Antibodies sentence example

antibodies
  • Antibodies are specific to the agent causing their response.
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  • Several gene families undergo rearrangements in immune cells in order to generate a vast diversity of antibodies.
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  • Where tetanus has become established, antibodies are used to work against the poison (known as tetanus antitoxins ).
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  • Elan researchers have recently shown for the first time that certain monoclonal antibodies can cross the blood-brain barrier.
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  • The use of various assays to detect serum antibodies and differing definitions of antibody positivity limits the ability to compare antigenicity among different products.
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  • Breastfeeding provides infants with antibodies.
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  • In response, it releases IgE antibodies to combat the food.
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  • However, we do not know that the levels of antibodies detected are actually protective levels.
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  • In most cases, 1 or more female donors had positive HLA and/or granulocyte antibodies.
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  • The antibodies signal the body to produce histamine, which causes the airways to inflame.
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  • This can be as easily achieved with chimaeric as with fully humanized or reshaped antibodies.
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  • These antibodies bind to the surface proteins but do not inactivate the virus.
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  • In any other context mitochondrial antibodies are clinically insignificant.
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  • Such " reactive lysis " or " bystander lysis " can account for injury to cells not recognized by specific antibodies (131 ).
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  • These antibodies may be the cause of the eye muscle paralysis.
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  • Some white blood cells can produce special chemicals called antibodies that destroy microorganisms.
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  • These antibodies will be used in the study of molecular mimicry in the context of autoimmune uveitis.
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  • The original rat monoclonal antibodies had been prepared from ascitic fluid, crudely fractionated with ammonium sulfate.
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  • A solution to the immunogenicity of rodent monoclonal antibodies in human therapy would be to derive human antibodies directly from humans.
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  • This test measures the metabolic response of human monocytes to red cells sensitized with IgG antibodies.
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  • Anticholinesterase antibodies (AChR antibodies) will be present in cats with acquired myasthenia gravis, but not in cats with congenital myasthenia.
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  • Monoclonal antibodies used as a treatment may for example destroy the blood cells that are causing myositis.
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  • For example, there is evidence that subsets of anti-DNA antibodies cause lupus nephritis.
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  • In patients dependent on platelet transfusion, HPA antibodies may be a cause of refractoriness to random donor platelets.
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  • In some patients with HLA antibodies, HPA antibodies may also be present requiring donor platelets matched for both type of antibodies.
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  • He hoped our sensitive immune system would react by creating antibodies to these viral corpses that would also protect us against living wild poliovirus.
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  • Techniques on the screening of patient sera for red cell antibodies - including the provision of donor blood for patients.
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  • The occurrence and distribution in the United Kingdom of antibodies to parainfluenza 3 and infectious bovine rhinotracheitis viruses in bovine sera.
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  • None of the 25 negative control sera analyzed showed the presence of specific IgE antibodies against milk proteins.
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  • Detection of antibodies against Jembrana disease virus in Bali cattle sera using a recombinant ELISA.
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  • Techniques of compatibility testing of specificity of red blood cell antibodies found in patient's sera.
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  • A full description of antibodies in maternal serum should be provided.
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  • Field workers exposed to Bt spray experienced allergic skin sensitization and induction of IgE and IgG antibodies to the spray [19] .
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  • Properties of antibodies 1. Antibody structure; variable and constant domains; isotypes; immunoglobulin gene superfamily.
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  • Sometimes antibodies causing thrombocytopenia arise in a patient with a specific disease in which abnormal production of other antibodies may occur.
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  • We describe 5 patients with a relapsing encephalopathy in association with Hashimoto's disease and high titers of anti-thyroid antibodies.
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  • The detection of these antibodies reveals very low titers, found only in a small proportion of young compared with older NPC patients.
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  • There is now a large demand for CAMPATH-1 antibodies to facilitate unrelated donor transplants.
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  • We determined whether such antibodies might control viremia by complement-mediated inactivation (CMI ).
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  • The importance of neutralizing antibodies in containing primary viremia is questioned because they usually arise much later.
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  • Anti-D antibody An alternative recently adopted approach is anti-D which comprises antibodies to a rhesus blood group protein ' D '.
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  • Ms C is an adolescent girl with no evidence of rubella antibodies.
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  • Techniques of compatibility testing of specificity of red blood cell antibodies found in patient 's sera.
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  • Sera from animals infected with D. congolensis were then found to have antibodies against some of the components.
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  • Field workers exposed to Bt spray experienced allergic skin sensitization and induction of IgE and IgG antibodies to the spray [19 ].
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  • Diagnosis is typically based on a blood test, which looks for the presence of syphilis antibodies in the blood.
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  • In acute tibia fracture studies, 4.4% of patients receiving InductOs developed antibodies vs 0.6% in the control group.
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  • We describe 5 patients with a relapsing encephalopathy in association with Hashimoto 's disease and high titers of anti-thyroid antibodies.
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  • The component should be free from clinically significant irregular blood group antibodies including high titre anti-A and anti-B.
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  • We determined whether such antibodies might control viremia by complement-mediated inactivation (CMI).
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  • A baby will receive antibodies through her mom's milk, and breastfeeding your baby will lower her chances of contracting meningitis, diabetes, allergies, respiratory illnesses, obesity, and childhood cancers, such as leukemia.
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  • Antibodies passed from mom to infant in the breast milk help prevent infection.
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  • Although her immunity is still well supported by your antibodies, a newborn who gets sick will not feed well and this is very stressful for you as a parent.
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  • Just as with human mothers, the milk contains valuable colostrum, which contains antibodies to keep the kittens healthy.
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  • Most strains of the feline corona virus do not cause illness, but they do cause the cat to develop antibodies.
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  • The cat's antibodies stop protecting the cat from infection and actually assist the virus in infecting white blood cells.
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  • Each of these tests detects the presence of the coronavirus antibodies, but they cannot be used to positively diagnose FIP.
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  • As your body sends antibodies to fight infection, it causes the temperature around the infected area to heat up even before the area turns red.
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  • The test looks for the presence of antibodies to feline leukemia, according to a 1993 study in the Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research.
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  • Antigens or toxins cause the body to produce antibodies in order to destroy the foreign matter.
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  • The detection of the feline leukemia antibodies indicates that your cat has been exposed.
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  • The difference in the two tests lies in how they detect the antibodies.
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  • With the ELISA test, your veterinarian is looking for the presence of antibodies in the blood sample.
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  • In addition to containing essential amino acids that aid your body with dietary processes, protein helps the body build muscle, create and repair strong tissues, manufacture antibodies, and maintain energy.
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  • Third, he should test your dog's blood for levels of the CVF antibodies.
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  • Once the dogs have all of their antibodies, they then do the "titers" blood test to check the dogs' antibodies levels.
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  • The mother transfers natural antibodies to her puppies through the colostrum she produces within the first 24 hours of giving birth.
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  • The antibodies provide the young puppies with protection against many diseases such parvo.
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  • As the antibodies drop, the puppy's immunity to parvo weakens.
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  • Maternal antibodies within the puppy will render the parvo virus ineffective, but the plummeting number of antibodies may not offer sufficient protection against parvo.
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  • Until the antibodies in the puppy's bloodstream drop sufficiently, the vaccine will not work, and the puppy may develop parvo.
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  • When it is injected, the recipient's body produces antibodies to protect him or her from contracting the flu.
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  • Antiphospholipid antibody syndrome-An immune disorder that occurs when the body recognizes phospholipids (part of a cell's membrane) as foreign and produces abnormal antibodies against them.
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  • In adults, ITP is considered an autoimmune disorder, which means that the body produces antibodies that damage some of its own products-in this case, blood platelets.
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  • A blood test for autoantibodies may be performed early in the diagnostic process as well as a test for antiplatelet antibodies.
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  • Prednisone is a steroid medication that decreases the effects of antibodies on platelets and eventually lowers antibody production.
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  • The key component in colostrum and breast milk is immunoglobulins or antibodies that serve to protect the infant against infections or viruses.
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  • Monoclonal antibodies are used to fight cancer cells in much the same way as antibodies that are produced by the body's own immune system work to fight infection.
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  • They include substances such as interferons, interleukins, growth factors, monoclonal antibodies, and vaccines.
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  • The B cells protect the body by making antibodies, which are proteins that can attach to the surfaces of bacteria and viruses.
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  • It is normal for the immune system to respond to foreign microorganisms and particles, like pollen or dust, by producing antibodies against those substances.
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  • Antibodies are specific proteins the immune system manufactures to bind to corresponding molecules (antigens) on the cell surfaces of foreign organisms in an attempt to render them harmless.
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  • When the antibodies encounter allergens, mast cells release granules, which spill out their chemicals onto the cells of nearby tissues, including blood vessels and nerves.
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  • If antibodies against a particular allergen are present, those antibodies will bind to the solid medium and remain attached after being rinsed.
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  • Antigen-A substance (usually a protein) identified as foreign by the body's immune system, triggering the release of antibodies as part of the body's immune response.
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  • A titer is the serial dilution of antibodies (protein molecules or immunoglobulins produced by the immune system in response to specific disease agents) found in blood serum that determines their level of concentration.
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  • Antibodies are proteins produced by the immune system in response to infectious agents that are foreign to the body, such as viruses, bacteria, parasites, or toxins.
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  • These infectious organisms have antigens on their surfaces that stimulate the immune system to produce corresponding antibodies.
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  • IgM antibodies are produced in response to viruses.
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  • The TORCH test screens for the presence of IgM antibodies, and the titer determines their concentration in the blood.
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  • The five groups of disease-causing organisms whose antibodies are measured by the TORCH test are grouped together because they can cause a cluster of symptomatic birth defects in newborns.
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  • False negative and false positive results can occur with the TORCH test for immunoglobulins because of cross-reacting antibodies, especially among the different types of herpes viruses.
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  • IgM is one of five types of antibodies (protein molecules) produced by the immune system and found in blood.
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  • The test can be refined further for antibodies specific to given disease agents.
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  • An Rh-negative mother who was exposed to her fetus's Rh-positive blood during a previous pregnancy or delivery or who has accidentally received an Rh-positive blood transfusion has antibodies against Rh-positive blood cells.
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  • These antibodies can circulate in her Rh-positive newborn, initiating hemolysis and causing severe abnormal jaundice.
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  • This destroys any Rh-positive fetal blood cells in the mother's circulation before her immune system can produce antibodies against them.
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  • Syphilis serology involves testing for antibodies that indicate neurosyphilis.
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  • The test is used in conjunction with the VDRL test for nontreponemal antibodies, which is positive in most persons with active syphilis, but negative in treated cases.
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  • If mononucleosis is suspected, the doctor may do a mono spot test to look for antibodies indicating the presence of the Epstein-Barr virus.
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  • An inexpensive blood test can also determine the presence of antibodies to the mononucleosis virus.
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  • Also, immunosuppressant drugs, including steroids and cancer drugs, may reduce the ability of the body to produce antibodies in response to DTP vaccine.
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  • Breastfed babies may be less likely to become infected, because breast milk contains antibodies (proteins produced by the white blood cells of the immune system) that fight the illness.
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  • Nearly every child by the age of four has been infected by this virus and has rotavirus antibodies in their body.
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  • In addition, it contains important antibodies that help protect infants from infection at a time when their own immune systems are not yet fully developed.
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  • Immune response-A physiological response of the body controlled by the immune system that involves the production of antibodies to fight off specific foreign substances or agents (antigens).
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  • Blood tests can aid in identifying an infectious agent by detecting the presence of antibodies against it or providing samples for growth of the organism in a culture.
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  • Allergy testing provides convincing evidence of specific antibodies to which the child is reacting.
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  • The extent of infection can be estimated from the results of blood tests that measure increases in the quantity of antibodies the immune system produces to fight it.
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  • Thirty-five percent of five-year olds carry HSV-1 antibodies.
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  • Most infants have protection for at least six months from HSV-1 by antibodies they received from their mothers.
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  • Laboratory blood test looks for the virus or to confirm the presence of antibodies that fight the virus.
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  • Antibodies to a number of infectious agents can be measured; if antibody levels are rising, they may point to an active infection.
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  • In some cases, a febrile agglutination test can be performed to detect the presence in blood of certain infectious organisms that may stimulate the immune system to produce antibodies known as febrile agglutinins.
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  • If there is any doubt as to the diagnosis, then a specimen of body fluids (mucus, urine) can be collected and combined with fluorescent-tagged measles virus antibodies.
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  • Antibodies are produced by the body's immune cells that can recognize and bind to markers (antigens) on the outside of specific organisms, in this case the measles virus.
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  • Once the fluorescent antibodies have attached themselves to the measles antigens in the specimen, the specimen can be viewed under a special microscope to verify the presence of measles virus.
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  • Immune cells called antibodies are produced, which in the event of a future infection with measles virus quickly recognize the organism and kill it off.
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  • It also includes B cells, which are the only cells in the body that make antibodies.
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  • For the first few months after birth, an infant with SCID is often protected by antibodies acquired before birth from the mother's blood.
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  • They secrete antibodies and have a number of other complex functions within the human immune system.
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  • Immunohistochemistry involves adding special antibodies and chemicals or stains to tumor samples.
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  • Women with autoimmune anti-thyroid or anti-phospholipid (APA) antibodies are at slightly increased risk for CP in their children.
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  • Rh disease in the newborn is rare in developed countries due to routine screening of maternal blood type and routine prevention of anti-Rh antibodies in Rh negative women after each birth of an Rh positive infant.
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  • A blood test is done to check for rubella antibodies.
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  • When the body is infected with the rubella virus, it produces both immunoglobulin G (IgG) and immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibodies to fight the infection.
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  • The lack of antibodies indicates that a person is susceptible to rubella.
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  • Immunization-A process or procedure that protects the body against an infectious disease by stimulating the production of antibodies.
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  • If mononucleosis is suspected, a physician will typically conduct a physical examination, including a "Monospot" antibody blood test that can indicate the presence of proteins or antibodies produced in response to infection with the EBV.
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  • These antibodies may not be detectable, however, until the second or third weeks of the illness.
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  • A nasal swab can be obtained to isolate the virus or antibodies to the virus in secretions.
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  • In time, the body will make antibodies to fight the infection and return itself to health.
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  • There are no medications that can speed the body's production of antibodies against the virus.
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  • The antidote for severe widow spider bites is a substance called antivenin, which contains antibodies taken from the blood serum of horses injected with spider venom.
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  • The body produces immune cells (called antibodies), that are specifically designed to recognize and destroy invading agent-in this case, streptococcal bacteria.
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  • The antibodies are able to recognize the bacteria because the bacteria contain special markers called antigens.
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  • Due to a resemblance between Group A streptococcus bacteria's antigens and antigens present on the body's own cells, the antibodies may mistakenly attack the body itself.
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  • Other tests can be performed to see if the patient is producing specific antibodies that are only made in response to a recent strep infection.
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  • Researchers have discovered that large numbers of North American cats carry antibodies for the disease (meaning that the cats have been infected at some point in their lives).
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  • Bartonella henselae is uncommon or absent in cold climates, which fleas have difficulty tolerating, but prevalent in warm, humid places such as Memphis, Tennessee, where antibodies were found in 71 percent of the cats tested.
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  • In addition to testing for muscle enzymes, the doctor may also have the blood sample tested for antinuclear antibodies (ANA), which are produced when a person's immune system is producing antibodies against the body's own tissues.
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  • When a child receives a vaccine, his or her immune system responds by producing antibodies, substances that weaken or destroy disease-causing organisms.
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  • When the child comes in contact with live bacteria or viruses of the same kind that are in the vaccine, the antibodies prevent those organisms from making the child sick.
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  • When introduced into the body, the antigens stimulate the immune system response by instructing B cells to produce antibodies, with assistance from T-cells.
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  • The antibodies are produced to fight the weakened or dead viruses in the vaccine.
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  • The antibodies "practice" on the weakened viruses, preparing the immune system to destroy real and stronger viruses in the future.
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  • Vaccine-A substance prepared from a weakened or killed microorganism which, when injected, helps the body to form antibodies that will prevent infection by the natural microorganism.
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  • Some researchers think that the tics develop when antibodies in the child's blood produced in response to the bacteria cross-react with proteins in the brain tissue.
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  • If the doctor suspects that the child has a PANDAS disorder, he or she may order a blood test to measure the level of antibodies against group A streptococci.
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  • Later on, HBsAg may no longer be present, in which case a test for antibodies to a different antigen, called hepatitis B core antigen, is used.
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  • It is the result of either infection or the presence of antibodies that destroy RBCs more rapidly than bone marrow can replace them.
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  • Hemolytic disease of the newborn is a specific variation of hemolytic anemia in which an incompatibility exists between antigens on the cells of the mother and baby, causing antibodies to develop in the mother's circulation.
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  • The antibodies are produced as an immune response to what the body views as foreign antigens on the surface of the infant's RBCs.
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  • The idiopathic form most commonly occurs in children and is most likely the result of production of antibodies that cause destruction of platelets in the spleen and to a lesser extent the liver.
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  • A blood sample will be taken from the patient's arm to test for antibodies to Treponema carateum.
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  • The tonsils also stimulate the immune system to produce antibodies that help fight infections.
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  • But for some, a reaction of their immune system to viral, or in some cases bacterial, infection causes the production of antibodies which in turn produces inflammation and swelling.
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  • This test looks for the antibodies to gluten (called antigliadin, anti-endomysium, and antireticulin) that the immune system produces in celiac disease.
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  • Antibodies are chemicals produced by the immune system in response to substances such as germs and other potentially harmful substances.
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  • The vaccine works by causing the body to produce its own protection (antibodies) against the virus.
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  • Hyper-IgM syndrome is a primary immunodeficiency disorder in which the child's body fails to produce certain specific types of antibodies.
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  • T cells regulate the production of antibodies, which are protein molecules produced as the first line of the immune system's defense against disease-causing organisms.
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  • Because they lack these "second line of defense" antibodies, they are more vulnerable to infections.
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  • At this point the antibodies received from the mother during pregnancy are no longer present in the baby's blood.
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  • A child with hyper-IgM syndrome will be found to have abnormally low levels of IgA and IgG antibodies and a normal or elevated level of IgM.
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  • In the case of children with XHIM, IVIG is given to replace the missing IgG antibodies and to reduce or normalize the IgM level.
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  • Researchers have found that giving artificial CD40 ligand to specially bred immunodeficient mice improves their ability to make IgA and IgG antibodies.
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  • Proteins are needed for growth and repair of cells and tissues and are the key components of enzymes, antibodies, and other essential substances.
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  • In these disorders, specific diseasefighting antibodies (immunoglobulins such as IgG, IgA, and IgM) are either missing or are present in reduced levels.
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  • These antibodies are specific proteins (immunoglobulins) produced by the immune system to respond to bacteria, viruses, fungi, parasites, or toxins that invade the body.
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  • Any disease that harms the development or function of B cells will, therefore, affect the production of immunoglobulin antibodies.
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  • In a healthy body with an adequately functioning immune system, immunoglobulin antibodies bind to the capsule and overcome the bacteria's defenses.
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  • Mature B cells are capable of making antibodies and developing memory, a feature in which the B cell will rapidly recognize and respond to an infectious agent the next time it is encountered.
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  • All classes of immunoglobulin antibodies are decreased in agammaglobulinemia.
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  • This condition results in the loss of several antibody classes and subclasses, including most IgG antibodies and all IgA and IgE antibodies.
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  • Hypogammaglobulinemia is characterized by low levels of gammaglobulin antibodies in the blood.
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  • During the disease period, children may have decreased levels of IgG and IgA antibodies.
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  • In some infants with this disorder, laboratory tests are able to show that the antibodies present do not react properly with infectious bacteria.
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  • Selective IgA deficiency is an inherited disease characterized by a failure of B cells to switch from making IgM to IgA antibodies.
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  • IgM deficiency is characterized by the absence or low level of total IgM antibodies, the body's first defense against infection.
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  • This condition produces an increase in the amount of IgM antibodies present and a decrease in the amount of IgG and IgA antibodies.
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  • The individual will typically not make antibodies against protein or polysaccharide antigens and will not make IgM antibodies against incompatible blood group antigens (hemagluttinins).
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  • Initially, when B cells start making antibodies for the first time, they make IgM.
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  • This procedure both quantifies the amount of each antibody present and identifies the various classes and subclasses of antibodies.
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  • Deficiencies may be noted in one class or subclass or in combinations of antibodies.
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  • Prognosis is related to the immune system's ability to produce the specific antibodies that are missing or present in reduced amounts.
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  • About 20 percent of all individuals with hemophilia A begin to produce antibodies in their blood against the specific factor protein; the presence of antibodies may then rapidly destroy infused factor VIII.
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  • The presence of such antibodies may greatly hamper efforts to prevent or stop a major hemorrhage.
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  • They are born with fewer antibodies, which are necessary to fight off infections.
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  • The weakened virus induces a child's immune system to develop antibodies against the varicella virus without causing the disease.
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  • On subsequent exposure to the drug, the drug-specific IgE antibodies bind to the drug on the surfaces of certain cells of the immune system.
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  • Drug-specific IgE antibodies may cross-react with other drugs that have similar chemical properties, thereby triggering an allergic reaction, as is the case in the penicillin family.
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  • For example, the antibodies of a child allergic to penicillin may cross-react with the antibiotic amoxicillin or nafcillin.
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  • Immune complex drug allergies occur when a drug combines with antibodies and other immune system components to form complexes in the blood.
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  • The most common symptom of an IgE-mediated drug allergy is a rash that develops after the child has taken the drug for several days and produced antibodies against it.
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  • Anaphylaxis is a violent immune system reaction that can occur when a child who has large amounts of drug-specific IgE antibodies is re-exposed to the drug.
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  • The antibodies bind to the drug very rapidly causing an immediate, severe response.
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  • These tests differ from tests for IgE antibodies but are still useful for demonstrating drug sensitivities.
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  • Antiserum-Human or animal blood serum containing specific antibodies.
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  • Short-term protection against hepatitis A is available from immune globulin, a preparation of antibodies that can be given before exposure for short-term protection against hepatitis A and for persons who have already been exposed to HAV.
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  • Immune globulin-Preparation of antibodies that can be given before exposure for short-term protection against hepatitis A and for persons who have already been exposed to hepatitis A virus.
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  • Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) is a disorder of the immune system characterized by low levels of specific immunoglobulins, antibodies produced by the immune system to fight infection or disease.
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  • In CVID, immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies, one of several classes of antibodies, are either absent or produced in lower than normal numbers.
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  • The function of the immune system is to respond to organisms and substances that invade the body, such as bacteria, viruses, fungi, parasites, and toxins, by producing antibodies against them.
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  • Antibodies are specific proteins (immunoglobulins) manufactured by the immune system to bind to corresponding molecules (antigens) on the cell surfaces of foreign organisms in an attempt to make them harmless.
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  • IgG antibodies, the specific immunoglobulins absent or reduced in CVID, are targeted at bacterial organisms, viruses, and certain toxins.
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  • Surprisingly, people with CVID will usually have a normal number of B cells, the type of white blood cells (B-cell lymphocytes) that make antibodies to fight infection.
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  • Although the total IgG level may be normal, the imbalance in the types of IgG antibodies makes the B cells unprepared to fight all types of infection.
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  • The toxin associated with tetanus, for example, is attacked by IgG1 and IgG3 antibodies; reduced percentages of either immunoglobulin subclass on a child's cells will leave the child unprotected against that specific toxin.
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  • These conditions develop in CVID as a result of the production of autoantibodies (antibodies directed against the body's own tissue).
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  • Deficiencies may be noted in one class or subclass or in combinations of IgG, IgM and IgA antibodies.
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  • In some children, delayed maturation of certain IgG subclasses will make the condition a temporary one that corrects itself as more typical levels of the IgG antibodies develop.
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  • In other children, prognosis is related to the immune system's ability to produce specific antibodies.
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  • Tests to look for special immune cells (antibodies) that are directed specifically against CMV are useful in proving that a person has been infected with CMV.
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  • Most people are exposed to rubella during childhood and develop antibodies to the virus so they never get it again.
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  • Pregnant women are usually tested for antibodies to rubella, which would indicate that they have been previously exposed to the virus and, therefore, would not develop infection during pregnancy if exposed.
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  • The vaccine consists of killed rabies virus that, when injected, induces the child's immune system to produce antibodies that bind to and destroy the virus.
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  • The rabies status of an animal also can be determined by testing for antibodies against rabies in its blood or by killing the animal and testing its brain tissue.
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  • Human rabies immune globulin (RIG, HRIG) is a vaccine made from human serum that contains high levels of antibodies against rabies.
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  • Approximately one-half of the antibodies are lost within 21 days after administration.
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  • Studies have found that this regimen produces adequate antibodies against rabies in the blood serum of all subjects.
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  • Rabies immune globulin (RIG or HRIG)-A human serum preparation containing high levels of antibodies against the rabies virus; used for post-exposure prophylaxis.
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  • B lymphocytes manufacture proteins called antibodies (which are sometimes also called immunoglobulins).
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  • The terms antibody and immunoglobulin are often used interchangeably, although immunoglobulin refers to the larger classification system for antibodies.
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  • There are five types or classes of immunoglobulin that antibodies fit into, and each has a slightly different role in response against bacteria and viruses.
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  • Antibodies attach themselves to the invading foreign substance.
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  • The action of antibodies also activates the complement system.
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  • The congenital immunodeficiency disorder, Bruton's agammaglobulinemia, also known as X-linked agammaglobulinemia, results in a decrease or absence of B lymphocytes and, therefore, a decreased ability to make antibodies.
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  • If there is an abnormality in either the development or function of B lymphocytes, the ability to make antibodies will be impaired.
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  • In another immunoglobulin disorder, IgG and IgA antibodies are deficient, and there is increased IgM.
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  • Blood contains antibodies, lymphocytes, phagocytes, and complement components, all of the major immune components that might cause immunodeficiency.
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  • B lymphocytes-Specialized blood cells that manufacture proteins called antibodies that attach themselves to invading foreign substances.
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  • By adulthood, up to 90 percent of the population has antibodies to HSV-1.
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  • Up to 30 percent of adults in the United States have antibodies against HSV-2.
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  • A newborn's own immune system begins to function around the third month, and if a mother is breast-feeding, she is passing antibodies to her baby.
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  • The vaccine helps the body produce antibodies (protective substances) that will prevent an individual from contracting polio.
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  • Immunoglobulins are protein molecules in blood serum that function like antibodies.
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  • In some vulnerable children, strep antibodies attack a certain part of the brain.
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  • Antibodies are cells that the body produces to fight specific diseases.
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  • The test, which searches for antigens (substances that stimulate the production of antibodies) produced by Borrelia burgdorferi, gives results within one hour in the doctor's office.
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  • An infant less than six months of age is usually protected against measles, mumps, and rubella by maternal antibodies.
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  • The duration of protection is dependent to a great extent on the maternal antibody titer and the antibodies received by the infant during pregnancy.
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  • Women who have not had measles nor vaccination have no measles antibodies.
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  • Active immunity-Produced by the body when the immune system is triggered to produce antibodies, either by immunization or a disease.
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  • Passive immunity-The body reception of proteins that act as antibodies instead of making the antibodies itself.
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  • All babies have antibodies from their mothers, which give them short-term protection.
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  • Normally, the immune system responds to foreign microorganisms, or particles like pollen or dust, by producing specific proteins, called antibodies.
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  • Antibodies are capable of binding to identifying molecules (antigens) on the foreign particle.
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  • When the antibodies encounter allergens, they trigger release of the granules, which spill out their chemicals onto neighboring cells, including blood vessels and nerve cells.
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  • After vaccination with HBV, the child's immune system recognizes HBsAg as foreign and produces antibodies that attach to the protein (anti-HBs).
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  • These specific antibodies remain in the blood.
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  • A 2004 study found that most low-risk children vaccinated at birth did not have antibodies against hepatitis B in their blood by the time they reached the age of five.
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  • Likewise, a 2003 Israeli study found a steady decline in anti-hepatitis-B antibodies over time in children vaccinated as infants.
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  • The steepest decline in the antibodies occurred between five and eight years after vaccination.
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  • It is recommended that newborns whose mothers are HBsAg-positive receive hepatitis B immune globulin (HBIG)-a preparation of serum containing high levels of antibodies to hepatitis B-as well as HBV within 12 hours of birth.
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  • A child's immune response to either hepatitis B infection or to HBV can be measured by a blood test for antibodies to HBsAg (anti-HBs).
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  • Hepatitis B immune globulin-HBIG, a blood serum preparation containing anti-hepatitis-B antibodies (anti-HBs) that is administered along with HBV to children born to hepatitis-B-infected mothers.
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  • It is also not considered necessary to test non-obese children for autoimmune antibodies, which are more apt to be found in adult type 2 diabetics.
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  • Given time, the body's immune system makes antibodies to fight the infection, and the cold is resolved without any intervention.
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  • Given time, the body produces antibodies to cure itself of a cold.
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  • B cells are the cells in the body that make antibodies.
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  • If specific proteins, called antibodies, that are produced only in response to the rabies virus are present, they will bind with the fluorescent dye and become visible.
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  • Antibodies are administered to the patient in a process called passive immunization.
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  • Inactivated viral material (antigenic) is then given to stimulate the patient's own immune system to produce antibodies against rabies.
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  • Passive immunization-Treatment that provides immunity through the transfer of antibodies obtained from an immune individual.
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  • In succeeding pregnancies, the antibodies reach the fetus via the placenta and destroy (lyse) the fetal RBCs.
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  • If a radically different blood type is introduced into the bloodstream, the immune system produces antibodies, proteins that specifically attack and destroy any cell carrying the foreign antigen.
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  • However, if the blood types are incompatible, the mother's immune system produces antibodies against the baby's blood.
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  • The antibodies that form after delivery cannot affect the first child.
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  • The threat arises from the possibility that the mother's antibodies will attack the fetal red blood cells.
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  • Both diseases have similar symptoms, but Rh disease is much more severe, because anti-Rh antibodies cross over the placenta more readily than anti-A or anti-B antibodies.
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  • Approximately one third of these babies show evidence of the mother's antibodies in their bloodstream, but only a small percentage develop symptoms of ABO incompatibility disease.
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  • Rh disease and ABO incompatibility disease are caused when a mother's immune system produces antibodies against the red blood cells of her unborn child.
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  • The antibodies cause the baby's red blood cells to be destroyed and the baby develops anemia.
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  • The indirect Coombs test measures the number of antibodies in the maternal blood.
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  • The blood incompatibility is uncovered through blood tests such as the direct Coombs test, which measures the level of maternal antibodies attached to the baby's red blood cells.
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  • When a mother has antibodies against her unborn infant's blood, the pregnancy is watched very carefully.
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  • In cases where this precaution is not taken, antibodies are created, and future pregnancies may be complicated.
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  • The anti-Rh antibodies from the preparation destroy fetal RBCs in the mother's blood before they can sensitize the maternal immune system.
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  • The exogenous antibodies in the mother's circulation are gradually destroyed over the next three to six months, and the mother remains unsensitized.
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  • When an infectious agent enters the body, the immune system develops antibodies which can weaken or destroy the disease-producing agent or neutralize its toxins.
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  • If the body is re-introduced to the same agent at a later time, it is capable of developing antibodies at a much faster pace.
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  • The antigens introduced during vaccination produce antibodies that protect the body against the infecting agent, despite the fact that the person does not become sick.
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  • Passive immunity is relatively short lived and is acquired by transferring antibodies from mother to child in the uterus or by inoculation with serum that contains antibodies from immune persons or animals.
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  • Although various types of serums may be used to produce passive immunization, gamma globulin is the most frequently used source of human antibodies.
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  • Infants also start life with some immunoglobulin antibodies acquired from the mother.
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  • These antibodies cross the placental barrier, but not all types are transmitted equally.
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  • In particular, infants start with antibodies to viruses and gram-positive organisms, but not to gram-negative organisms.
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  • Immunoglobulin antibodies are divided into five classes.
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  • Newborn babies (premature and full-term) begin to synthesize antibodies at an increased rate soon after birth in response to antigenic stimulation of their new environment.
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  • At about six days after birth the serum concentration of specific antibodies rises sharply, and this rise continues until adult levels are achieved by approximately the end of the first year.
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  • A concentrated level of antibodies is reached and maintained by seven to eight years of age.
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  • Antibodies are specialized proteins produced by the immune system that seek out and destroy bacteria, viruses, and other invaders.
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  • Colostrum is the 'first milk' a nursing baby will get, and it is full of beneficial antibodies to help the baby ward off illness.
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  • Antibodies to German measles (also called rubella) and chickenpox.
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  • If you have the antibodies, it means you've had either the vaccine or the illness.
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  • Normally, the body's immune system uses antibodies to protect itself against bacteria, viruses, and other foreign materials.
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  • Because lupus antibodies can cross the placenta to the fetus, the baby may experience a low white blood cell count, anemia, or a slow heartbeat.
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  • These antibodies will hopefully subside a few weeks after the baby is born, however, reducing the risk to a baby's health.
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  • Incompatibility in Rh factors between pregnant mother and unborn baby occurs because the mother's body may produce antibodies targeted towards the baby's blood.
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  • Sensitization means that the mother's body becomes aware of foreign bodies in her system and starts producing antibodies against this 'foreign' intruder (the baby).
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  • You will likely be tested to see if your body is producing antibodies to Rh positive blood.
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  • If you are already producing antibodies, there is nothing that can be done to prevent your body from continuing to do so; instead, your baby and pregnancy will be closely monitored to ensure that you and your baby remain healthy.
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  • If your body is not producing antibodies to Rh positive blood, you will likely be given the option of receiving an injection of Rh immune globulin, which can prevent your body from starting to produce such antibodies.
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  • Vitamin B6 helps create antibodies in your immune system and assist in normal nerve function.
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  • It makes up about 15 percent of all the antibodies in your body.
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  • When your body is stressed, production of your antibodies slows, ironically making you more vulnerable to additional stress.
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  • What the probiotic formula does is to replace some of antibodies.
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  • Vitamin A also improves the functioning of white-blood cells, helping them fight off viruses and create antibodies.
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  • Blood tests may be an option to detect antibodies present in those with the disease.
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  • Once gluten is ingested, the body triggers an immune response within the small intestine, generating antibodies to counteract the gluten.
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  • If you suffer from gluten allergy, you may experience many of the more severe symptoms as your immune system produces antibodies for gluten, but in such cases a celiac disease biopsy will usually be negative.
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  • The intestinal damage of celiac disease is caused by anti-gluten antibodies which stimulate the production of killer lymphocytes within the gastrointestinal tract.
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  • Should these gluten molecules settle near the brain, the body summons antineural antibodies which affect the brain tissue and result in neurological symptoms.
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  • A simple blood test will diagnose the disease based on the presence of certain antibodies.
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  • Antibodies are complex proteins developed by the immune system to protect against invading viruses or bacteria, known as antigens.
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  • When you have been exposed to a particular antigen, your body produces antibodies specific to that virus are able to quickly eliminate any future infections.
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  • Once you have contracted an illness, you will always have antibodies specific to the virus circulating in your bloodstream which are ready to defend you against the virus any time you re-encounter it.
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  • Antibodies are a critical component of the immune system, but in certain disorders, the immune system treats otherwise harmless substances as antigens and produces antibodies for defense.
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  • This is the case with celiac disease which produces antibodies specific to gliadin.
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  • In light of the offending protein in gluten, the presence of these antibodies is a key indicator of celiac disease.
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  • This is a simple blood test that checks for the presence of gliadin antibodies in your bloodstream.
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  • However, with or without digestive symptoms, many patients with neurological, behavioral and dermatological symptoms show elevated levels of anti-gliadin antibodies and find symptom relief with a gluten-free diet.
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  • These patients will usually not show elevated anti-gliadin antibodies or characteristically damaged villi, and as a result may be advised that their symptoms are not related to gluten sensitivity.
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  • In such a case, the body releases antibodies to attack any gluten present in your body, causing physical damage to the villi of your small intestine as a response.
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  • This means the body creates antibodies to fight the gluten, thinking it is a foreign invader.
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  • In the process of fighting the gluten, the antibodies also attack the villi of the small intestine, creating all sorts of gastrointestinal and non-gastrointestinal symptoms and discomfort.
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  • Breast milk carries the optimal blend of antibodies and nutrients, and as the child grows, the composition of milk naturally adjusts to a customized level intended to meet the child's needs.
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  • A blood test can identify when high levels of antibodies are present in the blood stream, which is a strong indicator of the disorder.
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  • For example, the doctor may introduce lab-created antibodies into the patient's body.
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  • Serological test methods for the detection of anti-amoebic antibodies remain extremely useful for the diagnosis of amoebic liver abscess.
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  • The current bird flu is diagnosed by testing the blood for antibodies to the H5N1 strain.
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  • At Warwick we have worked extensively on plant virus chimeras as potential vaccines, largely for the production of antibodies.
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  • The specificity of the antibodies will be determined by panel studies with HLA typed donor lymphocytes and HNA typed donor granulocytes.
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  • A crossmatch of maternal serum versus paternal granulocytes will be performed to determine the presence of low frequency granulocyte-specific antibodies.
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  • Donations with high titre antibodies may be a suitable resource for blood grouping reagents.
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  • In autoimmune hypothyroidism, antibodies destroy thyroid gland cells preventing the gland from being able to release normal amounts of thyroid hormones.
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  • To study repair, we have developed a sensitive immunoassay which uses antibodies to measure UV damage.
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  • Subacute cutaneous lupus erythematosus is a mild overlap form associated with HLA DR3 and anti-Ro antibodies.
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