Antimony sentence examples

antimony
  • Antimony is widely diffused throughout Australia, and is sometimes found associated with gold.

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  • A sublimate may be formed of: sulphur - reddish-brown drops, cooling to a yellow to brown solid, from sulphides or mixtures; iodine - violet vapour, black sublimate, from iodides, iodic acid, or mixtures; mercury and its compounds - metallic mercury forms minute globules, mercuric sulphide is black and becomes red on rubbing, mercuric chloride fuses before subliming, mercurous chloride does not fuse, mercuric iodide gives a yellow sublimate; arsenic and its compounds - metallic arsenic gives a grey mirror, arsenious oxide forms white shining crystals, arsenic sulphides give reddish-yellow sublimates which turn yellow on cooling; antimony oxide fuses and gives a yellow acicular sublimate; lead chloride forms a white sublimate after long and intense heating.

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  • In Victoria the production of antimony gave employment in 1890 to 238 miners, but owing to the low price of the metal, production has almost ceased.

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  • Good lodes of stibnite (sulphide of antimony) have been found near Roebourne in Western Australia, but no attempt has yet been made to work them.

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  • The chief minerals are sulphur, in the production of which Italy holds one of the first places, iron, zinc, lead; these, and, to a smaller extent, copper of an inferior quality, manganese and antimony, are successfully mined.

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  • Lead, antimony, mercury and copper are also produced.

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  • Leone to the west of Cagliari, and antimony and other metals near Lanusei, but in smaller quantities than in the Iglesias district, so that comparatively little mining has as yet been done there.

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  • Loire, antimony from the departments of Mayenne, Haute-Loire and Cantal.

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  • His first original paper (1799) was on the compounds of arsenic and antimony with oxygen and sulphur, and of his other separate investigations one of the most important was that on the compound ethers, begun in 1807.

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  • To obtain pure sulphuretted hydrogen the method generally adopted consists in decomposing precipitated antimony sulphide with concentrated hydrochloric acid.

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  • Veins of antimony are worked in the Battle Mountain District and in Bullion Canyon, 15 m.

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  • Antimony >>

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  • Gold, the most perfect metal, had the symbol of the Sun, 0; silver, the semiperfect metal, had the symbol of the Moon, 0j; copper, iron and antimony, the imperfect metals of the gold class, had the symbols of Venus Mars and the Earth tin and lead, the imperfect metals of the silver class, had the symbols of Jupiter 94, and Saturn h; while mercury, the imperfect metal of both the gold and silver class, had the symbol of the planet,.

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  • Frankland had recognized the analogies existing between the chemical properties of nitrogen, phosphorus, arsenic and antimony, noting that they act as trior penta-valent.

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  • The allotropy of arsenic and antimony is also worthy of notice, but in the case of the first element the variation is essentially non-metallic, closely resembling that of phosphorus.

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  • If the hot bead is colourless and remains clear on cooling, we may suspect the presence of antimony, aluminium, zinc, cadmium, lead, calcium and magnesium.

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  • The black films of antimony and bismuth and the grey mottled film of mercury are slowly soluble in the acid, and untouched by bleaching-powder.

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  • The oxide films of antimony, arsenic, tin and bismuth are white, that of bismuth slightly yellowish; lead yields a very pale yellow film, and cadmium a brown one; mercury yields no oxide film.

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  • The solution is filtered and treated with an excess of sulphuretted hydrogen, either in solution or by passing in the gas; this precipitates mercury (mercuric), any lead left over from the first group, copper, bismuth, cadmium, arsenic, antimony and tin as sulphides.

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  • The precipitate formed by sulphuretted hydrogen may contain the black mercuric, lead, and copper sulphides, dark-brown bismuth sulphide, yellow cadmium and arsenious sulphides, orange-red antimony sulphide, brown stannous sulphide, dull-yellow stannic sulphide, and whitish sulphur, the last resulting from the oxidation of sulphuretted hydrogen by ferric salts, chromates, &c. Warming with ammonium sulphide dissolves out the arsenic, antimony and tin salts, which are reprecipitated by the addition of hydrochloric acid to the ammonium sulphide solution.

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  • Dissolve the residue in hydrochloric acid and test separately for antimony and tin.

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  • In acid copper solutions, mercury is deposited before the copper with which it subsequently amalgamates; silver is thrown down simultaneously; bismuth appears towards the end; and after all the copper has been precipitated, arsenic and antimony may be deposited.

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  • Another very excellent method of vulcanizing cut sheet goods consists in placing them in a solution of the polysulphides of calcium at a temperature of 140° C. Rubber employed for the manufacture of cut sheets is often coloured by such pigments as vermilion, oxide of chromium, ultramarine, orpiment, antimony, lamp black, or oxide of zinc, incorporation being effected either by means of the masticator or by a pair of rollers heated internally by steam, and so geared as to move in contrary directions at unequal FIG.

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  • In other cases the injurious effects of free sulphur are obviated by using instead of it a metallic sulphide, - generally the orange sulphide of antimony; but, for the best results, it is necessary that this should contain from 20 to 30% of uncombined sulphur.

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  • Of the impurities, most of the copper, nickel and copper, considerable arsenic, some antimony and small amounts of silver are removed by liquation.

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  • To remove tin, arsenic and antimony, the lead has to be brought up to a bright-red heat, when the air has a strongly oxidizing effect.

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  • Tin is removed mainly as a powdery mixture of stannate of lead and lead oxide, arsenic and antimony as a slagged mixture of arsenate and antimonate of lead and lead oxide.

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  • They are readily withdrawn from the surface of the lead, and are worked up into antimony (arsenic) - tin-lead and antimony-lead alloys.

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  • The temperature is then raised, and the scum which forms on the surface is withdrawn until pure litharge forms, which only takes place after all the tin, arsenic and antimony have been eliminated.

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  • Pure lead is far more readily corroded than a metal contaminated with 1% or even less of antimony or copper.

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  • Of the alloys the following may be named: With Antimony.

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  • - Lead contaminated with small proportions of antimony is more highly proof against sulphuric acid than the pure metal.

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  • "Pewter" (q.v.) may be said to be substantially an alloy of the same two metals, but small quantities of copper, antimony and zinc are frequently added.

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  • The metals used in different combinations included tin, aluminium, arsenic, antimony, bismuth and boron; each of these, when united in certain proportions with manganese, together with a larger quantity of copper (which appears to serve merely as a menstruum), constituted a magnetizable alloy.

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  • For all diamagnetic substances, except antimony and the value of K was found to be independent of the temperature.

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  • Hence may be deduced an explanation of the fact that, while the susceptibility of all known diamagnetics (except bismuth and antimony) is independent of the temperature, that of paramagnetics varies inversely as the absolute temperature, in accordance with the law of Curie.

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  • The chief exports are chestnut extract for tanning, cedrates, citrons, oranges, early vegetables, fish, copper ore and antimony ore.

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  • Among the minerals are silver, platinum, copper, iron, lead, manganese, chromium, quicksilver, bismuth, arsenic and antimony, of which only iron and manganese have been regularly mined.

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  • Its chief mineral products are coal, nitre, sulphur, alum, soda, saltpetre, gypsum, porcelain-earth, pipe-clay, asphalt, petroleum, marble and ores of gold, silver, mercury, copper, iron, lead, zinc, antimony, cobalt and arsenic. The principal mining regions are Zsepes-Giimor in Upper Hungary, the Kremnitz-Schemnitz district, the Nagybanya district, the Transylvanian deposits and the Banat.

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  • Iron renders the metal hard and brittle; arsenic, antimony and bismuth (up to 0.5%) reduce its tenacity; copper and lead (1 to 2%) make it harder and stronger but impair its malleability; and stannous oxide reduces its tenacity.

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  • The chief immediate result we can trace is the introduction of certain mineral remedies, especially antimony, the use of which became a kind of badge of the disciples of Paracelsus.

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  • In France the introduction of antimony gave rise to a bitter controversy which lasted into the 17th century, and led to the expulsion of some men of mark from the Paris faculty.

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  • The practical difference in the corresponding treatment was very great, as Rasori advocated a copious use of bleeding and of depressing remedies, such as antimony.

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  • The oxides of lead, barium, zinc and antimony are found perceptibly to retard the rays.

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  • The crystals belong to the following systems: regular system - silver, gold, palladium, mercury, copper, iron, lead; quadratic system - tin, potassium; rhombic system - antimony, bismuth, tellurium, zinc, magnesium.

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  • Antimony, bismuth and zinc exhibit a very distinct crystalline structure: a bar-shaped ingot readily breaks, and the crystal faces are distinctly visible on the fracture.

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  • Volatilized more or less readily when heated beyond their fusing points in open crucibles: antimony (very readily), lead, bismuth, tin, silver.

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  • But the presence of moderate proportions of cuprous oxide has been found to correct the evil influence of small contaminations by arsenic, antimony, lead and other foreign metals.

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  • Tin and antimony (also arsenic) are converted by it (ultimately) into hydrates of their highest oxides Sn0 2, Sb205 (As 2 O 5) - the oxides of tin and antimony being insoluble in water and in the acid itself.

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  • Bismuth and antimony give (the latter very readily) sesquioxide (Bi 2 O 3 and Sb203, the latter being capable of passing into Sb204).

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  • Of the several individual chlorides, the following are liquids or solids, volatile enough to be distilled from glass vessels: AsC13, SbC1 3, SnCl 4, BiCl 3, HgC1 2, the chlorides of arsenic, antimony, tin, bismuth, mercury respectively.

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  • His contributions to inorganic chemistry were numerous, including investigations on the compounds of antimony, aluminium, silicon, &c., on the separation of nickel and cobalt, and on the analysis of mineral waters, but they are outweighed in importance by his work on organic substances.

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  • Silver, gold, copper, mercury, lead, tin, antimony and precious stones are found, in some cases in very rich deposits.

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  • There are also present small quantities of arsenic and antimony, and zinc is found generally as a mere trace, but sometimes reaching to 6%.

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  • Various compounds of the alkali metals with bismuth, antimony, tin and lead have been prepared in a pure state.

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  • The presence of minute quantities of cadmium, lead, bismuth, antimony, arsenic, tin, tellurium and zinc renders gold brittle, 2 ' 0 15th part of one of the three metals first named being sufficient to produce that quality.

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  • Native arsenic and antimony are also very frequently found to contain gold and silver.

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  • It appears that amalgamation is often impeded by the tarnish found on the surface of the gold when it is associated with sulphur, arsenic, bismuth, antimony or tellurium.

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  • The gold is precipitated as the sulphide, together with any arsenic, antimony, copper, silver and lead which may be present.

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  • The slime so obtained consists of finely divided gold and silver (5-5 0%), zinc (30-60%), lead (io%), carbon (io%), together with tin, copper, antimony, arsenic and other impurities of the zinc and ores.

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  • The conversion of silver into the sulphide may be effected by heating with antimony sulphide, litharge and sulphur, pyrites, or with sulphur alone.

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  • The antimony, or Guss and Fluss, method was practised up till 1846 at the Dresden mint; it is only applicable to alloys containing more than 50% of gold.

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  • The fusion results in the formation of a gold-antimony alloy, from which the antimony is removed by an oxidizing fusion with nitre.

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  • It is necessary to remove as completely as possible any lead, tin, bismuth, antimony, arsenic and tellurium, impurities which impair the properties of gold and silver, by an oxidizing fusion, e.g.

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  • Its elementary nature was imperfectly understood; and the impure specimens obtained by the early chemists explain, in some measure, its confusion with tin, lead, antimony, zinc and other metals; in 1595 Andreas Libavius confused it with antimony, and in 1675 Nicolas Lemery with zinc. These obscurities began to be finally cleared up with the researches of Johann Heinrich Pott (1692-1777), a pupil of Stahl, published in his Exercitationes chemicae de Wismutho (1769), and of N.

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  • Calcination in reverberatory furnaces and a subsequent smelting in the same type of furnace with the addition of about 3% of coal, lime, soda and fluorspar, has been adopted for treating the Bolivian ores, which generally contain the sulphides of bismuth, copper, iron, antimony, lead and a little silver.

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  • The crude metal obtained by the preceding processes is generally contaminated by arsenic, sulphur, iron, nickel, cobalt and antimony, and sometimes with silver or gold.

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  • It is precipitated as the metal from solutions of its salts by the metals of the alkalis and alkaline earths, zinc, iron, copper, &c. In its chemical affinities it resembles arsenic and antimony; an important distinction is that it forms no hydrogen compound analogous to arsine and stibine.

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  • The double chloride of caesium and antimony 3CsC1 2SbC1 3 (R.

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  • The crystals look like antimony, and are brittle, and so hard as to scratch glass and rubies; their specific gravity is 4.25.

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  • Copper and antimony are found in the neighbourhood.

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  • There are many other valuable ores - copper, iron, lead, zinc, antimony, chrome and manganese.

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  • Antimony deposits were first worked in 1906.

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  • Diamonds are obtained in Borneo, garnets in Sumatra, Bachian and Timor, and topazes in Bachian, antimony in Borneo and the Philippines; lead in Sumatra, Borneo and the Philippines; copper and malachite in the Philippines, Timor, Borneo and Sumatra; and, most important of all, tin in Banka, Billiton and Singkep. Iron is pretty frequent in various forms. Gold is not uncommon in the older ranges of Sumatra, Banka, Celebes, Bachian, Timor and Borneo.

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  • Algeria is rich in minerals, found chiefly in the department of Constantine, where iron, lead and zinc, copper, calamine, antimony and mercury mines are worked.

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  • According to the official records, there were registered in September 1906, 23,191 mining properties, of which very nearly five-sixths were described as producing s:'ver, either by itself or in combination with other metals: The properties were classed as 1572 gold, 5461 silver, 970 copper, 383 iron, 151 mercury, 94 lead, 86 sulphur, 52 antimony, 49 zinc, 40 tin, 21 opals, 9 manganese, 6 " sal gema," 5 tourmalines, i bismuth and i turquoise - the remainder being various combinations of these minerals.

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  • The mineral nearly always contains a small amount of silver, and sometimes antimony, arsenic, copper, gold, selenium, &c. Argentiferous galena is an important source of silver; this metal is present in amounts rarely exceeding %, and often less than o 03% (equivalent to 104 ounces per ton).

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  • Antimony, quicksilver, stone, marble, slate and potter's clay are also worked, and there are brine springs in the Hellweg and mineral springs at Lippspringe, Oynhausen, &c.

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  • Antimony is found in large quantities near the town.

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  • The minerals discovered in Guatemala include gold, silver, lead, tin, copper, mercury, antimony, coal, salt and sulphur; but it is uncertain if many of these exist in quantities sufficient to repay exploitation.

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  • Antimony, bismuth, selenium, tellurium, chromic iron ore, tin, nickel, cobalt, vanadium, titanium, molybdenum, uranium and tantalum are produced in the United States in small amounts, but such production in several cases has amounted to only slight discoveries, and in general they are of little importance in the market.

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  • In combustion the particulae nitro-aereae - either pre-existent in the thing consumed or supplied by the air - combined with the material burnt; as he inferred from his observation that antimony, strongly heated with a burning glass, undergoes an increase of weight which can be attributed to nothing else but these particles.

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  • Further he prepared a large number of substances, including the chlorides and other salts of lead, tin, iron, zinc, copper, antimony and arsenic, and he even noted some of the phenomena of double decomposition.

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  • Copper and antimony form a single compound SbCu2.

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  • In one case (represented by the point A in the figure) the solid which freezes out is a conglomerate of crystals of the compound with those of antimony, in the other case C with those of copper.

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  • Besides a large number of animal and vegetable substances, many precipitates formed in the course of inorganic chemical reactions are non-crystalline and appear in the colloidal state, instances are the sulphides of antimony and arsenic and the hydroxides of iron and alumina.

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  • The English dye for seals is to-day undoubtedly the best; its constituents are more or less of a trade secret, but the principal ingredients comprise gall nuts, copper dust, camphor and antimony, and it would appear after years of careful watching that the atmosphere and particularly the water of London are partly responsible for good and lasting results.

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  • In the neighbouring Medvenik mountains lead-mining and smelting are carried on by an English company; lead and antimony being also worked at Podgora and other places in the same department.

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  • for the best conductors, but increased to 1800 or 2000 for bad conductors like German-silver and antimony.

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  • Of other minerals (with the exceptions of coal, iron and salt treated below) nickel and antimony are found in the upper Harz; cobalt in the hilly districts of Hesse and the Saxon Erzgebirge; arsenic in the Riesengebirge; quicksilver in the Sauerland and in the spurs of the Saarbrucken coal hills; graphite in Bavaria; porcelain clay in Saxony and Silesia; amber along the whole Baltic coast; and lime and gypsum in almost all parts.

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  • Associated with the silver minerals are rich ores of cobalt and nickel, combined with arsenic, antimony and sulphur, which would be considered valuable if occurring alone, but are not paid for under present conditions, since they are difficult to separate and refine.

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  • The metals, which by combination with oxygen became oxides, were antimony, silver, arsenic, bismuth, cobalt, copper, tin, iron, manganese, mercury, molybdenum, nickel, gold, platinum, lead, tungsten and zinc; and the "simple earthy salifiable substances" were lime, baryta, magnesia, alumina and silica.

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  • Lead, with antimony, is found near the Arghand-ab, 32 m.

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  • Antimony is obtained in considerable quantities at Shah-Maksud, about 30 m.

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  • With chlorine, in the presence of iodine or antimony chloride, it yields meta-chlornitrobenzene.

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  • It occurs in the uncombined condition and alloyed with iron in meteorites; as sulphide in millerite and nickel blende, as arsenide in niccolite and cloanthite, and frequently in combination with arsenic and antimony in the form of complex sulphides.

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  • It includes diamonds, the majority of which, however, are of a somewhat yellow colour, gold, quicksilver, cinnabar, copper, iron, tin, antimony, mineral oils, sulphur, rock-salt, marble and coal.

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  • The discovery that Borneo produced antimony was made in 1825 by John Crawfurd, the orientalist, who learned in that year that a quantity had been brought to Singapore by a native trader as ballast.

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  • Traces of mineral oil, iron ores, copper, zinc and antimony have been found, but the wealth of North Borneo still lies mainly in its jungle produce.

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  • At ordinary temperatures it unites directly with many other elements; thus with hydrogen, combination takes place in direct sunlight with explosive violence; arsenic, antimony, thin copper foil and phosphorus take fire in an atmosphere of chlorine, forming the corresponding chlorides.

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  • Iodine, antimony trichloride, molybdenum pentachloride, ferric chloride, ferric oxide, antimony, tin, stannic oxide and ferrous sulphate have all been used as chlorine carriers.

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  • The majority of the metallic chlorides are solids (stannic chloride, titanic chloride and antimony pentachloride are liquids) which readily volatilize on heating.

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  • Bismuth and antimony chlorides are decomposed by water with production of oxychlorides, whilst titanium tetrachloride yields titanic acid under the same conditions.

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  • Tetrahedrite, fahlerz, or grey copper, contains from 30 to 48% of copper, with arsenic, antimony, iron and sometimes zinc, silver or mercury.

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  • Since all sulphuretted copper ores (and these are of the most economic importance) are invariably contaminated with arsenic and antimony, it is necessary to eliminate these impurities, as far as possible, at a very early stage.

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  • The roasted ore is then smelted to a mixture of copper and iron sulphides, known as copper " matte " or " coarse-metal," which contains little or no arsenic, antimony or silica.

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  • The impurities contained in coarse-copper are mainly iron, lead, zinc, cobalt, nickel, bismuth, arsenic, antimony, sulphur, selenium and tellurium.

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  • The roasting should be conducted so as to eliminate as much of the arsenic and antimony as possible, and to leave just enough sulphur as is necessary to combine with all the copper present when the calcined ore is smelted.

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  • The chief impurities are basic salts of iron, free iron, graphite, and sometimes silica, antimony and iron arsenates.

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  • The principles have long been known on which is based the electrolytic separation of copper from the certain elements which generally accompany it, whether these, like silver and gold, are valuable, or, like arsenic, antimony, bismuth, selenium and tellurium, are merely impurities.

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  • of cathode, and an electrolyte containing qlb of copper sulphate and z lb of sulphuric acid per gallon, all the gold, platinum and silver present in the crude copper anode remain as metals, undissolved, in the anode slime or mud, and all the lead remains there as sulphate, formed by the action of the sulphuric acid (or S04 ions); he found also that arsenic forms arsenious oxide, which dissolves until the solution is saturated, and then remains in the slime, from which on long standing it gradually dissolves, after conversion by secondary reactions into arsenic oxide; antimony forms a basic sulphate which in part dissolves; bismuth partly dissolves and partly remains, but the dissolved portion tends slowly to separate out as a basic salt which becomes added to the slime; cuprous oxide, sulphide and selenides remain in the slime, and very slowly pass into solution by simple chemical action; tin partly dissolves (but in part separates again as basic salt) and partly remains as basic sulphate and stannic oxide; zinc, iron, nickel and cobalt pass into solution - more readily indeed than does the copper.

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  • Neutral solutions are to be avoided because in them silver dissolves from the anode and, being more electro-negative than copper, is deposited at the cathode, while antimony and arsenic are also deposited, imparting a dark colour to the copper.

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  • Electrolytic copper should contain at least 99.92% of metallic copper, the balance consisting mainly of oxygen with not more than o oi% in all of lead, arsenic, antimony, bismuth and silver.

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  • It is incompatible with mineral acids, alkalis, salts of iron, antimony, lead and silver, alkaloids and gelatin.

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  • The richest deposits of nickel, cobalt and antimony ores are also situated in localities where there is little water and the nearest useful fuel some hundred miles away.

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  • ANTIMONY (symbol Sb, atomic weight 120.2), one of the metallic chemical elements, included in the same natural family of the elements as nitrogen, phosphorus, arsenic, and bismuth.

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  • Antimony, in the form of its sulphide, has been known from very early times, more especially in Eastern countries, reference to it being made in the Old Testament.

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  • Basil Valentine alludes to it in his Triumphal Car of Antimony (circa 'boo), and at a later date describes the preparation of the metal.

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  • Native mineral antimony is occasionally found, and as such was first recognized in 1748.

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  • Antimony, however, occurs chiefly as the sulphide, stibnite; to a much smaller extent it occurs in combination with other metallic sulphides in the minerals wolfsbergite, boulangerite, bournonite, pyrargyrite, &c. For the preparation of metallic antimony the crude stibnite is first liquated, to free it from earthy and siliceous matter, and is then roasted in order to convert it into oxide.

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  • Antimony combines readily with many other metals to form alloys, some of which find extensive application in the arts.

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  • Type-metal is an alloy of lead with antimony and tin, to which occasionally a small quantity of copper or zinc is added.

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  • The presence of the antimony in this alloy gives to it hardness, and the property of expanding on solidification, thus allowing a sharp cast of the letter to be taken.

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  • An alloy of tin and antimony forms.

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  • For the linings of brasses, various white metals are used, these being alloys of copper, antimony and tin, and occasionally lead.

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  • Antimony is a silvery white, crystalline, brittle metal, and has a high lustre.

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  • The vapour density of antimony at 1572° C. is 10.74, and at 1640 0 C. 9.78 (V.

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  • Another form of the metal, known as explosive antimony, was discovered by G.

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  • Trans., 1858, p. 185; 18 59, p. 797; 1862, p. 623), on electrolysing a solution of antimony trichloride in hydrochloric acid, using a positive pole of antimony and a negative pole of copper or platinum wire.

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  • It has a specific gravity of 5.78 and always contains some unaltered antimony trichloride (from 6 to 20%, G.

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  • Similar phenomena are exhibited in the electrolysis of solutions of antimony tribromide and tri-iodide, the product obtained from the tribromide having a specific gravity of 5.4, and containing 18-20% of antimony tribromide, whilst that from the tri-iodide has a specific gravity of 5.2-5.8 and contains about 22% of hydriodic acid and antimony tri-iodide.

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  • The atomic weight of antimony has been determined by the analysis of the chloride, bromide and iodide.

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  • Pure antimony is quite permanent in air at ordinary temperatures, but when heated in air or oxygen it burns, forming the trioxide.

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  • Dilute hydrochloric acid is without action on it, but on warming with the concentrated acid, antimony trichloride is formed; it dissolves in warm concentrated sulphuric acid, the sulphate Sb2(S04)3 being formed.

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  • Nitric acid oxidizes antimony either to the trioxide Sb 4 0 6 or the pentoxide Sb 2 0 5, the product obtained depending on the temperature and concentration of the acid.

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  • Antimony compounds when heated on charcoal with sodium carbonate in the reducing flame give brittle beads of metallic antimony, and a white incrustation of the oxide.

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  • Antimony may be estimated quantitatively by conversion into the sulphide; the precipitate obtained is dried at too° C. and heated in a current of carbon dioxide, or it may be converted into the tetroxide by nitric acid.

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  • Antimony, like phosphorus and arsenic, combines directly with hydrogen.

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  • The compound formed, antimoniuretted hydrogen or stibine, SbH 3, may also be prepared by the action of hydrochloric acid on an alloy of antimony and zinc, or by the action of nascent hydrogen on antimony compounds.

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  • There are three known oxides of antimony, the trioxide Sb406 which is capable of combining with both acids and bases to form salts, the tetroxide Sb204 and the pentoxide Sb205.

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  • Antimony trioxide occurs as the minerals valentinite and senarmontite, and can be artificially prepared by burning antimony in air; by heating the metal in steam to a bright red heat; by oxidizing melted antimony with litharge; by decomposing antimony trichloride with an aqueous solution of sodium carbonate, or by the action of dilute nitric acid on the metal.

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  • The corresponding hydroxide, orthoantimonious acid, Sb(OH) 31 can be obtained in a somewhat impure form by precipitating tartar emetic with dilute sulphuric acid; or bet::er by decomposing antimonyl tartaric acid with sulphuric acid and drying the precipitated white powder at too° C. Antimony tetroxide is formed by strongly heating either the trioxide or pentoxide.

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  • Antimony pentoxide is obtained by repeatedly evaporating antimony with nitric acid and heating the resulting antimonic acid to a temperature not above 275° C.; by heating antimony with red mercuric oxide until the mass becomes yellow (J.

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  • Berzelius); or by evaporating antimony trichloride to dryness with nitric acid.

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  • Fremy), is obtained by decomposing antimony pentachloride with hot water, and drying the precipitate so obtained at 100° C. It is a white powder which is more soluble in water and acids than orthoantimonic acid.

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  • Metantimonic acid, HSbO 3, can be obtained by heating orthoantimonic acid to 175° C., or by long fusion of antimony with antimony sulphide and nitre.

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  • Compounds of antimony with all the halogen elements are known, one atom of the metal combining with three or five atoms of the halogen, except in the case of bromine, where only the tribromide is known.

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  • Antimony trichloride ("Butter of Antimony"), SbCl 31 is obtained by burning the metal in chlorine; by distilling antimony with excess of mercuric chloride; and by fractional distillation of antimony tetroxide or trisulphide in hydrochloric acid solution.

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  • These precipitated oxychlorides on continued boiling with water lose all their chlorine and ultimately give a residue of antimony trioxide.

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  • Antimony pentachloride, SbC1 5, is prepared by heating the trichloride in a current of chlorine.

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  • Antimony oxychloride, SbOC1 3, is formed by addition o f the calculated quantity of water to ice-cooled antimony pentachloride, SbC1 5 -}-H 2 0=SbOC1 3 +2HC1.

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  • Antimony tribromide, SbBr 3, and tri-iodide, SbI 31 may be prepared by the action of antimony on solutions of bromine or iodine in carbon bisulphide.

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  • Antimony penta-iodide, SbI 5, is formed by heating antimony with excess of iodine, in a sealed tube, to a temperature not above 130° C. It forms a dark brown crystalline mass, melting at 78° to 79° C., and is easily dissociated on heating.

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  • Antimony trifluoride, SbF 3, is obtained by dissolving the trioxide in aqueous hydrofluoric acid or by distilling antimony with mercuric fluoride.

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  • Two sulphides of antimony are definitely known, the trisulphide Sb 2 S 3 and the pentasulphide Sb2S5; a third, the tetrasulphide Sb2S4, has also been described, but its existence is doubtful.

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  • Antimony trisulphide, Sb2S3, occurs as the mineral antimonite or stibnite, from which the commercial product is obtained by a process of liquation.

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  • On precipitating antimony trichloride or tartar emetic in acid solution with sulphuretted hydrogen, an orange-red precipitate of the hydrated sulphide is obtained, which turns black on being heated to 200° C The trisulphide heated in a current of hydrogen is reduced to the metallic state; it burns in air forming the tetroxide, and is soluble in concentrated hydrochloric acid, in solutions of the caustic alkalis, and in alkaline sulphides.

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  • By the union of antimony trisulphide with basic sulphides, livers of antimony are obtained.

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  • These substances are usually prepared by fusing their components together, and are dark powders which are less soluble in water the more antimony they contain.

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  • Antimony nentasulphide, Sb2S5, is prepared by precipitating a solution of the pentachloride with sulphuretted hydrogen, by decomposing "Schlippe's salt" with an acid, or by passing sulphuretted hydrogen into water containing antimonic acid.

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  • An antimony phosphide and arsenide are known, as is also a thiophosphate, SbPS 4, which is prepared by heating together antimony trichloride and phosphorus pentasulphide.

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  • Many organic compounds containing antimony are known.

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  • By distilling an alloy of antimony and sodium with mythyl iodide, mixed with sand, trimethyl stibine, Sb(CH 3) 3 i is obtained; this combines with excess of methyl iodide to form tetramethyl stibonium iodide, Sb(CH 3) 4 1.

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  • From this iodide the trimethyl stibine may be obtained by distillation with an alloy of potassium and antimony in a current of carbon dioxide.

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  • On distilling trimethyl stibine with zinc methyl, antimony tetra-methyl and penta-methyl are formed.

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  • Corresponding antimony compounds containing the ethyl group. are known, as is also a tri-phenyl stibine, Sb(C6H5)3, which is prepared from antimony trichloride, sodium and monochlorbenzene.

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  • See Chung Yu Wang, Antimony (1909).

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  • Metallic antimony was utilized to make goblets in which wine was allowed to stand so as to acquire emetic properties, and "everlasting" pills of the metal, supposed to act by contact merely, were administered and recovered for future use after they had fulfilled their purpose.

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  • Antimony compounds act as irritants both externally and internally.

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  • Tartar emetic (antimony tartrate) when swallowed, acts directly on the wall of the stomach, producing vomiting, and after absorption continues this effect by its action on the medulla.

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  • ==Toxicology== Antimony is one of the "protoplasmic" poisons, directly lethal to all living matter.

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  • Chronic poisoning by antimony is very rare, but resembles in essentials chronic poisoning by arsenic. In its medico-legal aspects antimonial poisoning is of little and lessening importance.

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  • Lead, wolfram, antimony and auriferous quartz exist in the districts of Coimbra, Evora, Beja and Faro.

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  • The nitrates, chlorides, sugars and fats, as also the metals lead, bismuth and antimony, have a specific cohesion nearly equal to that of mercury.

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  • Antimony is extracted at Milleschau near Tabor; uranium and radium near Joachimsthal; graphite near Krumau and Budweis; porcelain-earth near Carlsbad.

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  • Various impurities, such as copper, antimony and sulphur, go into the lead button, so that the result is generally too high.

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  • It is the most malleable and ductile of all metals with the exception of gold: one gramme can be drawn out into a wire 180 metres long, and the leaf can be beaten out to a thickness of 0.0002 5 mm.; traces of arsenic, antimony, bismuth and lead, however, make it brittle.

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  • The leading silver minerals are native silver; argentite or silver glance, Ag 2 S, usually containing small amounts of lead, copper and tin; dyscrasite or antimonial silver, Ag 2 Sb to Ag,3Sb, an isomorphous mixture of silver and antimony; proustite or light red silver ore, Ag 3 AsS 3; pyrargyrite or dark red silver ore, Ag 3 SbS 3; stephanite, Ag 5 SbS 4; miargyrite, AgSbS2; stromeyerite, CuAgS; polybasite, 9(Cu 2 S,Ag 2 S) (Sb 2 S 3, As 2 S 3); cerargyrite or horn silver, AgCI; bromite or bromargyrite, AgBr; embolite, Ag(C1,Br); iodite or iodargyrite, AgI.

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  • Thus arsenic, antimony, bismuth, tin or zinc render the metal brittle, so that it fractures under a die or rolling mill; copper, on the other hand, increases its hardness, makes it tougher and more readily fusible.

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  • Bismuth, platinum, molybdenum and antimony are obtained in small quantities.

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  • Numerous gold mines are worked in the district, which also abounds in copper, silver, antimony, cinnabar, bismuth and nickel.

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  • It combines directly with nitrogen, phosphorus, antimony and carbon, and with all the metals (except gold) to form selenides, of which those of the alkali and alkaline earth metals are soluble in water.

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  • It combines with titanium and tin bichlorides and with antimony trichloride, and it is decomposed by water.

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  • In subsequent receipts saltpetre and turpentine make their appearance, and the modern "carcass composition," containing sulphur, tallow, rosin, turpentine, saltpetre and crude antimony, is a representative of the same class of mixtures, which became known to the Crusaders as Greek fire but were more usually called wildfire.

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  • Thiophosphoryl chloride, PSC1 3, may be obtained by the direct combination of sulphur with the trichloride; from sulphuretted hydrogen and the pentachloride; from antimony trisulphide and the pentachloride; by heating the pentasulphide with the pentachloride; and by dissolving phosphorus in sulphur chloride and distilling the solution: 2P+3S 2 C1 2 = 4S+2PSC1 3.

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  • It is worthy of notice that while many metals dissolve in cold dilute sulphuric acid, with the liberation of hydrogen, in accordance with the typical equation: M -{- H 2 50 4 = MSO 4 -1H2 (M denoting one atom of divalent or two atoms of a monovalent metal), there are several (copper, mercury, antimony, tin, lead and silver) which are insoluble in the cold dilute acid, but dissolve in the hot strong acid with evolution of sulphur dioxide, thus: M -}- 2H 2 250 4 = MSO 4 SO 2 + 2H 2 0.

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  • Rich antimony and calamine mines are worked by a French undertaking, and good marble is quarried by an Italian company.

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  • Gold is found in several places, and some arsenic, antimony, bismuth, manganese, mercury and sulphur.

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  • Antimony is mined at Zayechar.

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  • Volcanic activity in the neighbourhood is further shown by the quantities of pumice-stone drifted on to the south coasts of Kandavu and Viti Levu; malachite, antimony and graphite, gold in small quantities, and specular iron-sand occur.

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  • Silver has been detected in certain galenas, and also platinum; copper has been found in various localities, as well as zinc, lead, nickel, antimony and manganese, but none of these metals has yet been discovered in sufficient quantities for profitable working.

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  • "Anti-friction metals," also used in bearings, are copper-tin alloys in which the amount of copper is small and there is antimony in addition.

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  • Of this class an example is "Babbitt's metal," invented by Isaac Babbitt (1799-1862); it originally consisted of 24 parts of tin, 8 parts of antimony and 4 parts of copper, but in later compositions for the same purpose the proportion of tin is often considerably higher.

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  • Native arsenic occurs usually in metalliferous veins in association with ores of antimony, silver, &c.; the silver mines of Freiberg in Saxony, St Andreasberg in the Harz, and Chanarcillo in Chile being well-known localities.

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  • On removing, washing and gently drying the metal and heating it in a glass tube, a white crystalline sublimate is formed on the cool part of the tube; under the same conditions antimony does not produce a crystalline sublimate.

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  • Antimony gives no reaction under these conditions, so that the method can be used to detect arsenic in the presence of antimony, but the test is not so delicate as either Reinsch's or Marsh's method.

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  • This may be distinguished from the similar antimony deposit by its ready solubility in a solution of sodium hypochlorite.

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  • Among the less important Spanish minerals are manganese (chiefly in Ciudad Real), antimony, gold, cobalt, sodic sulphate, sulphate of barium (barytes), phosphorite (found in Chceres), alum, sulphur, kaolin, lignite, asphalt, besides a variety of building and ornamental stones.

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  • It is rich in minerals, including chrome, manganese, zinc, antimony, iron, argentiferous lead, arsenic and lignite, but some of these are unworked.

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  • - These include iron, manganese, aluminium, chromium, zinc, copper, silver, gold, platinum, lead, mercury, and probably antimony, arsenic and bismuth.

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  • Arsenic and antimony do not form combinations with albumen, but they both greatly depress the central nervous system and circulation; and, if their action be long continued in large doses, they cause fatty degeneration of the viscera and disappearance of glycogen from the liver.

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  • Locally they are both very irritating, and antimony has a special tendency to cause vomiting.

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  • Pewter Pewter is an alloy consisting of mainly tin and containing antimony and copper for strength and color, respectively.

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  • antimony trioxide promotes charring of the resin, which reduces the formation of volatile gases.

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  • antimony sulfide, the white is processed arsenic oxide and the yellow-brown in the background is arsenic sulfide ore.

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  • Antimony concentrations reported for the foods analyzed for this survey indicate that exposure of infants to antimony concentrations reported for the foods analyzed for this survey indicate that exposure of infants to antimony from the diet is very low.

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  • antimony tin oxide.

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  • antimony ores were worked in a related, but unusual deposit.

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  • antimony minerals have been identified as inclusions in the abundant primary sulfides galena and chalcopyrite.

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  • My work is a novel study into the effects of incorporating antimony into strained silicon.

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  • During burning, antimony trioxide promotes charring of the resin, which reduces the formation of volatile gases.

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  • It is still the commonest detonator, but it is now usually mixed with other substances; the British service uses for percussion caps 6 parts of fulminate, 6 of potassium chlorate and 4 of antimony sulphide, and for time fuses 4 parts of fulminate, 6 of potassium chlorate and 4 of antimony sulphide, the mixture being damped with a shellac varnish; for use in blasting, a home office order of 1897 prescribes a mixture of 4 parts of fulminate and 1 of potassium chlorate.

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  • Antimony and its compounds formed the subject of an elaborate treatise ascribed to this last writer, who also contributed to our knowledge of the compounds of zinc, bismuth and arsenic. All the commonly occurring elements and compounds appear to have received notice by the alchemists; but the writings assigned to the alchemical period are generally so vague and indefinite that it is difficult to determine the true value of the results obtained.

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  • If the incrustation be white and readily volatile, arsenic is present, if more difficultly volatile and beads are present, antimony; zinc gives an incrustation yellow whilst hot, white on cooling, and volatilized with difficulty; tin gives a pale yellow incrustation, which becomes white on cooling, and does not volatilize in either the reducing or oxidizing flames; lead gives a lemon-yellow incrustation turning sulphur-yellow on cooling, together with metallic malleable beads; bismuth gives metallic globules and a dark orange-yellow incrustation, which becomes lemon-yellow on cooling; cadmium gives a reddish-brown incrustation, which is removed without leaving a gleam by heating in the reducing flame; silver gives white metallic globules and a dark-red incrustation.

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  • Another very excellent method of vulcanizing cut sheet goods consists in placing them in a solution of the polysulphides of calcium at a temperature of 140° C. Rubber employed for the manufacture of cut sheets is often coloured by such pigments as vermilion, oxide of chromium, ultramarine, orpiment, antimony, lamp black, or oxide of zinc, incorporation being effected either by means of the masticator or by a pair of rollers heated internally by steam, and so geared as to move in contrary directions at unequal FIG.

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  • An alloy of 83 parts of lead and 17 of antimony is used as type metal; other proportions are used, however, and other metals added besides antimony (e.g.

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  • An alloy consisting of 9 parts of lead, 2 of antimony and 2 of bismuth is used for stereotype plates.

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  • Gowland has shown that, whatever may have been the practice of Japanese bronze makers in ancient and medieval eras, their successors in later days deliberately introduced arsenic and antimony into the compound in order to harden the bronze without impairing its fusibility, so that it might take a sharper impression of the mould.

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  • Thus Paracelsus and Libavius both used the term to denote a fine powder, the latter speaking of an alcohol derived from antimony.

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  • It will only combine with hydrogen in the presence of a catalyst, but combines with many other elements directly; for example, phosphorus melts and then inflames, antimony burns in the vapour, and mercury when heated with iodine combines with it rapidly.

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  • In the better explored parts along the great lakes and the railways, ores of gold, silver, nickel, cobalt, antimony, arsenic, bismuth and molybdenum have been obtained, and several important mines have been opened up. Gold has been found at many points across the whole province, from the mines of the Lakeof-the-Woods on the west to the discoveries at Larder Lake on the east; but in most cases the returns have been unsatisfactory, and only a few of the gold mines are working.

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  • The minerals known to exist are - alum, antimony, arsenic, asbestos, boracide, chrome, coal, copper, emery, fuller's earth, gold, iron, kaolin, lead, lignite, magnetic iron, manganese, meerschaum, mercury, nickel, rock-salt, silver, sulphur and zinc. The vegetation varies with the climate, soil and elevation.

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  • Electrolytic methods, in which a solution of antimony sulphide in sodium sulphide is used as the electrolyte, have been proposed (see German Patent 67973, and also Borcher's Electro-Metallurgie), but do not yet appear to have been used on the large scale.

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  • The vapour density of antimony at 1572° C. is 10.74, and at 1640 0 C. 9.78 (V.

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  • Meyer, Berichte, 1889, 22, p. 725), so that the antimony molecule is less complex than the molecules of the elements phosphorus and arsenic. An amorphous modification of antimony can be prepared by heating the metal in a stream of nitrogen, when it condenses in the cool part of the apparatus as a grey powder of specific gravity 6.22, melting at 614° C. and containing 98-99% of antimony (F.

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  • Antimony and its salts may be readily detected by the orange precipitate of antimony sulphide which is produced when sulphuretted hydrogen is passed through their acid solutions, and also by the Marsh test (see Arsenic); in this latter case the black stain produced is not soluble in bleaching powder solution.

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  • Antimony may be estimated quantitatively by conversion into the sulphide; the precipitate obtained is dried at too° C. and heated in a current of carbon dioxide, or it may be converted into the tetroxide by nitric acid.

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  • The corresponding hydroxide, orthoantimonious acid, Sb(OH) 31 can be obtained in a somewhat impure form by precipitating tartar emetic with dilute sulphuric acid; or bet::er by decomposing antimonyl tartaric acid with sulphuric acid and drying the precipitated white powder at too° C. Antimony tetroxide is formed by strongly heating either the trioxide or pentoxide.

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  • Antimony pentoxide is obtained by repeatedly evaporating antimony with nitric acid and heating the resulting antimonic acid to a temperature not above 275° C.; by heating antimony with red mercuric oxide until the mass becomes yellow (J.

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  • Fremy), is obtained by decomposing antimony pentachloride with hot water, and drying the precipitate so obtained at 100° C. It is a white powder which is more soluble in water and acids than orthoantimonic acid.

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  • Metantimonic acid, HSbO 3, can be obtained by heating orthoantimonic acid to 175° C., or by long fusion of antimony with antimony sulphide and nitre.

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  • Antimony penta-iodide, SbI 5, is formed by heating antimony with excess of iodine, in a sealed tube, to a temperature not above 130° C. It forms a dark brown crystalline mass, melting at 78° to 79° C., and is easily dissociated on heating.

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  • On precipitating antimony trichloride or tartar emetic in acid solution with sulphuretted hydrogen, an orange-red precipitate of the hydrated sulphide is obtained, which turns black on being heated to 200° C The trisulphide heated in a current of hydrogen is reduced to the metallic state; it burns in air forming the tetroxide, and is soluble in concentrated hydrochloric acid, in solutions of the caustic alkalis, and in alkaline sulphides.

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  • Arsenic possesses a steel-grey colour, and a decided metallic lustre; it crystallizes on sublimation and slow condensation in rhombohedra, isomorphous with those of antimony and tellurium.

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  • According to the tests done on the Zhu Zhu pet, the levels of the two metals chromium and antimony were elevated to the point of concern.

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  • Though the Zhu Zhu pet does contain chromium and antimony on the nose of the pet, the testing method used by Good Guide differed from the Consumer Product Safety Commission Federal testing requirements.

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  • The Consumer Product Safety Commission has not deemed the Zhu Zhu Pets as unsafe because the level of antimony and chromium were under the allowed limits.

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  • Iron and coal are probably abundant, and silverlead, copper and antimony are believed to exist.

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