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antarctic

antarctic

antarctic Sentence Examples

  • To these might be added the antarctic, which is still very imperfectly known.

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  • To these might be added the antarctic, which is still very imperfectly known.

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  • Tasman sailed from Batavia in 1642, and on the 24th of November sighted high land in 42° 30' S., which was named van Diemen's Land, and after landing there proceeded to the discovery of the western coast of New Zealand; at first called Staten Land, and supposed to be connected with the Antarctic continent from which this voyage proved New Holland to be separated.

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  • 173; National Antarctic Exp., Nat.

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  • For purposes of measurement the polar boundaries are taken to be the Arctic and Antarctic circles, although in discussing the configuration and circulation it is impossible to adhere strictly to these limits.

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  • (1893); Hedley, " Surviving Refugees in Austral Lands of Ancient Antarctic Life," Royal Society N.

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  • The chief element of uncertainty as to the largest features of the relief of the earth's crust is due to the unexplored area in the Arctic region and the larger regions of the Antarctic, of which Crustal we know nothing.

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  • Leaving Hampton Roads on the 18th of August 1838, it Mopped at Madeira and Rio de Janeiro; visited Tierra del Fuego, Chile, Peru, the Paumotu group of the Low Archipelago, the Samoan islands and New South Wales; from Sydney sailed into the Antarctic Ocean in December 1839 and reported the discovery of an Antarctic continent west of the Balleny islands; visited the Fiji and the Hawaiian islands in 1840, explored the west coast of the United States, including the Columbia river, San Francisco Bay and the Sacramento river, in 1841, and returned by way of the Philippine islands, the Sulu archipelago, Borneo, Singapore, Polynesia and the Cape of Good Hope, reaching New York on the 10th of June 1842.

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  • The Pacific Antarctic Basin occupies the vast region south of 50° S.

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  • Antarctic and southern temperate coasts.

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  • The North African Basin has several deeps with more than 3300 fathoms to the northwest and the south-west of the Cape Verde Islands, but the South African Basin is less deep. In the South Atlantic there is no connexion between the Central Rise and the Antarctic Shelf, for the Indo-Atlantic Antarctic Basin stretches from near the South Sandwich Islands towards Kerguelen with depths exceeding 2500 fathoms and reaching in places 3100.

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  • In the extreme south, where an Arctic vegetation is found, the pastures are rich, and the forests, largely of the Antarctic beech (Fagus antarctica), are vigorous wherever the rainfall is heavy.

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  • The Antarctic beech and Winter's bark (Drimys Winteri) are found at intervals along the Andes to the northern limits of this zone.

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  • Modern naturalists consider that many of the problems of Australia's remarkable fauna and flora can be best explained by the following hypothesis: - The region now covered by the antarctic ice-cap was in early Tertiary times favoured by a mild climate; here lay an antarctic continent or archipelago.

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  • As a step towards such hypothesis it has been noted that the Antarctic, the South African, and the Australian floras have many types in common.

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  • Before the Antarctic expeditions of 1903-1904 our knowledge of the form of the sea bottom south of 40° S.

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  • long., in which he recorded a depth exceeding 4000 fathoms. The Scottish Antarctic expedition has shown this sounding to be erroneous; the " Scotia " obtained samples of bottom, in almost the same spot, from a depth of 2660 fathoms. Combining the results of recent soundings, Dr W.

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  • In 1642 the governor and council of Batavia fitted out two ships to prosecute the discovery of the south land, then believed to be part of a vast Antarctic continent, and entrusted the command to Captain Abel Jansen Tasman.

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  • as limits; but in none of these schemes has the coast of Antarctica been adequately considered, and they have all been too much influenced by the Mercator map. Each of the three oceans, Atlantic, Indian and Pacific, possesses an Antarctic facies in the southern part and a tropical facies between the tropics, and the Atlantic and Pacific an Arctic facies in their northern parts.

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  • It is not to be supposed that this antarctic element, to which Professor Tate has applied the name Euronotian, entered a desert barren of all life.

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  • The distribution is very interesting and it has been shown that the water of the Antarctic Ocean contains about 0 .

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  • the prince of Monaco, the German " Valdivia " expedition under Professor Chun (1898), and the combined Antarctic expeditions (1903-1904).

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  • The North Atlantic being altogether cut off from the Arctic regions, and the vertical circulation being active, this movement is here practically non-existent; but in the South Atlantic, where communication with the Southern Ocean is perfectly open, Antarctic water can be traced to the equator and even beyond.

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  • The belief in a vast Antarctic continent stretching far into the temperate zone had never been abandoned, and was vehemently asserted by Charles Dalrymple, a disappointed candidate nominated by the Royal Society for the command of the Transit expedition of 1769.

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  • Cook's second voyage was mainly intended to settle the question of the existence of such a continent once for all, and to define the limits of any land that might exist in navigable seas towards the Antarctic circle.

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  • On a second cruise from the Society Islands, in 1773, he, first of all men, crossed the Antarctic circle, and was stopped by ice in 71° 10' S.

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  • In this way, for example, it has been suggested that a land, " Lemuria," once connected Madagascar with the Malay Archipelago, and that a northern extension of the antarctic land once united the three southern continents.

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  • The most important were: the Australian Antarctic expedition of 1911-4 under Sir Douglas Mawson; the Danish Oceanographical expeditions in the Mediterranean and adjacent seas of 1908-10; a short cruise made by Sir John Murray and Dr. Johan Hjort in the Norwegian Fishery exploring vessel " Michael Sars " in 1910, the general results of which were published as The Depths of the Ocean (1912) by the leaders of the expedition; and a short special cruise made by the " Scotia " in 1913 (after the loss of the " Titanic ") under the leadership of Dr. Matthews, which made observations upon the distribution of ice in the North Atlantic.

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  • This is really the case, for all observations show that the Antarctic and Arctic ice-bound seas are enormously rich in diatom life when compared with temperate and tropical regions: the great Antarctic zone of sea-bottom deposit, in which the skeletons of diatoms predominate, covers some ten millions of square miles.

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  • It must be remembered that the Arabs, who inhabit an extremely hot country, are very fully clothed, while the Fuegians at the extremity, of Cape Horn, exposed to all the rigours of an antarctic climate, have, as sole protection, a skin attached to the body by cords, so that it can be shifted to either side according to the direction of the wind.

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  • A simple, practical boundary between the three oceans can be obtained by prolonging the meridian of the southern extremity of each of the three southern continents to the Antarctic circle.

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  • We now know, however, that the Antarctic circle runs so close to the coast of Antarctica that the Antarctic Ocean may be left out of account.

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  • the rise resumes a southerly direction and from Ascension to Tristan d'Acunha, the depth is in many places less than r50o fathoms. The soundings of Bruce's Antarctic expedition in the " Scotia " showed that the rise cannot be traced beyond 55° S.

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  • It appears to be common in the neighbourhood of Cape Town, while the recent Antarctic expeditions have shown that it occurs in various localities from the Falkland Islands to the Antarctic circle.

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  • and their flora is much the same as that of Antarctic South America.

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  • A committee of the Royal Geographical Society - the deliberations of which were interrupted by the departure on his last voyage of Sir John Franklin, one of the members - suggested these meridians as boundaries; the north and south boundaries of the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans being the polar circles, leaving an Arctic and an Antarctic Ocean to complete the hydrosphere.

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  • right up to the Antarctic Shelf, with depths ranging down to 2500-3000 fathoms, and communicating with the main Pacific Basin to the east of New Zealand.

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  • That Wilkes discovered an Antarctic continent was long doubted, and one of the charges against him when he was court-martialled was that he had fabricated this discovery, but the expedition of Sir Ernest Shackleton in 1908-1909 corroborated Wilkes.

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  • That part of the Antarctic continent known as Wilkes Land was named in his honour.

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  • In the Indian Ocean the Kerguelen Rise stretches broadly southward, east of the island which gives it a name, to the Antarctic Shelf with the greatest depths upon it usually less than 2000 fathoms, and it stretches northward beyond New Amsterdam to 30° S.

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  • This rise is separated from the Crozet Rise by a depression extending to 2675 fathoms, through which the Kerguelen Trough (which lies north of Kerguelen) is brought into free communication with the Indo-Atlantic Antarctic Basin.

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  • The Pacific Ocean consists mainly of one enormous basin bounded on the west by New Zealand and the Tonga, Marshall aid Marianne ridges, on the north by the festoons of islands marking off the North Pacific fringing seas, on the east by the coast of North America and the great Easter Island Rise and on the south by the Antarctic Shelf.

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  • In the southernhemisphere the icepack forms a nearly continuous fence around the Antarctic continent.

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  • In the north, icebergs break off, as a rule, from the ends of the great glaciers of Greenland, and in the far south from the edge of the great Antarctic ice-barrier.

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  • Strongly marked differences in density are produced by the melting of sea-ice, and this is of particular importance in the case of the great ice barrier round the Antarctic continent.

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  • The existence of a layer of water of low salinity at a depth of 500 fathoms in the tropical oceans of the southern hemisphere is to be referred to this action of the melting ice of the Antarctic regions.

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  • They are essentially coast-fishes, inhabiting nearly all seas, but disappearing towards the Arctic and Antarctic Oceans.

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  • Others, like Malte Brun (1803) and Supan (1903), take the loxodromes between the three capes and call the ocean to the south the Antarctic Ocean.

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  • prevail right northwards across the equator into the Bay of Biscay, showing a steady rise of bottom temperature as successive submarine elevations restrict communication with 'the Antarctic. On the other hand, in the more open Argentine Basin, which carries deep water far to the south, the bottom temperature in 40° S.

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  • The Antarctic icebergs are of tabular form and much larger than those of Greenland, but in either case an iceberg rising to 200 ft.

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  • 32), delineated the Chinese Empire in accordance with the map based on the surveys conducted during the reign of the emperor Kanghi, with the aid of Jesuit missionaries, and published in 1718; boldly refused to believe in the existence of an Antarctic continent covering half the southern hemisphere, and always brought a sound judgment to bear upon the materials which the ever-increasing number of travellers placed at his disposal.

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  • The alpine flora, beginning at 6000 ft., is specially characterized by its rhododendrons, pines (Araucaria and Libocedrus), and palms, by numerous superb species of Agapetes (Ericaceae), and on the summits by an extraordinary association of species characteristically European (Rubus, Ranunculus, Leontodon, Aspidium), Himalayan, New Zealandian (Veronica), Antarctic and South American (Drymus, Libocedrus).

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  • ANTARCTIC (Gr.

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  • The Antarctic circle is drawn at 66° 30' S., but polar conditions of climate, &c., extend considerably north of the area thus enclosed.

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  • America, broadening in the north as if to span the oceans by reaching to its neighbours on the east and west, tapering between vast oceans far to the south where the nearest land is in the little-known Antarctic regions, roughly presents the triangular outline that is to be expected from tetrahedral warping; and although greatly broken in the middle, and standing with the northern and southern parts out of a meridian line, America is nevertheless the best witness among the continents of to-day to the tetrahedral theory.

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  • Excepting the barren lands of the Antarctic regions, with which Patagonia is somewhat associated by a broken string of islands, the nearest continental lands of a more habitable kind are South Africa and New Zealand., In contrast to the sub-Arctic land ring, here is a sub-Antarctic ocean ring, and as a result the land flora and fauna of South America to-day are strongly unlike the life forms of the other south-ending continents.

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  • The present climate is not favourable to permanent vegetation; the island lies within the belt of rain at all seasons of the year, and is reached by no drying winds; its temperature is kept ddwn by the surrounding vast expanse of sea, and it lies within the line of the cold Antarctic drift.

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  • There are about one thousand species of flowering plants, of which about three-fourths are endemic. Most of those not peculiar to the country are Australian; others are South American, European, Antarctic; and some have Polynesian affinities.

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  • The north to south distance from Bering Strait to the Antarctic circle is 9300 m., and the Pacific attains its greatest breadth, 10,000 m., at the equator.

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  • The bank then continues south to the Antarctic Ocean, in about 120° W.

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  • This bank continues southwards to the Antarctic Ocean, expanding into a plateau on which Australia stands, and a branch runs eastwards and then southwards from the north-east of Australia through New Zealand.

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  • South American palaeogeography has been traced by von Ihring into a northern land mass, " Archelenis," and a southern mass, " Archiplata," the latter at times united with an antarctic continent.

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  • magellanicum are found in the antarctic. Erodium contains 50 species (three are British), most of which are confined to the Mediterranean region and west Asia, though others occur in America, in South Africa and West Australia.

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  • The heat is modified at many points on the coast, however, by the cold Humboldt current which sweeps up the west coast of South America from the Antarctic seas.

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  • and the Antarctic Circle (662° S.).

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  • The fact that the southern extremity of South America is the only land extending into this belt gives it special physical importance in relation to tides and currents, and its position with reference to the Antarctic Ocean and continent makes it convenient to regard it as a separate ocean from which the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian Oceans may be said to radiate.

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  • The Antipodean-American element in the Sokotran flora probably arrived via the Mascarene Islands or South Africa from a former Antarctic continent.

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  • "ANTARCTIC REGIONS 21.960).

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  • Bruce for crossing the Antarctic continent in 1911-2, from Coats Land on the Weddell Sea to McMurdo Sound in the Ross Sea, was not proceeded with, and two American expeditions which were contemplated at the same time did not advance beyond the stage of projects.

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  • 30, after the shortest and most successful expedition which ever wintered in the Antarctic. The one object, the attainment of the Pole, had been accomplished quickly and easily and the meteorological observations were of great value in extending the conclusions of other investigators.

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  • 6 1912, after triumphing over the most difficult conditions ever yet surmounted in the Antarctic.

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  • This journey was made in the lowest temperature ever experienced in the Antarctic: many days had readings below - 60° F.

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  • only - a necessity which contributed to the greatest Antarctic disaster on record.

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  • The " Aurora " proceeded westward close along the Antarctic circle.

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  • Whetter, reached a point on the Antarctic circle in long.

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  • Sir Ernest Shackleton had completed his preparations for an attempt to cross the Antarctic regions from Weddell Sea to Ross Sea before the outbreak of the World War, and carried out his expedition at the direct order of the Admiralty, which declined his offer of the ships and men for war service.

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  • It would be impracticable to draw general conclusions as to the physical and biological conditions of the Antarctic regions until the researches of all the expeditions had been published in a comparable form.

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  • The results of the Australian and German expeditions, which were for a great part of the time synchronous with those of Scott and Amundsen, required to be taken into consideration before a general theory of the atmospheric circulation within the Antarctic circle could be established.

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  • This is also the case as to geology, and the bearings of geological evidence on the probable nature and extent of the Antarctic continent, and the relations of that land mass to the other continents.

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  • Priestley, Antarctic Adventure, Scott's Northern Party (1914); G.

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  • Davis, With the "Aurora" in the Antarctic (1920); Sir E.

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  • Hulth, " Swedish Arctic and Antarctic Explorations," 1758-1910, K.

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  • Denuch (1911) covers both Arctic and Antarctic.

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  • The cold antarctic, or Humboldt, current sweeps northward along the coast and greatly modifies the heat of the arid, tropical plateaus.

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  • According to observations made by the Swedish Antarctic Expedition (1901-1903), at Orange Bay, Hoste Island, in lat.

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  • Conspicuous among these are the great white swan (Cygnus anatoides), the black-necked swan (Anser nigricollis), the antarctic goose (Anas antarctica) and the " race-horse " or " steamer duck " (Micropterus brachypterus).

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  • The Cape peninsula and the western coast receive the cold currents from the Antarctic regions.

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  • The treaty gave to Portugal all lands which might be discovered east of a straight line drawn from the Arctic Pole to the Antarctic, at a distance of 370 leagues west of Cape Verde.

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  • high with leaves arranged like a fan; it is a native of the Falkland and certain antarctic islands where it is known as tussock grass.

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  • As the colder latitudes are entered the grasses become relatively more numerous, and are the leading family in Arctic and Antarctic regions.

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  • rubra and others, are absent in the tropics but reappear in the antarctic regions; others (e.g.

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  • In this region appears the Antarctic forest in which predominates the Fagus antarctica and F.

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  • It is a deflected stream from the west drift of the " roaring forties " and coming from Antarctic regions is much colder than the Agulhas current.

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  • As in the case of the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans, the southern boundary is taken at either 40° S., the line of separation from the great Southern Ocean, or, if the belt of this ocean between the two meridians named be included, at the Antarctic Circle.

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  • to the Antarctic Circle, Murray gives 9,372,600 English square miles, equivalent to 7,057,568 geographical square miles, and Karstens 24,718,000 square kilometres, equivalent to 7,18 2, 474 geographical square miles.

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  • This ridge, on which the Crozet Islands and Kerguelen are situated, is directly connected with the submarine plateau of the Antarctic.

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  • Kerguelen, a desolate and uninhabited island near the centre of the Indian Ocean at its southern border, is noteworthy as providing a base station for Antarctic exploration.

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  • The west wind drift sends a stream northwards along the west coast of Australia, the West Australia current, the homologue of the Benguela current in the South Atlantic. The principal feature in the circulation in the depths of the Indian Ocean is a slow movement of Antarctic water northwards along the bottom to take the place of that removed from the surface by evaporation, and by currents in the lower latitudes.

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  • The geographical range of each species is generally more or less restricted, usually according to climate, as they are mostly inhabitants either of the Arctic or Antarctic seas and adjacent temperate regions, few being found within the tropics.

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  • SOUTH SHETLAND, a chain of islands on the border of the Antarctic region, lying about 500 m.

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  • In 1820 the naval lieutenant Edward Bransfield was sent in the "Williams" to survey the islands, which attracted the attention of American and British sealers, and became fairly well known through the visits of Antarctic explorers.

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  • On his third voyage, while seeking some land reported to have been found by Kerguelen, Cook in December 1776 reached the cluster of desolate islands now generally known by the name of the French explorer, and here, among many other kinds of birds, was a Sheathbill, which for a long while no one suspected to be otherwise than specifically identical with that of the western Antarctic Ocean; but, as will be seen, its distinctness has been subsequently admitted.

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  • In 1904 Gough Island was visited by the Antarctic exploring ship " Scotia of the Bruce expedition, which discovered a rich marine fauna, two new buntings and three new species of plants.

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  • 9, pp. 23-81); see also the Records of the Antarctic Expedition, 1901-1904.

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  • Fragments of a Jurassic flora have recently been discovered by Dr Andersson, a member of Nordenskiold's Antarctic expedition, in Louis Philippe Land in lat.

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  • The discovery of this Antarctic flora is a further demonstration of the world-wide distribution of a uniform Jurassic flora.

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  • The antarctic adventurers, probably the only participants in our event not to be upset by bad weather!

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  • The expedition starts with a flight from Chile to Patriot Hills, an ice airstrip at 80 degrees south on the Antarctic continent.

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  • antarctic expedition from.

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  • antarctic pole as the Polar Star is to the arctic pole.

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  • Dr. Chris Robertson made a substantial contribution helping Hilary Shibata, antarctic bibliographer, with the backlog of recent Antarctic scientific papers.

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  • calveving of icebergs from these ice streams is the main way in which ice is lost from the Antarctic ice sheets.

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  • Emperor penguins breed in the Antarctic, under the harshest conditions for any species of bird Infant Capuchin monkeys Issue 10.

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  • Emperor penguins breed in the Antarctic, under the harshest conditions for any species of bird Infant Capuchin monkeys Issue 10.

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  • climate variability in the vicinity of the Antarctic Peninsula.

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  • The Sub Antarctic Plant House has many specimens from chilly climes.

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  • The Treaty parties remain firmly committed to a system that is still effective in protecting their essential Antarctic interests.

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  • British Antarctic Survey has a continuing commitment to education.

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  • The sketch shows the antarctic continent without the ice.

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  • Only 43 species of birds occur south of the antarctic convergence, nearly all of them seabirds.

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  • You can follow Howard's adventures in the Antarctic, which will include camping overnight and exploring ice crevasses by reading his blog.

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  • The small shrimp-like crustacean, krill is central to the Antarctic food web.

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  • The monument is surfaced in an irregular mosaic of white and near-white tiles that evoke the desolation and grandeur of the Antarctic ice.

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  • We now know that cold clean Antarctic ice behaves as a low loss dielectric over a wide range of radar frequencies.

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  • Great crowds of passengers not only dilute the Antarctic experience, but also reduce the number of Zodiac and shore excursions possible each day.

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  • In 1907, he led his own British antarctic expedition in the Nimrod.

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  • Day 10: In accounts of antarctic exploration the exploits of lesser known members of expeditions are frequently overlooked.

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  • Not really, but I think [antarctic explorer] Ernest Shackleton can teach you a lot.

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  • Crosbie and Nimon continued to work on doctoral theses arising from their antarctic fieldwork.

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  • Molecular evidence for genetic mixing of Arctic and Antarctic subpolar populations of planktonic foraminifers.

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  • We will visit enormous penguin rookeries, land on beaches ruled by Antarctic fur seals and observe southern elephant seals wallowing in mud pools.

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  • New Zealand fur seal Arctocephalus forsteri, sub-Antarctic fur seal A. tropicalis and Antarctic fur seal A. gazella are found.

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  • A recently published study in Science magazine indicates that up to 90% of antarctic glaciers are losing mass.

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  • At over 22,000 tons, she retains her handsome traditional profile and her resilient ice-strengthened hull which enables her to cruise in the Antarctic.

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  • Antarctic krill (Euphausia superba) are fished during the winter months as fishing grounds further south toward the Antarctic continent become icebound.

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  • From the dockside, it is possible sometimes to see icebreakers, preparing for or having just returned from the Antarctic Ocean.

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  • The most likely potential source for such an anomaly is meltwater from the antarctic ice sheet in a global warming scenario.

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  • The Antarctic has had a permanent ice sheet for the last 30 million years.

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  • ice shelfciologist Dr. David Vaughan said, " In 1998, BAS predicted the demise of more ice shelves around the Antarctic Peninsula.

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  • To obtain measures of downwelling irradiance under Antarctic pack ice.

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  • antarctic krill under sea ice: elevated abundance in a narrow band just south of the ice edge.

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  • krill stocks around the Antarctic Peninsula seems to be emerging.

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  • British Antarctic Survey have developed a low power magnetometer for measuring the three components of the earth's magnetic field using a TDS2020 F.

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  • magnetometer prototype system on the Antarctic plateau.

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  • On 30 January 1820 he made the first definite charting of the antarctic mainland.

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  • meltwater from the Antarctic ice sheet in a global warming scenario.

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  • It works, tho I found it a bit fiddly in the Antarctic, where I was wearing thick mittens.

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  • Day 13 We sail south, to the Antarctic, where the ship is again followed by a multitude of seabirds.

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  • Jonathan Shanklin, a co-discoverer of the hole in the antarctic ozone layer, from the British Antarctic Survey will talk about his experiences.

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  • We also sighted the first true Antarctic bird, a cape petrel, which had come up to Brazil to feed.

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  • predicted the demise of more ice shelves around the Antarctic Peninsula.

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  • resilient ice-strengthened hull which enables her to cruise in the Antarctic.

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  • rookerythere are Weddell and elephant seals, skuas, giant petrels, Antarctic terns and rookeries of chinstrap, gentoo and macaroni penguins.

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  • rookerybly visit vast penguin rookeries, land on beaches ruled by Antarctic fur seals or observe wallowing southern elephant seals.

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  • rookeryll visit enormous penguin rookeries, land on beaches ruled by Antarctic fur seals and observe southern elephant seals wallowing in mud pools.

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  • rookerybly visit vast penguin rookeries, land on beaches ruled by Antarctic fur seals or observe wallowing southern elephant seals.

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  • The Drake Passage also marks the northern limit of many Antarctic seabirds.

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  • We will visit enormous penguin rookeries, land on beaches ruled by antarctic fur seals and observe southern elephant seals wallowing in mud pools.

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  • Other birds to look out for are blue-eyed shags, kelp gulls, cape petrels, skuas, snowy sheathbills and antarctic terns.

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  • The most likely potential source for such an anomaly is meltwater from the antarctic ice sheet in a global warming scenario.

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  • shelfan>Antarctic ice shelves that existed for thousands of years are crumbling.

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  • sledge dogs â the first dogs ever used in Antarctic work.

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  • What did the members of the British Antarctic Expedition read during their three years sojourn?

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  • Such a situation occurs in the antarctic stratosphere during the springtime formation of the ozone hole.

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  • subantarctic islands and Antarctic Peninsula.

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  • We also cross the Antarctic Convergence, a biological barrier where cold polar waters sink beneath the warmer waters of the more Temperate Zones.

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  • exotic terranes arrived at the Antarctic Peninsula about 110 million years ago at the time a mountain chain was uplifted.

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  • Erebus is the main point source for NO 2 (and very likely other reactive nitrogen oxides) in the antarctic troposphere.

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  • Prolonged enhancement in surface ultraviolet radiation during the Antarctic spring of 1990.

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  • Merged velocity vectors from two Antarctic HF radars describe the flow velocity variation in the boundary region.

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  • Lee, A. M., et al., The impact of the mixing properties within the Antarctic stratospheric vortex on ozone loss in spring.

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  • Hooker, J. D. (1853) Flora Novae-Zelandiae (Botany of the antarctic voyage: volume 2 ).

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  • Possibly visit vast penguin rookeries, land on beaches ruled by Antarctic fur seals or observe wallowing southern elephant seals.

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  • modern whaling in the Antarctic is big business, carried out with scientific equipment.

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  • Scotland had long been involved in both Arctic and antarctic whaling.

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  • It appears to be common in the neighbourhood of Cape Town, while the recent Antarctic expeditions have shown that it occurs in various localities from the Falkland Islands to the Antarctic circle.

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  • 173; National Antarctic Exp., Nat.

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  • In the extreme south, where an Arctic vegetation is found, the pastures are rich, and the forests, largely of the Antarctic beech (Fagus antarctica), are vigorous wherever the rainfall is heavy.

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  • The Antarctic beech and Winter's bark (Drimys Winteri) are found at intervals along the Andes to the northern limits of this zone.

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  • Though the islands are under the equator, the climate is not intensely hot, as it is tempered by cold currents from the Antarctic sea, which, having followed the coast of Peru as far as Cape; Blanco, bear off to the N.W.

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  • In reality, however, it experiences fewer climatic variations than the other great continents, owing to its distance (28°) from the Antarctic circle and (11°) from the equator.

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  • Modern naturalists consider that many of the problems of Australia's remarkable fauna and flora can be best explained by the following hypothesis: - The region now covered by the antarctic ice-cap was in early Tertiary times favoured by a mild climate; here lay an antarctic continent or archipelago.

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  • It is not to be supposed that this antarctic element, to which Professor Tate has applied the name Euronotian, entered a desert barren of all life.

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  • As a step towards such hypothesis it has been noted that the Antarctic, the South African, and the Australian floras have many types in common.

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  • Dr Klaatsch's view is that they are survivals of a primitive race which inhabited a vast Antarctic continent of which South America, South Africa and Australia once formed a part, as evidenced by the identity of many species of birds and fish.

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  • (1893); Hedley, " Surviving Refugees in Austral Lands of Ancient Antarctic Life," Royal Society N.

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  • For purposes of measurement the polar boundaries are taken to be the Arctic and Antarctic circles, although in discussing the configuration and circulation it is impossible to adhere strictly to these limits.

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  • Before the Antarctic expeditions of 1903-1904 our knowledge of the form of the sea bottom south of 40° S.

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  • long., in which he recorded a depth exceeding 4000 fathoms. The Scottish Antarctic expedition has shown this sounding to be erroneous; the " Scotia " obtained samples of bottom, in almost the same spot, from a depth of 2660 fathoms. Combining the results of recent soundings, Dr W.

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  • the prince of Monaco, the German " Valdivia " expedition under Professor Chun (1898), and the combined Antarctic expeditions (1903-1904).

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  • The North Atlantic being altogether cut off from the Arctic regions, and the vertical circulation being active, this movement is here practically non-existent; but in the South Atlantic, where communication with the Southern Ocean is perfectly open, Antarctic water can be traced to the equator and even beyond.

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  • In 1642 the governor and council of Batavia fitted out two ships to prosecute the discovery of the south land, then believed to be part of a vast Antarctic continent, and entrusted the command to Captain Abel Jansen Tasman.

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  • Tasman sailed from Batavia in 1642, and on the 24th of November sighted high land in 42° 30' S., which was named van Diemen's Land, and after landing there proceeded to the discovery of the western coast of New Zealand; at first called Staten Land, and supposed to be connected with the Antarctic continent from which this voyage proved New Holland to be separated.

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  • The belief in a vast Antarctic continent stretching far into the temperate zone had never been abandoned, and was vehemently asserted by Charles Dalrymple, a disappointed candidate nominated by the Royal Society for the command of the Transit expedition of 1769.

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  • Cook's second voyage was mainly intended to settle the question of the existence of such a continent once for all, and to define the limits of any land that might exist in navigable seas towards the Antarctic circle.

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  • On a second cruise from the Society Islands, in 1773, he, first of all men, crossed the Antarctic circle, and was stopped by ice in 71° 10' S.

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  • The chief element of uncertainty as to the largest features of the relief of the earth's crust is due to the unexplored area in the Arctic region and the larger regions of the Antarctic, of which Crustal we know nothing.

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  • The following are the chief areas of vegetational activity usually recognized: (1) The icedeserts of the arctic and antarctic and the highest mountain regions, where there is no vegetation except the lowest forms, like that which causes " red snow."

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  • In this way, for example, it has been suggested that a land, " Lemuria," once connected Madagascar with the Malay Archipelago, and that a northern extension of the antarctic land once united the three southern continents.

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  • Antarctic and southern temperate coasts.

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  • and their flora is much the same as that of Antarctic South America.

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  • They are essentially coast-fishes, inhabiting nearly all seas, but disappearing towards the Arctic and Antarctic Oceans.

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  • There are three genera: (i.) Priapulus, with the species P. caudatus, Lam., of the Arctic and Antarctic and neighbouring cold seas, and P. bicaudatus, Dan., of the north Atlantic and Arctic seas; (ii.) Priapuloides australis, de Guerne, of the southern circumpolar waters; and (iii.) Halicryptus, with the species H.

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  • 32), delineated the Chinese Empire in accordance with the map based on the surveys conducted during the reign of the emperor Kanghi, with the aid of Jesuit missionaries, and published in 1718; boldly refused to believe in the existence of an Antarctic continent covering half the southern hemisphere, and always brought a sound judgment to bear upon the materials which the ever-increasing number of travellers placed at his disposal.

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  • The most important were: the Australian Antarctic expedition of 1911-4 under Sir Douglas Mawson; the Danish Oceanographical expeditions in the Mediterranean and adjacent seas of 1908-10; a short cruise made by Sir John Murray and Dr. Johan Hjort in the Norwegian Fishery exploring vessel " Michael Sars " in 1910, the general results of which were published as The Depths of the Ocean (1912) by the leaders of the expedition; and a short special cruise made by the " Scotia " in 1913 (after the loss of the " Titanic ") under the leadership of Dr. Matthews, which made observations upon the distribution of ice in the North Atlantic.

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  • The distribution is very interesting and it has been shown that the water of the Antarctic Ocean contains about 0 .

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  • This is really the case, for all observations show that the Antarctic and Arctic ice-bound seas are enormously rich in diatom life when compared with temperate and tropical regions: the great Antarctic zone of sea-bottom deposit, in which the skeletons of diatoms predominate, covers some ten millions of square miles.

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  • South of the magnetic equator the south end of the needle is always inclined downwards, and there is a spot within the Antarctic Circle (148° E.

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  • It must be remembered that the Arabs, who inhabit an extremely hot country, are very fully clothed, while the Fuegians at the extremity, of Cape Horn, exposed to all the rigours of an antarctic climate, have, as sole protection, a skin attached to the body by cords, so that it can be shifted to either side according to the direction of the wind.

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  • Leaving Hampton Roads on the 18th of August 1838, it Mopped at Madeira and Rio de Janeiro; visited Tierra del Fuego, Chile, Peru, the Paumotu group of the Low Archipelago, the Samoan islands and New South Wales; from Sydney sailed into the Antarctic Ocean in December 1839 and reported the discovery of an Antarctic continent west of the Balleny islands; visited the Fiji and the Hawaiian islands in 1840, explored the west coast of the United States, including the Columbia river, San Francisco Bay and the Sacramento river, in 1841, and returned by way of the Philippine islands, the Sulu archipelago, Borneo, Singapore, Polynesia and the Cape of Good Hope, reaching New York on the 10th of June 1842.

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  • That Wilkes discovered an Antarctic continent was long doubted, and one of the charges against him when he was court-martialled was that he had fabricated this discovery, but the expedition of Sir Ernest Shackleton in 1908-1909 corroborated Wilkes.

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  • That part of the Antarctic continent known as Wilkes Land was named in his honour.

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  • On the other hand, recent Antarctic exploration makes it practically certain that a great continent surrounds the south pole with a total area considerably more than Sir John Murray's estimate in 1894, when he assigned to it an area of 9,000,000 sq.

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  • It is probable that the Antarctic continent measures about 13,000,000 sq.

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  • A simple, practical boundary between the three oceans can be obtained by prolonging the meridian of the southern extremity of each of the three southern continents to the Antarctic circle.

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  • A committee of the Royal Geographical Society - the deliberations of which were interrupted by the departure on his last voyage of Sir John Franklin, one of the members - suggested these meridians as boundaries; the north and south boundaries of the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans being the polar circles, leaving an Arctic and an Antarctic Ocean to complete the hydrosphere.

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  • We now know, however, that the Antarctic circle runs so close to the coast of Antarctica that the Antarctic Ocean may be left out of account.

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  • Others, like Malte Brun (1803) and Supan (1903), take the loxodromes between the three capes and call the ocean to the south the Antarctic Ocean.

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  • as limits; but in none of these schemes has the coast of Antarctica been adequately considered, and they have all been too much influenced by the Mercator map. Each of the three oceans, Atlantic, Indian and Pacific, possesses an Antarctic facies in the southern part and a tropical facies between the tropics, and the Atlantic and Pacific an Arctic facies in their northern parts.

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  • the rise resumes a southerly direction and from Ascension to Tristan d'Acunha, the depth is in many places less than r50o fathoms. The soundings of Bruce's Antarctic expedition in the " Scotia " showed that the rise cannot be traced beyond 55° S.

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  • The North African Basin has several deeps with more than 3300 fathoms to the northwest and the south-west of the Cape Verde Islands, but the South African Basin is less deep. In the South Atlantic there is no connexion between the Central Rise and the Antarctic Shelf, for the Indo-Atlantic Antarctic Basin stretches from near the South Sandwich Islands towards Kerguelen with depths exceeding 2500 fathoms and reaching in places 3100.

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  • In the Indian Ocean the Kerguelen Rise stretches broadly southward, east of the island which gives it a name, to the Antarctic Shelf with the greatest depths upon it usually less than 2000 fathoms, and it stretches northward beyond New Amsterdam to 30° S.

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  • This rise is separated from the Crozet Rise by a depression extending to 2675 fathoms, through which the Kerguelen Trough (which lies north of Kerguelen) is brought into free communication with the Indo-Atlantic Antarctic Basin.

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  • The Pacific Ocean consists mainly of one enormous basin bounded on the west by New Zealand and the Tonga, Marshall aid Marianne ridges, on the north by the festoons of islands marking off the North Pacific fringing seas, on the east by the coast of North America and the great Easter Island Rise and on the south by the Antarctic Shelf.

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  • The Pacific Antarctic Basin occupies the vast region south of 50° S.

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  • right up to the Antarctic Shelf, with depths ranging down to 2500-3000 fathoms, and communicating with the main Pacific Basin to the east of New Zealand.

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  • It is particularly in evidence round the whole of the Antarctic Shelf, where it occurs down to depths of 2500 fathoms. It is the chief deposit, according to Nansen, of the North Polar Basin and, according to Schmelck and Bdggild, of the Norwegian Sea also, where it is largely mixed with the shells of the bottom-living foraminifer Biloculina.

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  • For the open ocean the only quite trustworthy results are those obtained by the prince of Monaco in the North Atlantic, and by the recent Antarctic expeditions in the South Atlantic and South Indian Oceans.

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  • As the Arctic Basin is shut off from the North Atlantic by ridges rising to within 300 fathoms of the surface and from the Pacific by the shallow shelf of the Bering Sea, and as the ice-laden East Greenland and Labrador currents consist of fresh surface water which cannot appreciably influence the underlying mass, the Arctic region has no practical effect upon the bottom temperature of the three great oceans, which is entirely dominated by the influence of the Antarctic. The existence of deep-lying and extensive rises or ridges in high southern latitudes has been indicated by the deep-sea temperature observations of Antarctic expeditions.

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  • prevail right northwards across the equator into the Bay of Biscay, showing a steady rise of bottom temperature as successive submarine elevations restrict communication with 'the Antarctic. On the other hand, in the more open Argentine Basin, which carries deep water far to the south, the bottom temperature in 40° S.

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  • In similar depths in the Pacific south of the equator temperatures of 33.8° to 34.5° are found, and north of the equator bottom temperatures at the same depth increase to 35.1° in the neighbourhood of the Aleutian Islands, again completely justifying the conclusion as to the Antarctic control of deep water temperature throughout the ocean.

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  • in the course of a year, while in the Antarctic regions the season's growth is only half as great; in the latter also the accumulated snow is an important factor in the thickness of the ice, and snow is an even worse conductor of heat.

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  • In the southernhemisphere the icepack forms a nearly continuous fence around the Antarctic continent.

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  • In the north, icebergs break off, as a rule, from the ends of the great glaciers of Greenland, and in the far south from the edge of the great Antarctic ice-barrier.

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  • The Antarctic icebergs are of tabular form and much larger than those of Greenland, but in either case an iceberg rising to 200 ft.

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  • Strongly marked differences in density are produced by the melting of sea-ice, and this is of particular importance in the case of the great ice barrier round the Antarctic continent.

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  • The existence of a layer of water of low salinity at a depth of 500 fathoms in the tropical oceans of the southern hemisphere is to be referred to this action of the melting ice of the Antarctic regions.

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  • The alpine flora, beginning at 6000 ft., is specially characterized by its rhododendrons, pines (Araucaria and Libocedrus), and palms, by numerous superb species of Agapetes (Ericaceae), and on the summits by an extraordinary association of species characteristically European (Rubus, Ranunculus, Leontodon, Aspidium), Himalayan, New Zealandian (Veronica), Antarctic and South American (Drymus, Libocedrus).

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  • ANTARCTIC (Gr.

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  • The Antarctic circle is drawn at 66° 30' S., but polar conditions of climate, &c., extend considerably north of the area thus enclosed.

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  • America, broadening in the north as if to span the oceans by reaching to its neighbours on the east and west, tapering between vast oceans far to the south where the nearest land is in the little-known Antarctic regions, roughly presents the triangular outline that is to be expected from tetrahedral warping; and although greatly broken in the middle, and standing with the northern and southern parts out of a meridian line, America is nevertheless the best witness among the continents of to-day to the tetrahedral theory.

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  • Excepting the barren lands of the Antarctic regions, with which Patagonia is somewhat associated by a broken string of islands, the nearest continental lands of a more habitable kind are South Africa and New Zealand., In contrast to the sub-Arctic land ring, here is a sub-Antarctic ocean ring, and as a result the land flora and fauna of South America to-day are strongly unlike the life forms of the other south-ending continents.

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  • The present climate is not favourable to permanent vegetation; the island lies within the belt of rain at all seasons of the year, and is reached by no drying winds; its temperature is kept ddwn by the surrounding vast expanse of sea, and it lies within the line of the cold Antarctic drift.

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  • There are about one thousand species of flowering plants, of which about three-fourths are endemic. Most of those not peculiar to the country are Australian; others are South American, European, Antarctic; and some have Polynesian affinities.

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  • The north to south distance from Bering Strait to the Antarctic circle is 9300 m., and the Pacific attains its greatest breadth, 10,000 m., at the equator.

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  • The bank then continues south to the Antarctic Ocean, in about 120° W.

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  • This bank continues southwards to the Antarctic Ocean, expanding into a plateau on which Australia stands, and a branch runs eastwards and then southwards from the north-east of Australia through New Zealand.

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  • South American palaeogeography has been traced by von Ihring into a northern land mass, " Archelenis," and a southern mass, " Archiplata," the latter at times united with an antarctic continent.

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  • magellanicum are found in the antarctic. Erodium contains 50 species (three are British), most of which are confined to the Mediterranean region and west Asia, though others occur in America, in South Africa and West Australia.

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  • At the same time it may safely be affirmed that their geographical range is more extended than that of any other class of plants, occurring as they do in the coldest and warmest regions - on the dreary shores of arctic and antarctic seas and in the torrid valleys of tropical climes, as well as on the greatest mountain elevations yet attained by man, on projecting rocks even far above the snow line (e.g.

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  • The heat is modified at many points on the coast, however, by the cold Humboldt current which sweeps up the west coast of South America from the Antarctic seas.

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  • and the Antarctic Circle (662° S.).

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  • The fact that the southern extremity of South America is the only land extending into this belt gives it special physical importance in relation to tides and currents, and its position with reference to the Antarctic Ocean and continent makes it convenient to regard it as a separate ocean from which the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian Oceans may be said to radiate.

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  • The Antipodean-American element in the Sokotran flora probably arrived via the Mascarene Islands or South Africa from a former Antarctic continent.

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  • "ANTARCTIC REGIONS 21.960).

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  • Bruce for crossing the Antarctic continent in 1911-2, from Coats Land on the Weddell Sea to McMurdo Sound in the Ross Sea, was not proceeded with, and two American expeditions which were contemplated at the same time did not advance beyond the stage of projects.

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  • 30, after the shortest and most successful expedition which ever wintered in the Antarctic. The one object, the attainment of the Pole, had been accomplished quickly and easily and the meteorological observations were of great value in extending the conclusions of other investigators.

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  • 6 1912, after triumphing over the most difficult conditions ever yet surmounted in the Antarctic.

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  • This journey was made in the lowest temperature ever experienced in the Antarctic: many days had readings below - 60° F.

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  • only - a necessity which contributed to the greatest Antarctic disaster on record.

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  • The " Aurora " proceeded westward close along the Antarctic circle.

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  • Whetter, reached a point on the Antarctic circle in long.

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  • Sir Ernest Shackleton had completed his preparations for an attempt to cross the Antarctic regions from Weddell Sea to Ross Sea before the outbreak of the World War, and carried out his expedition at the direct order of the Admiralty, which declined his offer of the ships and men for war service.

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  • It would be impracticable to draw general conclusions as to the physical and biological conditions of the Antarctic regions until the researches of all the expeditions had been published in a comparable form.

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  • The results of the Australian and German expeditions, which were for a great part of the time synchronous with those of Scott and Amundsen, required to be taken into consideration before a general theory of the atmospheric circulation within the Antarctic circle could be established.

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  • This is also the case as to geology, and the bearings of geological evidence on the probable nature and extent of the Antarctic continent, and the relations of that land mass to the other continents.

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  • Priestley, Antarctic Adventure, Scott's Northern Party (1914); G.

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  • Davis, With the "Aurora" in the Antarctic (1920); Sir E.

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  • Hulth, " Swedish Arctic and Antarctic Explorations," 1758-1910, K.

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  • Denuch (1911) covers both Arctic and Antarctic.

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  • The cold antarctic, or Humboldt, current sweeps northward along the coast and greatly modifies the heat of the arid, tropical plateaus.

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  • According to observations made by the Swedish Antarctic Expedition (1901-1903), at Orange Bay, Hoste Island, in lat.

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  • They are made up, in great part, of the evergreen beech (Fagus betuloides), the deciduous antarctic beech (F.

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  • Conspicuous among these are the great white swan (Cygnus anatoides), the black-necked swan (Anser nigricollis), the antarctic goose (Anas antarctica) and the " race-horse " or " steamer duck " (Micropterus brachypterus).

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  • The Cape peninsula and the western coast receive the cold currents from the Antarctic regions.

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  • The treaty gave to Portugal all lands which might be discovered east of a straight line drawn from the Arctic Pole to the Antarctic, at a distance of 370 leagues west of Cape Verde.

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  • high with leaves arranged like a fan; it is a native of the Falkland and certain antarctic islands where it is known as tussock grass.

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  • As the colder latitudes are entered the grasses become relatively more numerous, and are the leading family in Arctic and Antarctic regions.

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  • rubra and others, are absent in the tropics but reappear in the antarctic regions; others (e.g.

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  • In this region appears the Antarctic forest in which predominates the Fagus antarctica and F.

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  • It is a deflected stream from the west drift of the " roaring forties " and coming from Antarctic regions is much colder than the Agulhas current.

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  • As in the case of the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans, the southern boundary is taken at either 40° S., the line of separation from the great Southern Ocean, or, if the belt of this ocean between the two meridians named be included, at the Antarctic Circle.

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  • to the Antarctic Circle, Murray gives 9,372,600 English square miles, equivalent to 7,057,568 geographical square miles, and Karstens 24,718,000 square kilometres, equivalent to 7,18 2, 474 geographical square miles.

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  • This ridge, on which the Crozet Islands and Kerguelen are situated, is directly connected with the submarine plateau of the Antarctic.

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  • Kerguelen, a desolate and uninhabited island near the centre of the Indian Ocean at its southern border, is noteworthy as providing a base station for Antarctic exploration.

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  • The west wind drift sends a stream northwards along the west coast of Australia, the West Australia current, the homologue of the Benguela current in the South Atlantic. The principal feature in the circulation in the depths of the Indian Ocean is a slow movement of Antarctic water northwards along the bottom to take the place of that removed from the surface by evaporation, and by currents in the lower latitudes.

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  • The geographical range of each species is generally more or less restricted, usually according to climate, as they are mostly inhabitants either of the Arctic or Antarctic seas and adjacent temperate regions, few being found within the tropics.

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  • SOUTH SHETLAND, a chain of islands on the border of the Antarctic region, lying about 500 m.

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  • In 1820 the naval lieutenant Edward Bransfield was sent in the "Williams" to survey the islands, which attracted the attention of American and British sealers, and became fairly well known through the visits of Antarctic explorers.

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  • On his third voyage, while seeking some land reported to have been found by Kerguelen, Cook in December 1776 reached the cluster of desolate islands now generally known by the name of the French explorer, and here, among many other kinds of birds, was a Sheathbill, which for a long while no one suspected to be otherwise than specifically identical with that of the western Antarctic Ocean; but, as will be seen, its distinctness has been subsequently admitted.

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  • In 1904 Gough Island was visited by the Antarctic exploring ship " Scotia of the Bruce expedition, which discovered a rich marine fauna, two new buntings and three new species of plants.

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  • 9, pp. 23-81); see also the Records of the Antarctic Expedition, 1901-1904.

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  • Fragments of a Jurassic flora have recently been discovered by Dr Andersson, a member of Nordenskiold's Antarctic expedition, in Louis Philippe Land in lat.

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  • The discovery of this Antarctic flora is a further demonstration of the world-wide distribution of a uniform Jurassic flora.

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  • Here there are Weddell and elephant seals, skuas, giant petrels, Antarctic terns and rookeries of chinstrap, gentoo and macaroni penguins.

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  • Possibly visit vast penguin rookeries, land on beaches ruled by Antarctic fur seals or observe wallowing southern elephant seals.

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  • The Drake Passage also marks the northern limit of many Antarctic seabirds.

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  • Other birds to look out for are blue-eyed shags, kelp gulls, cape petrels, skuas, snowy sheathbills and antarctic terns.

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  • Borchgrevink brought with him 90 sledge dogs â the first dogs ever used in Antarctic work.

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  • What did the members of the British Antarctic Expedition read during their three years sojourn?

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  • Such a situation occurs in the Antarctic stratosphere during the springtime formation of the ozone hole.

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  • Likewise, sunny days are rather common in Greater Antarctica and the sun even shines among the subantarctic islands and Antarctic Peninsula.

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  • We also cross the Antarctic Convergence, a biological barrier where cold polar waters sink beneath the warmer waters of the more temperate zones.

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  • Exotic terranes arrived at the Antarctic Peninsula about 110 million years ago at the time a mountain chain was uplifted.

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  • Erebus is the main point source for NO 2 (and very likely other reactive nitrogen oxides) in the Antarctic troposphere.

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  • Prolonged enhancement in surface ultraviolet radiation during the Antarctic spring of 1990.

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  • Merged velocity vectors from two Antarctic HF radars describe the flow velocity variation in the boundary region.

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  • Lee, A. M., et al., The impact of the mixing properties within the Antarctic stratospheric vortex on ozone loss in spring.

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  • Hooker, J. D. (1853) Flora Novae-Zelandiae (Botany of the Antarctic voyage: volume 2).

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  • Modern whaling in the Antarctic is big business, carried out with scientific equipment.

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  • Scotland had long been involved in both Arctic and Antarctic whaling.

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  • As of 2005, Live Science revealed that 84 percent of Antarctic glaciers have retreated over the past 50 years, a rate similar to that of the Arctic glaciers.

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  • Arctic Adventure: If you're up for adventure and you can fend off the chill with your new spouse, you may want to consider a cruise headed for Alaska of the Antarctic.

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  • Try your hand at dog sledding in Alaska, or set foot on the Antarctic continent itself, view spectacular ice burgs, and visit with the Penguins.

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  • The most popular destinations, however, are often isolated and exotic, such as Galapagos island cruises or voyages to the Antarctic.

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  • Keep in mind that because of its isolated ports, most Antarctic voyages require a minimum of 10 nights, though most average about two to three weeks.

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  • First among them is the Antarctic Beech, thought to be about the best for our land; next, Betuloides, a native of S.

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  • Krill are tiny crustaceans living near the Antarctic, and their oil typically contains fewer trace toxins than that of fish.

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  • in the course of a year, while in the Antarctic regions the season's growth is only half as great; in the latter also the accumulated snow is an important factor in the thickness of the ice, and snow is an even worse conductor of heat.

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  • In reality, however, it experiences fewer climatic variations than the other great continents, owing to its distance (28°) from the Antarctic circle and (11°) from the equator.

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  • The voyage of Drake across the Pacific was preceded by that of Alvaro de Mendana, who was despatched from Peru in 1567 to discover the great Antarctic continent which was believed to extend far northward into the South sea, the search In Pacific. for which now became one of the leading motives of Pacific. exploration.

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  • South of the magnetic equator the south end of the needle is always inclined downwards, and there is a spot within the Antarctic Circle (148° E.

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  • It is particularly in evidence round the whole of the Antarctic Shelf, where it occurs down to depths of 2500 fathoms. It is the chief deposit, according to Nansen, of the North Polar Basin and, according to Schmelck and Bdggild, of the Norwegian Sea also, where it is largely mixed with the shells of the bottom-living foraminifer Biloculina.

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  • For the open ocean the only quite trustworthy results are those obtained by the prince of Monaco in the North Atlantic, and by the recent Antarctic expeditions in the South Atlantic and South Indian Oceans.

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  • As the Arctic Basin is shut off from the North Atlantic by ridges rising to within 300 fathoms of the surface and from the Pacific by the shallow shelf of the Bering Sea, and as the ice-laden East Greenland and Labrador currents consist of fresh surface water which cannot appreciably influence the underlying mass, the Arctic region has no practical effect upon the bottom temperature of the three great oceans, which is entirely dominated by the influence of the Antarctic. The existence of deep-lying and extensive rises or ridges in high southern latitudes has been indicated by the deep-sea temperature observations of Antarctic expeditions.

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  • In similar depths in the Pacific south of the equator temperatures of 33.8° to 34.5° are found, and north of the equator bottom temperatures at the same depth increase to 35.1° in the neighbourhood of the Aleutian Islands, again completely justifying the conclusion as to the Antarctic control of deep water temperature throughout the ocean.

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  • The voyage of Drake across the Pacific was preceded by that of Alvaro de Mendana, who was despatched from Peru in 1567 to discover the great Antarctic continent which was believed to extend far northward into the South sea, the search In Pacific. for which now became one of the leading motives of Pacific. exploration.

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