The last survivals of Aramaic are to be sought in certain remote villages of Anti-Lebanon, and in the Syriac known to the clergy.
The name Coelesyria (n KmXrt /vpia), no doubt, was applied originally to the valley (" hollow ") between Lebanon and Anti-Lebanon, but was afterwards extended to the district stretching eastwards from the latter range.
Lebanon and Anti-Lebanon have many features in common; in both the southern portion is less arid and barren than the northern, the western valleys better wooded and more fertile than the eastern.
Anti-Lebanon is the barest and most inhospitable part of the system.
the broad valley which separates Lebanon from Anti-Lebanon is watered by two rivers having their watershed near Baalbek, at an elevation of about 3600 ft., and separated only by a short mile at their sources.
The Anti-Lebanon chain has been less fully explored than that of Lebanon.
Along the western side of northern Anti-Lebanon stretches the Khasha'a, a rough red region lined with juniper trees, a succession of the hardest limestone crests and ridges, bristling with bare rock and crag that shelter tufts of vegetation, and are divided by a succession of grassy ravines.
Few perennial streams take their rise in Anti-Lebanon; one of the finest and best watered valleys is that of Helbun, the ancient Chalybon, the Helbon of Ezek.
12; the portion of Anti-Lebanon traversed by it was also called by the same name (Canticles iv.
From the point where the southerly continuation of Anti-Lebanon begins to take a more westerly direction, a low ridge shoots out towards the south-west, trending farther and farther away from the eastern chain and narrowing the Buka'a; upon the eastern side of this ridge lies the elevated valley or hilly stretch known as Wadi et-Teim.
The western slope of Lebanon has the common characteristics of the flora of the Mediterranean coast, but the Anti-Lebanon belongs to the poorer region of the steppes, and the Mediterranean species are met with only sporadically along the water-courses.
In the following sections the Lebanon proper will alone be considered, without reference to Anti-Lebanon, because the peculiar political status of the former range since 1864 has effectually differentiated it; whereas the Anti-Lebanon still forms an integral part of the Ottoman province of Syria (q.v.), and neither its population nor its history is readily distinguishable from those of the surrounding districts.
The original seat and present home of the nucleus of the Maronites is Mt Lebanon; but they are also to be found in considerable force in Anti-Lebanon and Hermon, and more sporadically in and near Antioch, in Galilee, and on the Syrian coast.
HERMON, the highest mountain in Syria (estimated at 9050 to 9200 ft.), an outlier of the Anti-Lebanon.
al Ajem, Horns, Hamadiyeh and Selimiyeh in Anti-Lebanon and Hermon (about 45,000).
- Damascus is a city with a population estimated at from 154,000 (35,000 Christians and Jews) to 225,000 (55,000 Christians and Jews), situated near the northern edge of a plain called the Ghutah, at the foot of Anti-Lebanon, 2250 ft.
12) rises in the Anti-Lebanon, runs for about Io m.
The latter dies away over the plains east and south-east of Aleppo, making them afford good spring pasture, which has attracted the nomads from farther south: but below the latitude of Rakka-Homs thin steppe begins, and quickly degenerates into sheer desert broken only by a chain of poor oases, south of a low ridge running from Anti-Lebanon to Euphrates.
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