantulas are very numerous.
µbpµo); or from the repeopling of Aegina (when all its inhabitants had died of the plague) with ants changed into men by Zeus at the prayer of Aeacus, king of the island.
When pursuing their operations of leaf-storage,' these ants present the appearance of a crawling crowd of leaf-particles, fragments of leaves being carried by the insects in such a way as to conceal to a great extent the insect underneath, of which little more than the dark coloured legs project beyond the burden.
Moreover, the above-suggested explanation does not coincide with the explanation of the likeness to ants shown by certain insects such as Myrecophana fallax, the ant and leaf-like Membracid Homopteron and the larvae of the lobster-moth (Stauropos fagi), which are plant-eaters.
It is probable that one explanation - namely, that of protection - covers all cases of ant-mimicry; and this explanation lies in all probability in the immunity from the attacks of most insectivorous enemies that ants enjoy, and especially from predaceous wasps of the family Pompilidae which annually destroy thousands upon thousands of spiders to feed their larvae; and since more than one observer has testified to the fear and abhorrence these wasps have of ants, it is needless to look farther for the benefit ant-mimicry is to spiders.
He found on the same day on a bud of vetch, specimens of black ants (Camponotus sericeus and C. cosmicus), black ant-like Hemipterous insects (Megapetus atratus) and the antlike Orthopteron (Myrmecophana fallax) (cf.
Those include mites, termites (or white ants), thread blight, grey blight, caterpillars (naked or in bags) and caterpillars armed with stinging hairs to protect them, and borers, red and black, some of which eat the core out of the wood, while others content themselves with eating only the bark.
The French swarming round their guns seemed to him like ants.
From Sharon J, UK We had red biting ants and black pavement ants nesting in our walls when we moved in.
Blending in the shadows passing mixtures of unknown plants, Receiving sudden pain when attacked by red biting ants.
Moving from original material to reworking classics such as " Prince Charming " by Adam and The Ants.
They will constantly rob brown ants nests to maintain the number of slaves in the colony.
Perhaps they had their eyes on the flying ants seething up the fence posts as thunder approached across the Channel.
Do not panic and do not resort to spraying insecticides indoors where you see ants.
This means that the ants are forced to subsist entirely on a diet of frogs.
Flying swarms of mating ants may cause great distress to people who do not know what they are.
Ants have erected a termite hill in the ruins of his kitchen - a terrible omen.
You can see them casually walking around on the forest floor, or looking for ants in the crowns of the highest rainforest trees.
The woodpecker 's tongue is extremely long and sticky for extracting insects, such as ants, from their nest chambers and crevices.
The colony of ants were very efficient when they all worked together.
Strikeback Insect Killing Spray kills most insects, such as ants, bed bugs, flying ants, fleas, cockroaches, flies, moths, wasps and mosquitoes.
Let kids decorate covers that are shaped like ladybugs, butterflies, or even ants.
Inquisitive (but naughty) children have found that catching the sun's rays in a magnifying glass at the correct angle will burn any ants on the other side of the glass.
Locals prefer their meat fried, and also take a liking to frog, lizard, snake, large red ants, rice field rats, and insects.
Kill the ANTS (automatic negative thoughts).
Gorillas and chimpanzees eat an almost entirely vegan diet with the exception of ingesting a few stray ants when they grab plants in the wild, yet they grow healthy, big and quite strong!
Pests: Will there be problems with pest control, such as wasps, ants, or mosquitoes?
Moss has drummed for Adam and the Ants and The Damned.
Mosquito 86 can keep your yard free of mosquitoes, fleas, ticks, biting flies and ants.
She anchors the sacs to one side of her resting place near the center of her web to protect them from ants and other possible predators.
Banana peels can stop a flea infestation, and washing your floor with vinegar repels ants.
To keep ants out of your garden, especially the leaf eating types, plant some of the herbs and plants listed below.
Ants often "farm" aphids, using them to procure a sweet substance much as farmers will milk a cow.
By controlling ants you may also find that the aphid problem is reduced.
Ants can be deterred with cider vinegar.
Just mix an equal amount of water and vinegar and use it to wash countertops and floors, or other places ants have become a problem.
You bring the ants and I'll bring the country picnic wine.
I had no clue if it was legal or not but the gendarmes were less intrusive than ants on that day.
The list of arthropods that bite or sting humans is extensive and includes lice, bedbugs, fleas, mosquitoes, black flies, ants, chiggers, ticks, centipedes, scorpions, and other species.
Spiders, ants, bees, and wasps are the four kinds of arthropod that most often bite people.
Ants, bees, and wasps will sting to defend their nests or if they are disturbed.
Ants sting more than 9.3 million people each year.
Species common to the United States include fire ants, honeybees, bumblebees, yellow jackets, bald-faced hornets, brown hornets, and paper wasps.
Children should avoid the nests of bees, wasps, and ants.
When playing outside in an area where these insects are found, children also should avoid eating sweet food or wearing bright clothing, perfumes, or cosmetics that attract bees, wasps, and ants.
The majority of insect stings in the United States are from wasps, hornets, bees, yellow jackets, and fire ants.
With the exception of fire ants, all of these insects are found throughout the United States.
Fire ants are found primarily in the southeastern region of the country but have also been noted in some western states.
If fire ants have stung the child, they should be carefully brushed off to prevent repeated stings.
Fire ants are reddish brown to black stinging insects.
For example, the letter A is carried out by ants.
Them! had giant ants, The Beginning of the End featured giant grasshoppers, and Day of the Triffids had, well, killer triffids.
Bees are part of the Hymenoptera family, along with wasps and ants.
Bees, hornets, spiders, fire ants, yellow jackets and wasp stings are the insect bites that are often considered the most agonizing, irritating, and venomous.
While their name is out there, Elephants and Ants creates practical and professional websites through collaboration.
Elephant and Ants develops and designs dynamic and informative websites with the end user in mind.
It is interesting and suggestive that in a few families of digging Hymenoptera (such as the Mutillidae), allied to the ants, the females are wingless.
Ants invite one another to work, or ask for food from one another, by means of pats with the feelers; and they respond to the solicitations of their guest-beetles or mites, who ask for food by patting the ants with their feet.
But it seems impossible to doubt that in many cases ants behave in a manner that must be considered intelligent, that they can learn by experience and that they possess memory.
Wasmann considers that ants are neither miniature human beings nor mere reflex automata, and most students of their habits will probably accept this intermediate position as the most satisfactory.
Morgan sums up a discussion on Lubbock's experiments in which the ants failed to utilize particles of earth for bridge-making, with the suggestive remark that " What these valuable experiments seem to show is that the ant, probably the most intelligent of all insects, has no claim to be regarded as a rational being."
The literature on ants is so vast that it is only possible to refer the reader to a few of the most important works on the family.
Lubbock's (Lord Avebury) Ants, Bees and Wasps (London, 1882), dealing with British and European species, has been followed by numerous important papers by A.
Sharp's general account of ants in the Cambridge Nat.
His classification was founded mainly on the nature of the wings, and five of his orders - the Hymenoptera (bees, ants, wasps, &c.), Coleoptera (beetles), Diptera (two-winged flies), Lepidoptera (moths and butterflies), and Hemiptera (bugs, cicads, &c.) - are recognized to-day with nearly the same limits as he laid down.
To the Lias also can be traced back the Neuroptera, the Trichoptera, the orthorrhaphous Diptera and, according to the determination of certain obscure fossils, also the Hymenoptera (ants).
One interesting phenomenon in spider-life seems to be directly and certainly traceable to this influence, and that is mimicry of ants.
In several families of spiders, but principally in those like the Clubionidae and Salticidae, which are terrestrial in habits, there are species which not only live amongst ants, but so closely resemble them in their shape, size, colour and actions that it requires a practised eye to distinguish the Arachnid from the insect.
Now the Pompilidae or mason wasps provision their cells with insects of many different kinds, as well as with spiders; but, of the hundreds of species of these wasps that have been described from different parts of the world, only one is known to use ants for this purpose; and this species is not one that preys upon spiders.
So, too, does it appear that ants are entirely immune to the attacks of Ichneumonidae, which destroy hosts of other insects and of spiders by laying their eggs upon their bodies.
In order to obtain the seminvari ants we would write down the (w; 0, n) terms each associated with a literal coefficient; if we now operate with 52 we obtain a linear function of (w - I; 8, n) products, for the vanishing of which the literal coefficients must satisfy (w-I; 0, n) linear equations; hence (w; 8, n)-(w-I; 0, n) of these coefficients may be assumed arbitrarily, and the number of linearly independent solutions of 52=o, of the given degree and weight, is precisely (w; 8, n) - (w - I; 0, n).
Moggridge, Harvesting Ants and Trap-Door Spiders (1873); 33.
Such " workers " are essential to the formation of a social community of Hymenoptera, and their wingless condition among the ants shows that their specialization has been carried further in this family than among the wasps and bees.
Webster has observed ants, foreseeing this emigration, to carry aphids from apple trees to .grasses.
While some of these " guest " insects produce secretions that furnish the ants with food, some seem to be useless inmates of the nest, obtaining food from the ants and giving nothing in return.
The social instincts and industrious habits of ants have always made them favourite objects of study, and a vast amount of literature has accumulated on the subject of their structure and their modes of life.
Besides the aphids, other insects, such as scale insects (Coccidae), caterpillars of blue butterflies (Lycaenidae), and numerous beetles, furnish the ants with nutrient secretions.
A large number of beetles inhabit the deep limestone caves of Europe and North America, while many genera and some whole families are at home nowhere but in ants' nests.
For the appreciation of the sounds made by these stridulators, the ants are furnished with delicate organs of hearing (chordotonal organs) in the head, in the three thoracic and two of the abdominal segments and in the shins of the legs.
The food of the adult is almost exclusively animal, - insects, especially large ants, snails, lizards and snakes, but it also eats certain large red berries.
"I can say in the presence of God, in comparison of whom we are but like poor creeping ants upon the earth, I would have lived under my woodside to have kept a flock of sheep rather than undertook such a government as this."
The nests of different kinds of ants are constructed in very different situations; many species (Lasius, for example) make underground nests; galleries and chambers being hollowed out in the soil, and opening by small holes on the surface, or protected above by a large stone.
spicuous and well-known feature of ants is the wingless condition of the " workers," as the specialized females, with undeveloped ovaries, which form the largest proportion of the population of ant-communities, are called.
But the ovaries of worker ants are in some cases sufficiently developed for the production of eggs, which may give rise parthenogenetically to male, queen or worker offspring.
The tracks along which the ants carry the leaves to their nests are often in part subterranean.
It has been thought that it refers to the fact that ants form a large percentage of the prey of the insect, the suffix "lion" merely suggesting destroyer or eater.
I) piles up a heap of leaves, twigs and other vegetable refuse, so arranged as to form an orderly series of galleries, though the structure appears at first sight a chaotic heap. Species of Camponotus and many other ants tunnel in wood.
The workers of these ants range over the country in large armies, killing and carrying off all the insects and spiders that they find and sometimes attacking 'vertebrates.
These driver ants shelter in temporary nests made in FIG.
The harvesting habits of certain ants have long been known,the subterranean store-houses of Mediterranean species of Aphaenogaster having been described by J.
which the ants have turned out of their store-chambers.
When the fungus is grown elsewhere than in the ants' nest it produces gonidia instead of the white masses on which the ants feed, hence it seems that these masses are indeed produced as the result of some unknown cultural process.
Other genera of South American ants - A pterostigma and Cyphomyrmex - make similar fungal cultivations, but they use wood, grain or dung as the substratum instead of leaf fragments.
- Many ants feed largely and some almost entirely on the saccharine secretions of other insects, the best known of which are the Aphides (plant-lice or " green-fly ").
The relation between ants and aphids has often been compared to that between men and milch cattle.
Lubbock (Lord Avebury) states that the common British yellow ants (Lasius flavus) collect flocks of root-feeding aphids in their underground nests, protect them, build earthen shelters over them, and take the greatest care of their eggs.
Spring-tails and bristle-tails (order Aptera) of several species also frequent ants' nests.
The same naturalist describes the association with Lasius of small mites (Antennophorus) which are carried about by the worker ants, one of which may have a mite beneath her mouth, and another on either side of her abdomen.
Still we live meanly, like ants; though the fable tells us that we were long ago changed into men; like pygmies we fight with cranes; it is error upon error, and clout upon clout, and our best virtue has for its occasion a superfluous and evitable wretchedness.
For example, the difference between aquatic ants with floating leaves, such as the yellow water-lily (Nymphaea l~
(For the so-called " white ants,"which belong to an order far removed from the Hymenoptera, see Termite.) Structure.
In tropical countries ants sometimes make their nests in the hollow thorns of trees or on leaves; species with this habit are believed to make a return to the tree for the shelter that it affords by protecting it from the ravages of other insects, including their own leaf-cutting relations.
These cocoons, which may often be seen carried between the mandibles of the workers, are the "ants' eggs" prized as food for fish and pheasants.
Sharp to hold the maggots between their mandibles and induce them to spin together the leaves of trees from which they form their shelters, as the adult ants have no silk-producing organs.
Honey forms the staple nourishment of many ants, some of the workers seeking nectar from flowers, working it up into honey within their stomachs and regurgitating it so as to feed their comrades within the nest, who, in their turn, pass it on to the grubs.
The seeds are harvested from various grasses, especially from Aristida oligantha, a species known as " ant rice," which often grows in quantity close to the site selected for the nest, but the statement that the ants deliberately sow this grass is an error, due, according to Wheeler, to the sprouting of germinating seeds.
This consideration leads us to one of the most remarkable and fascinating features of 'ant-communities - the presence in the nests of insects and other small arthropods, which are tended and cared for by the ants as their " guests," rendering to the ants in return the sweet food which they desire.
On patting their carrier or some passing ant, the mites are supplied with food, no service being rendered by them in return for the ants' care.
Perhaps the ants derive from these seemingly useless guests the same satisfaction as we obtain by keeping pet animals.
Recent advance in our knowledge of the guests and associates of ants is .due principally to E.
Looking farther, I was surprised to find that the chips were covered with such combatants, that it was not a duellum, but a bellum, a war between two races of ants, the red always pitted against the black, and frequently two red ones to one black.
Through the streets soldiers in various uniforms walked or ran confusedly in different directions like ants from a ruined ant-hill.
Further, while among wasps and bees we find some solitary and some social genera, the ants as a family are social, though some FIG.
In these ants the difference between the large, heavy, winged males and females, and the small, long-legged, active workers, is so great, that various forms of the same species have been often referred to distinct genera; in Eciton, for example, the female has a single petiolate abdominal segment, the worker two.
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