Marie Antoinette, ihr Briefwechsel (ib.
Jackson noticed a woman dressed as Marie Antoinette, staring at him.
Came to the throne in 1774 Chartres still found himself looked on coldly at court; Marie Antoinette hated him, and envied him for his wealth, wit and freedom from etiquette, and he was not slow to return her hatred with scorn.
And his queen stood sponsors, Christine Antoinette Charlotte Desmares (1682-1753), was a fine actress in both tragedy and soubrette parts.
1866); Marie Antoinette, Joseph II.
And Leopold von Toskana, ihr Briefwechsel (2 vols., 1872); Briefe der Kaiserin Maria Theresa an ihre Kinder and Freunde (4 vols., 1881); Marie Antoinette: Correspondance secrete entre Marie-Therese et le comte de Mercy-Argenteau (3 vols., Paris, 1875), in collaboration with Auguste Geffroy; Graf Philipp Cobenzl and seine Memoiren (1885); Correspondance secrete du comte de Mercy-Argenteau avec l'empereur Joseph II.
And Marie Antoinette, was born at Versailles on the 27th of March 1785, was christened the same day Louis Charles, and given the title of duke of Normandy.
Barbey, A Friend of Marie Antoinette (Eng.
Leloir, Mirabeau a Pontarlier (1886); Ferdinand Schwartz, Mirabeau and Marie Antoinette (Basel, 1891); and Alfred Mezieres, Vie de Mirabeau (1892).
By the execution of the king and the removal of Marie Antoinette to the Conciergerie, Madame Elizabeth was deprived of her companions in the Temple prison, and on the 9th of May 1 794 she was herself transferred to the Conciergerie, and haled before the revolutionary tribunal.
She was the eldest child of Claude of Guise and Antoinette of Bourbon, and married in 1534 Louis II.
His father's death in 1765 made him heir to the throne, and in 1770 he was married to Marie Antoinette, daughter of the empress Maria Theresa.
Marie Antoinette then obtained that ascendancy over her husband which was partly responsible for the extravagance of the ministry of Calonne, and brought on the Revolution by the resulting financial embarrassment.'
The declaration of war against the emperor Francis II., nephew of Marie Antoinette, was forced upon the king by those who wished to discredit him by failure, or to compel him to declare himself openly an enemy to the Revolution.
The "orphan of the Temple," as the princess was called, was in prison for three years, ' The responsibility of Marie Antoinette for the policy of the king before and during the Revolution has been the subject of much controversy.
Marie Antoinette warmly patronized him.
After having vainly tried to place the necklace outside of France, the jewellers attempted again in 1781 to sell it to Marie Antoinette after the birth of the dauphin.
At that time there was a personage at the court whom Marie Antoinette particularly detested.
It was the cardinal Louis de Rohan, formerly ambassador at Vienna, whence he had been recalled in 1774, having incurred the queen's displeasure by revealing to the empress Maria Theresa the frivolous actions of her daughter, a disclosure which brought a maternal reprimand, and for having spoken lightly of Maria Theresa in a letter of which Marie Antoinette learned the contents.
The tone of the letters became very warm, and the cardinal, convinced that Marie Antoinette was in love with him, became ardently enamoured of her.
Later a certain Marie Lejay (renamed by the comtesse "Baronne Gay d'Oliva," the last word being apparently an anagram of Valoi), who resembled Marie Antoinette, stated that she had been engaged to play the role of queen in this comedy.
Enriched by these, the countess was able to take an honourable place in society, and many persons believed her relations with Marie Antoinette, of which she boasted openly and unreservedly, to be genuine.
Madame de Lamotte had told the cardinal that Marie Antoinette would make him a sign to indicate her thanks, and Rohan believed that she did make him a sign.
But it is certain that the cardinal, convinced that he was acting for the queen, had engaged the jewellers to thank her; that Boehmer and Bassenge, before the sale, in order to be doubly sure, had sent word to the queen of the negotiations in her name; that Marie Antoinette had allowed the bargain to be concluded, and that after she had received a letter of thanks from Boehmer, she had burned it.
It is generally believed that Marie Antoinette was stainless in the matter, that Rohan was an innocent dupe, and that the Lamottes deceived both for their own ends.
Tourneux, Marie Antoinette devant lhistoire: Essai bibliographique (2nd ed., Paris, 1901); Emile Campardon, MarieAntoinette et le procks du collier (Paris, 1863); P. Audebert, L'A$aire du collier de la reine, d'apres la correspondance inedite du chevalier de Pujol (Rouen, 1901); F.
D'Albini, Marie Antoinette and the Diamond Necklace from another Point of View (London, 1900); Funck-Brentano, L'Affaire du collier (1903); A.
The queen, Marie Antoinette, was especially attracted by the grace and wit of le beau Fersen, who had inherited his full share of the striking handsomeness which was hereditary in the family.
Linguet received the support of Marie Antoinette; his fame at the time surpassed that of his rival Beaumarchais, and almost excelled that of Voltaire.
Among its most celebrated victims may be mentioned Marie Antoinette, the Hebertists, the Dantonists and several of the Girondists.
MARIE ANTOINETTE (1755-1793), queen of France, ninth child of Maria Theresa and the emperor Francis I., was born at Vienna, on the 2nd of November 1755.
Marie Antoinette soon won the affection and confidence of the dauphin and endeared herself to the king, but her position was precarious, and both Mercy and Maria Theresa had continually to urge her to conquer her violent dislike for the favourite and try to conciliate her.
But her first steps brought Marie Antoinette into open hostility with the anti-Austrian party.
In1785-1786the affair of the Diamond Necklace 1 See Arneth, Marie Antoinette, Joseph II.
The Instructions donnees a la marquise de Tourzel, governess of the children of France, dated the 24th of July, 1789, in la Rocheterie and Beaucourt, Lettres de Marie Antoinette, ii.
The year 1789 was one of disaster for Marie Antoinette; on the 10th of March her brother Joseph II.
During all these events and the captivity in the Temple Marie Antoinette showed an unvarying courage and dignity, in spite of her failing health and the illness of her son.
(2) Is Marie Antoinette of Austria, the widow Capet, convicted of having co-operated in these manoeuvres and maintained these communications ?
(4) Is Marie Antoinette, the widow Capet, convicted of having participated in this plot and conspiracy ?
The jury decided unanimously in the affirmative, and on the 16th of October 1793 Marie Antoinette was led to the guillotine, leaving behind her a touching letter to Madame Elizabeth, known as her "Testament."
Belloc,Marie-Antoinette, pp. 311-312, states that clause of Brunswick's manifesto was "drafted" by Marie Antoinette, i.e.
Tourneux, Marie Antoinette devant l'histoire.
The most important material for her life is to be found in her letters and in the correspondence of Mercy-Argenteau, but a large number of forgeries have found their way into certain of the collections, such as those of Paul Vogt d'Hunolstein (Correspondance inedite de Marie Antoinette, (3rd ed., Paris, 1864), and F.
Feuillet des Conches Louis X VI., Marie Antoinette et Madame Elisabeth, lettres et documents inedits (6 vols., Paris, 1864-1873), while most of the works on Marie Antoinette published before the appearance of Arneth's publications (1865, &c.) are based partly on these forgeries.
Von Arneth, Maria Theresia and Marie Antoinette, ihr Briefwechsel 1770-1780(Paris and Vienna, 1865); id., Marie Antoinette, Joseph II.
Et le prince de Kaunitz (2 vols., Paris, 1889-1891); for further letters see Comte de Reiset, Lettres de la reine Marie Antoinette a la landgrave Louise de Hesse-Darmstadt (1865); id.
Lettres inedites de Marie Antoinette et de Marie-Clotilde, reine de Sardaigne (1877).
Tourneux (op. cit.) discusses the authenticity of the memoirs of Tilly, Clery, Lauzun, &c. The chief of these memoirs are: Mme Campan, Memoires sur la vie privee de Marie Antoinette (5th ed., 2 vols., Paris, 1823, Eng.
Weber, Memoires concernant Marie Antoinette (3 vols., London, 1804-1809; Eng.
Antoinette (Paris, 1866); Mme Vigee-Le-Brun, Mes souvenirs (2 vols., Paris, 1867); Memoires de Mme la duchesse de Tourzel, ed.
De Goncourt, Histoire de Marie Antoinette (Paris, 1859); P. de Nolhac, Marie Antoinette, dauphine (Paris, 1897); id.
La Reine Marie Antoinette (8th ed., 1898), which gives good descriptions of Versailles, Trianon, &c.; M.
De la Rocheterie, Histoire de Marie Antoinette (2 vols., Paris, 1890); A.
Bicknell, The Story of Marie Antoinette; R.
Prolss, Konigin Marie Antoinette, Bader aus ihrem Leben (Leipzig, 1894); G.
Campardon, Marie Antoinette a la Conciergerie (1863).
Belloc's Marie Antoinette (London, 1909) is very biassed and sometimes misleading.
He married Antoinette de Louppes (Lopez), descended from a family of Spanish Jews.
On his return he was added to the Committee of Public Safety, which had decreed the arrest en masse of all suspects and the establishment of a revolutionary army, caused the extraordinary criminal tribunal to be named officially "Revolutionary Tribunal" (on the 29th of October 1793), demanded the execution of Marie Antoinette and then attacked Hebert and Danton.
Gave welcome to Marie Antoinette, that Napoleon I.
His demonstration that letters attributed to Marie Antoinette were not genuine roused much interest in France.