by Annam, S.E.
by Annam, and S.E.
1 See also Indo-China, French; and Annam.
East of Cape St Jacques the mountains of Annam come down close to the sea; west of that point, as far as the southern headland of Ca-Mau, the coast-line of Cochin-China runs north-east to south-west for about 160 m.
Annam Cambodia Poor Relief (Assistance publique).In Cochin-China.
561 Cochin China Cambodia Annam Tonkin 1,761 Pondicherry Malacca Philippines.
In the sphere of direct influence fall Korea, Japan and Annam; in the outer sphere are Mongolia, Tibet, Siam, Cambodia and Burma, where Indian and Chinese influence are combined, the.
The cumbrous Chinese script maintains itself in the Far East, but has not advanced west of China proper and Annam.
Indian influence is predominant as far as Cambodia (though with a Chinese tinge), Indian alphabets being employed and the Buddhism being of the Sinhalese type, but in Annam and Tongking the Chinese script and many Chinese institutions are in use.
Until Annam was taken by the French, its history consisted of a struggle with the Chinese, who alternately asserted and lost their sovereignty.
Cochin China was once the seat of a kingdom called Champa, which appears to have had a hinduized Malay civilization and to have been subsequently absorbed by Annam.
Anian, however, which they place upon the American coast, is no other than Marco Polo's Anica or Anin, our modern Annam.
The region to the east of the Mekong is traversed by spurs of the mountains of Annam and by affluents of the Mekong, the most important of these being the Se-khong and the Tonle-srepok, which unite to flow into the Mekong at Stung-treng.
The conquest of the rival kingdom of Champa, which embraced modern Cochin-China and southern Annam, and in the later 15th century was absorbed by Annam, may probably be placed at the end of the 12th century, in the reign of Jayavarman VIII., the last of the great kings.
17th century the Nguyen, rulers of southern Annam, began to encroach on the territory of Cochin-China, and in the course of that and the 18th century, Cambodia, governed by two kings supported respectively by Siam and Annam, became a field for the conflicts of its two powerful neighbours.
His most important mission was in 1884, when he was sent as French minister to China to regularize the French dominion in Annam.
After arranging at Hue with the king of Annam the condition of the French protectorate, he proceeded to Shanghai to settle with China the difficulties which had arisen over the evacuation of Tongking by the Chinese troops.
Next year Patenotre signed with Li Hung Chang a treaty of peace at Tien-tsin, by which the French protectorate in Annam and Tongking was recognized, and both parties agreed to remain within their own borders in the future.
ANNAM, or Anam, a country of south-eastern Asia, now forming a French protectorate, part of the peninsula of IndoChina.
In Annam the rainy season begins during September and lasts for three or four months, corresponding with the northeast monsoon and also with a period of typhoons.
The southwest monsoon which brings rain in Cochin-China coincides with the dry season in Annam, the reason probably being that the mountains and lofty plateaus separating the two countries retain the precipitation.
The Annamese, or, to use the native term, the Giao-chi, are the predominant people not only in Annam but in the lowland and cultivated parts of Tongking and in CochinChina and southern Cambodia.
The family is the base of the social system in Annam and is ruled by its head, who is also priest and judge.
Of greater historical interest are the Chams, who are to be found for the most part in southern Annam and in Cambodia, and who, judging from the numerous remains found there, appear to have been the masters of the coast region of Cochin-China and Annam till they succumbed before the pressure of the Khmers of Cambodia and the Annamese.
==Agriculture and other Industries== The cultivation of rice, which is grown mainly in the small deltas along the coast and in some districts gives two crops annually, and fishing, together with fish-salting and the preparation of nuoc-mam, a sauce made from decaying fish, constitute the chief industries of Annam.
Annam is ruled in theory by its emperor, assisted by the " comat " or secret council, composed of the heads of the six ministerial departments of the interior, finance, war, ritual, justice and public works, who are nominated by himself.
He presides over a council (Conseil de Protectoral) composed of the chiefs of the French services in Annam, together with two members of the "comat"; this body deliberates on questions of taxation affecting the budget of Annam and on local public works.
The direct taxes, which go to the local budget of Annam, consist primarily of a poll-tax levied on all males over eighteen and below sixty years of age, and of a land-tax levied according to the quality and the produce of the holding.
The following table summarizes the local budget of Annam for the years 1899 and 1904: - In 1904 the sum allocated to the expenses of the court, the royal family and the native administration, the members of which are paid by the crown, was £85,000, the chief remaining heads of expenditure being the government house and residencies (£39,7 0 9), the native guard (£32,609) and public works (£24,898).
The chief towns of Annam are Hue (pop. about 42,000), seat both of the French and native governments, Tourane (pop. about 4000), Phan-Thiet (pop. about 20,000) in the extreme south, Qui-Nhon, and Fai-Fo, a commercial centre to the south of Tourane.
China, and in what is now Tongking and northern Annam, are regarded by the Annamese as their ancestors, and tradition ascribes to their first rulers descent from the Chinese imperial family.
Till this period the greater part of Annam had been occupied by the Chams, a nation of Hindu civilization, which has left many monuments to testify to its greatness, but the encroachment of the Annamese during the next six centuries at last left to it only a small territory in the south of the country.
Three lines of sovereigns followed that of Dinh, under the last of which, about 1407, Annam again fell under the Chinese yoke.
During the greater part of this period, however, the titular sovereigns were mere puppets, the reality of power being in the hands of the family of Trinh in Tongking and that of Nguyen in southern Annam, which in 1568 became a separate principality under the name of CochinChina.
Towards the end of the 18th century a rebellion overthrew the Nguyen, but one of its members, Gia-long, by the aid of a French force, in 1801 acquired sway over the whole of Annam, Tongking and Cochin-China.
This force was procured for him by Pigneau de Behaine, bishop of Adran, who saw in the political condition of Annam a means of establishing French influence in Indo-China and counterbalancing the English power in India.
on its way to the sea through Annam; the Salween, which runs a parallel course through its W.
For centuries she had been distracted by wars with Cambodians, Peguans and Burmans, but the incorporation of Lower Cochin China, Annam and Tongking by the French, and the annexation of Lower and Upper Burma successively by the British, freed her from all further danger on the part of her old rivals.
Disputes with frontier tribes led to complications with France, who asserted that the Siamese were occupying territory that rightfully belonged to Annam, which was now under French protection.
France, while assuring the British Government that .she laid no claim to the province of Luang Prabang, which was situated on both banks of the upper Mekong, roughly between the 18th and 10th parallels, claimed that farther south the Mekong formed the true boundary between Siam and Annam, and demanded the evacuation of certain Siamese posts east of the river.
Native workers have done something to carry the Gospel into the French colonies of Tongking and Annam.
Nevertheless he consolidated French influence in Annam and Cambodia, and secured a large accession of territory on the Mekong river from the kingdom of Siam.
The Philippines appear to be the remnants of a somewhat complex system of mountain arcs, which from their similarity of form and direction seem to be in some way connected with the mountain ranges of Annam.
In Annam where water spirits may take the form of serpents or of human beings, two deified heroes were said to have been serpents born of a childless woman, who drank from a bowl of water into which a star had fallen.
France possesses several protectorates, of which the chief are Tunis, Annam and Tongking.
An interesting species of Cycas, C.Micholitzua, has recently been described by Sir William Thiselton-Dyer from Annam, where it was collected by one of Messrs Sanders & Son's collectors, in which the pinnae instead of being of the usual simple type are FIG.
Of the import trade Hong-Kong supplied 86%, and of the export trade 70%, Cochin-China, Tongking and Annam claiming the remainder.
The term formerly included the whole Annamese empire - Tongking, Annam, and Lower Cochin-China, but it now comprises only the French colony, which corresponds to Lower Cochin-China, and consists of the six southern provinces of the Annamese empire annexed by France in 1862 and 1867.
The last spurs of the mountains of Annam, which come to an end at Cape St Jacques, extend over parts of the provinces of Tay-Ninh, Bien-Hoa and Baria in the north-east and east of the colony, but nowhere exceed 2900 ft.
From this period the history of Cochin-China follows that of Annam (q.v.) till 1867, when it was entirely occupied by the French and became a French colony.
In 1887 it was united with Cambodia, Annam and Tongking to form the Indo-Chinese Union (see Indo-China, French).
In Indo~ China the governor-general has under his authority thelieutenantgovernor of the colony, of Cochin-China, and the residents superior at the courts of the kings of Cambodia and Annam and in Tongking (nominally a viceroyalty of Annam).
2 Estimates of area and population incomplete for Cochin China, Cambodia, Annam, Tonkin, Pondicherry, Malacca and Philippines.
This is an appropriate name for Burma, Siam, Cambodia, Annam, &c., for both in position and in civilization they lie between India and China.
(i.) Languages of the group known as Mon-Annam are spoken in Annam and in Pegu, an ancient kingdom originally distinct from Burma though now confounded with it.
The word usage examples above have been gathered from various sources to reflect current and historial usage. They do not represent the opinions of YourDictionary.com.