societies and institutions which are devoted to anthropological research.
The conclusions deducible from their anthropological features - apart from the general difficulty of arriving at safe conclusions on this ground alone, on account of the variability of the ethnological type under various conditions of life - are also rather indefinite.
The anthropological expert, on the other hand, insists on making the primitive point of view itself the be-all and end-all of his investigations.
In part 1 of his book he develops what he calls the "true or anthropological essence of religion."
The most exhaustive anthropological study of the Japanese has been made by Dr E.
in 1886; he was president of the Anthropological Institute, and F.R.S.
On the anthropological aspect of the cult, see also A.
See Journal Anthropological Institute for 1874; Sir H.
sec. 5.) Detailed anthropological research, indeed, more and more justifies Blumenbach's words, that " innumerable varieties of mankind run into one another by insensible degrees."
Anthropological researches undertaken all over the globe have shown the necessity of abandoning the old theory that a similarity of customs and superstitions, of arts and crafts, justifies the assumption of a remote relationship, if not an identity of origin, between races.
By permission of the Royal Anthropological Institute.
Hegel, before the anthropological stage, found it in magic. Max Muller, building on philosophy and mythology, affirmed that " Religion consists in the perception of the infinite under such manifestations as are able to influence the moral character of man " (Natural Religion, 18 99, p. 188).
Many minor anthropological differentiae can be distinguished among both the Great and the Little Russians, depending probably on the assimilation of various minor subdivisions of the Ural-Altaians.
He was Hibbert lecturer in 1886, Rhind lecturer in archaeology at Edinburgh in 1899 and president of the anthropological section of the British Association in 1900.
In recent times many interesting geological and anthropological investigations have been carried on in Poland.
Thickness of skin, masking the muscles, has been thought the cause of a peculiar heaviness in the outlines of body and face; the complexion varies from yellow-brown to chocolate (about 40 to 43 in the anthropological scale); eyes black; straight coarse glossy black hair; beard and moustache scanty.
The only result of anthropological investigation which so far can be regarded as definitely established is that the old Teutonic lands in northern Germany, Denmark and southern Sweden have been inhabited by people of the same type since the neolithic age, if not earlier.
Virchow as president of the Berlin Anthropological Society, and to him was largely due the formation in 1878 of the German Africa Society of Berlin, which did much to encourage German colonization in Africa.
ANGLO-ISRAELITE THEORY, the contention that the British people in the United Kingdom, its colonies, and the United States, are the racial descendants of the "ten tribes" forming the kingdom of Israel, large numbers of whom were deported by Sargon king of Assyria on the fall of Samaria in 721 B.C. The theory (which is fully set forth in a book called Philo-Israel) rests on premises which are deemed by scholars - both theological and anthropological - to be utterly unsound.
Anthropological Institute, 1905, 80).
Buckland, Anthropological Studies (1891), pp. 104-139 (on serpents in connexion with metallurgy and precious stones).
Now anthropological research has vividly shown that woman, naturally fitted (as it seemed) to understand the mysteries of increase, was assigned a prominent part in rites for the furtherance of growth and fertility.
She was made assistant in ethnology at the Peabody Museum in 1882, and received the Thaw fellowship in 1891; was president of the Anthropological Society of Washington and of the American Folk-Lore Society, and vice-president of the American Association for the Advancement of Science; and, working through the Woman's National Indian Association, introduced a system of making small loans to Indians, wherewith they might buy land and houses.
In what follows, then, we shall, indeed, venture to present a wholesale appreciation of the religious idea as it is for primitive man in general; but our account will respect the modern anthropological method that bids the student keep closely to the actualities of the religious experience of savages, as it can with reasonable accuracy be gathered from what they do and say.
There the reader will find the most solid results of recent anthropological research.
The radical contrast between mechanical and spiritual religion, though fundamental for modern theology, is alien to the primitive point of view, and is therefore inappropriate to the purposes of anthropological description.
(2 vols., London, 1908), largely geographical, historical, anthropological and philological studies based on the work of Grenfell.
The anthropological classification of mankind is thus zoological in its nature, like that of the varieties or species of any other animal group, and the characters on which it is based are in great measure physical, though intellectual and traditional peculiarities, such as moral habit and language, furnish important aid.
Ripley, The Races of Europe (1900, with long bibliography); The Journal of the Anthropological Institute of Great Britain; Revue d'anthropologie (Paris); Zeitschrift fiir Ethnologie (Berlin).
An English version of his Lectures on Man: his Place in Creation and in the History of the Earth was published by the Anthropological Society of London in 1864.
When settled they are mostly designated Sarts - a name which has reference more to manner of life than to anthropological classification, although a much stronger admixture of Iranian blood is evident in the Sarts, who also speak Persian at Khojent and Samarkand.
However he gave a great impetus to Celtic and anthropological studies.
for males and a little less for females; Mantegazza, who made a number of anthropological observations in Norway in 1879, gives 5 ft.
Westermarck's Origin and Development of the Moral Ideas, testify to a continued interest in the history of morality and in the anthropological inquiries with which moral philosophy is closely connected.
A commission appointed in 1891 to inquire into the causes of the native decrease collected much interesting anthropological information regarding native customs, and provincial inspectors and medical officers were specially appointed to compel the natives to carry out the sanitary reforms recommended by the commission.
He became a Fellow of the Royal Society in 1867, and acted as president of the anthropological section of the British Association in 1882 and of the geological section in 1888.
For the sake of brevity we might call the former the " philological " system, as it rests chiefly on the study of language, while the latter might be styled the " historical " or " anthropological " school, as it is based on the study of man in the sum of his manners, ideas and institutions.
The orthodox anthropological explanation has been that of E.
These are the doctrines of animism, and, according to the usual anthropological theory, these spirits come to thrive to god's estate in favourable circumstances, as where the dead man, when alive, had great man y or wakan, a great share of the ether, so to speak, which, in savage metaphysics, is the viewless vehicle of magical influences.
See also the Journal of the Anthropological Institute (1899-1907), vols.
ascription of intensional ontologies in anthropological descriptions of multi-agent systems.
boundaryvides an ideal institutional setting for anthropological research that crosses disciplinary boundaries.
The kind of research for which my brief anthropological training had fitted me was the study of a small and relatively close-knit community.
For this reason, this article focuses on the anthropological aspect: the individual inside and outside cyberspace.
In: Bureau of American ethnology, Bulletin 186, Anthropological Paper no.
Other activities such as the conduct of anthropological fieldwork are relegated, on this account, to an insignificant footnote.
By exploring the role of language in the constitution of social relations, the project seeks to address a lacuna in contemporary anthropological theory.
Volunteers should preferably have linguistic, anthropological or agricultural experience.
An anarchist primitivism worthy of support would reject scientism, biologism, and the selective and uncritical embrace of anthropological research into gatherer-hunter cultures.
The result is a tightly knit argument in which theoretical critique and anthropological observation play a mutually supporting role.
These latter problems are the province of criminal anthropology and criminal sociology, sciences so called because they view crime as the outcome of anthropological and social conditions.
At the meeting of the Naturforscherversammlung at Innsbruck in 1869, he was one of the founders of the German Anthropological Society, of which he became president in the following year; and from 1869 onwards he presided over the Berlin Anthropological Society, also acting as editor of its proceedings in the Zeitschrift fiir Ethnologic. In ethnology he published a volume of essays on the physical anthropology of the Germans, with special reference to the Frisians; and at his instance a census, which yielded remarkable results, was carried out among school children throughout Germany, to determine the relative distribution of blondes and brunettes.
Scientific theories date from the second half of the last century, and were originated in the first instance by the English anthropological school.
His peculiar Christology was based upon profound theological and anthropological ideas, which contain the germs of some recent theological and Christological speculations.
Anthropological Institute (vol.
Myres, the Sigynnae of Herodotus were "a people widely spread in the Danubic basin in the 5th century B.C.," probably identical with the Sequani, and connected with the iron-working culture of Hallstatt, which produced a narrow-bladed throwing spear, the sigynna spear (see notice of "Anthropological Essays" in Classical Review, November 1908).
C. Haddon, Reports of the Cambridge Anthropological Expedition to Torres Straits (Cambridge, 1904, vol.
Man, Journal Anthropological Institute, vol.
The survey presented below also suggests that anthropological studies have tended to underplay the significance of ethnic cleavages.
Ucko, Peter J. "Penis Sheaths: A Comparative Study." Proceedings of the Royal Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland (1970): 24A–67.
Often these methods and designs have been borrowed from anthropological texts about ancient cultures and related tattooing practices.
De Young Museum - This museum, opened in 1895, houses a diverse collection of anthropological exhibits, particularly those featuring Central and South American cultures and a collection of American decorative arts and textiles.
An examination of their language seems to indicate that, it belongs to the Mon-Khmer group of languages, and the anthropological information forthcoming concerning the Sakai points to the conclusion that they show a greater affinity to the people of the Mon-Khmer races than to the Malayan stock.
de Lapparent and Elisee Reclus - has his individual point of view, one devoting more attention to the results of geological processes, another to anthropological conditions, and the rest viewing the subject in various blendings of the extreme lights.
Still, craniological researches show that, notwithstanding this fact, the Slav type has been maintained with remarkable persistency: Slav skulls ten and thirteen centuries old exhibit the same anthropological features as those which characterize the Sla y s of our own day.
To Kant's lectures and conversations he further owed something of his large interest in cosmological and anthropological problems. Among the writers whom he most carefully read were Plato, Hume, Shaftesbury, Leibnitz, Diderot and Rousseau.
Of contemporary magazines Dalgety's Review is mainly agricultural, the Australian Magazine (1909) and the Lone Hand (1907) are popular, and the Science of Man is an anthropological review.
v., contains anthropological examples and a series of experiments.
In connexion with his psychological studies, it is interesting that in 1884 the French Anthropological Society reproduced his instructions for the observation of primitive peoples, and modern students of the beginnings of speech in children and the cases of deaf-mutes have found useful matter in his works.
But whether we are justified in speaking of a Teutonic race in the anthropological sense is at least doubtful, for the mcst striking characteristics of these peoples occur also to a considerable extent among their eastern and western neighbours, where they can hardly be ascribed altogether to Teutonic admixture.
Fhnders Petrie has collected and discussed a series of facial types shown in prehiltoric and early Egyptian sculpture, Journal Anthropological Institute, 1901, 248.
In general it may be said of Egyptian literary compositions that apart from their interest as anthropological documents they possess no merit which would entitle them to survive.
Accordingly Fries, like the Scotch school, places psychology or analysis of consciousness at the foundation of philosophy, and called his criticism of knowledge an anthropological critique.
The teaching was not necessarily presented in the form of an over-elaborated moral lesson, but was associated with conceptions familiar to the land; and when these conceptions are examined from the anthropological standpoint, they are found to contain much that is strange and even abhorrent to modern convictions of a purely spiritual deity.
Aihong other similar organizations are an Academy of Medical, Physical and Natural Sciences (1863); a national library, established in 1901, and having in 1908 about 40,000 volumes, including the finest collection in the world of materials for Cuban history; an anthropological society; various medical societies; and a Bar association.
The learned societies of Washington are to a large degree more national than local in their character; among them are: the Washington Academy of Sciences (1898), a "federal head" of most of the societies mentioned below; the Anthropological Society (founded 1879; incorporated 1887), which has published Transactions (1879 sqq., with the co-operation of the Smithsonian Institution) and The American Anthropologist (1888-1898; since 1898 published by the American Anthropological Association); the National Geographic Society (1888), which since 1903 has occupied the Hubbard Memorial Building, which sent scientific expeditions to Alaska, Mont Pelee and La Souffriere, and which publishes the National Geographic Magazine (1888 sqq.), National Geographic Monographs (1895) and various special maps; the Philosophical Society of Washington (1871; incorporated 1901), devoted especially to mathematical and physical sciences; the Biological Society (1880), which publishes Proceedings (1880 sqq.); the Botanical Society of Washington (1901); the Geological Society of Washington (1893): the Entomological Society of Washington (1884), which publishes Proceedings (1884 sqq.); the Chemical Society (1884); the Records of the Past Exploration Society (1901), which publishes Records of the Past (1902 sqq.); the Southern History Association (1896), which issues Publications (1897 sqq.); the Society for Philosophical Inquiry (1893), which publishes Memoirs (1893 sqq.); the Society of American Foresters (1900), which publishes Proceedings (1905 sqq.); and the Cosmos Club.
In what may be called his fourth and last period, Wagner became anthropologist and archaeologist, occupied himself with the cabinet of skulls in the Gottingen museum collected by Blumenbach and with the excavation of prehistoric remains, corresponded actively with the anthropological societies of Paris and London, and organized, in co-operation with the veteran K.
An enormous mass of material, mostly quite in the raw, awaits reduction to order on the part of anthropological theorists, as yet a small and ill-supported body of enthusiasts.
See Chadwick in Anthropological Journ., 1900, on " The Oak and the Thunder-God."
ii.; Papers and Proceedings of Royal Society of Tasmania; and papers by the present writer in Journal of the Anthropological Institute.) The Tasmanians, when they came in contact with the European explorers and settlers, were not the broken outcasts they afterwards became.
His most important anthropological work was his description of sixty human crania published originally in fasciculi under the title Collectionis suae craniorum diversarum gentium illustratae decades (Gottingen, 1790-1828).
Since his time the anthropological researches of Broca, Thurnam and Davis, Huxley, Busk, Beddoe, Virchow, Tubino and others have proved the existence in Europe, from Neolithic times, of a race, small of stature, with long or oval skulls, and accustomed to bury their dead in tombs.
Appointed in 1862 actuary to the United States sanitary commission, he issued in 1869 an important volume of Military and Anthropological Statistics.
Anthropological Essays presented to E.
The interesting nomadic tribe of Karagasses, in the Sayan mountains, is disappearing; the few representatives are rapidly losing their anthropological.
The principal sources of information about the Iberians are (i) historical, (2) numismatic, (3) linguistic, (4) anthropological.
Professor Flinders Petrie, in his Huxley Lecture for 1906 on Migrations (reprinted by the Anthropological Institute), deals with the mutations and movements of races from an anthropological standpoint with profound knowledge and originality.
Roscoe in the Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute between 1900 and 1908; the duke of the Abruzzi, " The Snows of the Nile," in The Geographical Journal (February 1907); De Filippi, Ruwenzori (1908); J.
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