In 168 B.C. Antiochus Epiphanes captured Jerusalem, destroyed the walls, and devastated the Temple, reducing the city to a worse position than it had occupied since the time of the captivity.
Other writers again have placed the Acra on the eastern side of the hill upon which the church of the Holy Sepulchre now stands, but as this point was probably quite outside the city at the time of Antiochus Epiphanes, and is at too great a distance from the Temple, it can hardly be accepted.
The oppression of Antiochus led to a revolt of the Jews under the leadership of the Maccabees, and Judas Maccabaeus succeeded in capturing Jerusalem after severe fighting, but could not get The sites shown on the plan are tentative, and cannot be regarded as certain; see Nehemiah ii.
of Macedon and Antiochus III.
The Parthian king Arsaces, who was attacked by Antiochus III.
It must be observed that the name Italians was at one time confined to the Oenotrians; indeed, according to Antiochus of Syracuse (apud Dion.
At the same time Seleucus and his son Antiochus I.
6, 115), Stasis, "a Persian town on a great rock, which Antiochus, the son of Seleucus, possessed" (Steph..Byz.
and peopled by Antiochus I.
When in 221 Molon, the satrap of Media, rebelled against Antiochus III., his brother Alexander, satrap of Persis, joined him, but they were defeated and killed by the king.
Persis remained a part of the Seleucid empire down to Antiochus IV.
But after the death of Antiochus IV.
The Pentateuch (or Hexateuch) was finally completed in its present form at some time before 400 B.C. The latest parts of the Old Testament are the books of Chronicles, Ezra and Nehemiah (c. 330 B.C.), Ecclesiastes and Esther (3rd century) and Daniel, composed either in the 3rd century or according to some views as late as the time of Antiochus Epiphanes (c. 168 B.C.).
It was defended in 196 B.C. against Antiochus the Great of Syria, after which its inhabitants were received as allies of Rome.
He was the real founder of the Parthian empire, which was of very limited extent until the final decay of the Seleucid empire, occasioned by the Roman intrigues after the death of Antiochus IV.
He enlarged and consolidated the kingdom, founded the great city of Nicomedia as the capital, and fought successfully for some time with Antiochus of Syria.
His successors, the Diadochi, carried on his work, but Antiochus Epiphanes was the first who deliberately took in hand to deal with the Jews.
8) describes the interval between Alexander and Antiochus thus: " The he-goat (the king of Greece) did very greatly: and when he was strong the great horn (Alexander) was broken; and instead of it came up four other ones - four kingdoms shall stand up out of his nation but not with his power.
And out of one of them came forth a little horn (Antiochus Epiphanes) which waxed exceeding great towards the south (Egypt) and towards the East (Babylon) and towards the beauteous land (the land of Israel)."
After the defeat of Scopas, Antiochus gained Batanaea and Samaria and Abila and Gadara, and a little later those of the Jews who live round the Temple called Jerusalem adhered to him."
They were not even a pawn in the game which Antiochus proposed to play with Rome for the possession of Greece and Asia Minor.
Heliodorus, prime minister of Seleucus Philopator, who succeeded Antiochus, arrived at Jerusalem in his progress through Coele-Syria and Phoenicia and declared the treasure confiscate to the royal exchequer.
When Seleucus was assassinated by Heliodorus, Antiochus IV., his brother, who had been chief magistrate at Athens, came xv.
His brother and deputy was killed in a serious riot, and an accusation was laid against Menelaus before Antiochus.
Antiochus required peace in Jerusalem and probably regarded Onias as the representative of the pro-Egyptian faction, the allies of his enemy.
During his second Egyptian campaign a rumour came that Antiochus was dead, and Jason made a raid upon Jerusalem.
When Antiochus finally evacuated Egypt in obedience to the decree of Rome, he thought that Judaea was in revolt.
A massacre took place, and Antiochus braved the anger of Yahweh by entering and pillaging the Temple with impunity.
The policy which Antiochus thus inaugurated he carried on rigorously and systematically.
Antiochus was occupied with his Parthian campaign and trusted that the Hellenized Jews would maintain their ascendancy with the aid of the provincial troops.
The siege was raised, more probably in consequence of the death of Antiochus Epiphanes than because Judas had gained any real victory.
1 Maccabees credits them with ioo,000 victims. Trypho, the regent of Antiochus VI., put even greater political power into the hands of Jonathan and his brother Simon, but finally seized Jonathan on the pretext of a conference.
- But in 138 B.C. Antiochus Sidetes entered Seleucia and required the submission of all the petty states, which had taken advantage of the weakness of preceding kings.
At length Antiochus appeared to enforce his demand in 134.
At the feast of tabernacles of 132 Hyrcanus requested and Antiochus granted a week's truce.
There they held out for three months, succumbing finally because in obedience to the Law (as interpreted since the time of Antiochus Epiphanes) they would only defend themselves from actual assault upon the sabbath day.
The founder Seleucus (surnamed for later generations Nicator) was a Macedonian, the son of Antiochus, one of Philip's generals.
About 293 he installed his son Antiochus there as viceroy, the vast extent of the empire seeming to require a double government.
He intended to leave Asia to Antiochus and content himself for the remainder of his days with the Macedonian kingdom in its old limits.
With his father's murderer, Ptolemy, Antiochus was soon compelled to make peace, abandoning apparently Macedonia and Thrace.
In 278 the Gauls broke into Asia Minor, and a victory which Antiochus won over these hordes is said to have been the origin of his title of Soter (Gr.
About 262 Antiochus tried to break the growing power of Pergamum by force of arms, but suffered defeat near Sardis and died soon afterwards (262).
He was succeeded (261) by his second son Antiochus Theos (286-246), whose mother was the Macedonian princess Stratonice, daughter of Demetrius Poliorcetes.
Antiochus also made some attempt to get a footing in Thrace.
About 250 peace was concluded between Antiochus and Ptolemy II., Antiochus repudiating his wife Laodice and marrying Ptolemy's daughter Berenice, but by 246 Antiochus had left Berenice and her infant son in Antioch to live again with Laodice in Asia Minor.
In Asia Minor his younger brother Antiochus Hierax was put up against him by a party to which Laodice herself adhered.
Of these Pergamum now rose to greatness under Attalus I., and Antiochus Hierax perished as a fugitive in Thrace in 228/7.
Soon after Antiochus's accession, Media and Persis revolted under their governors, the brothers Molon and Alexander.
In 221 Antiochus at last went east, and the rebellion of Molon and Alexander collapsed.
Antiochus rid himself of Hermeias by assassination and returned to Syria (220).
Since, however, his power was not well enough grounded to allow of his attacking Syria, Antiochus considered that he might leave Achaeus for the present and renew his attempt on Palestine.
confronted Antiochus at Raphia and inflicted a defeat upon him which nullified all Antiochus's successes and compelled him to withdraw north of the Lebanon.
In 216 Antiochus went north to deal with Achaeus, and had by 214 driven him from the field into Sardis.
Having thus recovered the central part of Asia Minor - for the dynasties in Pergamum, Bithynia and Cappadocia the Seleucid government was obliged to tolerate - Antiochus turned to recover the outlying provinces of the north and east.
In 209 Antiochus invaded Parthia, occupied the capital Hecatompylus and pushed forward into Hyrcania.
The issue was again favourable to Antiochus.
After sustaining a famous siege in his capital Bactra (Balkh), Euthydemus obtained an honourable peace by which the hand of one of Antiochus's daughters was promised to his son Demetrius.
Antiochus next, following in the steps of Alexander, crossed into the Kabul valley, received the homage of the Indian king Sophagasenus and returned west by way of Seistan and Kerman (206/5).(206/5).
Antiochus seemed to have restored the Seleucid empire in the east, and the achievement brought him the title of "the Great King."
Epiphanes succeeded to the Egyptian throne, and Antiochus concluded a secret pact with Philip of Macedonia for the partition of the Ptolemaic possessions.
Once more Antiochus attacked Palestine, and by 199 he seems to have had possession of it.
In 197 Antiochus moved to Asia Minor to secure the coast towns which had acknowledged Ptolemy and the independent Greek cities.
It was this enterprise which brought him into antagonism with Rome, since Smyrna and Lampsacus appealed to the republic of the west, and the tension became greater after Antiochus had in 196 established a footing in Thrace.
The evacuation of Greece by the Romans gave Antiochus his opportunity, and he now had the fugitive Hannibal at his court to urge him on.
In 192 Antiochus invaded Greece, having the Aetolians and other Greek states as his allies.
But the Romans followed up their success by attacking Antiochus in Asia Minor, and the decisive victory of L.
As a consequence of this blow to the Seleucid power, the outlying provinces of the empire, recovered by Antiochus, reasserted their independence.
Antiochus perished in a fresh expedition to the east in Luristan (187).
The Seleucid kingdom as Antiochus left it to his son, Seleucus Iv.
The true heir, Demetrius, son of Seleucus, being now retained in Rome as a hostage, the kingdom was seized by the younger brother of Seleucus, Antiochus Iv.
In 170 Egypt, governed by regents for the boy Ptolemy Philometor, attempted to reconquer Palestine; Antiochus not only defeated this attempt but invaded and occupied Egypt.
When the two brothers combined, Antiochus again invaded Egypt (168), but was compelled to retire by the Roman envoy C. Popillius Laenas (consul 172), after the historic scene in which the Roman drew a circle in the sand about the king and demanded his answer before he stepped out of it.
Antiochus exercised his contemporaries by the riddles of his half-brilliant, half-crazy personality.
Jerusalem, near the Egyptian frontier, was an important point, and in one of its internal revolutions Antiochus saw, perhaps not without reason, a defection to the Egyptian side.
In 166 Antiochus left Syria to attempt the reconquest of the further provinces.
Armenia returned to allegiance, the capital of Media was recolonized as Epiphanea, and Antiochus was pursuing his plans in the east when he died at Tabae in Persis, after exhibiting some sort of mental derangement (winter 164/3).
He left a son of nine years, Antiochus V.
Antiochus Eupator was put to death.
An impostor, who claimed to be a son of Antiochus Epiphanes, Alexander Balas (reigned 150-145), was installed as king by Ptolemy Philometor and given Ptolemy's daughter Cleopatra to wife, but Alexander proved to be dissolute and incapable, and when Demetrius, the son of Demetrius I., was brought back to Syria by Cretan condottieri, Ptolemy transferred his support and Cleopatra to the rightful heir.
Nicator (first reign 145-140) was a mere boy,' and the misgovernment of his Cretan supporters led to the infant son of Alexander Balas, Antiochus Vi.
In 143 Tryphon murdered the young Antiochus and assumed the diadem himself.
When Demetrius was taken prisoner by the Parthians, his younger brother Antiochus Vii.
and Antiochus VII.
(126), assassinated by his mother Cleopatra, Antiochus Viii.
Eukairos (reigned 95-88), and Antiochus Xii.
To the line of Antiochus VII.
belong his son Antiochus Ix.
Cyzicenus (reigned 116-95), the son of Cyzicenus, Antiochus X.
Eusebes (reigned 95-83?), and the son of Eusebes, Antiochus Xiii.
When Pompey appeared in Syria in 64, Antiochus XIII.
The son of the last king, Gaius Julius Antiochus Epiphanes Philopappus, was Roman consul for A.D.
For the chronology of the end of the reign of Antiochus Epiphanes and the Maccabaean revolt, see a paper by J.
and Antiochus I.
and his own brother Antiochus Hierax, enabled him not only to maintain himself in Parthia, but also to conquer Hyrcania; but he was constantly threatened by Diodotus of Bactria (Justin xli.
His son, Arsaces II., was attacked by Antiochus III., the Great, in 209, who conquered the Parthian and Hyrcanian towns but at last granted a peace.
Soon after the death of Antiochus IV.
(139) and Antiochus VII.
116) - the Palmyrenes revolted, killed the Roman garrison quartered in the city, and proclaimed one Antiochus as their chief.
The "child" might be Antiochus V.
The two personages - the "old and foolish king" and the "poor and wise youth" - have been supposed (by Winckler) to be Antiochus Epiphanes (175-164 B.C.) and Demetrius (162-150 B.C.), or (by Haupt) Antiochus and the impostor Alexander Balas (150-146 B.C.), or (by others) Demetrius and Alexander; in favour of Alexander as the "youth" it may be said that he was of obscure origin, was at first popular, and was later abandoned by his friends.
The foundations of a temple were laid on the site - probably that of an ancient sanctuary - by Peisistratus, but the building in its ultimate form was for the greater part constructed under the auspices of Antiochus IV.
Epiphanes, king of Syria, by the Roman architect Cossutius in the interval between 174 B.C. and 164 B.C., the date of the death of Antiochus.
The conspicuous monument which crowns the Museum Hill was erected as the mausoleum of Antiochus Philopappus of Commagene, grandson of Antiochus Epiphanes, in A.D.
Ptolemy Ceraunus (the son of the first Ptolemy, and halfbrother of the reigning king of Egypt) seized the Macedonian throne, whilst Antiochus, the son of Seleucus, succeeded in holding together the Asiatic dominions of his father.
Native princes probably ruled in Persis before 166, though the district was at least nominally subject to Antiochus IV.
Some ten years later Seleucus appointed Antiochus as king for the eastern provinces.
Sometimes the joint-king is merely titular, an infant of tender years, as for instance Antiochus Eupator, the son of Antiochus Epiphanes, or Ptolemy Eupator, the son of Ptolemy Philometor.
But it was the old cry of the " autonomy of the Hellenes," raised by Smyrna and Lampsacus, which ultimately brought Antiochus III.
An alternative route went from the Indian ports to the Persian Gulf, and thence found the Mediterranean by caravan across Arabia from the country of Gerrha to Gaza; and to control it was no doubt a motive in the long struggle of the Ptolemaic and Seleucid houses for Palestine, as well as in the attempt of Antiochus III.
Sometimes, no doubt, this tribute was demanded under a fairer name, as the contribution of any ally (vuvTa, ts, not 4p pos), like the FaXanKd levied by Antiochus I.
2, 13), but Antiochus III.
The prominent part taken by the women of the royal house was a Macedonian characteristic. The history of these kingdoms furnishes a long list of queens and princesses who were ambitious ' Antiochus Epiphanes was an extreme case.
At the Seleucid court there seems to be an instance of it in 195, when the heirapparent, Antiochus, married his sister Laodice.
155b; Hannibal and the Aetolian Thoas take part in the councils of Antiochus III).
Certain awµaT001)Xaxes of Antiochus I.
Under Antiochus I.
Aratus carried out a recension of the Odyssey, and Berossus composed a Babylonian history in Greek; under Antiochus III.
Antiochus IV., of course, the enthusiastic Hellenist, filled Antioch with Greek artists and gave a royal welcome to Athenian philosophers.
Under Antiochus II.
The official surname of Antiochus II., Theos, suggests that he himself had here been the innovator.
The phalanx of Antiochus III.
At Raphia, Antiochus III.
53, to; Antiochus III., Liv.
The description given by Justin of the army which Antiochus Sidetes took to the East in 130 B.C., boot-nails and bridles of gold, gives an idea of their standard of splendour (Just.
in his war with Rome Antiochus III.
By the Peace of Apamea (188) the Seleucid navy was abolished; Antiochus undertook to keep no more than to ships of war.
2, 136 seq.) Antiochus III.
are spurious, their general view of the relation of Antiochus III.
4474) Of course, financial straits might drive the kings to lay hands on temple-treasures, as Antiochus III.
and Antiochus IV.
In 140 B.C. he marched against Mithradates, king of Parthia, but was taken prisoner by treachery, and remained in captivity for ten years, regaining his throne about 129 B.C. on the death of his brother, Antiochus VII., who had usurped it.
His successor was his son, Antiochus VIII.
It afterwards became a province (Margiana) of the Graeco-Syrian, Parthian and Persian kingdoms. On the Margus - the Epardus of Arrian and now the Murghab - stood the capital of the district, Antiochia Margiana, so called after Antiochus Soter, who rebuilt the city founded by Alexander the Great.
There Heracleon, the court favourite and murderer of Antiochus Grypus, was born and made himself a principality (96 B.C.); and there the son of the latter king besieged his brother Philip in the last struggle for the heritage of Seleucus.
Of its seven books, the first two survey the history of the Jews from the capture of Jerusalem by Antiochus Epiphanes to the outbreak of war in 67, and here Josephus relies upon some such general history as that of Nicolaus of Damascus.
xliv., are written in a time of the deepest dejection, and yet are psalms of the Temple choirs; whereas, when the Temple was re-opened for worship, after its profanation by Antiochus, the Jews were victorious, and a much more joyful tone was appropriate.
These details would fit the time of religious persecution under Antiochus, to which indeed Ps.
Both include psalms which are most naturally understood as referring to the persecution of Antiochus Epiphanes and to the Maccabaean victories, and cannot therefore be separated by a long interval of time.
It was the belief of Professor Robertson Smith that the second (Elohistic) collection of psalms originated in a time of persecution earlier than the time of Antiochus Epiphanes which he referred to the reign of Artaxerxes III.
It was instituted in 165 B.C. in commemoration of, and thanksgiving for, the purification of the temple at Jerusalem on this day by Judas Maccabaeus after its pollution by Antiochus Epiphanes, king of Syria, who in 168 B.C. set up a pagan altar to Zeus Olympius.
After the defeat of Antiochus III.
Antiochus of Commagene instituted an order of priests to celebrate the anniversary of his birth and coronation in a special sanctuary, and the kings of Pergamum claimed divine honours for themselves and their wives during their lifetime.
After the retreat of the Gauls Byzantium rendered considerable services to Rome in the contests with Philip II., Antiochus and Mithradates.
It is, however, more probable that Sardis was not the original capital of the Maeonians, but that it became so amid the changes which produced the powerful Lydian empire of the 8th century B.C. The city was captured by the Cimmerians in the 7th century, by the Persians and by the Athenians in the 6th, and by Antiochus the Great at the end of the 3rd century.
Rome, it is certain, deliberately favoured her ally's unjust claims with the view of keeping Carthage weak, and Massinissa on his part was cunning enough to retain the friendship of the Roman people by helping them with liberal supplies in their wars against Perseus of Macedon and Antiochus.
Aemilius Regillus, after a naval victory over Antiochus (190 B.C.), vowed a temple in the Campus Martius, which was dedicated by M.
Under him David studied for some years, and, after several attempts to win the prix de Rome, at last succeeded in 1775, with his "Loves of Antiochus and Stratonice."
ANTIOCHUS, the name of thirteen kings of the Seleucid dynasty in Nearer Asia.
The most famous are Antiochus III.
the Great (223-187 B.C.) who sheltered Hannibal and waged war with Rome, and his son Antiochus IV.
Antiochus I >>
A ram frequently stamped on coins of Antiochus, with head reverted towards the moon and a star (the planet Mars), signified Aries to be the lunar house of Mars.
No mention of the town is found till 190 B.C., when Antiochus the Great was defeated under its walls by the Roman consul L.
See Grysar, Die Akademiker Philo and Antiochus (1849);; Hermann, De Philone Larissaeo (Gottingen, 1851' and 1855).
persecution of Antiochus Epiphanes, 168-165 B.C. Chs.
The most remarkable of these was made outside the Church - a significant indication of the adverse effect of the conditions within; the Neo-platonist philosopher Porphyry 2 in the 3rd century A.D., untrammelled by church tradition and methods, anticipated one of the clearest and most important conclusions of modern criticism: he detected the incorrectness of the traditional ascription of Daniel to the Jewish captivity in Babylon and discerned that the real period of its composition was that of Antiochus Epiphanes, four centuries later.
Antiochus Epiphanes, king of Syria (Dan.
Antiochus's attempt to suppress the religion of the Jews (i Macc. i.
Victories of Judas Maccabaeus over the generals of Antiochus (I Macc. iii.-iv.).
In literature it is constantly referred to; but we may notice the "general mina" (Cleopatra), in Egypt, 16 unciae=6600; the Ptolemaic talent, equal to the Attic in weight and divisions (Hero, Didymus); the Antiochian talent, equal to the Attic (Hero); the treaty of the Romans with Antiochus, naming talents of 80 librae, i.e.
ANTIOCHUS OF ASCALON (1st century B.C.), Greek philosopher.
Antiochus lectured also in Rome and Alexandria.
Antiochus of Syracuse >>
It was used by kings Antiochus III.
ANTIOCHUS II., who was executed by Augustus in 29 B.C. After another Mithradates we know of an ANTIOCHUS III., on whose death in A.D.
In 38 his son Antiochus Iv.
Antiochus of Ascalon >>
the standard Babylonian work on astrology and astronomy, and compiled (in three books) the history of his country from native documents, which he published in Greek in the reign of Antiochus II.
In 137 B.C. he, along with his brother Judas, commanded the force which repelled the invasion of Judaea led by Cendebeus, the general of Antiochus VII.
While still engaged in the struggle with Ptolemy, he was attacked by Antiochus with a large army (134), and compelled to shut himself up in Jerusalem; after a severe siege peace was at last secured only on condition of a Jewish disarmament, and the payment of an indemnity and an annual tribute, for which hostages were taken.
In 129 he accompanied Antiochus as a vassal prince on his illfated Parthian expedition; returning, however, to Judaea before winter, he escaped the final disaster.
After a long period of rest he directed his arms against the town of Samaria, which, in spite of the intervention of Antiochus, his sons Antigonus and Aristobulus ultimately took, and by his orders razed to the ground (c. 109 B.C.).
After the death of Seleucus, Patrocles was sent by his successor Antiochus to put down a revolt in Asia Minor, and lost his life in an engagement with the Bithynians.
A city in Phrygia, founded by Antiochus Soter (from whose mother, Apama, it received its name), near, but on lower ground than, Celaenae.
There Antiochus the Great collected the army with which he met the Romans at Magnesia, and there two years later the treaty between Rome and the Seleucid realm was signed.
After Antiochus' departure for the East, Apamea lapsed to the Pergamenian kingdom and thence to Rome in 133, but it was resold to Mithradates V., who held it till 120.
When Molon revolted on the accession of the youthful Antiochus III.
Antiochus skirted the northern highlands by way of Nasibin.
It was in Mesopotamia that a large part of the army of Antiochus VII.
In the reign of Antiochus IV.
After the death of Antiochus IV.
The evacuation of Egypt by Antiochus Epiphanes at the bidding of the Roman ambassadors suits the warning addressed to "Greece" (732-740) against overweening ambition and any attempt upon the Holy City, which is somewhat strangely enforced by the famous Greek oracle, "Let Camarina be, 'tis best unstirred."
The Romans easily obtained their allegiance, and rewarded them for help given against Antiochus by leaving them the freedom of their city.
The Aetolians now invited Antiochus III.
In 191 they supported Antiochus badly, and by their slackness in the defence of Thermopylae made his position in Greece untenable.
Her presence greatly encouraged the troops at the battle of Raphia (217), in which Antiochus the Great was defeated.
457) cites one of them as Clement's, while Antiochus of St Saba (c. A.D.
In spite of his express orders his captain Antiochus in his absence provoked a battle and was defeated and killed at Notium.
Lampsacus or Smyrna, could still make good their independence against Antiochus III.
At Pergamum indeed and (at any rate after Antiochus IV.) at Antioch, forms of self-government subsisted upon which, of course, the court had its hand, whilst at Alexandria even such forms were wanting.
Dionysius, the state secretary of Antiochus IV., Polyb.
3, 16; Hermias, the chief minister of Seleucus III., and Antiochus III., Polyb.
The citizen body had been increased some generations before by colonists from Magnesia-onMeander sent at the invitation of Antiochus I.
The whole of Syria was brought under the Seleucid sceptre, together with Cilicia, by Antiochus III.
Under his son, Antiochus IV.
Under Antiochus IV.
But when Antiochus, owing to political developments, interfered violently at Jerusalem, the conservative opposition carried the nation with them.
Philopator, but after his father's death in 175 B.C. he escaped from confinement, and established himself on the Syrian throne (162 B.C.) after overthrowing and murdering King Antiochus V.
They had learned to read God's will in the events of history, and deduced (for example) the doctrine of the resurrection of the dead from the death of the martyrs under Antiochus Epiphanes and Alcimus.
Shortly afterwards a second quarter was laid out, probably on the east and by Antiochus I., which, from an expression of Strabo, appears to have been the native, as contrasted with the Greek, town.
In the Orontes, north of the city, lay a large island, and on this Seleucus Callinicus began a third walled "city," which was finished by Antiochus III.
A fourth and last quarter was added by Antiochus IV.
Antioch became the capital and court-city of the western Seleucid empire under Antiochus I., its counterpart in the east being Seleucia-on-Tigris; but its paramount importance dates from the battle of Ancyra (240 B.C.), which shifted the Seleucid centre of gravity from Asia Minor, and led indirectly to the rise of Pergamum.
In the last struggles of the Seleucid house, Antioch turned definitely against its feeble rulers, invited Tigranes of Armenia to occupy the city in 83, tried to unseat Antiochus XIII.
and his son Antiochus I.) founded a great many Greek towns in eastern Iran, and the Greek language became for some time dominant there.
Diodotus and his successors were able to maintain themselves against the attacks of the Seleucids; and when Antiochus III., "the Great," had been defeated by the Romans (190 B.C.), the Bactrian king Euthydemus and his son Demetrius crossed the Hindu Kush and began the conquest of eastern Iran and the Indus valley.
The historical figure who served as a model for the "Antichrist" was Antiochus IV.
When the end of the world foretold by Daniel did not take place, but the book of Daniel retained its validity as a sacred scripture which foretold future things, the personality of the tyrant who was God's enemy disengaged itself from that of Antiochus IV., and became merely a figure of prophecy, which was applied now to one and now to another historical phenomenon.
30) expects at the end of all things, possesses, besides the traits of Antiochus IV., those of Herod the Great.
Thus the figure of Antiochus IV.
It was different when the Jews who wished to be men of the world took their Hellenism from the Seleucid court and courted the favour of Antiochus Epiphanes.
Philadelphus gave his daughter Berenice with a great dowry to Antiochus II.
When Ptolemy died (247 B.C.), Antiochus' divorced wife Laodice was restored to favour, and Antiochus died suddenly in order that she might regain her power.
In 223 B.C. Antiochus III.
But in spite of this assistance the conquest of Coele-Syria was not quickly achieved; and when Antiochus advanced in 218 B.C. he was opposed by the Egyptians on land and sea.
Early in 217 B.C. Ptolemy Philopater led his forces towards Raphia, which with Gaza was now in the hands of Antiochus, and drove the invaders back.
When Ptolemy Philopater died in 205 B.C., Antiochus and Philip of Macedon, his nominal friends, made a secret compact for the division of his possessions outside Egypt.
Palestine was apparently allotted to Antiochus and he came to take it, while Philip created a diversion in Thrace and Asia Minor.
Already he had allies among the Jews and, if Daniel is to be trusted, there were other Jews who rose up to shake off the yoke of foreign supremacy, Seleucid or Egyptian, and succeeded only in rendering the triumph of Antiochus easier of achievement.
But in the year 200 B.C. Rome intervened with an embassy, which declared war upon Philip and directed Antiochus and Ptolemy to make peace (Polyb.
And in 198 B.C. Antiochus heard that Scopas, Ptolemy's hired commander-in-chief had retaken Coele-Syria (Polyb.
For these sufficient reasons Antiochus hurried back and defeated Scopas at Paneas, which was known later as Caesarea Philippi (Polyb.
The siege of Gaza was famous; but in the end the city was taken by storm, and Antiochus, secure at last of the province, which his ancestors had so long coveted, was at peace with Ptolemy, as the Roman embassy directed.
From Palestine Antiochus turned to the Greek cities of Asia Minor, and by 196 B.C. he was in Thrace.
Antiochus replied that he was recovering the territory won by Seleucus his ancestor, and inquired by what right did the Romans dispute with him about the free cities in Asia (Polyb.
The conference was Antlochus broken off by a false report of Ptolemy's death, but and war between Rome and Antiochus was clearly inevitable - and Antiochus was joined by Hannibal.
After much diplomacy, Antiochus advanced into Greece and Rome declared war upon him in 191 B.C. (Livy xxxvi.
After Magnesia men said " King Antiochus the Great was " (Appian, Syr.
The need which drove Antiochus to this sacrilege rested heavily upon his successor Seleucus IV.
When Antiochus IV.
Antiochus had spent his youth at Rome as a hostage, and the death of Seleucus found him filling the office of war minister at Athens.
Onias had proceeded to Antioch to explain the disorder and bloodshed due to Jason's followers, and so Jason, high priest of the Jews by grace of Antiochus, had his way.
Antiochus sent an ambassador to Rome to protest that Ptolemy, contrary to all law and equity, was attacking him (Polyb.
In self defence, therefore, Antiochus advanced through Palestine and defeated the Egyptian army near Pelusium on the frontier.
Thus Antiochus entered Egypt as the champion of the rightful king and laid siege to Alexandria, which was held by the usurper.
In 168 B.C. Antiochus returned and found that the pretext for his presence there was gone.
As he approached Alexandria Antiochus met the Roman ambassador, and, after a brief attempt at evasion, accepted his ultimatum on the spot.
To secure his position (for he was not even of the priestly tribe) Menelaus persuaded the deputy of Antiochus, who was dealing with a revolt at Tarsus, to put Onias to death.
Antiochus, on his return, had his deputy executed and wept for the dead Onias.
Antiochus could pity Onias, who had been tempted from the sanctuary at Daphne, but he needed an ally in Jerusalem - and money.
Then, during the first or second invasion of Egypt, Jason, hearing that Antiochus was dead, returned suddenly and massacred all the followers of Menelaus who did not take refuge in the citadel.
His temporary success reveals the strength of the party who wished to adopt the Greek way of life without consenting to the complete substitution of the authority of Antiochus for the prescriptions of the Mosaic Law.
It was also a warning to Antiochus, who returned to exact a bloody vengeance and to loot the Temple (169 or 168 B.C.).
After the evacuation of Egypt, Antiochus followed out the policy which Jason had suggested to him at the first.
It is legitimate to suppose that this attitude would have surprised Antiochus if he had heard of it.
At Athens Antiochus began to build a vast temple of Zeus Olympius, in place of one begun by Peisistratus; but it was only finished by Hadrian in A.D.
For the Jews who still deserved the name the policy of Antiochus wore a very different aspect.
No record remains of the success of the Athenian s missionary whom Antiochus sent to preach the new Catholicism; but the soldiers at any rate did their work thoroughly.
Like Antiochus Epiphanes, who also had spent his youth as a hostage in Rome, he was inclined to listen to the Hellenizing Jews, whom he found assembled in full force at Antioch, and to support them against Judas, who was now supreme in Judaea.
In 135 B.C. the political ambitions of the Jews were rudely checked: a new king of Syria, Antiochus Sidetes, resented their encroachments at Joppa and Gazara and drove them J back into Jerusalem.
But in 129 B.C. Antiochus died fighting in the East and for sixty-five years the Jews enjoyed independence.
At the same time he was obliged to open war on the Seleucid kingdom, where Antiochus II.
was dead and his sister Berenice had been murdered, together with her infant son, by Antiochus's former wife, Laodice, who claimed the kingdom for her son Seleucus II.
Antiochus Theos (grandson of Seleucus Nicator) and Asoka (grandson of Chandragupta), who ruled these two monarchies in the 3rd century B.C., made a treaty with each other (256).
During the 2nd century B.C. north-western India was invaded and partially conquered by Antiochus III.
He studied philosophy at Athens under various teachers, notably Antiochus of Ascalon, founder of the Old Academy, a combination of Stoicism, Platonism and Peripateticism.
Porcius Cato sets forth the doctrine of the Stoics which is shown by Cicero to agree with that of Antiochus of Ascalon; in v.
Self-interest led his ministers to make serious preparations to meet the attacks of Antiochus III.
The defeat of Antiochus the Great at Magnesia, 190 B.C., placed Asia Minor at the mercy of Rome; but it was not until 133 that the first Roman province, Asia, was formed to include only western Anatolia, without Bithynia.
88 B.C.), called Euergetes and Philometor, was the son of Antiochus VIII.
Lathyrus, king of Egypt, he recovered part of his Syrian dominions from Antiochus X.
After the Macedonian conquest of Syria Hamath was called Epiphania by the Greeks in honour of Antiochus IV., Epiphanes, and in the early Byzantine period it was known by both its Hebrew and its Greek name.
Accordingly some have insisted that the story must have been composed at some period when Jewish dead were left unburied, either in the time of Antiochus Epiphanes (2 Macc. v.
of Commagene, who without sufficient reason has been identified with the Seleucid Antiochus XIII.
Antiochus II >>
About 153 B.C. Alexander Balas, son of Antiochus Epiphanes, contesting the Syrian crown with Demetrius, seized the city, which opened its gates to him.
Alexander visited and occupied it, and there the Rhodian fleet defeated that of Antiochus the Great, and in the succeeding century the Cilician pirates established their chief seat.
Shortly afterwards he handed over the provinces east of the Euphrates to his son Antiochus, who, in the following years, till 282, exercised in the East a very energetic and beneficial activity, which continued the work of his father and gave the new empire and the Oriental Hellenistic civilization their form.
While the Seleucid Empire, under Antiochus II.
Greater success a~tended Antiochus III., the Great (222187).
(220) he subdued, with the help of his minister Hermias, an insurrection of the Antiochus satrap Molon of Media, who had assumed the royal Il., the title and was supported by his brother Alexander, Great.
for the conquest of Coele-Syria, but suppressing the revolt of Achaeus in Asia Minor, and recovering the former provinces of the empire in that quarter, Antiochus led a great expedition into the East, designing to restore the imperial authority in its full extent.
(c. 138127) was attacked in 130 by Antiochus VII.
Antiochus pressed successfully on, and once more recovered Babylonia, but in 129 was defeated in Media and fell in a desperate struggle.
Entering into an alliance with Antiochus VIL, they assailed the Parthian Empire.
But how For the whole of this period see further ANTIGONUS; ANTIOCHUS I.IV.; SELEUCID DYNASTY; HELLENISM.
In the south of Babylonia, in the district of Mesene (the modern Maisan), after the fall of Antiochus Sidetes (129 s.c.), an Arabian prince, Hyspaosines or Spasines (in a cuneiform inscription of 127, on a clay tablet dated after this year, he is called Aspasine) founded a kingdom which existed till the rise of the Sassanian Empire.
The town, which was originally named Alexandria and then rebuilt by Antiochus I.
The district of Persis, also, became independent soon after the time of Antiochus IV., and was ruled by its own kings, who perpetuated the Achaemenian traditions, and on their coinswhich bear the Persian language in Aramaic characters, i.e.
After the defeat of Antiochus the Great, king of Syria, by the Romans, Ephesus was handed over by the conquerors to Eumenes, king of Pergamum, whose successor, Attalus Philadelphus, unintentionally worked the city irremediable harm.
Although its ruler Ptolemy renounced allegiance to Antiochus IV.
the dynasty of Iranian origin which ruled at Samosata, described by Strabo (l.c.) as a fortified city in a very fertile if not extensive district, allied itself with the Seleucids, and bore the dynastic name of Antiochus.
Antiochus of Ascalon, the professed restorer of the Old Academy, taught a medley of Stoic and Peripatetic dogmas, which he boldly asserted Zeno had first borrowed from his school.
The league even sent troops to Pergamum against Antiochus (190).
,;pt;) was originally the distinctive surname of Judas, third son of the Jewish priest Mattathias, who struck the first blow for religious liberty during the persecution under Antiochus IV.
The Maccabaean revolt was caused by the attempt of Antiochus IV.
Antiochus punished an outburst of strife between the rivals by plundering the Temple and slaying many of the inhabitants (170 B.C.).
But Antiochus had miscalculated, and by his extreme measures unwittingly saved Judaism from its internal foes.
When, however, Demetrius failed to keep his word, Jonathan transferred his allegiance to Antiochus VI., whom Tryphon had crowned as king.
After the death of Antiochus VII.
His nephew Eumenes (263-241) succeeded him, increased his power, and even defeated Antiochus II.
He continued true to the Romans during their wars with Antiochus and Perseus, and his kingdom spread over the greater part of western Asia Minor, including Mysia, Lydia, great part of Phrygia, Ionia and Caria.
Varro also studied at Athens, especially under the philosopher Antiochus of Ascalon, whose aim it was to lead back the Academic school from the scepticism of Arcesilaus and Carneades to the tenets of the early Platonists, as he understood them.
He was really a stoicizing Platonist; and this has led to the error of supposing Varro to have been a professed Stoic. The influence of Antiochus is clearly to be seen in many remains of Varro's writings.
When consul in 191 B.C. he defeated Antiochus the Great of Syria at Thermopylae, and compelled him to leave Greece.
He then turned his attention to the Aetolians, who had persuaded Antiochus to declare war against Rome, and was only prevented from crushing them by the intercession of T.
Mithradates was at the battle of Ancyra (c. 241), in which he assisted Antiochus Hierax against his brother Seleucus Callinicus, in spite of the fact that he had married the daughter of the latter with Greater Phrygia as her dowry.
His two daughters, both named Laodice, were married, one to Antiochus the Great, the other to his cousin Achaeus, a dynast of Asia Minor.
Idolatry is plainly incompatible with the law of Moses: so were Greek caps; but the Jews who conformed to Hellenism in the time of Antiochus Epiphanes acquired much that was conserved and utilized in that great attempt to convert the Greek world to Judaism, whose best monument is the works of Philo.
With the approval of Antiochus Epiphanes, the Sadducean section embraced the outward forms of Hellenism, and out of the persecution of the orthodox which followed was born the hope of a future life which was in the circumstances the necessary corollary of God's righteousness and was discovered to be latent in Scripture.
This atmosphere of indifference imperceptibly influenced the attitude of the contending schools to one another, and we find various movements towards unity in the views of Boethus the Stoic, Panaetius and Antiochus of Ascalon, founder of the so-called "Fifth Academy."
Berenice, daughter of Ptolemy Philadelphus, wife of Antiochus Theos of Syria, who, according to agreement with Ptolemy (249), had divorced his wife Laodice and transferred the succession to Berenice's children.
On Ptolemy's death, Antiochus repudiated Berenice and took back Laodice, who, however, at once poisoned him and murdered.
(1) A king in the time of Antiochus IV.
CLEOPATRA, the regular name of the queens of Egypt in the Ptolemaic dynasty after Cleopatra, daughter of the Seleucid Antiochus the Great, wife of Ptolemy V., Epiphanes.
The latest connected Babylonian inscription is that of Antiochus Soter (280-260 B.C.), but the language was probably spoken until Hellenic times; cf.
It is quite apparent that the predictions in the Book of Daniel centre on the period of Antiochus Epiphanes (175-164 B.C.), when that Syrian prince was endeavouring to suppress the worship of Yarweh and substitute for it the Greek religion.
It is now generally recognized that the king symbolized by the Little Horn, of whom it is said that he shall come of one of four kingdoms which shall be formed from the Greek empire after the death of its first king (Alexander), can be none other than Antiochus Epiphanes, and in like manner the references in ix.
21-45 refers to the evil deeds of Antiochus IV.
- xii., relating to future events, become inaccurate as soon as the author finishes the section describing the reign of Antiochus Epiphanes.
the reign of Antiochus IV.
Such a reference coming from a Maccabean author can only allude to the deposition by Antiochus IV.
The Book of Daniel loses none of its beauty and force because we are bound, in the light of modern criticism, to consider it as a production of the reign of Antiochus Epiphanes, nor should conservative Bible-readers lament because the historical accuracy of the work is thus destroyed.
The work, which is certainly not a forgery, but only a consolatory political pamphlet, is just as powerful, viewed according to the author's evident intention, as a consolation to God's people in their dire distress at the time of Antiochus Epiphanes, as if it were, what an ancient but mistaken tradition had made it, really an accurate account of events which took place at the close of the Babylonian period.'
" lord"), ruler of the Greek kingdom of Syria 150-146 B.C., was a native of Smyrna of humble origin, but gave himself out to be the son of Antiochus IV.
Antiochus after this concluded peace, giving his own daughter Cleopatra to Epiphanes to wife (193-192).
Nevertheless, when war broke out between Antiochus and Rome Egypt ranged itself with the latter power.
20 a Antiochus IV.
Antiochus professed to support Pliilometor, but, when he withdrew, the brothers agreed to be joint-kings with their sister Cleopatra as queen and wife of Philometor.
Antiochus again invaded Egypt (168), but was compelled by the Roman intervention to retire.
Magas of Cyrene opened war on his half-brother (274), and Antiochus I., the son of Seleucus, desiring Palestine, attacked soon after.
In a second war with the Seleucid kingdom, under Antiochus II.
(after 260), Ptolemy sustained losses on the seaboard of Asia Minor and agreed to a peace by which Antiochus married his daughter Berenice (250?).(250?).
The incense altar in the second temple was removed by Antiochus Epiphanes (r Macc. i.
ASSIDEANS (the Anglicized form, derived through the Greek, of the Hebrew Hasidim, " the pious"), the name of a party or sect which stood out against the Hellenization of the Jews in the 2nd century B.C. After the massacre of those who fled from the forces of Antiochus Epiphanes and would not resist on the sabbath, Mattathias (or Judas) decided to set aside the law and was joined by a company of Assideans, brave men of Israel every one, who offered themselves willingly for the law (1 Macc. ii.
ANTIOCHUS OF SYRACUSE, Greek historian, flourished about 420 B.C. Nothing is known of his life, but his works, of which only fragments remain, enjoyed a high reputation.
Linguistic facts and certain points in the contents seem to him to show that our Esther is a work of the age of the Seleucidae; more precisely he thinks of the time of the revolt of Molon under Antiochus III.
In 192, on the rupture between the Romans and Antiochus III.
Hence Baentsch would refer this oracle to the time of Antiochus IV.
Yet a closer inspection shows us that when a later president of the Academy (Antiochus of Ascalon) repudiated the scepticism which for two hundred years had been accepted as the traditional Platonic doctrine, he had good grounds for claiming Plato and Aristotle as consentient authorities for the ethical position which he took up.
The alterations, however, in the metaphysical position of the Academics had little effect on their ethical teach ing, as, even during the period of Scepticism, they appear to have presented as probable the same general view of human good which Antiochus afterwards dogmatically announced as a revival of the common doctrine of Plato and Aristotle.
And during the period of a century and a half between Antiochus and Plutarch, we may suppose the school to have maintained the old controversy with Stoicism on much the same ground, accepting the formula of " life according to nature," but demanding that the " good " of man should refer to his nature as a whole, the good of his rational part being the chief element, and always preferable in case of conflict, but yet not absolutely his sole good.
Denizli, q.v.) was founded probably by Antiochus II.
It probably dates from about the beginning of the first century B.c .2 As it supplies a detailed and accurate record of the forty years from the accession of Antiochus Epiphanes to the death of Simon (175-135 B.C.), without doubt the most stirring chapter in Jewish history, the book is one of the most precious historical sources we possess.
6 The statements with reference to the war between Antiochus the Great and Ptolemy Philopator are in general agreement with those of the classical historians, and to this extent the tale may be said to have an historical setting.
5) the writer goes on to prove his thesis from Jewish history, dwelling in particular upon the noble stand made against the tyranny of Antiochus IV.
that Seleucus was succeeded by his son Antiochus Epiphanes, iv.
After his death they were annexed to the Syrian monarchy, of which they continued to form a part until the defeat of Antiochus the Great (190 B.C.), after which they were transferred by the Romans to the dominion of Eumenesof Pergamum.
16), was one of the most ancient settlements on the Phoenician coast; but nothing more than the name is known of it till B.C. 140, when the town was taken and destroyed by Tryphon in his contest with Antiochus VII.
After Alexander the Great's death, Lydia passed to Antigonus; then Achaeus made himself king at Sardis, but was defeated and put to death by Antiochus.
From Lysimachus it passed to Seleucus, whose son Antiochus, seeing its geographical importance, refounded it on a more open site as Apamea.
Ardvates, 317-284 B.C., freed himself from Seleucid control; and after the defeat of Antiochus the Great by the Romans, 190 B.C., Artaxias (Ardashes), and Zadriades, the governors of Armenia Major and Armenia Minor, became independent kings, with the concurrence of Rome.
In 112 B.C. the empire of Syria was divided by Antiochus Grypus and Antiochus Cyzicenus; the city of Damascus fell to the share of the latter.
On his dethronement and captivity by the Parthians, Antiochus Dionysus, his brother, succeeded him, but was slain in battle by IHaritha (Aretas) the Arab - the first instance of Arab interference with Damascene politics.
86, Edessa was also called Antioch, and coins of Antiochus IV.
end) argues plausibly that it was in 132 B.C., in the reign of Antiochus VII.
The dynasties founded by Alexander's generals, Seleucus, Antiochus and Ptolemy, encouraged the same spirit of enterprise which their master had fostered, and extended geographical knowledge in several directions.
But when this king was forced, by the rebellion of his brother, Antiochus Hierax, to return to the west, Tiridates came back and defeated the Macedonians (Strabo xi.
Antiochus contrived to get possession of the person of Achaeus (see Polybius), but the citadel held out till 213 under Achaeus's widow and then surrendered.
In 209 Antiochus was in Bactria, where the original rebel had been supplanted by another Greek Euthydemus (see further Bactria and articles on the separate rulers).
It was a measure of a very different kind when, a year or two later (after 168), Antiochus tried to suppress the practices of Judaism by force, and it was this which provoked the Maccabaean rebellion (see Maccabees).
EPIPHANES NICATOR (reigned 96-95), Antiochus Xi.
Antiochus Grypus had given his daughter in marriage to Mithradates, a king of Commagene, and the subsequent kings of Commagene (see under ANTIOCxus) claimed in consequence still to represent the Seleucid house after it had become extinct in the male line, and adopted Antiochus as the dynastic name.
Its kings bore the name of Antiochus, and were as proud of their Macedonian, as of their Persian, descent (see the Inscription of Nimrud Dagh, Michel, No.
made his son Antiochus king for the eastern provinces, we find the army convoked to ratify the appointment (App. Syr.
Even in the degenerate days of the dynasty, Antiochus Grypus, who had been brought up at Athens, aspired to shine as a poet.
sq.), and the recognition that national costume, custom and morality were inseparable underlay the objection to the Greek cap (the7rTavos) introduced among the Jews under Antiochus Epiphanes (2 Macc. iv.
It is said that the day chosen by Judas for the setting up of the new altar was the anniversary of that on which Antiochus had set up the pagan altar; hence it is suggested (e.g.
of the Ptolemies and the Seleucidae, to Antiochus Epiphanes, dwelling in particular on the persecuting measures adopted by Antiochus against the Jews, and promising the tyrant's speedy fall (see e.g.
They proved a formidable foe to the Romans in their wars with Antiochus, and after Attalus' death their raids into W.
An appendix contends against Whiston that the book of Daniel was forged in the time of Antiochus Epiphanes (see DEisM).
11 sqq.) were in the majority; and so far and so long as they were in the ascenda=lt Antiochus was rid of his chief danger in Palestine, the debatable land between Syria and Egypt.
Thus by the treaty with Antiochus (188 B.C.) it was provided that the Greek communities of Asia Minor "shall settle their mutual differences by arbitration," and so far Livy correctly transcribes Polybius, but he adds with a rhetorical flourish, "or, if both parties prefer it, by war" (xxxviii.
Antiochus 's soldiers brought a statue of Zeus into the Temple in Jerusalem and built an altar in honor of this god.
The word usage examples above have been gathered from various sources to reflect current and historial usage. They do not represent the opinions of YourDictionary.com.