Their antiquity and their stagnation are attested by the remains found in their kitchen-middens.
For an account of flagellation in antiquity see S.
We should be as good as the worthies of antiquity, but partly by first knowing how good they were.
While the Tigris never played the same role historically as the Euphrates, numerous remains of antiquity are to be seen along its course.
The origin and antiquity of the episcopal mitre have been the subject of much debate.
Though these institutions borrowed high-sounding titles from antiquity, they wen in reality imitations of the Lombard civic system.
It was like the Olympic torch in antiquity: All it took was one guy carrying the torch to slip in the mud and the entire chain was broken.
Now blood was everywhere in antiquity associated with life, and the biblical passage, Genesis ix.
It contains few remains of antiquity, except of the aqueduct and basin, said to have been made by the architect Eupalinus for the tyrant Theagenes.
Now blood was everywhere in antiquity associated with life, and the biblical passage, Genesis ix.
Its importance is vouched for by the many remains of antiquity which it possesses, of which the most famous is the triumphal arch erected in honour of Trajan by the senate and people of Rome in A.D.
up indeed just such a priest-king of antiquity as the palace-sanctuary of Cnossus itself presupposes.
The leech has been used in medicine from remote antiquity as a moderate blood-letter; and it is still so used, though more rarely than formerly.
12 a for in antiquity was his statues in bronze or gold and ivory.
From the 6th century onwards he was looked upon as one of the chief poets and musicians of antiquity, the inventor or perfecter of the lyre, who by his music and singing was able not only to charm the wild beasts, but even to draw the trees and rocks from their places, and to arrest the rivers in their course.
Assuming that the lower strata were formed at approximately the same rate as the upper, we have an antiquity of from 12,000 to 14,000 years indicated for the first Neolithic settlement on this spot.
These Cretan institutions were much extolled by some writers of antiquity, but receive only qualified praise from the judicious criticisms of Aristotle (Polit.
1 There is, however, no real proof for the traditional antiquity of Deuteronomy.
1 There is, however, no real proof for the traditional antiquity of Deuteronomy.
Amongst Cycads, Zamia is confined to the New World, and amongst Conifers, Araucaria, limited to the southern hemisphere, has scarcely less antiquity; Pinus reaches as far south as Cuba and Nicaragua.
Calicut is of considerable antiquity; and about the 7th century it had its population largely increased by the immigration of the Moplahs, a fanatical race of Mahommedans from Arabia, who entered enthusiastically into commercial life.
Russia from a remote antiquity, but now navigable only in its lower portion, and the Embach, navigated by steamers to Dorpat (Yuryev).
Trade and other gilds in antiquity held subscription suppers or g pavot, similar to those of the early Corinthian church, usually to support the needs of the poorer members.
EDWARD GIBBON (1737-1794), English historian, was descended, he tells us in his autobiography, from a Kentish family of considerable antiquity; among his remoter ancestors he reckons the lord high treasurer Fiennes, Lord Say and Sele, whom Shakespeare has immortalized in his Henry VI.
of Candia, was regarded with veneration in antiquity as the burial-place of Zeus.
Trade and other gilds in antiquity held subscription suppers or g pavot, similar to those of the early Corinthian church, usually to support the needs of the poorer members.
In 1543, Andreas Vesalius published On the Fabric of the Human Body, which corrected errors from antiquity and advanced the medical sciences.
The antiquity of the town is placed beyond doubt by the Roman bridge across the Esk and the Roman remains found in its vicinity.
Many of them equalled the patricians in wealth and antiquity of descent, and as soon as inter-marriage was allowed they became in all things their social equals.
Apparently even the older accounts of the exodus are not of very great antiquity; according to Jeremiah ii.
The " priestly " traditions of the creation and of the patriarchs mark a very distinct advance upon the earlier narratives, and appear in a further developed form in the still later book of Jubilees, or " Little Genesis," where they are used to demonstrate the pre-Mosaic antiquity of the priestly or Levitical institutions.
An antiquity of 150o years is claimed for the foundation of the monastery, but it is certain that the first person who raised it to importance was the emperor Alexius Comnenus III.
Gold mines were worked in antiquity in the Drin valley, and silver mines in the Mirdite region were known to the Venetians in the middle ages.
recast in accordance with the requirements of the time, with the result that, by the side of usages evidently of very great antiquity, details now appear which were previously unknown or wholly unsuitable.
The use of cranes is of great antiquity, but it is only since the great industrial development of the 19th century, and the introduction of other motive powers than hand labour, that the crane has acquired the important and indispensable position it now occupies.
Under the Empire we hear no more of it, and no traces of antiquity, beyond inscriptions, remain.
The amethyst was used as a gem-stone by the ancient Egyptians, and was largely employed in antiquity for intaglios.
After the revival of learning Plautus was reinstated, and took rank as one of the great dramatists of antiquity; cf.
Such a philosophy makes little serious attempt at constructive work in antiquity; but, upon the first great victories of physical science in modern times, a desire arose to extend the new and wonderfully fruitful method to the ultimate problems of speculation.
It contains few old buildings, though relics of antiquity are often found on the abandoned site of the old city.
The Australian land-surface must be of great antiquity, possibly Jurassic, and its isolation scarcely less ancient.
The material looks like crushed velvet, offering a feeling of antiquity.
El-`Azariyeh is a poor village of about thirty families, with few marks of antiquity; there is no reason to believe that the houses of Mary and Martha and of Simon the Leper, or the sepulchre of Lazarus, still shown by the monks, have any claim to the names they bear.
Its long subjection to Turkey has left little trace of antiquity, and the most striking features in the general view are the minarets of the disused mosques (only four are now in use) and the Mahommedan burying-grounds.
Retaining their original language and preserving the customs and institutions of remote antiquity, they present a distinct type, and differ in many essential particulars from the other nations of the peninsula.
The only relics of classical antiquity are the numerous inscribed altars and bases of statues, as well as architectural fragments, which are found scattered in the courtyards and gardens of the houses in the extensive suburbs which now surround the town, the whole of which were comprised within the limits of the ancient city.
Further evidence of the antiquity of Australian man is to be found in the strict observance of tribal boundaries, which would seem to show that the tribes must have been settled a long time in one place.
Its chief remains of antiquity are a square peel-tower and the cruciform church of St Andrew, of which part of the fabric is of pre-Conquest date, though the building is mainly Early English.
The most celebrated voyage of antiquity undertaken for the express purpose of discovery was that fitted out by the senate of Carthage under the command of Hanno, with the intention of founding new colonies along the west coast of Africa.
From this point downward, and to some extent above this as far as Samawa, the river forms a succession of reedy lagoons of the most hopeless character, the Paludes Chaldaici of antiquity, el Batihat of the Arabs.
Weissenfels is a place of considerable antiquity, and from 1656 till 1746 it was the capital of the small duchy of Saxe-Weissenfels, a branch of the electoral house of Saxony, founded by Augustus, second son of the elector John George I.
3 Of course the Design Argument is well known in antiquity, but not the type of philosophy which stands or falls by that line of " proof."
One of the oldest and most widespread methods of divining the future, both among primitive people and among several of the civilizations of antiquity, was the reading of omens in the signs noted on the liver of the animal offered as a sacrifice to some deity.
Neumayr, while they regard the basin of the Pacific as of great antiquity, believe the Atlantic to date only from the Mesozoic age.
An alphabet of fifty-two letters, some presenting ancient Phoenician and Cretan forms, was found by Hahn in partial use at Elbassan and Tirana; its antiquity, however, has not been established.
Owing to the antiquity of both placentals and marsupials, the arboreal character of the feet of the modern forms of the latter is of little importance.
CAMILLUS and Camilla, in Roman antiquity, originally terms used for freeborn children.
It but remains to call attention to the fact that the earlier view of the liver as the seat of the soul gave way among many ancient nations to the theory which, reflecting the growth of anatomical knowledge, assigned that function to the heart, while, with the further change which led to placing the seat of soul-life in the brain, an attempt was made to partition the various functions of manifestations of personality among the three organs, brain, heart and liver, the intellectual activity being assigned to the first-named; the higher emotions, as love and courage, to the second; while the liver, once the master of the entire domain of soul-life as understood in antiquity, was degraded to serve as the seat of the lower emotions, such as jealousy, anger and the like.
The industries include cotton-spinning, weaving, nail-making and oilworks, and there are frequent markets for cattle and sheep. Lanark is a place of considerable antiquity.
- The salient features of the Australian continent are its compact outline, the absence of navigable rivers communicating with the interior, the absence of active volcanoes or snow-capped mountains, its isolation from other lands, and its antiquity.
Another point agreed upon is that the Australian flora is one of vast antiquity.
This belief appears to be of a more primitive character than the view which places the seat of life in the heart, though we are accustomed to think that the latter was the prevailing view in antiquity.
The very name consul, no less than the Romanizing character of the best architecture of the time, points to the same revival of antiquity.
It is believed by many critics that they were intended for the guidance of Aurelius's son, Commodus (q.v.); at all events they are generally considered as one of the most precious of the legacies of antiquity.
Stratford-on-Avon (Stradforde, Straf f ord, Straffordon-Avon) is a place of great antiquity.
Its extreme richness in number of species (it comprises six-sevenths of the European flora) and the extremely restricted areas of many of them point to a great antiquity.
It precludes the explanation of any common features in the dissevered porciuns of the tropical area of vegetation by lateral communirations, and throws back their origin to the remotest geological antiquity.
To the petty states this meant only a change of masters; they now became part of one of the largest empires of antiquity.
As a scene of human settlement this site is of immense antiquity.
It was from this source that he derived the wisdom which enabled him to give to the Cretans the excellent system of laws and governments that earned for him the reputation of being the greatest legislator of antiquity.
The antiquity of Asiatic history is often exaggerated.
Of no hero of antiquity do we possess so life-like a portrait.
This double identification enabled Cassiodorus to bring the favoured race into line with the peoples of classical antiquity, to interweave with their history stories about Hercules and the Amazons, to make them invade Egypt, to claim for them a share in the wisdom of the semi-mythical Scythian philosopher Zamolxis.
And thus the hasty pamphlet of a half-educated Gothic monk has been forced into prominence, almost into rivalry with the finished productions of the great writers of classical antiquity.
This conjoint valley of the Rion-Kura was in remote antiquity the site of several Greek colonial settlements, later the seat of successive kingdoms of the Georgians, and for centuries it has formed a bulwark against hostile invasions from the south and east.
The office of archdeacon is of great antiquity.
Inscriptions name six gates of the town: and there are considerable remains of antiquity, especially of an amphitheatre and theatre, of a supposed temple, and other edifice'.
The buildings are modern, but some scanty remains of rock-hewn wine presses and a few scattered sarcophagi mark the antiquity of the site.
The cultivation of the pear extends to the remotest antiquity.
Hence the nations of antiquity ascribed to it a divine origin; Brahma in Hindustan, Isis in Egypt, Demeter in Greece, and Ceres in Italy, were its founders.
This " intensive " culture in a more or less developed form was practised by the great nations of antiquity, and little decided advance was made till after the middle ages.
Along with the Babylonians, Egyptians and Romans, the Israelites are classed as one of the great agricultural nations of antiquity.
The grandeur and antiquity of the empire and the vicissitudes through which it passed, their long series of wars and the magnificent monuments erected by their ancient sovereigns, could not fail to leave numerous traces in the memory of so imaginative a people as the Persians.
There is every reason therefore to believe that Firdousi adhered faithfully to these records of antiquity, and that the poem is a perfect storehouse of the genuine traditions of the country.
But he entered into no diplomatic compromises; it was his deepest and most solemn conviction that the sacredoracles of Christendom embraced all the ideals of antiquity.
Africa, was settled in the Aegean area from a remote Neolithic antiquity, but, except in Crete, where insular security was combined with great natural fertility, remained in a savage and unproductive condition until far into the 4th millennium B.C. In Crete, however, it had long been developing a certain civilization, and at a period more or less contemporary with Dynasties XI.
The town is of high antiquity, and is partially surrounded by earthworks probably of British construction.
MANDAEANS, also known as Sabians, Nasoraeans, or St John's Christians,' an Oriental sect of great antiquity, interesting to the theologian as almost the only surviving example of a ' The first of these names (not Mendaeans or Mandaites) is that given by themselves, and means yvcvvTucot, followers of Gnosis (m, , 111e2, from ml.lxn, Hebr.
For our knowledge of their doctrinal system, however, we still depend chiefly upon the sacred books already mentioned, consisting of fragments of very various antiquity derived from an older literature.8 Of these the largest and most important is the Sidra' rabbd (" Great Book"), known also as Ginza - ("Treasure"), consisting of two unequal parts, of which the larger is called yamina (to the right hand) and the smaller s'znala (to the left hand), because of the manner in which they are bound together.
After the determination of a number of cosmopolitan insects that may well have been artificially introduced, there remains a large proportion of endemic species - sometimes referable to distinct genera - which suggest a high antiquity for the truly insular faunas.
The antiquity of the Coleoptera is further shown by the great diversity of larval form and habit that has arisen in the order, and the proof afforded by the hypermetamorphic beetles that the campodeiform preceded the eruciform larva has already been emphasized.
More dimly still visions of what the first bird may have been like could be reasonably entertained; and, passing even to a higher antiquity, the reptilian parent whence all birds have sprung was brought within reach of man's consciousness.
But that these three oldest-known forms of birds should differ so greatly from each other unmistakably points to a great antiquity for the class.
From the 3rd century B.C., and possibly for a longer period, earthenware water-coolers and other pottery have been manufactured in the town, and many of the vessels produced are noteworthy for their beauty of form and antiquity of design.
On the other hand, he came to look upon the Old Testament prophets as approved by their antiquity, sanctity, mystery and prophecies to be interpreters of the truth.
der Ostrakismos, who arrives at the conclusion that ostracism could not have been introduced till after 496 B.C.) to suspect the unanimous evidence of antiquity that Cleisthenes was the inventor of ostracism.
Remains of spiders from the Baltic amber beds of Oligocene age and from nearly coeval fluviatile or lacustrine deposits of North America belong to forms identical with or closely related to existing genera, thus proving the great antiquity of our present spider fauna.
The common use of armorial bearings, and the practice of the tournament, may be Oriental in their origin; the latter has its affinities with the equestrian exercises of the Jerid, and the former, though of prehistoric antiquity, may have received a new impulse from contact with the Arabs.
Generally the ethnic term, Syrians, came to mean in antiquity the Semiti peoples domiciled outside the Mesopotamian and Arabian areas: but neither in pre-Greek nor in Greek times had the word Syria any very precise geographical significance, various lands, which we include under it, retaining their distinctive status, e.g.
A few betray, not more by the antiquity of their language than by their natural and simple tone, traces of an earlier age and a freer national life.
Resolute in recognizing erudition as the chief concern of man, he sighed over the folly of popes and princes, who spent their time in wars and ecclesiastical disputes when they might have been more profitably employed in reviving the lost learning of antiquity.
The men of that nation and of that epoch were bent on creating a new intellectual atmosphere for Europe by means of vital contact with antiquity.
In ancient vase paintings she is frequently met with; and the picture by Timanthes representing Agamemnon hiding his face at her sacrifice was one of the famous works of antiquity (Pliny, Nat.
The honey is still highly prized, as it was in remote antiquity; and a considerable quantity of cheese is manufactured from the milk of the goat.
There are comparatively few traces of antiquity, and the identification of the ancient cities has been disputed.
of the history of the Arabs and other peoples from the remotest antiquity until the author's own times; book iii.
That the origin of the name of these ascetics was unknown in Philo's time goes to prove their antiquity.
The town has no buildings of great antiquity, but the public buildings (1867), in Italian style, are handsome.
Near the village a "wishing well" of ancient fame is seen, and close to it the ruins of a baptistery of extreme antiquity.
The tomb of Tantalus on Mount Sipylus was pointed out in antiquity, and has been in modern times identified by C. F.
There was a tradition in antiquity that the city of Tantalus had been swallowed up in a lake on the mountain; but the legend may, as Ramsay thinks, have been suggested by the vast ravine which yawns beneath the acropolis.
Leake, whom Frazer follows, assumed the Pelasgicum to be a fortified space at the western end of the Acropolis; this view necessitates the assumption that the nine gates were built one within the other, but early antiquity furnishes no instance of such a construction; DOrpfeld believes it to have extended from the grotto of Pan to the sacred precinct of Asclepius.
Athenian art and literature in the 4th century declined but slightly from their former standard; philosophy and oratory reached a standard which was never again equalled in antiquity and may still serve as a model.
No remains of antiquity are to be seen within the city; but at the foot of the hill on the N.
of Orvieto, where many remains of antiquity have been found, on and above the site of the modern Bolsena (q.v.).
With regard to the antiquity of the oat, A.
distant from Llangefni, about 1770, were found human bones of a high antiquity, between Glan Hwfa and Fron, and at Capel, respectively.
But in spite of its fine appearance from the river, the architecture of Benares is not distinguished, nor are its buildings of high antiquity.
Though the Gilgamesh Epic is known to us chiefly from the fragments found in the royal collection of tablets made by Assur-bani-pal, the king of Assyria (668-626 B.C.) 'for his palace at Nineveh, internal evidence points to the high antiquity of at least some portions of it, and the discovery of a fragment of the epic in the older form of the Babylonian script, which can be dated as 2000 B.C., confirms this view.
Accepting the Jewish apocalypses as sacred books of venerable antiquity, they read them eagerly, and transferred their contents bodily to Christianity.
As soon as the march of conquest had reached its natural limit, slavery began to be modified; and when the empire was divided into the several states which had grown up under it, and the system of defence characteristic of the middle ages was substituted for the aggressive system of antiquity, slavery gradually disappeared, and was replaced by serfdom.
The making of the new foreshore led to the dredging up of remains of the Patriarchal Church; and the foundations of modern buildings are seldom laid without some objects of antiquity being discovered.
The second half of the 15th century was destined to be the age of academies in Italy, and the regnant passion for antiquity satisfied itself with any imitation, however grotesque, of Greek or Roman institutions.
As a scholar, he failed to recognize the distinctions between different periods of antiquity and various schools of thought.
The whole of antiquity seemed precious in the eyes of its discoverers; and even a thinker so acute as Pico di Mirandola dreamed of the possibility of extracting the essence of philosophical truth by indiscriminate collation of the most divergent doctrines.
He could not separate his philosophical from his astrological studies, and caught eagerly at any fragment of antiquity which seemed to support his cherished delusions.
Ficino differed from the majority of his contemporaries in this that, while he felt the influence of antiquity no less strongly than they did, he never lost his faith in Christianity, or contaminated his morals by contact with paganism.
Zoroaster was already famous in classical antiquity as the founder of the widely renowned wisdom of the Magi.
The picture of the Blessed Virgin and Child, which De Rossi ascribed to the 2nd, if not to the 1st century, has received an unexpected proof of its antiquity.
The Pythagorean theory of numbers, Neoplatonic ideas of emanation, the Logos, the personified Wisdom, Gnosticism - these and many other features combine to show the antiquity of tendencies which, clad in other shapes, are already found in the old pre-Christian Oriental religions.
That eminent scholars both in the synagogue and in the church should have been induced to believe in its antiquity is owing to the fact that the Zohar embodies many older opinions and doctrines, and the undoubted antiquity of some of them has served as a lever in the minds of these scholars to raise the late speculations about the En Soph, the Sephiroth, &c., to the same age.
This is perhaps the most satisfactory comparison, for besides the Greco-Roman remains there is an extensive subterranean city of unknown date, which may be of great antiquity, though even this is still sub judice.
These boats have been employed from the remotest antiquity through all this region, and are often depicted on the old Assyrian monuments.
to the north-east, was famous in antiquity for its figs and fuller's earth (KL,ucwXia yi), and contained a considerable city, the remains of which cover the cliff of St Andrews.
The oldest portion of the city is that which lies Boundary of Hamburg ' shown Thus:- ....._--- - - to the east.of the Alster; but, though it still retains the name of Altstadt, nearly all trace of its antiquity has disappeared, as it was rebuilt after the great fire of 1842.
Only scanty relics of antiquity have been found here; a post station was placed here by Pius VI.
It has been cultivated and much prized throughout most of these regions from the remotest antiquity.
Brechin is a prosperous town, of great antiquity, having been the site of a Culdee abbey.
The form of the name Hadrumetum varied much in antiquity; the Greeks called it ASpbµns, 'ASpbµnros, 'ASpa o rns, ASpaµn-ros: the Romans Adrumetum, Adrimetum, Hadrumetum, Hadrymetum, &c.; inscriptions and coins gave Hadrumetum.
Of these Henley Royal Regatta is pre-eminent by the number and importance of the entries, and by its comparative antiquity.
This pigment is of great antiquity; Theophrastus called it kibOhov, and prepared it by acting on lead with vinegar, and Pliny, who called it cerussa, obtained it by dissolving lead in vinegar and evaporating to dryness.
One of his dissertations was a defence of the antiquity and divine authority of the vowel-points in Hebrew.
In spite of his doctrinal writings - which at the time made no little noise, so that his Compendium of Dogmatic (1760) was confiscated in Sweden, and the knighthood of the North Star was afterwards given him in reparation - it was the natural side of the Bible that really attracted him, and no man did more to introduce the modern method of studying Hebrew antiquity as an integral part of ancient Eastern life.
A long tour in Italy in 1828 was the beginning of his intimacy with Bunsen and did much to develop his knowledge of art and love of antiquity.
To reconcile their late appearance with their claims to primitive antiquity the alleged author is represented as " shutting up and sealing " (Dan.
His travels had convinced him that a full and comprehensive knowledge of classical antiquity could only be acquired by a thorough acquaintance with Greek and Roman monuments and works of art, and a detailed examination of the topographical and climatic conditions of the chief localities of the ancient world.
It rests on the old theory of the antiquity of the Levitical legislation, so that in fact all who place that legislation later than Ezekiel are agreed that the book of Joel is also late.
In any case, the antiquity of the town is undisputed, and it served as the seat of government for Ystrad Tywi until the year 877, when Prince Cadell of South Wales abandoned Carmarthen for Dinefawr, near Llandilo, probably on account of the maritime raids of the Danes and Saxons.
Its healthy situation was famous in antiquity, and to this was ascribed its superiority in athletics; it was the seat also of a medical school which in the days of Herodotus was considered the first in Greece.
A German or Austrian count may be a wealthy noble of princely rank, a member of the Prussian or Austrian Upper House, or he may be the penniless cadet of a family of no great rank or antiquity.
The style Altgraf (old count), occasionally found, is of some antiquity, and means that the title of count has been borne by the family from time immemorial.
designed by Bernardo Rossellino, and now the Banca d'Italia; the enormous block of the Monte de' Paschi, a bank of considerable wealth and antiquity, enlarged and partly rebuilt in the original style between 1877 and 1881, the old Dogana and Salimbeni palaces; the Palazzo Spannochi, a fine early Renaissance building by Giuliano da Maiano (now the post office); the Loggia di Mercanzia (15th century), now a club, imitating the Loggia dei Lanzi at Florence, with sculptures of the 15th century; the Loggia del Papa, erected by Pius II.; and other fine buildings.
They appealed not to the school divines, but to Scripture and primitive antiquity.
Besancon is a place of great antiquity.
- General conceptions with regard to the relations of living things (especially animals) to the universe, to man, and to the Creator, their origin and significance: exemplified in the writings of the philosophers of classical antiquity, and of Linnaeus, Goethe, Lamarck, Cuvier, Lyell, H.
The notion of a scala naturae, which had since the days of classical antiquity been a part of the general philosophy of nature amongst those who occupied themselves with such conceptions, now took a more definite form in the minds of skilled zoologists.
They were dedicated to solar deities, and were especially numerous at Heliopolis, where there was probably a single one sacred to the sun of immemorial antiquity.
His own family was of great antiquity, his ancestors having been hereditary ministerials of the bishop of Worms since the time of Ekbert the chamberlain, who founded in i 119 the Augustinian monastery of Frankenthal and died in 1132.
Earlier titles are Concerning the Antiquity of the Jews or Against the Greeks.
But against this explanation of the heading ry;p' 2 there is an almost insuperable objection; for, since both the first and second books contain psalms with this heading, it is clear that the " Chief Musician's - or Director's - Psalter " must have been in existence before either of these books; in which case, apart from the difficulty of the antiquity which we should be compelled to assign to this earliest Psalter, it is impossible to understand on what principle the first book of Psalms was formed.
The formation of the rainbow in the heavens after or during a shower must have attracted the attention of man in remote antiquity.
Stubbs was a High Churchman whose doctrines and practice were grounded on learning and a veneration for antiquity.
The silence of the extant fragments, which have not one word about the unity of Being, favours the one view; the voice of antiquity, which proclaims Xenophanes the founder of Eleaticism, has been thought to favour the other.
Ranking as a papal cathedral, this became a much-favoured place of assembly for ecclesiastical councils both in antiquity (313, 487) and more especially during the middle ages.
No medical writing of antiquity speaks of the worship of Asclepius in such a way as to XVIII.
In the fourth place, these views of the "natural history of disease" (in modern language) led to habits of minute observation and accurate interpretation of symptoms, in which the Hippocratic school was unrivalled in antiquity, and has been the model for all succeeding ages, so that even in these days, with our enormous advances in knowledge, the true method of clinical medicine may be said to be the method of Hippocrates.
By the general voice of the medical world of antiquity he was placed only second to Hippocrates.
The Erasistrateans paved the way for what was in some respects the most important school which Alexandria produced, that known as the empiric, which, though it recognized no master by name, may be considered to have been founded by Philinus of Cos (280 B.C.), a pupil of Herophilus; but Serapion, a great name in antiquity, and Glaucias of Tarentum, who traced the empirical doctrine back to the writings of Hippocrates, are also named among its founders.
The work on diseases of women is the only complete work on that subject which has come down to us from antiquity, and shows remarkable fullness of practical knowledge in relation to its subject.
The popularity of the story of Jason and Medea in antiquity is shown by the large amount of literature on the subject.
The Ramayana and Mahabharata afford evidence of the employment of incense by the Hindus, in the worship of the gods and the burning of the dead, from the remotest antiquity.
Having regard to the destruction of visible evidences of antiquity in London, both through accidental agencies such as the great fire, and through inevitable modernizing influences, it is well that historical associations in nomenclature are preserved in a great measure unimpaired.
Although some of the parishes must be of great antiquity, we have little authentic information respecting them before the Conquest.
The royal processions arranged in connexion with coronations were of great antiquity, but one of the earliest to be described is that of Henry III.
The lord mayor of London has certain very remarkable privileges which have been religiously guarded and must be of great antiquity.
Such roads in England for the most part either are of immemorial antiquity or have been created under the authority of an act of parliament.
East of Adalia is the Cestrus, and beyond that again the Eurymedon, both of which were considerable streams, navigable in antiquity for some little distance from the sea.
The district was a glass-making centre in Roman times, and it is probable that the Romans inherited and perfected an indigenous industry of remote antiquity.
We have, however, very little knowledge of Indian glass of any considerable antiquity.
The writers of antiquity clearly recognized this fact, speaking of the whole under the general name of Assyria, though Babylonia, as will be seen, would have been a more accurate designation.
The zodiac was a Babylonian invention of great antiquity; and eclipses of the sun as well as of the moon could be foretold.
15 Obviously the scribes of Nabonidus were not anxious to diminish the antiquity of the foundation-inscription of Naram-Sin, which their royal master had unearthed;.
Several of the Florence hospitals are of great antiquity, the most important being that of Santa Maria Nuova, which, founded by Folco Portinari, the father of Dante's Beatrice, has been thoroughly renovated according to modern scientific principles.
Its native country is unknown, but it probably originated in India or some parts of eastern tropical Asia where it has been cultivated from great antiquity and whence its cultivation spread westwards and eastwards.
The best of these is the town hall, otherwise known as the basilica, one of the finest works of the Renaissance period, of which Palladio himself said that it might stand comparison with any similar work of antiquity.
- We read in antiquity, e.g.
Pahlavi inscriptions' found on crosses at St Thomas's Mount near Madras and at Kottayam in Travancore, are evidence both of the antiquity of Christianity in these places (7th or 8th century), and for the semi-patripassianism (the apparent identification of all three persons of the Trinity in the sufferer on the cross) which marked the Nestorian teaching.
Taking up the idea of a divine education of the human race, which Lessing and Herder had made so familiar to the modern mind, and firmly believing that to each of the leading nations of antiquity a special task had been providentially assigned, Ewald felt no difficulty about Israel's place in universal history, or about the problem which that race had been called upon to solve.
Here Krishna and his brother Balarama fed their cattle upon the plain; and numerous relics of antiquity in the towns of Muttra, Gobardhan, Gokul, Mahaban and Brindaban still attest the sanctity with which this holy tract was invested.
It occupies a site of great antiquity, as the cuneiform inscriptions on the neighbouring rocks testify; it stands on the site of the old Armenian town of Pakovan.
It contains two churches and a monastery, the Kasa Kilissa, famous for its antiquity and architectural grandeur.
It is a place of great antiquity, its first charter having been granted by Malcolm IV.
22), Draco ordered the inhabitants of Attica to honour the gods and heroes of their country "in accordance with the usage of their fathers " with offerings of first fruits and sacrificial cakes every year, thereby clearly pointing to a custom of high antiquity.
The brine springs of Reichenhall are mentioned in a document of the 8th century and were perhaps known to the Romans; but almost all trace of antiquity of the town was destroyed by a conflagration in 1834.
But another route, the importance of which in antiquity may be judged of from Isa.
It has been practised to some extent in China and Korea, but there is no evidence of its antiquity in these countries.
Its name (cathair, stone fortress) implies a high antiquity and the site of the castle, picturesquely placed on an island in the river, was occupied from very early times.
The numerous earthquakes from which the city had suffered, notably that in 1783, had left it few remains of antiquity.
For that work the Augustan age, as the end of one great cycle of events and the beginning of another, was eminently suited, and a writer who, by his gifts of imagination and sympathy, was perhaps better fitted than any other man of antiquity for the task, and who through the whole of this period lived a life of literary leisure, was found to do justice to the subject.
We know him in the intense liveliness of his feeling and the human weakness of his nature more intimately than any other writer of antiquity, except perhaps Cicero.
But no important writer of antiquity has less literary charm than Persius.
The reaction was shortlived; but the same affectation of antiquity is seen in the writings of Apuleius, also an African, who lived a little later than Fronto and was a man of much greater natural parts.
Perhaps also the Oath may be accepted as genuine; its comparative antiquity is not denied.
There are remains of prehistoric occupation, but we do not even know what races dwelt there in the historical period of antiquity.
The gardens and palace of Alcinous and the wonderful ships of the Phaeacian mariners were famous in antiquity.
In 344, or one of the following years, the Macedonian arms were carried across Epirus to the Adriatic. In 342 Philip led a great expedition north "comparable to nothing in antiquity since Darius' famous march to Scythia."
Both the fractions into which they were divided by the Nerbudda river laid claim to antiquity: while the northern, however, did not trace their origin further back than the period of the early Mahommedan kings of Delhi, the southern fraction not only claimed an earlier and purer descent, but adhered also with greater strictness to the rules of their profession.
The antiquity of Marlborough is shown by the Castle Mound, a British earthwork, which local legend makes the grave of Merlin; and the name of Marlborough has been regarded as a corrupt form of Merlin's Berg or Rock.
The " parting " of gold and silver is of considerable antiquity.
Parting by nitric acid is of considerable antiquity, being mentioned by Albertus Magnus (13th cent.), Biringuccio (1540) and Agricola (1556).
The town, the name of which is usually derived from Dhara Nagari (the city of sword blades), is of great antiquity, and was made the capital of the Paramara chiefs of Malwa by Vairisinha II., who transferred his headquarters hither from Ujjain at the close of the 9th century.
There can be no doubt that the greater part of his attention was directed to the perusal of classical authors, and to the attempt to realize the true spirit of classical antiquity.
Herder is especially eulogistic. In the Adrastea he pronounces the Moralists to be a composition in form well-nigh worthy of Grecian antiquity, and in its contents almost superior to it.
El Obeid, which appears to be a place of considerable antiquity and the ancient capital of the country, was garrisoned by the Egyptians on their conquest of Kordofan in 1821.
In antiquity it was a common ceremony to arrange a holy marriage between male and female images, and such unions acted on the earth as a fertility charm.
No doubt the evidence as to the age of the earth and as to the antiquity of man was gathered by a class of workers not formally included in the ranks of the archaeologist: workers commonly spoken of as palaeontologists, anthropologists, ethnologists and the like.
The scope of the archaeologist's studies must include every department of the ancient history of man as preserved in antiquities of whatever character, be they tumuli along the Baltic, fossil skulls and graven bones from the caves of France, the flint implements, pottery, and mummies of Egypt, tablets and bas-reliefs from Mesopotamia, coins and sculptures of Greece and Rome, or inscriptions, waxen tablets, parchment rolls, and papyri of a relatively late period of classical antiquity.
Lyell again was in the forefront of the progressive movement, and his work on The Antiquity of Man, published in 1863, gave currency for the first time to the new opinions.
Looking back even at the short remove of a single generation, it is difficult to appreciate how revolutionary was the conception of the antiquity of man thus inculcated.
Yet the present generation accepts the antiquity of man as a mere matter of fact.
A comparatively few pages summed up, in language often vague and mystical, all that the modern world had been permitted to remember of the history of the greatest nations of antiquity.
As the forgotten history of Oriental antiquity has been restored to us, it has come to be understood that, politically speaking, the Hebrews were a relatively insignificant people, whose chief importance from the standpoint of material history was derived from the geographical accident that made them a sort of buffer between the greater nations about them.
Even conservative students of the Bible urge that its historical passages must be viewed precisely in the light of any other historical writings of antiquity; and the fact that the oldest Hebrew manuscript dates only from the 8th century A.D., and therefore of necessity brings to us the message of antiquity through the fallible medium of many generations of copyists, is far more clearly kept in mind than it formerly was.
Here no such ology and revolution has been effected as that which virtually classical created anew the history of Oriental antiquity; yet history.
Some most archaic inscriptions have been indeed found by the explorers in Crete, but these for the present serve scarcely any other purpose than to prove the antiquity of the art of writing among a people who were closely in touch with the inhabitants of Hellas proper.
We have seen that Oriental archaeology has in recent generations revolutionized our conceptions of the antiquity of civilization.
The point is of no very great significance, however, since no one has pretended that the Western civilization compared with the Eastern in point of antiquity; and in any event, no amount of negative evidence weighs a grain in the balance against the positive evidence of the Cretan inscriptions.
The researches of the archaeologist are, in short, tending to reconstruct the primitive classical history; and here, as in the Orient, it is evident that historians of the earlier day were constantly blinded by a misconception as to the antiquity of civilization.
Their origin, lost in the dimness of remote antiquity, was invested by priestly legends with a sacred character.
Unfortunately, before these archives could be removed, the galleries containing them were rifled by the Arabs, and large numbers of the tablets were sold to antiquity dealers, by whom they have been scattered all over Europe and America.
The origin of Herat is lost in antiquity.
These conclusions were hotly contested by Johannes Buxtorf, being in conflict with the views of his father, Johannes Buxtorf senior, notwithstanding the fact that Elias Levita had already disputed the antiquity of the vowel points and that neither Jerome nor the Talmud shows any acquaintance with them.
The letters to Vettori paint a man of vigorous intellect and feverish activity, dividing his time between studies and vulgar dissipations, seeking at one time distraction in low intrigues and wanton company, at another turning to the great minds of antiquity for solace.
The tale bears marks of high antiquity, and presents one of the few incidents in the French cycle which may be referred to a mythic origin.
Where the ocean touches the continents the margin is in places deeply indented by peninsulas and islands marking off portions of the water surface which from all antiquity have been known as " seas."
- The hand-lead attached to a line with samples of the deposits, and also observations of temperature divided into fathoms was a well-known aid to navigation even and salinity in different depths, as well as dredgings for the in high antiquity, and its use is mentioned in Herodotus (ii.
Although observations on marine currents were made near land or between islands even in antiquity, accurate observations on the high seas have only been possible since chronometers furnished a practicable method of determining longitude, i.e.
Two great battles were fought on this site in antiquity.
Leaving this it expands into the Lake of Horns, having been dammed back in antiquity.
Though he frequently refers to the envy and detraction which pursued him, Phaedrus seems to have attracted little attention in antiquity.
A fine Saracenic khan is the principal relic of antiquity at `Esdud.
Oude Trecht or Old Ford, rendered in Latin documents Vetus Trajectum) is a city of great antiquity and much historic interest, especially as illustrating the growth of civic liberties during the middle ages.
Konigsberg does not retain many marks of antiquity.
It was in the monasteries that the writings of Latin antiquity, both classical and ecclesiastical, were transcribed and preserved.
Elsewhere in the United States fossilized bones, crania of a low order, association of human remains with those of fossil animals are not necessarily evidence of vast antiquity.
Hatcher believes that "there is no good evidence in favour of a great antiquity for man in Patagonia."
Ameghino argues that this creature is still living, while Dr Moreno advances the theory that the animal has been extinct for a long period, and that it was domesticated by a people of great antiquity, who dwelt there prior to the Indians.
Adoration is permitted, and the use of the terms "sacrifice" and "altar" maintained as being consonant with scripture and antiquity.
Though a place of considerable antiquity - being mentioned in 1086 as the meeting-place of insurgents against Knud, the saint - Randers has few remains of old buildings and bears the stamp of a compact, modern manufacturing town that owes its importance to its distilleries, manufactories of gloves, railway carriages, &c. St Marten's church dates from the 14th century, but was frequently altered and enlarged down to 1870.
Subjects and treatment alike are inspired by the passing fashion of an age which had deceived itself into believing that it was living and moving in the spirit of classical antiquity.
The predominant voice of antiquity tells us that he died at Thurii, where his tomb was shown in later ages.
The so-called Donation of Constantine was long ago shown to be spurious, but the document is of very considerable antiquity and, in Dellinger's opinion, was forged in Rome between 752 and 777.
Berber, or El Mekerif, is a town of considerable antiquity.
Tunis is probably of greater antiquity than Carthage, of which city however it became a dependency, being repeatedly mentioned in the history of the Punic Wars.
He was not, like Schultens, deceived by the pretended antiquity of the Yemenite Kasidas.
As regards their antiquity, the attempts to claim for them an earlier origin than the end of the 12th century can no longer be sustained.
They rested upon the supposed antiquity of a body of Waldensian literature, which modern criticism has shown to have been tampered with.
The custom by which the consuls and praetors or dictators sacrificed on the Alban Mount and at Lavinium to the Penates and to Vesta, before they entered upon office or departed for their province, seems to have been one of great antiquity.
On the former there are now no traces of antiquity, but on the latter are scanty remains of the city walls, in small blocks of the grey-green tufa (cappellaccio) which is used in the earliest buildings of Rome, and traces of the streets.
Hooker the vegetation of Kerguelen Island is of great antiquity; and may have originally reached it from the American continent; it has no affinities with Africa.
The last variety is both the most ancient and the most commonly found, and is the sacred barley of antiquity, ears of which are frequently represented plaited in the hair of the goddess Ceres, besides being figured on ancient coins.
His subsequent works were dissertations on the origin of alphabetical writing (Die Erfindung der Buchstabenschrift, 1801), on the antiquity of the Codex Vaticanus (1810), and on ancient mythology (Ober den Mythos der alten Volker, 1812); a new interpretation of the Song of Solomon (Das hohe Lied in einer noch unversuchten Deutung, 1813), to the effect that the lover represents King Hezekiah, while by his beloved is intended the remnant left in Israel after the deportation of the ten tribes; and treatises on the indissoluble character of the matrimonial bond (De conjugii christiani vinculo indissolubili commentatio exegetica, 1816) and on the Alexandrian version of the Pentateuch (1818).
It is of considerable antiquity, and received a grant for a market and fair in the 7th year of Edward III.
The cultivation of the vine in Saxony is respectable for its antiquity, though the yield is insignificant.
The relative antiquity of the earlier settlements of the Stone and Bronze ages is not capable of being deduced from existing evidence.
The custom of giving the stole to priests and deacons at their ordination is of great antiquity.
51) states that the Athenians borrowed this type from the Pelasgians, thus testifying to the great antiquity of the phallic Hermes.
superior authority as compared with them, may be traced even in antiquity.
the papacy in the universal Church; while political Catholicism had its beginnings in antiquity and found very definite expression, for instance, in the bull Unam sanctam of Boniface VIII.
Bernburg is of great antiquity.
Though no doubt of great antiquity, nothing is known of its history before the imperial period; and none of the remains visible there (city walls, various buildings within them, an amphitheatre, &c.), from which it seems to have been a place of some importance, can be attributed to an earlier date.
We owe to its realization by them the constitution and nomenclature of the twelve signs of the zodiac. Assyrian cylinders and inscriptions indicate for the familiar series of our text-books an antiquity of some four thousand years.
Positive proof of the high antiquity of the Hindu lunar zodiac is nevertheless afforded by the undoubted fact that the primitive series opened with Krittika (the Pleiades) as the sign of the vernal equinox.
The mean place of the moon in them, published in all Hindu almanacs, is found to serve unexceptionally the ends of astral vaticination.6 The system upon which it is founded is of great antiquity.
All that is certainly known about the antiquity of the sieu is that they were well established in the 3rd century B.C. Their initial point at the autumnal equinox marked by Kio (Spica Virginis) suits a still later date; and there is no valid evidence that the modern series resulted from the rectification of an older superannuated arrangement, analogous to the Krittika sequence of nakshatras.
In Church Street is the ancient parish church of St Mary, largely restored, but still bearing the stamp of antiquity; opposite to it stands a new church in Decorated style by Sir Gilbert Scott.
As this building was almost destroyed by Villeroi's bombardment it possesses no claim to antiquity, indeed the existing building was only completed in 1877.
candidum, the Xdpiov of the Greeks, was one of the commonest garden flowers of antiquity, appearing in the poets from Homer downwards side by side with the rose and the violet.
He did not make a study apart of antiquity for its own sake, but used it as an instrument of culture.
In the prestige of antiquity and religious renown, Calah was inferior to the older capital, Assur, while in population and general importance it was much inferior to the neighbouring Nineveh.
This return to the ideals of antiquity did not remain confined to Italy, but the humanism of the northern countries presents no close parallel to the Italian renaissance.
In this rapid glance at some of the chief priesthoods of antiquity we have hitherto passed over the pure Semites, whose priesthoods call for closer examination because of the profound influence which one of them - that of the Jews - has exercised on Christianity, and so on the whole history of the modern world.
(especially as sacrifice in antiquity is a common preliminary to the consultation of an oracle), but the public ritual will still remain closely associated with oracle or divination, and the priest will still be, above all things, a revealer.
The same conditions have produced similar spiritual aristocracies again and again in the East in more modern times, and even in antiquity more than one Oriental priesthood took a line of development similar to that which we have traced in Judaea.
Universal doubt Ancient was the instrument which the sceptics of antiquity recommended for the attainment of complete peace of mind.
It may be doubted whether the thoroughgoing philosophical scepticism of antiquity has any exact parallel in modern times, with the single exception possibly of Hume's Treatise on Human Nature.
Besides its gold mines, the wine, nuts and marble of Thasos were well known in antiquity.
For a description of the island and its remains of antiquity, see A.
At the foot of the grey limestone mass of Mount Mitzekeli (1500 ft.), which forms part of the fine range of hills running north from the Gulf of Arta, there lies a valley (the Hellopia of antiquity) partly occupied by a lake; and the city is built on the slopes of a slight eminence, stretching down to the western shore.
The lake of Iannina (perhaps to be identified with the Pambotus or Pambotis of antiquity) is 6 m.
Pop. (1900) 9957ï¿½ It is a place of considerable antiquity, having been the seat of an independent lordship before the 14th century.
The most famous relic of antiquity is the "Niobe of Sipylus" (Suratlu Task) on the lowest slopes of the mountain about 4 m.
Driffield is of high antiquity, and numerous tumuli are seen in the vicinity, while there is an excellent private antiquarian museum in the town.
The greatest philologist of antiquity was, however, his successor, Aristophanes of Byzantium (195), who reduced accentuation and punctuation to a definite system, and used a variety of critical symbols in his recension of the Iliad and Odyssey.
Baza is the Roman Bashi, the medieval Basta or Bastiana; and numerous relics of antiquity, both Roman and medieval, have been found in the neighbourhood.
It possesses few remains of antiquity.
The popular idea that this canon was closed by Ezra has no foundation in antiquity.
But it rests upon no authority in antiquity whatever.
The legislation of " P," though written down in or after the exile, must not, however, be supposed to be the creation of that period; many elements in it can be shown from the older literature to have been of great antiquity in Israel; it is, in fact, based upon preexilic Temple usage, though in some respects it is a development of it, and exhibits the form which the older and simpler ceremonial institutions of Israel ultimately assumed.
The evidence for r Peter is both early in date and wide in range, and the book was one of those that passed as " acknowledged " in antiquity.
1 with a one-year ministry, and even to treat Tiberius 15 as an unintelligent repetition from St Luke - though the omission to allow a single year for the ministry would be so strange as to be almost unintelligible - but the date by the consuls has an independent look about it, and of its extreme antiquity the evidence gives two indications: (i.) Hippolytus's Commentary on Daniel (now generally dated c. A.D.
The seer, in the sense in which all antiquity believed in seers, is simply a man who sees what others cannot see, no matter whether the thing seen be of public or of mere private interest; but the prophet is an organ of Yahweh's kingship over His people - he sees and tells so much of the secret purpose of Yahweh as is needful for His people to know.
arose among other nations of antiquity whose precepts may well be compared with those of Hebrew prophecy.
Asmara, an Amharic word signifying "good pasture place," is a town of considerable antiquity.
But, from the religious and moral point of view, it must be admitted that the ethical " mood " which Neoplatonism endeavoured to create and maintain is the highest and purest ever reached by antiquity.
This has obscured the fact that the inner history of antiquity, ending as it did in despair of this world, must in any event have seen a recurrence of barbarism.
It contemplated a restoration of all the religions of antiquity, by allowing each to retain its traditional forms, and at the same time making each a vehicle for the religious attitude and the religious truth embraced in Neoplatonism; while every form of ritual was to become a stepping-stone to a high morality worthy of mankind.
the books of Plato, along with certain divine oracles, the Orphic poems, and much more which they assigned to a remote antiquity,.
On all the cardinal doctrines - God, matter, the relation of God to the world, freedom and evil - Augustine retained the impress of Neoplatonism; at the same time he is the theologian of antiquity who most clearly perceived and most fully stated wherein Neoplatonism and Christianity differ.
In the department of natural theology and the Christian evidences he ably advocated that method of reconciling the Mosaic narrative with the indefinite antiquity of the globe which William Buckland (1784-1856) advanced in his Bridgewater Treatise, and which Dr Chalmers had previously communicated to him.
In short, Gnosticism, in all its various sections, its form and its character, falls under the great category of mystic religions, which were so characteristic of the religious life of decadent antiquity.
Even the so-called Judaeo-Christian Gnostics (Cerinthus), the Ebionite (Essenian) sect of the PseudoClementine writings (the Elkesaites), take up an inconsistent attitude towards Jewish antiquity and the Old Testament.
The notion that the ruined cities now buried in the Central-American forests were of great antiquity and the work of extinct nations has no solid evidence; some of them may have been already abandoned before the conquest, but others were inhabited by the ancestors of the Indians who now build their mean huts and till their patches of maize round the relics of the grander life of their ancestors.
The explorations made by Dr Lehmann in 1909 in the famous ruins of Teotihuacan, near Mexico city throw new light upon certain chronological problems. Like the excavations made by Dr Max Uhle in Peru, they tend to determine the relative antiquity of the different periods of the ancient civilization.
The town, which is of considerable antiquity, contains some fine buildings, the chief mosque having a conspicuous tower.
SIGYNNAE (I tyinvvai, 21 i'yuvvot), an obscure people of antiquity.
The domestication of the goldfish by the Chinese dates back from the highest antiquity, and they were introduced into Japan at the beginning of the 16th century; but the date of their importation into Europe is still uncertain.
The name is preserved from antiquity and is derived from the Greek XaXKOS (copper, bronze), though there is no trace of any mines in the neighbourhood.
The bas-reliefs with which the walls are adorned are unrivalled in antiquity, for variety of subject, breadth of composition, truth of presentation and artistic treatment.
His sculptures are at the highest range of original and effective delineation in antiquity.
To the ordinary good citizen of antiquity, whose religion was the consecration of family ties, such a precept was no less scandalous than it is to a Chinaman or Hindu of to-day.
As in the case of the process of 6 It is thus manifest that by his first construction Snell gave an approximate solution of two great problems of antiquity.
His critical principles are explained in the preface, where he dwells on the necessity of starting as much as possible from trustworthy contemporary sources, or at least from those nearest to antiquity - the touchstone by which verbal traditions can be tested being contemporary poems. He inclines to rationalism, rejecting the marvellous and recasting legends containing it in a more historical spirit; but he makes an exception in the accounts of the introduction of Christianity into Norway and of the national saint St Olaf.
The word was derived in antiquity from the town of Helos in Laconia, but is more probably connected with 'Aos, a fen, or with the root of AEiv, to capture.
The Geography is the most important work on that science which antiquity has left us.
It is a place of very considerable antiquity, was created a royal burgh by Alexander I., and received its charter from Alexander II.
It is probable that the compiler set down all he could gather of this ancient author, and that his interest in him was chiefly due Co his antiquity.
Wheat has been cultivated from remote antiquity.
On the other hand, no part of Greece is so destitute of interesting remains of antiquity as Euboea.
The readings of X which can be deduced from considering the agreements in B, C, D will be of higher antiquity and of greater external aut l ority than any of the readings in B, C, D taken singly.
LACYDES OF CYRENE, Greek philosopher, was head of the Academy at Athens in succession to Arcesilaus about 241 B.C. Though some regard him as the founder of the New Academy, the testimony of antiquity is that he adhered in general to the theory of Arcesilaus, and, therefore, that he belonged to the Middle Academy.
A voluminous ancient literature testifies not only to the antiquity but also to the importance of Chinese sericulture, and to the care and attention bestowed on it by royal and noble families.
Crooked streets, bordered with low adobe houses, are characteristic of the older part of the city and give an impression of antiquity.
Corfu contains very few and unimportant remains of antiquity.
de Candolle, arguing from its ancient cultivation and the antiquity of the Sanskrit and Hebrew names, regards it as a native of western Asia.
From antiquity men had applied themselves to determine the relations between the physical stimuli and the socalled " quality " of sensations.
Its antiquity is attested by the symbol and formula used in its procedure, the lance (hasta) as the sign of true ownership, the oath or wager (sacramentum), the ancient formula for recovery of property or assertion of liberty.
The town is of great antiquity, and was a residence of the kings of Leinster, the place of whose assemblies is marked by a neighbouring rath or mound.
The area within the walls is a vast expanse of cultivated land, unbroken by any vestige of antiquity; yet the soil is thick with tile and potsherd, and in hot summers the unevenly growing corn reveals the remains of streets beneath the surface.
The nature of the distinction between the gesi&und and ceorlisc classes is nowhere clearly explained; but it was certainly hereditary and probably of considerable antiquity.
How much older they may have been we have no means of determining, but our authorities agree in assigning to them a dateless antiquity.
After this the notices that we have of the Essenes from antiquity are mere reproductions, except in the case of Epiphanius (died A.D.
But as Pythagoras himself came from Samos, and his doctrines have a decidedly Oriental tinge, it may very well be that both he and the Essenes drew from a common source; for there is no need to reject, as is so commonly done, the statements of our authorities as to the antiquity of the Essenes.
We have evidence, both archaeological and linguistic, that the cultivation of cereals in Teutonic lands goes back to a very remote period, while the antiquity even of the ox-plough is attested by the rock-carvings at Tegneby in Bohuslan (Sweden), which are believed to date from early in the bronze age.
The antiquity of the art of writing among the Teutonic peoples is a question which has been much debated.
The columns of Trajan and Antoninus were restored and bedecked with gilded statues of the Apostles; nor was this the only case in which the high-minded pope made the monuments of antiquity subservient to Christian ideas.
As in antiquity so now the potters of the island are known throughout the Archipelago.
Tradition carries back the origin of Eleusis to the highest antiquity.
Certain popular beliefs connected with All Souls' Day are of pagan origin and immemorial antiquity.
The phraseology of that of Sepulveda (1076) in like manner points back to an indefinitely remote antiquity.'
above the sea, is of extreme antiquity (see Num.
The harbours which played so important a part in antiquity are nearly all silted up, and, with the exception of Beirut, afford no safe anchorage for the large vessels of modern times.
Recent discoveries in Crete have brought to light the existence of a Cretan or " Minoan " sea-power of remote antiquity, and it is clear that a great deal of what used to be described as Phoenician must receive quite a different designation.
Where much is still obscure, all that seems certain is that the antiquity of Phoenicia as a sea and trading power has been greatly exaggerated both in ancient and in modern times; the Minoan power of Cnossus preceded it by many centuries; the influence of Phoenicia in the Aegean cannot be carried back much earlier than the 12th century B.C., and, comparatively speaking, it was " foreign, late, sporadic."' A vivid description of the Phoenicians' trade at the time of Tyre's prosperity is given by Ezekiel (xxvii.
Erzerum is a town of great antiquity, and has been identified with the Armenian Garin Kalakh, the Arabic Kalikale, and the Byzantine Theodosiopolis of the 5th century, when it was a frontier fortress of the empire - hence its name Erzen-er-Rum.
The pursuit thus stigmatized as unlawful is one of great antiquity, and one which in ancient and medieval times had an extensive though now almost forgotten literature.
The antiquity of the Ossianic poems was defended in the introduction by Archibald Clerk to his edition of the Poems of Ossian (1870).
and the preservation of many works of classical and ecclesiastical antiquity.
The only notable object of antiquity is a triumphal arch, probably of the early 3rd century, in the S.E.
The town, though of immemorial age, shows no signs of its antiquity, being bright, neat and modern.
The town is of extreme antiquity.
Writings which bore his name were extant in antiquity; but as Aristotle, when he speaks of Thales's doctrine, always depends upon tradition, there can be little doubt that they were forgeries.
Cnidus was a city of high antiquity and probably of Lacedaemonian colonization.
The Roman Tingis, which stood in the immediate vicinity of the site of Tangier, was of great antiquity; under Augustus it became a free city, and when Otho placed the western half of Mauretania under a procurator, he called it Mauretania Tingitana after its capital Tingis.
The festival is of great antiquity; and though there is no discoverable trace of it before the middle of the 4th century, subsequent references to it assume its long establishment.
The first charter, given by Elizabeth in 1562, recognized that Langport was a borough of great antiquity, which had enjoyed considerable privileges, being governed by a portreve.
It is significant that olive and willow should have been chosen for benediction together with, or as substitutes for palm, and that an exorcizing power should have been ascribed to the consecrated branches: they were to heal disease, ward off devils, protect the houses where they were set up against lightning and fire, and the fields where they were planted against hail and storms. But healing power had been ascribed to the olive in pagan antiquity, and in the same way the willow had from time immemorial been credited by the Teutonic peoples with the possession of protective qualities.
Agriculture.-From remote antiquity Poland has been celebrated for the production and export of grain.
For these reasons the story of the foundation of Wessex, though it appears to possess considerable antiquity, must be regarded as open to grave suspicion.
The town is of Slavonian origin and of considerable antiquity, and was a place of importance in the time of Charlemagne.
Many of the large stones of antiquity were probably found in the Kollar group, where Tavernier found 60,000 workers in 1645 (?), the mines having, according to native accounts, been discovered about loo years previously.
India was no doubt the source of all the large stones of antiquity; a stone of 67* carats was found at Wajra Karur in the Chennur group in 1881, and one of 2102 carats at Hira Khund in 1809.
All the famous diamonds of antiquity must have been Indian stones.
He suggests that the other and larger diamond of antiquity which was given to Shah Jahan may be one which is now in the treasury of Teheran, and that this is the true Great Mogul which was confused by Tavernier with the one he saw.
St Isidore appears to be their principal authority; they also draw, directly or indirectly, from Orosius, St Jerome, St Augustine, and probably from a lost map of classical antiquity, represented in a measure by the Peutinger Table of the 13th century.
The temple of Karnak is no doubt of immemorial antiquity.
In antiquity her fame rivalled that of Homer.
How far it was considered a crime among the civilized nations of antiquity has long been debated.
Kalmar, a town of great antiquity, was formerly strongly fortified, and there remains the island-fortress of Kalmarnahus, dating partly from the 12th century, but mainly from the 16th and 17th.
The custom was almost universal in antiquity; for Greece and Rome see Pauly-Wissowa, Realencyclopadie, iv.
In the words of Hallam, "the slow and gradual manner in which parochial churches became independent appears to be of itself a sufficient answer to those who ascribe a great antiquity to the universal payment of tithes."
At Trinity College, Dublin, where he had a distinguished career, he began a lifelong devotion to classical literature and especially to the great orators of antiquity.
These were such as to conduce to its preservation and interest as a relic of antiquity.
Of these by far the most interesting, though the least perfect, is one which is commonly known as the temple of Hercules (an appellation wholly without foundation), and which is not only by far the most ancient edifice in Pompeii, but presents us with all the characters of a true Greek temple, resembling in its proportions that of the earliest temple of Selinus, and probably of as remote antiquity (6th century B.C.).
One of these, in the House of the Faun, well known as the battle of Alexander, presents us with the most striking specimen of artistic composition that has been preserved to us from antiquity.
An interesting stone containing nine cavities for measures of capacity found in Pompeii and now preserved in the Naples Museum with Oscan inscriptions erased in antiquity shows that the Oscan system of measurement was modified so as to correspond more closely with the Roman, about 14 B.C., by the duoviri, who record their work in a Latin inscription (C.I.L.
Several remains of antiquity exist in the neighbourhood, among them a cromlech called Kit's Coty House, about a mile north-east from the village.
The church of St Mary was rebuilt c. 1850, though the ancient monuments preserved give it an appearance of antiquity.
The origin of this kingdom, famous alike in the political and religious history of India, is lost in the mists of antiquity; and though the Brahmanical Puranas give lists of its rulers extending back to remote ages before the Christian era, the first authentic dynasty is that of the Saisunaga, founded by Sisunaga (c. 600 B.C.), whose capital was at Rajagaha (Rajgir) in the hills near Gaya; and the first king of this dynasty of whom anything is known was Bimbisara (c. 528 B.C.), who by conquests and matrimonial alliances laid the foundations of the greatness of the kingdom.
Regarded simply as mirroring the past, few, if any, remains of Christian antiquity present us with so vivid a picture of the working of men's minds under the influence of the new leaven which had entered into the world" (Hort, Clem.
Nowhere do we find the title Homilies given to any form of the Clementine collection in antiquity.
The houses are built of mud, and in the absence of visible remains of antiquity, the identification of the site is questionable.
Its situation and its undisturbed atmosphere of antiquity combine to make Ragusa by far the most picturesque city on the Dalmatian coast.
Attractively situated on a hillside sloping gently to the Forth, its placid old-world aspect is in keeping with its great antiquity.
Shendi lies within the "Island of Meroe" and is a town of great antiquity.
These frauds were all contrived for the heathen public, as a means of propaganda, calculated to inspire them with respect for Jewish antiquity or turn them from idols to God.
It is an important centre of trade, with manufactures of cotton goods, metal-work, carving, &c. Bhera was founded about 1540 on its present site, but it took the place of a city on the opposite bank of the river, of far greater antiquity, which was destroyed at this period.
In European libraries, besides innumerable modern manuscripts of the Koran, there are also codices, or fragments, of high antiquity, some of them probably dating from the 1st century of.
He was famed in antiquity for the richness and splendour of his imagination and his style, although Quintilian censures his redundancy and Hermogenes remarks on the excessive sweetness that results from his abundant use of epithets.
He attempted comedy, but with so little success that in the canon of Volcacius Sedigitus he is mentioned, solely as a mark of respect "for his antiquity," tenth and last in the list of comic poets.
The rise of the Nile is naturally the occasion of annual customs, some of which are doubtless relics of antiquity; these are observed according to the Coptic calendar.
Much of these texts is of extreme antiquity; one incantation at least has been proved to belong to an age anterior to the unification of the Northern and Southern kingdoms. Later copies also exist, but possess little independent critical value.
In it we have(a) the recently discovered inscriptions of the 1st Dynasty, too brief and concise to throw much light on the language of that time; and the great collections of spells and ritual texts found inscribed in the Pyramids of the Vth and VIth Dynasties, which must even then have been of high antiquity, though they contain later additions made in the same style.
On the surface of the desert, at the borders of the valley, palaeolithic implements of well-defined form are not uncommon, and bear the marks of a remote antiquity.
The Theban supremacy was gone and the Delta was now the wealthy and progressive part of Egypt; piety increased amongst the masses, unenterprising and unwarlike, but proud of their illustrious antiquity.
It presents some features of great antiquity, and, unlike all others, has the truly popular character of being written in the three dialects of the language.
But Sixtus had no appreciation of antiquity: the columns of Trajan and Antoninus were made to serve as pedestals for the statues of SS Peter and Paul; the Minerva of the Capitol was converted into "Christian Rome"; the Septizonium of Severus was demolished for its building materials.
There can be little doubt that from a remote antiquity Zealand had been a religious sanctuary, and very probably the god Nerthus was worshipped here by the Angli and other tribes as described in Tacitus (Germania, c. 40).
Antiquity, and the translator of many of the sagas.
word, formed from char, a car), in antiquity, a conveyance (Gr.
This description applies generally to the chariots of all the nations of antiquity; the differences consisted chiefly in the mountings.
Its formation must be of great antiquity.
It lies on the right bank of the Wottawa, which is here crossed by an interesting stone bridge of great antiquity.
And this, as Philo recognized, is a division appropriate to the sense of the precepts; for antiquity did not look on piety towards parents as a mere precept of probity, part of one's duty towards one's neighbour.
Similar traces of antiquity in the shape of bas-reliefs, inscriptions, columns, &c., are numerous in the town, and on a terrace to the south of it is a precinct of Asclepius.
The three villages of Tragoulas, Marmora and Kepidi (Kniri&c, pronounced Tschipidi), situated on an open plain on the eastern side of the island, and rich in remains of antiquity, probably occupy the site of an ancient town.
The other works of Lord Hailes include Historical Memoirs concerning the Provincial Councils of the Scottish Clergy (1769); An Examination of some of the Arguments for the High Antiquity of Regiam Majestatem (1769); three volumes entitled Remains of Christian Antiquity (" Account of the Martyrs of Smyrna and Lyons in the Second Century," 1776; " The Trials of Justin Martyr, Cyprian, &c.," 1778; The History of the Martyrs of Palestine, translated from Eusebius," 1780); Disquisitions concerning the Antiquities of the Christian Church (1783); and editions or translations of portions of Lactantius, Tertullian and Minucius Felix.
Its amenities awoke both the enthusiasm and the scorn of many writers of antiquity.
Of high antiquity, and, like many other Irish towns, claiming (with considerable probability) to have been founded by St Patrick in the 5th century, it long possessed the more important distinction of being the metropolis of Ireland; and, as the seat of a flourishing college, was greatly frequented by students from other lands, among whom the English and Scots were said to have been so numerous as to give the name of Trian-Sassanagh, or Saxon Street, to one of the quarters of the city.
Next in antiquity to hydraulic lime is Roman cement, prepared by heating an indurated marl occurring naturally in nodules.
No doubt in times of remote antiquity it was found that the jointing of masonry which was to be immersed required the use of a cement indifferent to the action of water.
bank of the Tyne, and its market square and narrow streets bear many marks of antiquity.
Few vestiges of antiquity survived, except the baths from which Alhama (in Arabic " the Bath ") derives its name.
It is interesting for its high antiquity and the ruined castle, a fortress on an eminence where a neck of land ends, projecting into the sea.
The central Lowlands are thus of great geological antiquity.
Hence the valleys are of higher antiquity than the mountains that flank them.
Even among the Israelites, the visitation of certain cult-centres prevailed from remote antiquity; but, when the restriction of Yahwehworship to Jerusalem had doomed the old shrines, the Jewish pilgrimages were directed solely to the sanctuary on Mt Moria.
The unification of the peoples of antiquity in the Roman Empire, and the resultant amalgam of religions, gave a powerful impetus to the custom.
Of greater antiquity is the concise account of his travels by an anonymous pilgrim, who, in A.D.
Both appear first in the 15th century, probably as results of the war for the Toggenburg inheritance (1436-50); for the intense hatred of Austria, greatly increased by her support of the claims of Zurich, favoured the circulation of stories which assumed that Swiss freedom was of immemorial antiquity, while, as the war was largely a struggle between the civic and rural elements in the Confederation, the notion that the (rural) Schwyzers were of Scandinavian descent at once separated them from and raised them above the German inhabitants of the towns.
In the mountainous region on the upper waters of the Sangarius, between Kutaiah Eski Shehr and Afium (Afiom) Kara Hissar, there exist numerous monuments of great antiquity, showing a style of marked individuality, and implying a high degree of artistic skill among the people who produced them.
When two thinkers of such eminence (probably the two greatest ethical thinkers of antiquity) have arrived independently at this strange"--conclusion, have agreed in ascribing to cravings, felt in this life, so great, and to us so inconceivable, a power over the future life, we may well hesitate before we condemn the idea as intrinsically absurd, and we may take note of the important fact that, given similar conditions, similar stages in the development of religious belief, men's thoughts, even in spite of the most unquestioned individual originality, tend though they may never produce exactly the same results, to work in similar ways.
Historical scholars will, however, revere this collection of dialogues as one of the most priceless of the treasures of antiquity still preserved to us.
antiquity disappeared; and how the only living organisms were vassalage and clientship. The second volume, Les Origines communales, la feodalite et la chevalerie (1893), deals with the reconstruction of society on new bases which took place in the 10th and 11th centuries.
The crest of the Thuringian Forest, from the Werra to the Saale, is traversed by the Rennsteig or Rainsteig, a broad path of unknown antiquity, perhaps referred to in a letter of Pope Gregory III.
The blocks are often not quite rectangular, and the courses sometimes change; but the general tendency is horizontal and the walls are not of remote antiquity, the irregularities in them being rather due to the hardness of the material employed, the rock of the hill itself.
Such mountain pastures, made use of only during the summer months, are of almost immemorial antiquity, cases occurring in 739, 868 and 999, while they are found in all parts of the Alpine chain.
Erfordia) is a town of great antiquity.
The manuscripts are very numerous, and many of them are of great antiquity, as are the Syriac and other translations.
Cinnamon has been known from remote antiquity, and it was so highly prized among ancient nations that it was regarded as a present fit for monarchs and other great potentates.
Blackburn is of considerable antiquity; indeed, the 6th century is allocated to the original foundation of a church on the site of the present parish church.
While not equal, apparently, in antiquity, and >>
But apart from this, there is proof of the high antiquity of the college, which was said to have been older than Rome itself, in the verbal forms of the song with which, down to late times, a part of the ceremonies was accompanied, and which is still preserved.
For this unfortunate issue Louis was not without blame; for from the very first, owing to an exaggerated idealism and love of antiquity, he had totally misunderstood the national character of the Greeks and the problems involved in the attempts to govern them by bureaucratic methods.
In the present day the old city has almost entirely disappeared, and its site is marked only by a heap of ruins; but in remote antiquity Ajodhya was one of the largest and most magnificent of Indian cities.
Trombones often played with the three lower voices, a practice of high antiquity surviving from a time when there were soprano trombones or cornetti (Zincken, a sort of treble serpent) to play with the sopranos.
The modern subdivisions under the jurisdiction of the Ottoman Empire are in no sense conterminous with those of antiquity, and hence do not afford a boundary by which Palestine can be separated exactly from the rest of Syria in the north, or from the Sinaitic and Arabian deserts in the south and east; nor are the records of ancient boundaries sufficiently full and definite to make possible the complete demarcation of the country.
This is the plain of Zebulun or Asochis, of antiquity.
Oriental law is primitive or advanced according to the social conditions, with the result that antiquity of ideas is no criterion of date, and modern desert custom is more archaic than the great code of the Babylonian king Khammurabi Babylonian g y g Law.
The antiquity of certain principles and details is undeniable - as also in the Talmud - but since one must start from the organic connexions of the composite sources, the problems necessitate proper attention to the relation between the stages in the literary growth (working backwards) and the vicissitudes which culminate in the postexilic age.
B.C.) they are presumably of very great antiquity, but if they belong to the sources J and E of the Hexateuch (at least some four or five centuries later) their value is seriously weakened.
Abundance of remains which date from the Neolithic period testify to the high antiquity of this class of work, and also to the great skill which the ancient founders had acquired.
This institution is of immemorial antiquity, and the meetings in either case are always held on the last Sunday in April.
The town is of high antiquity, and its name (Ather-dee) is taken to signify the ford of the Dee.
Znvo(3c'a), queen of Palmyra, one of the heroines of antiquity.
Falkirk is a town of considerable antiquity.
Hence Argos was perhaps the earliest town of importance in Greece; the legends indicate its high antiquity and its early intercourse with foreign countries (Egypt, Lycia, &c.).
the contemporary and rival of Pheidias, which was one of the most perfect works of sculpture in antiquity.
"In the Haghier hills," to quote Professor Bonney, "we have probably a fragment of a continental area of great antiquity, and of a land surface which may have been an ` ark of refuge ' to a terrestrial fauna and flora from one of the very earliest periods of this world's history."
The antiquity of their type is evidenced by the monuments of Egypt, where their ancestors are pictured with the same comparatively blond features which many of them still display.
Whatever these dialects be called, the Kabyle, the Shilha, the Zenati, the Tuareg or Tamashek, the Berber language is still essentially one, and the similarity between the forms current in Morocco, Algeria, the Sahara and the far-distant oasis of Siwa is much more marked than between the Norse and English in the sub-Aryan Teutonic group. The Berbers have, moreover, a writing of their own, peculiar and little used or known, the antiquity of which is proved by monuments and inscriptions ranging over the whole of North Africa.
This prejudice, establishing itself in familiar speech, has descended from antiquity to modern times, colouring, when it does not distort, the narratives of biographers and the criticisms of commentators.
The origin of the Deva-Nagari alphabet is lost in antiquity, though that is generally admitted not to be of indigenous invention.
From the earliest times the caste of Brahmans has preserved, by oral tradition as well as in MSS., a literature unrivalled alike in its antiquity and in the intellectual subtlety of its contents.
In purity of ore, and in antiquity of working, the iron deposits of India probably rank first in the world.
C. Nevertheless, the antiquity of the Rig-Veda, although not to be expressed in figures, is abundantly established.
Successive Arab dynasties looted it, and many monuments of antiquity suffered (to be finally swept away by "municipal improvements" under the French regime).
Though Caen is not a town of great antiquity, the date of its foundation is unknown.
Some thirty-five other books of letters were known to antiquity, e.g.
The letters ad Familiares were generally quoted in antiquity by books, the title being taken from the first letter, e.g.
In one of these earlier strata, of very great antiquity, there was discovered, in connexion with the shrine, a conduit built of bricks, in the form of an arch.
The excavations at Nippur were the first to reveal to us the extreme antiquity of Babylonian civilization, and, as already stated, they give us the best consecutive record of the development of that civilization, with a continuous occupancy from a period of unknown antiquity, long ante-dating 5000 B.C., onward to the middle ages.
It is surrounded by well-kept walls of great antiquity, and its main streets are spanned by large pailous or monumental arches, some dating from the time of the emperor Tai-ting-ti of the Yuan dynasty (1324).
Thenceforward he devoted his whole time to a systematic examination of the French caves, his first publication on the subject being The Antiquity of Man in Western Europe (1860), followed in 1861 by New Researches on the Coexistence of Man and of the Great Fossil Mammifers characteristic of the Last Geological Period.
Heeren's great merit as an historian was that he regarded the states of antiquity from an altogether fresh point of view.
from Hallstatt, were the most famous iron mines of antiquity, which produced the Noric iron and Noric swords so prized and dreaded by the Romans (Pliny, Hist.
Equally obscure is the relation between the Paphlagonians and the Eneti or Heneti (mentioned in connexion with them in the Homeric catalogue) who were supposed in antiquity to be the ancestors of the Veneti, who dwelt at the head of the Adriatic. But no trace is found in historical times of any tribe of that name in Asia Minor.
It is evident that William desired to know the financial resources of his kingdom, and probable that he wished to compare them with the existing assessment, which was one of considerable antiquity, though there are traces that it had been occasionally modified.
The slaughter, which continued till the complete destruction of the Roman army, was one of the greatest recorded in antiquity.
Standing stones, cairns and other memorials of a remote antiquity occur near Tormore, on Machrie Bay, Lamlash, and other places.
In this district are the sites of cities used as capitals of China in remote antiquity.
In the Thesmophoria, a sowing festival of immemorial antiquity performed by women, cakes and pigs were thrown to serpents kept in caves and sacred to the corngoddess Demeter, who, like the Bona Dea, was representative 108, III seq., 209 sqq.).
This beginning is not in the dimness of antiquity nor in a multitude of customs, beliefs, traditions, rites and personalities, as is the case with the so-called " natural " religions.
This system of " casting kaivels," as it is called, is certainly of great antiquity.
In 1855 he was appointed professor of the science of antiquity, and director of the academical art museum at Bonn, and in 1867 he was called to succeed E.
Whatever the precise date of these physicians may have been, this passage shows the antiquity of the plague in northern Africa., which for centuries was considered as its home.
Many of these were famous in antiquity and occur in a list given by Strabo.
Yet it must be strongly emphasized, that recent historical research at the hands of experts in classical antiquity has tended steadily to verify such parts of the narrative as it can test, especially those connected with Paul's missions in the Roman Empire.
From remote antiquity Russian merchants were wont to meet in summer with those from the East at different places on the Volga, between the mouths of the Oka and the Kama - the fair changing its site with the increasing or decreasing power of the nationalities which struggled for the possession of the middle Volga.
Barium does not seem to have been a place of great importance in early antiquity; only bronze coins struck by it have been found.
In science there was no great product in antiquity to be lost.
But the middle age in science must include much of antiquity, including Pliny.
In the realm of art the "middle ages" had already set in before Constantine robbed the arch of Titus to decorate his own, and before those museums of antiquity, the temples, were plundered by Christian mobs.
When we recollect that the Ethiopian Tearchus (Tirhaka) of the 7th century B.C., who was hopelessly worsted by the Assyrians and scarcely ventured outside the Nile valley, was credited by Megasthenes (4th century) and Strabo with having extended his conquests as far as India and the pillars of Hercules, it is not surprising if the dim figures of antiquity were magnified to a less degree.
The epithet Aeolian implies high antiquity, inasmuch as according to Herodotus Smyrna became Ionian about 688 B.C. Naturally the Ionians had their own version of the story - a version which made Homer come out with the first Athenian colonists.
The question whether writing was known in the time of Homer was raised in antiquity, and has been debated with especial eagerness ever since the appearance of Wolf's Prolegomena.
The fact that there are so many traces of it in Homer is a strong proof of the antiquity of the poems, but no proof of admixture with Aeolic.
His use of the " obelus " to distinguish spurious verses, which made so large a part of his fame in antiquity, has rather told against him with modern scholars.'
The voice of antiquity is unanimous in declaring that " Peisistratus first committed the poems of Homer to writing, and reduced them to the order in which we now read them."
The appeal of Wolf to the " voice of all antiquity " is by no means borne out by the different statements on the subject.
The word usage examples above have been gathered from various sources to reflect current and historial usage. They do not represent the opinions of YourDictionary.com.