Antarctic Sentence Examples
For purposes of measurement the polar boundaries are taken to be the Arctic and Antarctic circles, although in discussing the configuration and circulation it is impossible to adhere strictly to these limits.
To these might be added the antarctic, which is still very imperfectly known.
America, broadening in the north as if to span the oceans by reaching to its neighbours on the east and west, tapering between vast oceans far to the south where the nearest land is in the little-known Antarctic regions, roughly presents the triangular outline that is to be expected from tetrahedral warping; and although greatly broken in the middle, and standing with the northern and southern parts out of a meridian line, America is nevertheless the best witness among the continents of to-day to the tetrahedral theory.
The alpine flora, beginning at 6000 ft., is specially characterized by its rhododendrons, pines (Araucaria and Libocedrus), and palms, by numerous superb species of Agapetes (Ericaceae), and on the summits by an extraordinary association of species characteristically European (Rubus, Ranunculus, Leontodon, Aspidium), Himalayan, New Zealandian (Veronica), Antarctic and South American (Drymus, Libocedrus).
Excepting the barren lands of the Antarctic regions, with which Patagonia is somewhat associated by a broken string of islands, the nearest continental lands of a more habitable kind are South Africa and New Zealand., In contrast to the sub-Arctic land ring, here is a sub-Antarctic ocean ring, and as a result the land flora and fauna of South America to-day are strongly unlike the life forms of the other south-ending continents.Advertisement
The present climate is not favourable to permanent vegetation; the island lies within the belt of rain at all seasons of the year, and is reached by no drying winds; its temperature is kept ddwn by the surrounding vast expanse of sea, and it lies within the line of the cold Antarctic drift.
There are about one thousand species of flowering plants, of which about three-fourths are endemic. Most of those not peculiar to the country are Australian; others are South American, European, Antarctic; and some have Polynesian affinities.
This bank continues southwards to the Antarctic Ocean, expanding into a plateau on which Australia stands, and a branch runs eastwards and then southwards from the north-east of Australia through New Zealand.
South American palaeogeography has been traced by von Ihring into a northern land mass, " Archelenis," and a southern mass, " Archiplata," the latter at times united with an antarctic continent.
The heat is modified at many points on the coast, however, by the cold Humboldt current which sweeps up the west coast of South America from the Antarctic seas.Advertisement
The fact that the southern extremity of South America is the only land extending into this belt gives it special physical importance in relation to tides and currents, and its position with reference to the Antarctic Ocean and continent makes it convenient to regard it as a separate ocean from which the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian Oceans may be said to radiate.
The Antipodean-American element in the Sokotran flora probably arrived via the Mascarene Islands or South Africa from a former Antarctic continent.
Bruce for crossing the Antarctic continent in 1911-2, from Coats Land on the Weddell Sea to McMurdo Sound in the Ross Sea, was not proceeded with, and two American expeditions which were contemplated at the same time did not advance beyond the stage of projects.
The " Aurora " proceeded westward close along the Antarctic circle.
Whetter, reached a point on the Antarctic circle in long.Advertisement
Sir Ernest Shackleton had completed his preparations for an attempt to cross the Antarctic regions from Weddell Sea to Ross Sea before the outbreak of the World War, and carried out his expedition at the direct order of the Admiralty, which declined his offer of the ships and men for war service.
It would be impracticable to draw general conclusions as to the physical and biological conditions of the Antarctic regions until the researches of all the expeditions had been published in a comparable form.
The results of the Australian and German expeditions, which were for a great part of the time synchronous with those of Scott and Amundsen, required to be taken into consideration before a general theory of the atmospheric circulation within the Antarctic circle could be established.
This is also the case as to geology, and the bearings of geological evidence on the probable nature and extent of the Antarctic continent, and the relations of that land mass to the other continents.
The cold antarctic, or Humboldt, current sweeps northward along the coast and greatly modifies the heat of the arid, tropical plateaus.Advertisement
According to observations made by the Swedish Antarctic Expedition (1901-1903), at Orange Bay, Hoste Island, in lat.
Conspicuous among these are the great white swan (Cygnus anatoides), the black-necked swan (Anser nigricollis), the antarctic goose (Anas antarctica) and the " race-horse " or " steamer duck " (Micropterus brachypterus).
The Cape peninsula and the western coast receive the cold currents from the Antarctic regions.
The treaty gave to Portugal all lands which might be discovered east of a straight line drawn from the Arctic Pole to the Antarctic, at a distance of 370 leagues west of Cape Verde.
As the colder latitudes are entered the grasses become relatively more numerous, and are the leading family in Arctic and Antarctic regions.Advertisement
It is a deflected stream from the west drift of the " roaring forties " and coming from Antarctic regions is much colder than the Agulhas current.
This ridge, on which the Crozet Islands and Kerguelen are situated, is directly connected with the submarine plateau of the Antarctic.
Kerguelen, a desolate and uninhabited island near the centre of the Indian Ocean at its southern border, is noteworthy as providing a base station for Antarctic exploration.
The west wind drift sends a stream northwards along the west coast of Australia, the West Australia current, the homologue of the Benguela current in the South Atlantic. The principal feature in the circulation in the depths of the Indian Ocean is a slow movement of Antarctic water northwards along the bottom to take the place of that removed from the surface by evaporation, and by currents in the lower latitudes.
The geographical range of each species is generally more or less restricted, usually according to climate, as they are mostly inhabitants either of the Arctic or Antarctic seas and adjacent temperate regions, few being found within the tropics.
In 1820 the naval lieutenant Edward Bransfield was sent in the "Williams" to survey the islands, which attracted the attention of American and British sealers, and became fairly well known through the visits of Antarctic explorers.
On his third voyage, while seeking some land reported to have been found by Kerguelen, Cook in December 1776 reached the cluster of desolate islands now generally known by the name of the French explorer, and here, among many other kinds of birds, was a Sheathbill, which for a long while no one suspected to be otherwise than specifically identical with that of the western Antarctic Ocean; but, as will be seen, its distinctness has been subsequently admitted.
In 1904 Gough Island was visited by the Antarctic exploring ship " Scotia of the Bruce expedition, which discovered a rich marine fauna, two new buntings and three new species of plants.
Fragments of a Jurassic flora have recently been discovered by Dr Andersson, a member of Nordenskiold's Antarctic expedition, in Louis Philippe Land in lat.
The discovery of this Antarctic flora is a further demonstration of the world-wide distribution of a uniform Jurassic flora.
The antarctic adventurers, probably the only participants in our event not to be upset by bad weather!
The expedition starts with a flight from Chile to Patriot Hills, an ice airstrip at 80 degrees south on the Antarctic continent.
Dr. Chris Robertson made a substantial contribution helping Hilary Shibata, antarctic bibliographer, with the backlog of recent Antarctic scientific papers.
Emperor penguins breed in the Antarctic, under the harshest conditions for any species of bird Infant Capuchin monkeys Issue 10.
The Sub Antarctic Plant House has many specimens from chilly climes.
The Treaty parties remain firmly committed to a system that is still effective in protecting their essential Antarctic interests.
British Antarctic Survey has a continuing commitment to education.
The sketch shows the antarctic continent without the ice.
Only 43 species of birds occur south of the antarctic convergence, nearly all of them seabirds.
You can follow Howard's adventures in the Antarctic, which will include camping overnight and exploring ice crevasses by reading his blog.
The small shrimp-like crustacean, krill is central to the Antarctic food web.
The monument is surfaced in an irregular mosaic of white and near-white tiles that evoke the desolation and grandeur of the Antarctic ice.
We now know that cold clean Antarctic ice behaves as a low loss dielectric over a wide range of radar frequencies.
Great crowds of passengers not only dilute the Antarctic experience, but also reduce the number of Zodiac and shore excursions possible each day.
In 1907, he led his own British antarctic expedition in the Nimrod.
Not really, but I think [antarctic explorer] Ernest Shackleton can teach you a lot.
Crosbie and Nimon continued to work on doctoral theses arising from their antarctic fieldwork.
We will visit enormous penguin rookeries, land on beaches ruled by Antarctic fur seals and observe southern elephant seals wallowing in mud pools.
New Zealand fur seal Arctocephalus forsteri, sub-Antarctic fur seal A. tropicalis and Antarctic fur seal A. gazella are found.
A recently published study in Science magazine indicates that up to 90% of antarctic glaciers are losing mass.
At over 22,000 tons, she retains her handsome traditional profile and her resilient ice-strengthened hull which enables her to cruise in the Antarctic.
Antarctic krill (Euphausia superba) are fished during the winter months as fishing grounds further south toward the Antarctic continent become icebound.
From the dockside, it is possible sometimes to see icebreakers, preparing for or having just returned from the Antarctic Ocean.
The most likely potential source for such an anomaly is meltwater from the antarctic ice sheet in a global warming scenario.
The Antarctic has had a permanent ice sheet for the last 30 million years.
To obtain measures of downwelling irradiance under Antarctic pack ice.
On 30 January 1820 he made the first definite charting of the antarctic mainland.
It works, tho I found it a bit fiddly in the Antarctic, where I was wearing thick mittens.
Day 13 We sail south, to the Antarctic, where the ship is again followed by a multitude of seabirds.
Jonathan Shanklin, a co-discoverer of the hole in the antarctic ozone layer, from the British Antarctic Survey will talk about his experiences.
We also sighted the first true Antarctic bird, a cape petrel, which had come up to Brazil to feed.
The Drake Passage also marks the northern limit of many Antarctic seabirds.
We will visit enormous penguin rookeries, land on beaches ruled by antarctic fur seals and observe southern elephant seals wallowing in mud pools.
Other birds to look out for are blue-eyed shags, kelp gulls, cape petrels, skuas, snowy sheathbills and antarctic terns.
What did the members of the British Antarctic Expedition read during their three years sojourn?
Such a situation occurs in the antarctic stratosphere during the springtime formation of the ozone hole.
We also cross the Antarctic Convergence, a biological barrier where cold polar waters sink beneath the warmer waters of the more Temperate Zones.
Erebus is the main point source for NO 2 (and very likely other reactive nitrogen oxides) in the antarctic troposphere.
Merged velocity vectors from two Antarctic HF radars describe the flow velocity variation in the boundary region.
Possibly visit vast penguin rookeries, land on beaches ruled by Antarctic fur seals or observe wallowing southern elephant seals.
Scotland had long been involved in both Arctic and antarctic whaling.
Though the islands are under the equator, the climate is not intensely hot, as it is tempered by cold currents from the Antarctic sea, which, having followed the coast of Peru as far as Cape; Blanco, bear off to the N.W.
Dr Klaatsch's view is that they are survivals of a primitive race which inhabited a vast Antarctic continent of which South America, South Africa and Australia once formed a part, as evidenced by the identity of many species of birds and fish.
On the other hand, recent Antarctic exploration makes it practically certain that a great continent surrounds the south pole with a total area considerably more than Sir John Murray's estimate in 1894, when he assigned to it an area of 9,000,000 sq.
It is probable that the Antarctic continent measures about 13,000,000 sq.
Here there are Weddell and elephant seals, skuas, giant petrels, Antarctic terns and rookeries of chinstrap, gentoo and macaroni penguins.
Borchgrevink brought with him 90 sledge dogs Ã¢ the first dogs ever used in Antarctic work.
Such a situation occurs in the Antarctic stratosphere during the springtime formation of the ozone hole.
Likewise, sunny days are rather common in Greater Antarctica and the sun even shines among the subantarctic islands and Antarctic Peninsula.
We also cross the Antarctic Convergence, a biological barrier where cold polar waters sink beneath the warmer waters of the more temperate zones.
Exotic terranes arrived at the Antarctic Peninsula about 110 million years ago at the time a mountain chain was uplifted.
Erebus is the main point source for NO 2 (and very likely other reactive nitrogen oxides) in the Antarctic troposphere.
Modern whaling in the Antarctic is big business, carried out with scientific equipment.
Scotland had long been involved in both Arctic and Antarctic whaling.
As of 2005, Live Science revealed that 84 percent of Antarctic glaciers have retreated over the past 50 years, a rate similar to that of the Arctic glaciers.
Try your hand at dog sledding in Alaska, or set foot on the Antarctic continent itself, view spectacular ice burgs, and visit with the Penguins.
The most popular destinations, however, are often isolated and exotic, such as Galapagos island cruises or voyages to the Antarctic.
Keep in mind that because of its isolated ports, most Antarctic voyages require a minimum of 10 nights, though most average about two to three weeks.
Krill are tiny crustaceans living near the Antarctic, and their oil typically contains fewer trace toxins than that of fish.
As a step towards such hypothesis it has been noted that the Antarctic, the South African, and the Australian floras have many types in common.
In 1642 the governor and council of Batavia fitted out two ships to prosecute the discovery of the south land, then believed to be part of a vast Antarctic continent, and entrusted the command to Captain Abel Jansen Tasman.
The belief in a vast Antarctic continent stretching far into the temperate zone had never been abandoned, and was vehemently asserted by Charles Dalrymple, a disappointed candidate nominated by the Royal Society for the command of the Transit expedition of 1769.
Cook's second voyage was mainly intended to settle the question of the existence of such a continent once for all, and to define the limits of any land that might exist in navigable seas towards the Antarctic circle.
The chief element of uncertainty as to the largest features of the relief of the earth's crust is due to the unexplored area in the Arctic region and the larger regions of the Antarctic, of which Crustal we know nothing.
In this way, for example, it has been suggested that a land, " Lemuria," once connected Madagascar with the Malay Archipelago, and that a northern extension of the antarctic land once united the three southern continents.
The distribution is very interesting and it has been shown that the water of the Antarctic Ocean contains about 0 .
It must be remembered that the Arabs, who inhabit an extremely hot country, are very fully clothed, while the Fuegians at the extremity, of Cape Horn, exposed to all the rigours of an antarctic climate, have, as sole protection, a skin attached to the body by cords, so that it can be shifted to either side according to the direction of the wind.
That Wilkes discovered an Antarctic continent was long doubted, and one of the charges against him when he was court-martialled was that he had fabricated this discovery, but the expedition of Sir Ernest Shackleton in 1908-1909 corroborated Wilkes.
That part of the Antarctic continent known as Wilkes Land was named in his honour.
A simple, practical boundary between the three oceans can be obtained by prolonging the meridian of the southern extremity of each of the three southern continents to the Antarctic circle.
We now know, however, that the Antarctic circle runs so close to the coast of Antarctica that the Antarctic Ocean may be left out of account.
This rise is separated from the Crozet Rise by a depression extending to 2675 fathoms, through which the Kerguelen Trough (which lies north of Kerguelen) is brought into free communication with the Indo-Atlantic Antarctic Basin.
The Pacific Ocean consists mainly of one enormous basin bounded on the west by New Zealand and the Tonga, Marshall aid Marianne ridges, on the north by the festoons of islands marking off the North Pacific fringing seas, on the east by the coast of North America and the great Easter Island Rise and on the south by the Antarctic Shelf.
In the southernhemisphere the icepack forms a nearly continuous fence around the Antarctic continent.
Strongly marked differences in density are produced by the melting of sea-ice, and this is of particular importance in the case of the great ice barrier round the Antarctic continent.
The existence of a layer of water of low salinity at a depth of 500 fathoms in the tropical oceans of the southern hemisphere is to be referred to this action of the melting ice of the Antarctic regions.
The north to south distance from Bering Strait to the Antarctic circle is 9300 m., and the Pacific attains its greatest breadth, 10,000 m., at the equator.
Denuch (1911) covers both Arctic and Antarctic.
It appears to be common in the neighbourhood of Cape Town, while the recent Antarctic expeditions have shown that it occurs in various localities from the Falkland Islands to the Antarctic circle.
In the extreme south, where an Arctic vegetation is found, the pastures are rich, and the forests, largely of the Antarctic beech (Fagus antarctica), are vigorous wherever the rainfall is heavy.
The North Atlantic being altogether cut off from the Arctic regions, and the vertical circulation being active, this movement is here practically non-existent; but in the South Atlantic, where communication with the Southern Ocean is perfectly open, Antarctic water can be traced to the equator and even beyond.
The voyage of Drake across the Pacific was preceded by that of Alvaro de Mendana, who was despatched from Peru in 1567 to discover the great Antarctic continent which was believed to extend far northward into the South sea, the search In Pacific. for which now became one of the leading motives of Pacific. exploration.
They are essentially coast-fishes, inhabiting nearly all seas, but disappearing towards the Arctic and Antarctic Oceans.
A committee of the Royal Geographical Society - the deliberations of which were interrupted by the departure on his last voyage of Sir John Franklin, one of the members - suggested these meridians as boundaries; the north and south boundaries of the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans being the polar circles, leaving an Arctic and an Antarctic Ocean to complete the hydrosphere.
Others, like Malte Brun (1803) and Supan (1903), take the loxodromes between the three capes and call the ocean to the south the Antarctic Ocean.
The North African Basin has several deeps with more than 3300 fathoms to the northwest and the south-west of the Cape Verde Islands, but the South African Basin is less deep. In the South Atlantic there is no connexion between the Central Rise and the Antarctic Shelf, for the Indo-Atlantic Antarctic Basin stretches from near the South Sandwich Islands towards Kerguelen with depths exceeding 2500 fathoms and reaching in places 3100.
It is particularly in evidence round the whole of the Antarctic Shelf, where it occurs down to depths of 2500 fathoms. It is the chief deposit, according to Nansen, of the North Polar Basin and, according to Schmelck and Bdggild, of the Norwegian Sea also, where it is largely mixed with the shells of the bottom-living foraminifer Biloculina.
For the open ocean the only quite trustworthy results are those obtained by the prince of Monaco in the North Atlantic, and by the recent Antarctic expeditions in the South Atlantic and South Indian Oceans.
As the Arctic Basin is shut off from the North Atlantic by ridges rising to within 300 fathoms of the surface and from the Pacific by the shallow shelf of the Bering Sea, and as the ice-laden East Greenland and Labrador currents consist of fresh surface water which cannot appreciably influence the underlying mass, the Arctic region has no practical effect upon the bottom temperature of the three great oceans, which is entirely dominated by the influence of the Antarctic. The existence of deep-lying and extensive rises or ridges in high southern latitudes has been indicated by the deep-sea temperature observations of Antarctic expeditions.
The Antarctic icebergs are of tabular form and much larger than those of Greenland, but in either case an iceberg rising to 200 ft.
The Antarctic beech and Winter's bark (Drimys Winteri) are found at intervals along the Andes to the northern limits of this zone.
It is not to be supposed that this antarctic element, to which Professor Tate has applied the name Euronotian, entered a desert barren of all life.
Leaving Hampton Roads on the 18th of August 1838, it Mopped at Madeira and Rio de Janeiro; visited Tierra del Fuego, Chile, Peru, the Paumotu group of the Low Archipelago, the Samoan islands and New South Wales; from Sydney sailed into the Antarctic Ocean in December 1839 and reported the discovery of an Antarctic continent west of the Balleny islands; visited the Fiji and the Hawaiian islands in 1840, explored the west coast of the United States, including the Columbia river, San Francisco Bay and the Sacramento river, in 1841, and returned by way of the Philippine islands, the Sulu archipelago, Borneo, Singapore, Polynesia and the Cape of Good Hope, reaching New York on the 10th of June 1842.