Anthracite coal is found in the neighbourhood.
Anthracite coal is mined here; there are railway repair and machine-shops; and among the borough's manufactures are hosiery, silk goods, underwear and adding machines.
The borough is finely situated in the Wyoming Valley among the rich anthracite coalfields of eastern Pennsylvania, and its inhabitants are chiefly engaged in the coal industry; in 1906 and 1907 (when it shipped 24,081,4 9 1 tons) Luzerne county shipped more anthracite coal than any other county in Pennsylvania.
Charcoal, coke or anthracite coal are the fuels generally used in slow combustion heating stoves.
There are, however, several striking exceptions, as for instance in the anthracite from Peru, given in Table I., which contains more than io% of sulphur, and yields but a very small percentage of a white ash.
types, may be distinguished, and these, with the two extremes of brown coal or lignite and anthracite, form a perfectly continuous series.
Italy has only unimportant lignite and anthracite mines, but water power is abundant and has been largely applied to industry, especially in generating electricity.
Both anthracite and bituminous deposits have been found.
The densest anthracite is of ten of a semi-metallic lustre, resembling somewhat that of graphite.
Thus the semi 'anthracitic coals of South Wales are known as " dry " or " steam coals," being especially valuable for use in marine steam-boilers, as they burn more readily than anthracite and with a larger amount of flame, while giving out a great amount of heat, and practically without producing smoke.
Lignite is also mined at Bacu Abis, near Gonnesa, and Anthracite in small quantities near Seui.
This area is divided into nearly two equal parts - one, the Lei river coal-fields, yielding anthracite, and the other the Siang river coal-fields, yielding bituminous coal.
m., and comprise a valuable stock of excellent anthracite and coal, together with iron-mines.
Its chief industry is the mining of anthracite coal; the principal establishments are railway repair shops, which in 1905 gave employment to 48.9% of all wage-earners engaged in manufacturing.
Its chief industry is the mining of anthracite coal at several collieries in the vicinity; and at Fountain Springs, 1 m.
south-east, is a state hospital for injured persons of the Anthracite Coal Region of Pennsylvania, opened in 1883.
MOLLY MAGUIRES, an Irish American secret society which maintained numerous branches in the anthracite coal regions of Pennsylvania, U.S.A., from 1854 to 1877, and perhaps later.
In the valley of the Bow river, alongside the Canadian Pacific railway, valuable beds of anthracite coal are worked, and the coal is carried by railway as far east as Winnipeg.
that might be depended upon for the supply of coal, which is of all characters from lignite to anthracite.
In this process the purified ore is mixed with about one-fifth of its weight of a noncaking coal or anthracite smalls, the mixture being moistened to prevent it from being blown off by the draught, and is then fused on the sole of a reverberatory furnace for five or six hours.
Pittston is in the midst of the richest anthracite coal region of the state, and fire-clay also abounds in the vicinity.
Anthracite is mined in the St Lucia Bay district, and bituminous coal is found in the Nqutu and Kyudeni hills.
This method originated in the Pennsylvania anthracite mines in 1887, but has been employed in recent years on a large scale in Silesia, Westphalia and other European coalfields.
A certain proportion of soda ash (carbonate of soda) is also used in some works in sheet-glass mixtures, while " decolorizers " (substances intended to remove or reduce the colour of the glass) are also sometimes added, those most generally used being manganese dioxide and arsenic. Another essential ingredient of all glass mixtures containing sulphate of soda is some form of carbon, which is added either as coke, charcoal or anthracite coal; the carbon so introduced aids the reducing substances contained in the atmosphere of the furnace in bringing about the reduction of the sulphate of soda to a condition in which it combines more readily with the silicic acid of the sand.
pure sand, a pure form of carbonate of lime, and sulphate of soda, with the addition of a suitable proportion of carbon in the form of coke, charcoal or anthracite coal.
Tamaqua is in a rich anthracite coal district, and coal-mining is its chief industry..
The first settlement here was made in 1799 and anthracite coal was discovered in 1817.
Stone coal is also a local English term, but with a signification restricted to the substance known by mineralogists as anthracite.
Anthracite is from the Greek a vepa, and the term lithanthrax, stone coal, still survives, with the same meaning, in the Italian litantrace.
It varies in colour from a light brown in the newest lignites to a pure black, often with a bluish or yellowish tint in the more compact anthracite of the older formations.
The streak is black in anthracite, but more or less brown in the softer varieties.
The maximum hardness is from 2.5 to 3 in anthracite and hard bituminous coals, but considerably less in lignites, which are nearly as soft as rotten wood.
Some lignites are, however, quite as brilliant as anthracite; cannel and jet may be turned in the lathe, and are susceptible of taking a brilliant polish.
Examples of analyses treated in this manner are furnished in the last column of Table I., from which it will be seen that the nearest approach to pure carbon is furnished by anthracite, which contains above 90%.
The proportion of carbon in bituminous coals may vary from 80 to 90% the amount being highest as they approach the character of anthracite, and least in those which are nearest to lignites.
An anthracite occurring in connexion with the old volcanic rocks of Arthur's Seat,Edinburgh, which contains a large amount of sulphur in proportion to the Caking coals.
In some instances the coal seams may be changed as a whole, as for instance in South Wales, where the coking coals of the eastern side of the basin pass through the state of dry steam coal in the centre, and become anthracite in the western side.
In some anthracite collieries in America the small coal or culm and other waste are washed into the exhausted workings by water which gives a compact mass filling the excavation when the water has drained away.
The gases from the bituminous house coals of South Wales are comparatively free from marsh gas, as compared with those from the steam coal and anthracite pits.
It was found that, of the entire volume of occluded gas in an anthracite, only one-third could be expelled at the temperature of boiling water, and that the whole quantity, amounting to 650 cub.
Anthracite coal in Pennsylvania is subjected to breaking between toothed rollers and an elaborate system of screening, before it is fit for sale.
In South Wales a somewhat similar treatment is now adopted in the anthracite districts.
A special work on the Anthracite Coal Industry of the United States, by P. Roberts, was published in 1901.
In the manufacture of calcium carbide in the electric furnace, lime and anthracite of the Manufac- highest possible degree of purity are employed.
In the former, the anthracite and lime are ground and carefully mixed in the right proportions to suit the chemical actions involved.
The coal here is anthracite, as is also that, at Tai-gan-shan, where are found beds of greater value than any in the neighbourhood of Peking.
Geologically the region is made up of Carboniferous limestones, clay slates and sandstones, containing anthracite and coal; of Cretaceous marls, chalk, sandstone and greensands - chalk cliffs, in fact, accompany the Don for 200 m.; and of Miocene limestones and clays.
This district, which comprises the coalmines of Lisichansk and the anthracite mines of Gorodishche, occupies about 110,000 acres on the banks of the Donets river.
They are rarely metamorphosed to the point of recrystallization, though locally shales are altered to roofing slates, sandstones are indurated, limestones slightly marblized, and coals, originally bituminous, are changed to anthracite in northern Pennsylvania, and to graphite in Rhode Island.
The coal of some of the beds is bituminous, and of others anthracite.
Two procedures are adopted: (1) graphitization of moulded carbons; (2) graphitization of anthracite en masse.
In graphitizing en masse large lumps of anthracite are treated in the electric furnace.
Lying within the rich agricultural region of the Lebanon and Schuylkill valleys and near vast fields of anthracite coal and iron ore, Reading possesses unusual business and industrial advantages.
In 1820 the first cargo of anthracite coal was shipped to Philadelphia.
From 1830 the increase in the production was very rapid, and in 1841 the annual shipments from the Pennsylvania anthracite region had nearly reached 1,000,000 tons, the output of iron at that time being estimated at about 300,000 tons.
the shipments of anthracite amounted to nearly 3,500,000 ~ L1~ tons; those of Cumberland or semi-bituminous coal were Industries about 200,000 tons.
The leading products, as reported by the Geological Survey for 1907, were as follows: coal, $614,798,898 (85,604,312 tons of anthracite coal, 394.759,112 of bituminous); petroleum, $120,106,749; natural gas, ~54,222,399; iron ore, $131,996,147 (pig iron, $529,958,000); copper, refined, $173,799,300; gold, coinage value, $90,435,700; buii~..ing-stone, $71,105,805; silver, commercial value, ~272OO,700: lean.
Coal exists in the United States in large quantity in each of its important varieties: anthracite, or hard coal; bituminous, or soft coal; and lignite; and in various intermediate and c al special grades.
Geologically the anthracite and bituminous coals mainly belong to the same formation, the Carboniferous, and this is especially true of the better qualities; though it is stated by the United States Geological Survey that the geQlogic age of the coal beds ranges from Carboniferous in the Appalachian and Mississippi Valley provinces to Miocene (Tertiary) on the Pacific coast, and that the quality of the coal varies only to a very uncertain degree with the geologic age.
m., of which 250,531 are credited to anthracite and bituminous, 97,636 to sub-bituminous and 148,609 to lignite; (2) total original coal supply of the country, 3,076,204,000,000 short tons, including 21,000,000,000 tons of anthracite in Pennsylvania, and small amounts elsewhere (semi-anthracite and semi-bituminous), 650,157,000,000 tons of sub-bituminous and 743,590,000,000 tons of lignite; (3) easily accessible coal still available, 1,992,979,000,000 tons; (4) available coal accessible with difficulty, f,153,225,000,000 tons.
The total production of coal from 1814 (the year in which anthracite was first mined in Pennsylvania) to 1908 amounted to 7,280,940,265 tons, which represented an exhaustionadding 50% for waste in mining and preparationof 11,870,049,900, or four-tenths of I% of the supposed original supply.
Pennsylvania (117,179,527 tons of bituminous and 83,268,754 of anthracite), Illinois (47,659,690), West Virginia (41,897,843), Ohio (26,270,639), Indiana (12,314,890) and Alabama (11,604,593) were the states of greatest production.
Up to 1870 there was more anthracite mined in Pennsylvania than bituminous in the whole country, but since that year the production of the latter has become vastly the greater, the totals in 1907, in which year each stood at its maximum, being 83,268,754 and 332,573,944 tons respectively.
Inasmuch as the present production is not considered locally and with more or less justiceas at all indicative of the wealth in coal of the respective states, it may be said that according to estimates of the Geological Survey the following states are credited with the deposits indicated of true bituminous coal, including local admixtures of anthracite, the figures being millions of short tons:
Coal, chiefly bituminous, occurs in large quantities in Nova Scotia, British Columbia and in various parts of the north-west (lignite), though most of the anthracite is imported from the United States, as is the greater part of the bituminous coal used in Ontario.
Besides having practically all the anthracite, Pennsylvania has the thickest bituminous coal-measures, and most of the coal obtained from these is of the best quality.
The bituminous coal was first used at nearly the same time as the anthracite and it was first shipped from Pittsburg in 1803.
In 1880 the output of coal (anthracite and bituminous) in Pennsylvania was 66% of that of the entire country; in 1908 it was 48.2%; but in the latter year the Pennsylvania mines produced more coal than the combined production of all the countries of the world excepting Great Britain, Germany and Austria-Hungary, and it was nearly four times as much as the total mined in Austria, nearly five times as much as that mined in France, and seven times as much as the output of Russia in that year.
So long as charcoal only was used in the furnaces (until about 1840) and during the brief period in which this was replaced largely by anthracite, the industry was of chief importance in the eastern section, but with the gradual increase in the use of bituminous coal, or of coke made from it, the industry moved westward, where, especially in the Pittsburg district, it received a new impetus by The introduction of iron ore from the Lake Superior region.
The manufacture of great quantities of coke has resulted from the demand for this product in the iron and steel industry and from the abundance of coking coal; the manufacture of glass has been promoted by the supply of glass sand and natural gas in the west of the state; the manufacture of leather by the abundance of hemlock bark; the manufacture of pottery, terra-cotta and fire-clay products by the abundance of raw material; the manufacture of silk and silk goods by the large number of women and girls who came into the state in families of which the men and boys were employed in mining and picking anthracite coal; and in each of these industries as well as in a few others the state has for many years produced a large portion of the country's product.
Before anything was done, the need of improved means of transportation between Philadelphia and the anthracite coal-fields became the more pressing.
There have been mining strikes at Scranton (1871), in the Lehigh and Schuylkill regions (1875), at Hazleton (1897), and one in the anthracite fields (1902) which was settled by a board of arbitrators appointed by President Roosevelt; and there were street railway strikes at Chester in 1908 and in Philadelphia in 1910.
The valley is a part of the anthracite coal region of Pennsylvania, fire clay abounds in the vicinity, and .the borough's principal industries are the mining and shipping of coal, and the manufacture of shirts and foundry products.
above sea-level; in the vicinity are extensive deposits of anthracite coal, the mining and breaking of which is the principal industry; silk throwing and weaving is another industry of the borough.
Anthracite coal fires should not be stirred more than is absolutely necessary, and should not be fed in driblets.
These two things are done simultaneously by heating and melting the ore in contact with coke, charcoal or anthracite, in the iron blast furnace, from which issue intermittently two molten streams, the iron now deoxidized and incidentally carburized by the fuel with which it has been in contact, and the mineral matter, now called " slag."
Another way of introducing the carbon is Darby's process of throwing large paper bags filled with anthracite, coke or gas-carbon into the casting ladle as the molten steel is pouring into it.
" Anthracite " here includes iron made with anthracite and coke mixed, " Bituminous " includes iron made with coke, with raw bituminous coal, or with both, and " Charcoal " in 1900 and 1907 includes iron made either with charcoal alone or with charcoal mixed with coke.
An incline railway, originally used to transport coal from the mines to the river and named the "Switch-Back," now carries tourists up the steep slopes of Mount Pisgah and Mount Jefferson, to Summit Hill, a rich anthracite coal region, with a famous "burning mine," which has been on fire since 1832, and then back.
Anthracite and steam-coal from the collieries of the coast and along the Loughor Valley are exported from the extensive docks; and there are also large works for the smelting of copper and the manufacture of tin plates.
Few hands are employed in manufactures, but the mining industry is more important, coal being extensively worked - chiefly anthracite in the upper reaches of the Swansea and Neath valleys, and bituminous in the south-eastern corner of the county.
Although the islands promise to become important, because of their excellent harbours, the discovery of good seams of bituminous coal (beside the anthracite already known), their abundant timber of certain kinds and their prolific fisheries, but little settlement has taken place.
The total includes every variety from typical lignite to typical anthracite.
From 1897 to 1902 the yield almost doubled, averaging 5,267,783 tons (lignite, semibituminous, bituminous, and a steady average production of 60,038 tons of anthracite).
Much of the bituminous coal, especially that of the Canyon City field, is so hard and clean as to be little less desirable than anthracite; it is the favoured coal for domestic uses in all the surrounding states.
Far the most important mineral product, however, is coal, which is found in all forms - lignite to anthracite - and in widely distributed areas.
The surface of the molten metal is protected from oxidation by a layer of anthracite or charcoal.
Petroleum has been found near Torres Vedras; pitchblende, arsenic, anthracite and zinc are also mined.
- Swansea owes its commercial prosperity to its great natural advantages as a harbour and its situation within the South Wales coal basin, for the anthracite portion of which it is the natural port of shipment.
The very rapid increase in the demand for anthracite coal (for the shipment of which Swansea has practically a monopoly) soon necessitated still further accommodation and in July 1904 was begun the King's Dock, which lies farther east and has an entrance direct from the bay.
While the bulk of the coal is sent to France and the Mediterranean ports, an increasing quantity of anthracite is shipped to Germany, and, in sailing vessels to the Pacific ports of America,.
The chief anthracite beds, those in the Gorjiu department, are leased until 1975 to an English capitalist, who has the right to construct railways.
It receives practically all the Lake Erie grain shipments besides large quantities of iron ore, lumber and copper, and is a large shipping port for coal, principally anthracite.
Anthracite coal of a good quality is found over a large area of the low veld.
Coke or anthracite is heated to incandescence by an air blast in a generator lined with fire-brick, and the heated products of combustion as they leave the generator and enter the superheaters are supplied with more air, which causes the combustion of carbon monoxide present in the producer gas and heats up the fire-brick baffles with which the superheater is filled.
The fuel employed should be non-bituminous coal anthracite or coke, or at least so much of these materials should be mixed with ordinary coal that no semi-solid cakes of the kind just described are formed.
g is the feeding-hopper for the anthracite which is usually employed in this kind of producer.
In practical work about 4 lb of steam is decomposed for each pound of anthracite consumed, and no more than 5% of carbon dioxide is found in the resulting gas.
Anthracite and a coarse potter's clay are found near the town.
Anthracite costs £ 6.00 inc VAT per bag (some cottages use anthracite costs £ 6.00 inc VAT per bag (some cottages use anthracite ).
It burns anthracite or coke and will perform well with modern smokeless fuels.
Thomas realized that this furnace could work at Ynyscedwyn, thus allowing him to use the hard coal called anthracite from local coal mines.
It was still, however, a relatively small undertaking 22 and could find no use for the local anthracite.
Between 1887 and 1902 the output of welsh anthracite increased by 287% and 50% of this was absorbed by the export trade.
anthracite coalfields a slightly different oil cap lamp was to become popular around the turn of the twentieth century.
anthracite coal trust was revived.
anthracite coal mining industry of Pennsylvania.
anthracite strike and the 1934 Taff-Merthyr strike.
anthracite stoves and central heating appliances.
melamine anthracite panels with silver moldings gives it a contemporary look & feel.
Four substantial canals fulfilled the needs of the expanding anthracite mining industry which was to become wor ld renowned.
Two brothers, Abijah and John Smith, originally of Derby, Conn., settled in Plymouth in 1806 and began shipping coal thence in 1808; this was the beginning of the anthracite coal trade in the United States.
The tanned complexion, that amorphous crag-like face; the dull black eyes under the precipice of brows, like dull anthracite furnaces, needing only to be blown; the mastiff mouth accurately closed; I have not traced so much of silent Berserkir rage that I remember in any man."
The specific gravity is highest in anthracite and lowest in lignite, bituminous coals giving intermediate values (see Table I.).
These are (1) the Anthracite field in eastern Pennsylvania, nearly 500 sq.
His grandson, Loftus Perkins (1834-1891), most of whose life was spent in England, experimented with the application to steam engines of steam at very high pressures, constructing in 1880 a yacht, the "Anthracite," whose engines worked with a pressure of 500 th to the sq.
The anthracite Faux Suede Blazer from Sierra Trading Post comes in dark tan and features a unique floral ribbon design.
Available in white, yellow, or rose gold, this model features self-winding mechanical movements, anthracite sunburst dials, and water resistance to 30 meters.
Daniel Roth Papillon Chronographe: An 18 karat rose gold case surrounds an arresting and unusual anthracite dial.
The word usage examples above have been gathered from various sources to reflect current and historial usage. They do not represent the opinions of YourDictionary.com.