In 168 B.C. Antiochus Epiphanes captured Jerusalem, destroyed the walls, and devastated the Temple, reducing the city to a worse position than it had occupied since the time of the captivity.
Other writers again have placed the Acra on the eastern side of the hill upon which the church of the Holy Sepulchre now stands, but as this point was probably quite outside the city at the time of Antiochus Epiphanes, and is at too great a distance from the Temple, it can hardly be accepted.
Of Macedon and Antiochus III.
The Parthian king Arsaces, who was attacked by Antiochus III.
It must be observed that the name Italians was at one time confined to the Oenotrians; indeed, according to Antiochus of Syracuse (apud Dion.
At the same time Seleucus and his son Antiochus I.
6, 115), Stasis, "a Persian town on a great rock, which Antiochus, the son of Seleucus, possessed" (Steph..Byz.
And peopled by Antiochus I.
When in 221 Molon, the satrap of Media, rebelled against Antiochus III., his brother Alexander, satrap of Persis, joined him, but they were defeated and killed by the king.
Persis remained a part of the Seleucid empire down to Antiochus IV.
But after the death of Antiochus IV.
The Pentateuch (or Hexateuch) was finally completed in its present form at some time before 400 B.C. The latest parts of the Old Testament are the books of Chronicles, Ezra and Nehemiah (c. 330 B.C.), Ecclesiastes and Esther (3rd century) and Daniel, composed either in the 3rd century or according to some views as late as the time of Antiochus Epiphanes (c. 168 B.C.).
It was defended in 196 B.C. against Antiochus the Great of Syria, after which its inhabitants were received as allies of Rome.
He was the real founder of the Parthian empire, which was of very limited extent until the final decay of the Seleucid empire, occasioned by the Roman intrigues after the death of Antiochus IV.
He enlarged and consolidated the kingdom, founded the great city of Nicomedia as the capital, and fought successfully for some time with Antiochus of Syria.
His successors, the Diadochi, carried on his work, but Antiochus Epiphanes was the first who deliberately took in hand to deal with the Jews.
8) describes the interval between Alexander and Antiochus thus: " The he-goat (the king of Greece) did very greatly: and when he was strong the great horn (Alexander) was broken; and instead of it came up four other ones - four kingdoms shall stand up out of his nation but not with his power.
And out of one of them came forth a little horn (Antiochus Epiphanes) which waxed exceeding great towards the south (Egypt) and towards the East (Babylon) and towards the beauteous land (the land of Israel)."
After the defeat of Scopas, Antiochus gained Batanaea and Samaria and Abila and Gadara, and a little later those of the Jews who live round the Temple called Jerusalem adhered to him."
They were not even a pawn in the game which Antiochus proposed to play with Rome for the possession of Greece and Asia Minor.
Heliodorus, prime minister of Seleucus Philopator, who succeeded Antiochus, arrived at Jerusalem in his progress through Coele-Syria and Phoenicia and declared the treasure confiscate to the royal exchequer.
When Seleucus was assassinated by Heliodorus, Antiochus IV., his brother, who had been chief magistrate at Athens, came xv.
Antiochus required peace in Jerusalem and probably regarded Onias as the representative of the pro-Egyptian faction, the allies of his enemy.
During his second Egyptian campaign a rumour came that Antiochus was dead, and Jason made a raid upon Jerusalem.
When Antiochus finally evacuated Egypt in obedience to the decree of Rome, he thought that Judaea was in revolt.
A massacre took place, and Antiochus braved the anger of Yahweh by entering and pillaging the Temple with impunity.
The policy which Antiochus thus inaugurated he carried on rigorously and systematically.
Antiochus was occupied with his Parthian campaign and trusted that the Hellenized Jews would maintain their ascendancy with the aid of the provincial troops.
The siege was raised, more probably in consequence of the death of Antiochus Epiphanes than because Judas had gained any real victory.
1 Maccabees credits them with ioo,000 victims. Trypho, the regent of Antiochus VI., put even greater political power into the hands of Jonathan and his brother Simon, but finally seized Jonathan on the pretext of a conference.
- But in 138 B.C. Antiochus Sidetes entered Seleucia and required the submission of all the petty states, which had taken advantage of the weakness of preceding kings.
At length Antiochus appeared to enforce his demand in 134.
At the feast of tabernacles of 132 Hyrcanus requested and Antiochus granted a week's truce.
There they held out for three months, succumbing finally because in obedience to the Law (as interpreted since the time of Antiochus Epiphanes) they would only defend themselves from actual assault upon the sabbath day.
The founder Seleucus (surnamed for later generations Nicator) was a Macedonian, the son of Antiochus, one of Philip's generals.
About 293 he installed his son Antiochus there as viceroy, the vast extent of the empire seeming to require a double government.
He intended to leave Asia to Antiochus and content himself for the remainder of his days with the Macedonian kingdom in its old limits.
With his father's murderer, Ptolemy, Antiochus was soon compelled to make peace, abandoning apparently Macedonia and Thrace.
In 278 the Gauls broke into Asia Minor, and a victory which Antiochus won over these hordes is said to have been the origin of his title of Soter (Gr.
About 262 Antiochus tried to break the growing power of Pergamum by force of arms, but suffered defeat near Sardis and died soon afterwards (262).
He was succeeded (261) by his second son Antiochus Theos (286-246), whose mother was the Macedonian princess Stratonice, daughter of Demetrius Poliorcetes.
Antiochus also made some attempt to get a footing in Thrace.
About 250 peace was concluded between Antiochus and Ptolemy II., Antiochus repudiating his wife Laodice and marrying Ptolemy's daughter Berenice, but by 246 Antiochus had left Berenice and her infant son in Antioch to live again with Laodice in Asia Minor.
In Asia Minor his younger brother Antiochus Hierax was put up against him by a party to which Laodice herself adhered.
Of these Pergamum now rose to greatness under Attalus I., and Antiochus Hierax perished as a fugitive in Thrace in 228/7.
In 221 Antiochus at last went east, and the rebellion of Molon and Alexander collapsed.
Antiochus rid himself of Hermeias by assassination and returned to Syria (220).
Since, however, his power was not well enough grounded to allow of his attacking Syria, Antiochus considered that he might leave Achaeus for the present and renew his attempt on Palestine.
Confronted Antiochus at Raphia and inflicted a defeat upon him which nullified all Antiochus's successes and compelled him to withdraw north of the Lebanon.
In 216 Antiochus went north to deal with Achaeus, and had by 214 driven him from the field into Sardis.
Having thus recovered the central part of Asia Minor - for the dynasties in Pergamum, Bithynia and Cappadocia the Seleucid government was obliged to tolerate - Antiochus turned to recover the outlying provinces of the north and east.
In 209 Antiochus invaded Parthia, occupied the capital Hecatompylus and pushed forward into Hyrcania.
Antiochus next, following in the steps of Alexander, crossed into the Kabul valley, received the homage of the Indian king Sophagasenus and returned west by way of Seistan and Kerman (206/5).(206/5).
Antiochus seemed to have restored the Seleucid empire in the east, and the achievement brought him the title of "the Great King."
Epiphanes succeeded to the Egyptian throne, and Antiochus concluded a secret pact with Philip of Macedonia for the partition of the Ptolemaic possessions.
Once more Antiochus attacked Palestine, and by 199 he seems to have had possession of it.
But the recovery was brief, for in 198 Scopas was defeated by Antiochus at the battle of the Panium, near the sources of the Jordan, a battle which marks the end of Ptolemaic rule in Palestine.
In 197 Antiochus moved to Asia Minor to secure the coast towns which had acknowledged Ptolemy and the independent Greek cities.
It was this enterprise which brought him into antagonism with Rome, since Smyrna and Lampsacus appealed to the republic of the west, and the tension became greater after Antiochus had in 196 established a footing in Thrace.