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animals

animals Sentence Examples

  • Animals seem to sense your mood.

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  • He loved animals, but he spent his entire life scraping to make ends meet.

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  • Those animals were more afraid of her than she of them, and he knew it.

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  • She would be taking care of the animals and house.

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  • "So the only difference is their animals and the size of their people," Kiera said.

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  • AI was for animals, not humans.

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  • Do you have any animals yet?

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  • Eventually they would run the Longhorns with the buffalo, and then Brutus could stay with all of them, but the animals would have to be quarantined at first and then allowed to adjust to each other.

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  • One must pity the animals too.

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  • It's early morning now and the noise of the loading of the pack animals down at Ashenfelter's stables has woken me.

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  • The rest of the meal was taken up with light conversation about the weather, the clinic, the animals... anything but their feelings about marriage.

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  • So I say the horses and chickens are mine and Alex says the other animals are his.

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  • When you're riding an ATV you can cover more territory, and the animals have grown used to the sound of them.

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  • There are bears and other animals in the woods, you know.

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  • If the animals are too much...

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  • Of course, it would be more profitable for the ranch if I culled those animals by taking them to the slaughter house.

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  • We could take two wagons, but that would mean we'd have to travel slow, and there wouldn't be any animals for riding except Bordeaux's horse.

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  • I think the deer just died and animals were eating on it.

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  • You guys think it's silly to name farm animals, but it's easier for Katie and me that way.

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  • Because they're my animals, and I don't have anything to do here.

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  • Some near animals with their lust.

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  • I abhor the conditions under which we commercially raise farm animals today.

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  • As May gave way to June, the lengthening daylight hours gave her more time to be with Jonathan and Destiny and still complete taking care of the animals before darkness.

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  • He was on light duty, working only with small animals; and part time.

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  • The animals were sleek and their black fur shined in the sunlight.

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  • On the other hand, who wanted the odors of animals drifting through their house all the time?

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  • We gladly allowed her to use freely our library of embossed books, our collection of stuffed animals, sea-shells, models of flowers and plants, and the rest of our apparatus for instructing the blind through the sense of touch.

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  • You run around turning into animals and tearing off people's heads and then just…a bed and breakfast?

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  • He loved the animals, his home and the clinic.

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  • "There ought to be several animals on the jury," said Ozma, "because animals understand each other better than we people understand them.

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  • Animals bit the people.

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  • If the animals leading the herd change, this happens because the collective will of all the animals is transferred from one leader to another, according to whether the animal is or is not leading them in the direction selected by the whole herd.

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  • A fascinating character and an extremely patient experimenter, Mendel was a German friar and scientist who figured out that plants (and presumably animals) had inheritable characteristics.

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  • "No, I don't believe we ever were in animals," said Natasha, still in a whisper though the music had ceased.

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  • Carmen had fed and watered the rest of the animals before he came home from the clinic.

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  • She has felt dead squirrels and rabbits and other wild animals, and is anxious to see a "walk-squirrel," which interpreted, means, I think, a "live squirrel."

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  • Even Mrs. Reynolds pitched in with some stuffed animals - a giraffe and horse.

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  • After the animals were fed, she went back to the house and started cleaning.

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  • Even the animals were quiet, as if they knew danger lurked in the darkness.

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  • Camping too close deprives the animals of their share.

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  • They infected the animals in the town with the vamp disease.

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  • Will you believe it, Theodore Ivanych, those animals flew forty miles?

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  • If the animals in front are continually changing and the direction of the whole herd is constantly altered, this is because in order to follow a given direction the animals transfer their will to the animals that have attracted our attention, and to study the movements of the herd we must watch the movements of all the prominent animals moving on all sides of the herd.

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  • Plus, raising plants and animals takes a long time and is a lot of work to boot.

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  • But I love "The Jungle Book" and "Wild Animals I Have Known."

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  • Jonathan helped her feed and water the animals and then she took him to the hospital with her.

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  • Did any of the animals on the table look like spiders while alive?

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  • Finally there had been direction in her life that had nothing to do with money - animals that had nothing to do with food on the table.

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  • He had a way with animals, winning Brutus' love and respect, and the trust of the entire dairy herd as well.

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  • We have not only outlawed cruelty to animals, but increasingly, people care about the living conditions of even the animals they eat.

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  • How had he managed to drive all the frightened little animals into this place of safety?

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  • Anyway, she was telling me how much he loved animals — horses in particular.

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  • You'll have to stick with animals, Damian replied.

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  • The animals would have a kind of sanctuary here.

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  • I study about the earth, and the animals, and I like arithmetic exceedingly.

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  • The Egyptians believed that our souls have lived in animals, and will go back into animals again.

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  • The herd goes in that direction because the animal in front leads it and the collective will of all the other animals is vested in that leader.

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  • How did a man who hunted animals to eat become a veterinarian?

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  • The animals were hungry and they were the only things that stood a chance of taking her mind off Alex.

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  • Why has man just these species of animals for his neighbors; as if nothing but a mouse could have filled this crevice?

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  • Fishes are not animals, and they are as cold and moist as the vegetables themselves.

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  • But are there any gentle, harmless animals in your fields?

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  • They let her feel the animals whenever it was safe.

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  • The wildest animals do not repose, but seek their prey now; the fox, and skunk, and rabbit, now roam the fields and woods without fear.

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  • "What you're saying is that you rescue pitiful animals like your mate," Jule said.

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  • Still, the rest of the animals had to be considered.

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  • Rhyn stayed where he was, wary yet unafraid of Sasha, who.d been the zookeeper among the animals with him in Hell.

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  • Throughout the meal she led the subject a weaving path around the animals, the weather, and work on the nursery.

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  • I do not know why it is, but stories in which animals are made to talk and act like human beings have never appealed to me very strongly.

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  • Bandages are for humans, not animals - not for things like this, anyway.

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  • She packed hurriedly and grabbed another of Toby.s stuffed animals before meeting the female warrior in the hallway.

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  • She feared leaving the injured woman, in case Jade lurked on the other side of the hill or there were animals that might drag her away.

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  • Normally the animals were her first concern, but if Alex had spent the night in the barn, he needed the warmth a good hot meal could offer.

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  • Maybe Alex could feed his animals, but the chickens, Princess, and Casper were still her responsibility.

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  • "He wouldn't have liked my safari animals," he clarified.

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  • And you love animals, Heidi.

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  • Besides, most wild animals will avoid humans.

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  • Bill or Josh would be glad to take care of the animals, and he knew it.

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  • Animals ought not to talk.

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  • "I've heard animals talk before," said Dorothy, "and no harm came of it."

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  • So they unharnessed Jim and took the saddle off the Sawhorse, and the two queerly matched animals were stood side by side for the start.

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  • At her right sat the queerly assorted Jury--animals, animated dummies and people--all gravely prepared to listen to what was said.

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  • Indigenous animals are not well-suited to be domesticated and assist in farming.

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  • In many parts of the world, we have even outlawed the use of animals fighting as entertainment, such as cockfighting and dogfighting.

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  • Only such a one can appreciate the eagerness with which I talked to my toys, to stones, trees, birds and dumb animals, or the delight I felt when at my call Mildred ran to me or my dogs obeyed my commands.

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  • I feel a genuine interest in the animals themselves, because they are real animals and not caricatures of men.

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  • I had no difficulty in making it clear to her that if plants and animals didn't produce offspring after their kind, they would cease to exist, and everything in the world would soon die.

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  • I like sometimes to take rank hold on life and spend my day more as the animals do.

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  • But already a change is taking place, owing, not to an increased humanity, but to an increased scarcity of game, for perhaps the hunter is the greatest friend of the animals hunted, not excepting the Humane Society.

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  • Grand is the characteristic, in their conception, of some special animals called "heroes."

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  • They even agreed to take care of the animals while Alex and Carmen took their first vacation.

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  • Katie arranged the bedding and pillows around his still form and then retrieved his stuffed animals out of his bedroom.

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  • Just then Dorothy, who had risen early and heard the voices of the animals, ran out to greet her old friends.

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  • I've met scarier animals.

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  • We're more like animals that way.

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  • I'm curious about zoo animals, but I'm not going to walk into the cage with a tiger.

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  • The collection of animals included a donkey, horse, ostrich and a llama, all of which were either relaxing in the shade or inside the barn.

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  • Jessi returned to the paddock to watch the animals.

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  • The classic term "camelopard," probably introduced when these animals were brought from North Africa to the Roman amphitheatre, has fallen into complete disuse.

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  • In common with the okapi, giraffes have skin-covered horns on the head, but in these animals, which form the genus Giraffa, these appendages are present in both sexes; and there is often an unpaired one in advance of the pair on the forehead.

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  • Among other characteristics of these animals may be noticed the great length of the neck and limbs, the complete absence of lateral toes and the long and tufted tail.

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  • Water is everywhere essential to their well-being; and no animals delight more thoroughly in a bath.

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  • It should be added that some of these large tusks came from Ceylon; such tuskers being believed to be descended from mainland animals imported into the island.

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  • cypriotes; but since their molar teeth are essentially miniatures of those of the African elephant, it has been suggested by later observers that these animals are nothing more than dwarf races of the latter.

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  • In this connexion it is of interest to note that, both in the Mediterranean islands and in West Africa, dwarf elephants of the African type are accompanied by pigmy species of hippopotamus, although we have not yet evidence to show that in Africa the two animals occupy actually the same area.

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  • The district includes several caves, such as Victoria Cave, close to the town, where bones of animals, and stone, bone and other implements and ornaments have been discovered.

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  • Let them run in the fields, learn about animals, and observe real things.

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  • Roman milestones and aqueducts also are found, and close by the now famous tomb of Apollophanes, with wall-paintings of animals and other ornamentation, was discovered in 1902; a description of it will be found in Thiersch and Peters, The Marissa Tombs, published by the Palestine Exploration Fund.

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  • Animals, ii.

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  • There are few wild animals; but the eland, hartebeest and smaller antelopes are found, as well as the leopard and the jackal.

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  • Some positive idea of his speculations may be derived from two of his observations: the one in which he notices that the parts of animals and plants are in general rounded in form, and the other dealing with the sense of hearing, which, in virtue of its limited receptivity, he compares ' If this be the proper translation of Aulus Gellius, Noctes Atticae, x.

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  • Their forms are not ungraceful, and many of them are covered over with beautiful and elaborate carvings of flowers, animals and palm branches.

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  • In young animals several small additional teeth are present, but these usually disappear soon after birth.

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  • Both maps abound in miniature pictures of towns, animals, fabulous beings and other subjects.

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  • The Kiteib ul-Hayawan, or "Book of Animals," a philological and literary, not a scientific, work, was published at Cairo (1906).

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  • The value of domestic animals on farms and ranges was $86,620,643.

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  • Now dead animal substance and the excreta of animals decompose in the long run into carbonic acid, water and mineral salts, and so there is a continual destruction of animal substance both on the land and in the sea.

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  • The vascular system does not readily lend itself to morphological comparison between such widely different animals as Balanoglossus and Amphioxus, and the reader is therefore referred to the memoirs cited at the end of this article for further details.

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  • As the world grows richer, people will care more about how their food is made, how the animals are treated, whether the laborer who picked the food is paid a living wage.

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  • All around lay the flesh of different animals--from men to horses--in various stages of decomposition; and as the wolves were kept off by the passing men the dog could eat all it wanted.

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  • Besides, those are my animals.

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  • Do the Sanders know where everything is and what needs to be done with the animals?

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  • They have some very nice animals.

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  • You'd see less wildlife if you were walking - making more frightening noises to the animals.

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  • Or, we could throw our saddles on the mules and use the rest for pack animals.

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  • So you're saying the wolves improve your herd by culling out the weakest animals?

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  • "I can survive for a month off of small children and animals," the vamp growled in response.

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  • It's better than letting him kill the neighboring rancher's cows or my rescue animals.

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  • No human's eyes glowed red, and their inhuman growls as she passed resembled those of animals.

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  • Sometimes she brought a book and read to him, but most of the time she talked about the children, relatives and the animals.

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  • Early the next morning after taking Jonathan to school, she went back to the house and took care of the animals.

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  • She entered the bedroom quietly to see Toby awake and trying to get an uncertain Lankha to play with his stuffed animals.

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  • She wondered if twelve-year-old boys played with stuffed animals.

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  • Across the street, right behind the Western Hotel, you had The Bird Cage, The Bon Ton, The Temple of Music and then Ashenfelter's stables that Annie mentions hearing the men loading the pack animals.

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  • I hope we can feed on animals.

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  • There's nothing wrong with naming your animals.

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  • I guess taking care of animals.

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  • Her parents had always cautioned her against making pets of the farm animals.

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  • Does Josh like animals?

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  • It went without saying that Alex liked animals.

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  • Why hadn't she ever thought about their mutual love of animals?

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  • After Alex left, she fed and watered the animals.

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  • I like taking care of the animals.

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  • Right now they would have to stick to adopting animals.

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  • Aren't you supposed to be taking care of the animals?

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  • From the corner of his eye, he saw one of the many animals his brother Dusty's mate had rescued.

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  • The shaded forest was cool and quiet, as if all the animals and trees watched and waited.

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  • "He doesn't question the way I run the house or argue with me about my animals …" Katie pulled her head out of the refrigerator, her sharp gaze falling on Carmen.

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  • Your animals, your chores – that's right.

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  • In addition to the animals we have purchased, there is native wildlife.

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  • I think what they are actually saying is that there have been no confirmed sightings of animals other than feral ones.

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  • The animals are used to seeing us, and the horses often graze with them, so I don't think we will have any problems with the safari animals or the natural wildlife.

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  • Jared into action by his words, she launched into her narration about the safari animals they were observing.

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  • Without a doubt they shared an interest in animals.

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  • Her gaze left him and drifted over the land that held all his animals.

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  • It wasn't like Alex to talk like that about animals.

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  • She knew a lot about the safari animals, mentioning a few things that even Carmen didn't know.

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  • It was nice having someone who could talk knowledgably about the animals – someone who not only understood their interest, but shared it.

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  • I noticed you didn't have a dog and I thought since you liked animals … Carmen smiled.

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  • Did you know they can be used as pack animals?

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  • "Do you mind that everyone else named your animals?" he asked.

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  • We've all participated in naming the animals in the past.

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  • Of course, in captivity animals might not act the same way they did in the wild.

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  • I'd rather feed the animals than hunt them.

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  • Carmen had accepted the full responsibility of all the animals, the children and the house.

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  • Carmen wanted to do more than collect animals.

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  • It's for protection from all the wild animals.

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  • Not only that, but they are barbarians, like animals, that feel no pain.

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  • Animals didn't protect a necklace belonging to their mother or insist their adopted-mother stay where it was safe.

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  • I mean, she likes animals.

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  • The fineness of the hair may perhaps be ascribed to some peculiarity in the atmosphere, for it is remarkable that the cats, dogs and other animals of the country are to 'a certain extent affected in the same way, and that they all lose much of their distinctive beauty when taken from their native districts.

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  • But the lowness of stature extends to the lower animals - cattle, horses, donkeys, &c. - and this may indicate that climatic causes have some part in the matter also, though Sergi denies this.

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  • Of wild animals may be noted the moufflon (Ovis Ammon), the stag, and the wild boar, and among birds various species of the vulture and eagle in the mountains, and the pelican and flamingo (the latter coming in August in large flocks from Africa) in the lagoons.

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  • Among the exports may be noticed minerals, wines and spirits, tobacco, hides, live animals; and among the imports, groceries, cotton and cereals.

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  • For birds it is chiefly used of geese; and for other animals most generally of sheep and goats.

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  • As to the introduction of domesticated cats into Europe, the opinion is very generally held that tame cats from Egypt were imported at a relatively early date into Etruria by Phoenician traders; and there is decisive evidence that these animals were established in Italy long before the Christian era.

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  • "To fight like a wild cat" is proverbial, and wild cats are described as some of the most ferocious and untamable of all animals.

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  • " Here are my books," he is reported to have told a visitor, as he pointed to the animals he had dissected.

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  • He worked hard at his book on refraction, and dissected the heads of animals in order to explain imagination and memory, which he considered physical processes.'

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  • But the most remarkable and daring application of the theory was to account for the phenomena of organic life, especially in animals and man.

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  • Man and the animals as thus described are compared to automata, and termed machines.

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  • Reason and thought, the essential quality of the soul, do not belong to the brutes; there is an impassable gulf fixed between man and the lower animals.

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  • " The animals act naturally and by springs, like a watch."

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  • And the doctrine found acceptance among some whom it enabled to get rid of the difficulties raised by Montaigne and those who allowed more difference between animal and animal than between the higher animals and man.

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  • animals, plants and minerals (ThierKrc caterand Bergbuch).

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  • His book on animals was translated by Michael Scot.

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  • Animals, hitherto unknown to the Romans, were exhibited in the circus, and an artificial lake (eunipus) was made for the reception of crocodiles and hippopotamuses.

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  • Of the indigenous fauna, the tapir of the north and the guanaco of the west and south are the largest of the animals.

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  • On the Patagonian steppes there are comparatively few species of animals.

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  • The greatest development of the Argentine fauna, however, is in the warm, wooded regions of the north and north-east, where many animals are of the same species as those in the neighbouring territories of Brazil.

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  • The results of these first experiments were not encouraging, owing mainly to the poor class of animals, but the exporters persevered, and the business steadily grew in value and importance, until in 1898 the number of live cattle shipped was 359,296, which then decreased to 119,189 in 1901, because of the foot-and-mouth disease.

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  • First there is the office or cabinet of the prefect for the general police (la police gnrale), with bureaus for various objects, such as the safety of the president of the republic, the regulation and order of public ceremonies, theatres, amusements and entertainments, &c.; secondly, the judicial police (la police judiciaire), with numerous bureaus also, in constant communication with the courts of judicature; thirdly, the administrative police (la police administrative) including bureaus, which superintend navigation, public carriages, animals, public health, &c. Concurrently with these divisions there is the municipal police, which comprises all the agents in enforcing police regulations in the streets or public thoroughfares, acting under the orders of a chief (chef de la police municipale) with a central bureau.

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  • Rothschild and Hartert think "it is more natural to assume the disappearance of a great stock of animals, the remains of which have survived,.

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  • Wallace, Geographical Distribution of Animals (New York, 1876); Theodor Wolf, Ein Besuch der Galapagos Inseln (Heidelberg, 1879); and paper in Geographical Journal, vi.

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  • Broom believes Thylacoleo to have been "a purely carnivorous animal, and one which would be quite able to, and probably did, kill animals as large or larger than itself."

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  • All are animals of small or moderate size and arboreal habits, feeding on a vegetable or mixed diet, and inhabiting Australia, Papua and the Moluccan Islands.

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  • All are comparatively small animals, few of them exceeding the size of a rat.

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  • Australia and Tasmania possess two animals of this order - the echidna, or spiny ant-eater (hairy in Tasmania), and the Platypus anatinus, the duckbilled water mole, otherwise named the Ornithorhynchus paradoxus.

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  • These great reptiles may attain a length of To ft.; they feed on small animals which they crush to death in their folds.

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  • No headgear is worn, except sometimes a net to confine the hair, a bunch of feathers, or the tails of small animals.

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  • Their nets, made by women, either of the tendons of animals or the fibres of plants, will catch and hold the kangaroo or the emu, or the very large fish of Australian rivers.

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  • He described it as barren and sterile, and almost devoid of animals, the only one of any importance somewhat resembling a raccoon - a strange creature, which advanced by great bounds or leaps instead of walking, using only its hind legs, and covering 12 or 15 ft.

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  • Filled with blood, it was natural to regard it as the seat of the blood, and as a matter of fact one-sixth of the entire blood of man is in the liver, while in the case of some animals the proportion is even larger.

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  • Lastly, to pass over unnecessary details, the markings of various kinds to be observed on the lobes of the livers of freshly-slaughtered animals, which are due mainly to the traces left by the subsidiary hepatic ducts and hepatic veins on the liver surface, were described as "holes," "paths," "clubs" and the like.

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  • The most common wild animals are deer, rabbits, squirrels, raccoons, skunks, woodchucks and muskrats.

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  • Duikers are animals of small or medium size, usually frequenting thick forest.

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  • Metcalfe, who had lived many years in a region inhabited by these * animals.

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  • The spermatozoa differ from those of other animals in having the form of cells which sometimes perform amoeboid movements.

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  • Although several species belonging to the second class occasionally enter the bodies of water snails and other animals before reaching their definitive host, they undergo no alteration of form in this intermediate host; the case is different, however, in Filaria medinensis and other forms, in which a free larval is followed by a parasitic existence in two distinct hosts, all the changes being accompanied by a metamorphosis.

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  • The core is served with a thick coating of wet jute, yarn or hemp (h), forming a soft bed for the sheath, and, to secure immunity from the ravages of submarine boring animals, e.g.

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  • Here you find articles in the encyclopedia about animals.

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  • Many important differences are also recorded between the skulls of the two animals, and it is especially noteworthy that the last lower molar is smaller in the wild than in the tame race.

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  • In view of these differences from the domesticated breed, and the resemblance of the skull or lower jaw to that of the extinct European species, it becomes practically impossible to regard the wild camels as the offspring of animals that have escaped from captivity.

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  • These animals also occur in the desert district south of the Tarim; but are most abundant in the deserts and mountains to the southward of Kuruktagh, where there are a few brackish-water pools, and are also common in the barren mountains between Kuruktagh and Choetagh.

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  • Relieved from its load it does not, like other animals, seek the shade, even when that is to be found, but prefers to kneel beside its burden in the broad glare of the sun, seeming to luxuriate in the burning sand.

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  • Of the numerous sub-varieties, the finest is said to be that of the Val di Chiana, where the animals are stall-fed all the year round; next is ranked the so-called Valle Tiberina type.

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  • These animals are much smaller in stature and more regular in form than the Podolians; they are mainly kept for dairy purposes.

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  • In addition, the communes have a right to levy a, surtax not exceeding 50% of the quota levied by the state upon lands and buildings; a family tax, or fuocatico, upon the total incomes of families, which, for fiscal purposes, are divided into various categories; a tax based upon the rent-value of houses, and other taxes upon cattle, horses, dogs, carriages and servants; also on licences for shopkeepers, hotel and restaurant keepers, &c.; on the slaughter of animals, stamp duties, one-half of the tax on bicycles, &c. Occasional sources of interest are found in the sale of communal property, the realization of communal credits, and the contraction of debt.

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  • Of imported animals, cattle, goats, asses and dogs thrive well, ponies and horses indifferently, and sheep badly, though some success has been achieved in breeding them.

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  • HYDROMEDUSAE, a group of marine animals, recognized as belonging to the Hydrozoa by the following characters.

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  • The Hydromedusae form a widespread, dominant and highly differentiated group of animals, typically marine, and found in all seas and in all zones of marine life.

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  • Thus Microhydra lives amongst Bryozoa, and appears to utilize the currents produced by these animals.

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  • Maas, Craspedoten Medusen der Siboga- animals, but serving Expedition, by permission of E.

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  • or vital principle, with heat or fire which pervades in unequal proportions, not only man and animals, but plants and nature as a whole, and through the agitation of which by incoming effluvia all sensation arises.

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  • Individual things are supposed to arise out of the original being, as animals and plants out of seeds.

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  • The superiority of animals to plants and metals in the possession of special organs of sense is connected with the greater complexity and heterogeneity of their structure.

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  • He sought (L'Homme-machine) to connect man in his original condition with the lower animals, and emphasized (L'Homme-plante) the essential unity of plan of all living things.

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  • Helvetius, in his work on man, referred all differences between our species and the lower animals to certain peculiarities of organization, and so prepared the way for a conception of human development out of lower forms as a process of physical evolution.

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  • Lewes points out that Leibnitz is inconsistent in his account of the intelligence of man in relation to that of lower animals, since when answering Locke he no longer regards these as differing in degree only.

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  • Thus he does not account for the fact that organic beings - which have always existed as preformations (in the case of animals as animaux spermatiques) - come to be developed under given conditions.

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  • Just as Kant thus sharply marks off the regions of the inorganic and the organic, so he sets man in strong opposition to the lower animals.

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  • There are three stadia, or moments, in this process of nature - (i) the mechanical moment, or matter devoid of individuality; (2) the physical moment, or matter which has particularized itself in bodies - the solar system; and (3) the organic moment, or organic beings, beginning with the geological organism - or the mineral kingdom, plants and animals.

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  • The notion that all the kinds of animals and plants may have come into existence by the growth and modification of primordial germs is as old as speculative thought; but the modern scientific form of the doctrine can be traced historically to the influence of several converging lines of philosophical speculation and of physical observation, none of which go further back than the 17th century.

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  • The observation of the existence of an analogy between the series of gradations presented by the species which compose any great group of animals or plants, and the series of embryonic conditions of the highest members of that group.

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  • In the then state of knowledge, it appeared that all the species of animals and plants could be arranged in one series, in such a manner that, by insensible gradations, the mineral passed into the plant, the plant into the polype, the polype into the worm, and so, through gradually higher forms of life, to man, at the summit of the animated world.

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  • Taking into account existing animals and plants alone, it became obvious that they fell into groups which were more or less sharply separated from one another; and, moreover, that even See the " Historical Sketch " prefixed to the last edition of the Origin of Species.

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  • Cuvier on anatomical, and Von Baer on embryological grounds, made the further step of proving that, even in this limited sense, animals cannot be arranged in a single series, but that there are several distinct plans of organization to be observed among them, no one of which, in its highest and most complicated modification, leads to any of the others.

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  • The conclusions enunciated by Cuvier and Von Baer have been confirmed in principle by all subsequent research into the structure of animals and plants.

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  • Meckel proceeds to exemplify the thesis, that the lower forms of animals represent stages in the course of the development of the higher, with a large series of illustrations.

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  • But a little consideration showed that, though Lamarck had seized what, as far as it goes, is a true cause of modification, it is a cause the actual effects of which are wholly inadequate to account for any considerable modification in animals, and which can have no influence at all in the vegetable world; and probably nothing contributed so much to discredit evolution, in the early part of the 29th century, as the floods of easy ridicule which were poured upon this part of Lamarck's speculation.

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  • No truths brought to light by biological investigation were better calculated to inspire distrust of the dogmas intruded upon science in the name of theology than those which relate to the distribution of animals and plants on the surface of the earth.

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  • Such a condition has been termed, with regard to the group of animals or plants the organs of which are being studied, archecentric. The possession of the character in the archecentric condition in (say) two of the members of the group does not indicate that these two members are more nearly related to one another than they are to other members of the group; the archecentric condition is part of the common heritage of all the members of the group, and may be retained by any.

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  • lemures, " ghosts"), the name applied by Linnaeus to certain peculiar Malagasy representatives of the order PRIMATES which do not come under the designation of either monkeys or apes, and, with allied animals from the same island and tropical Asia and Africa, constitute the sub-order Prosimiae, or Lemuroidea, the characteristics of which are given in the article just mentioned.

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  • The statute, however, would not seem to have had much effect; for in spite of a proclamation of Queen Elizabeth in 1560 imposing a fine of £ 20 for each offence on butchers slaughtering animals during Lent, in 1563 Sir William Cecil, in Notes upon an Act for the Increase of the Navy, says that "in old times no flesh at all was eaten on fish days; even the king himself could not have license; which was occasion of eating so much fish as now is eaten in flesh upon fish days."

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  • The astrological belief that plants, animals and minerals are under the influence of the planets is shown in the older names of some of the metals, e.g.

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  • Amongst his scientific, theological and grammatical works mention may be made of De diis, containing an examination of various cults and ceremonials; treatises on divination and the interpretation of dreams; on the sphere, the winds and animals.

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  • In the following sections the botanical sense of the word is followed, the term being used generally as opposed to animals.

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  • In this matter, differentiation has proceeded very differently in animals and plants respectively, no nerves or sense organs being structurally recognizable.

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  • There can be no doubt that there is no fundamental difference between the living substance of animals and plants, for many forms exist which cannot be referred with certainty to either kingdom.

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  • Nature of the Food of Planls.The recognition of the fundamental identity of the living substance in animals and plants has directed attention to the manner in which plants are nourished, and especially to the exact nature of their food.

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  • Identity of the Food of Animals and Plants.rt is evidently to the actual seats of consumption of food, and of consequent nutrition and increase of living substance, that we should turn when we wish to inquire what are the nutritive materials of plants.

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  • It is certain that their protoplasm cannot be nourished by inorganic compounds of nitrogen, any more than that of animals.

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  • Such an enzyme is the pepsin of the stomach of the higher animals.

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  • Oxidases.Another class of enzymes has been discovered in both animals and plants, but they do not apparently take any part in digestion.

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  • The conduction of such stimulation to parts removed some distance from the sense organ suggests paths of transmission comparable to those which transmit nervous impulses in animals.

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  • Our perceptions differentiate but imperfectlysymptonis which are due to very different causes and reactions, probably because the organization of the plant is so much less highly specialized than that of higher animals.

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  • Animals.

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  • The Vertebrata come within the scope of our subject, chiefly as destructive agents which cause wounds or devour young shoots and foliage, &c. Rabbits and other burrowing animals injure roots, squirrels and birds snip off buds, horned cattle strip off bark, and so forth.

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  • Cuts, breakages, &c., due to man and other vertebrate animals.

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  • Biological FactorsThese include the reactions of plants and animals on the habitat.

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  • The pollination, of flowers and the dispersal of seeds by various animals are biological factors; but pollination and dispersal by the wind cannot be so regarded.

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  • structure and mode of formation, the spermatozoids of animals.

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  • The strongest direct evidence seems to be that the nuclear substances are the only parts of the cells which are always equivalent in quantity, and that in the higher plants and animals the male organ or spermatozoid is composed almost entirely of the nucleus, and that the male nucleus is carried into the female cell without a particle of cytoplasm.i Since, however, the nucleus of the female cell is always accompanied by a larger or smaller quantity of cytoplasm, and that in a large majority of the power plants and animals the male cell also contains cytoplasm, it cannot yet be definitely stated that the cytoplasm does not play some part in the process.

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  • v.; The Cell and some of its Constituent Structures, Science Progress (1897); Farmer and Moore, On the Melotic Phase in Animals and Plants, Quart.

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  • Exceptions to this attitude are Lamarck, who speaks with regard to animals (but not to plants!) of f la composition croissante de lorganisation (Philoso p/lie zoologique, t.

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  • For instance, the animal traps of carnivorous plants (Drosera, Nepenihes, &c.) did not, presumably, originate as such; they began as organs of quite another kind which became adapted to their present function in consequence of animals having been accidentally caught.

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  • ~oriTI1 TEMPERATE REGI0N.Many writers on the distribution of animals prefer to separate this into two regions of primary rank:

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  • Next follows the distribution of plants and animals (biogeography), and finally the distribution of mankind and the various artificial boundaries and redistributions (anthropogeography).

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  • His argument as to the narrowness of the sea between West Africa and East Asia, from the occurrence of elephants at both extremities, is difficult to understand, although it shows that he looked on the distribution of animals as a problem of geography.

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  • Physical geography itself is divided into two parts: a general, which has to do with the earth and all that belongs to it - water, air and land; and a particular, which deals with special products of the earth - mankind, animals, plants and minerals.

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  • The conception of the development of the plan of the earth from the first of cooling of the surface of the planet throughout the long geological periods, the guiding power of environment on the circulation of water and of air, on the distribution of plants and animals, and finally on the movements of man, give to geography a philosophical dignity and a scientific completeness whici it never previously possessed.

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  • Wallace, Geographical Distribution of Animals and Island Life; A.

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  • Heilprin, Geographical and Geological Distribution of Animals (1887); O.

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  • Sclater have been found to hold good for a large number of groups of animals as different in their mode of life as birds and mammals, and they may thus be accepted as based on nature.

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  • In tropical forests primitive tribes depend on the collection of wild fruits, and in a minor degree on the chase of wild animals, for their food.

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  • The discovery and production of commodities require a knowledge of the distribution of geological formations for mineral products, of the natural distribution, life-conditions and cultivation or breeding of plants and animals and of the labour market.

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  • Koirpos, dung, and X LOo, stone), the fossilized excrements of extinct animals.

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  • C. Geographical Distribution The study of the extinct organisms of any country leads to a proper appreciation of its existing flora and fauna; while, on the other hand, a due consideration of the plants and animals which may predominate within its bounds cannot fail to throw more or less light on the changes it has in the course of ages undergone.

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  • distribution of animals."

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  • Birds being of all animals most particularly adapted for extended and rapid locomotion, it became necessary for him to eliminate from his consideration those groups, be they small or large, which are of more or less universal occurrence, and to ground his results on what was at that time commonly known as the order Insessores or Passeres, comprehending the orders now differentiated as Passeriformes, Coraciiformes and Cuculiformes, in other words the mass of arboreal birds.

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  • Above all it should be borne in mind that nearly all the last subdivisions or provinces are of very little real value and most of them are inapplicable to other classes of animals.

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  • Heilprin, The Geographical and Zoological Distribution of Animals (New York, 1887); W.

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  • It is therefore just as much the business of the zoogeographer, who wishes to arrive at the truth, to ascertain what groups of animals are wanting in any particular locality (altogether independently of its extent) as to determine those which are forthcoming there.

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  • Sclater, and as regards the distribution of most classes of animals there have been few to doubt that it is an extremely natural one.

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  • In turn other animals took shape, the last being two golden spiders from whose excrement the earth gradually rose above the surrounding ocean.

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  • Flora.-The pastoral wealth of Uruguay, as of the neighbouring Argentine Republic, is due to the fertilizing constitutents of "pampa mud," geologically associated with gigantic antediluvian animals, whose fossil remains are abundant.

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  • Fauna.-Among wild animals the tiger or ounce-called in the Guarani language the ja-gud or "big dog"-and the puma are found on the frontier of Brazil and on the wooded islets and banks of the larger rivers.

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  • The lands are admirably adapted for cattle-breeding purposes, although not capable of fattening animals.

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  • The term "flora" is used in botany collectively for the plantgrowth of a district; similarly "fauna" is used collectively for the animals.

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  • Thereafter he returned with seven war canoes, each holding a hundred warriors, priests, stone idols and sacred weapons, as well as native plants and animals.

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  • The chief domestic animals are the camel, horse, ass, ox, buffalo (used both as a beast of burden and for riding), sheep with a short silky fleece, the goat and the pig, which last here reaches its southernmost limit.

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  • TURNSTONE, the name long given 1 to a shore-bird, from its habit of turning over with its bill such stones as it can to seek its food in the small crustaceans or other animals lurking beneath them.

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  • But that name properly belongs to the Redshank, from the cry of warning to other animals that it utters on the approach of danger.

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  • In the forests not many animals which have disappeared from W.

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  • The various species of rapacious animals are disappearing, together with the colonies of marmots; the insectivores are also becoming scarce in consequence of the destruction of insects; while vermin, such as the suslik, or pouched marmot (Spermophilus), and the destructive insects which are a scourge to agriculture, become a real plague.

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  • Russia are fine animals, and those of the Kirghiz, though not big, are famous for their endurance.

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  • Horses and other draught animals are reared in the province, and there are several lakes frequented by water-fowl, and streams of clear water flow through it, as for instance the Kyros (Kur) formed by the junction of the Medos and Araxes."

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  • of heterogenesis have limited themselves to cases of microscopic animals and plants, and in most cases, the observations that they have brought forward have been explained by minuter observation as cases of parasitism.

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  • Certain sacrifices of animals he explains as intended to transfer a conditional curse.

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  • In the former case (a) individual animals might be distinguished by certain marks, or (b) the whole species.

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  • It has been held that animal sacrifice is the primitive form and that the decay of totemism or lack of domestic animals has brought about the substitution of a human victim; but it has also been urged that in many cases animal victims are treated like human beings and must consequently have replaced them, that human beings are smeared with the blood of sacrifice, and must therefore have themselves been sacrificed before a milder regime allowed an animal to replace them.

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  • The animals were decorated with wampum and strangled, and then the sins of the people were transferred to them; then the remains were burned and the ashes gathered up, taken through the village and sprinkled before every house.

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  • of the Greek Euchologion contain numerous prayers to be offered over animals sacrificed; and in the form of agape such sacrifices were common in Italy and Gaul on the natalis dies of a saint, and Paulinus of Nola, the friend of Augustine, in his Latin poems, describes them (c. 400) in detail.

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  • How far totemism, or belief in deified animal ancestors, existed in prehistoric Israel, as evidenced by the tribal names Simeon (hyena, wolf), Caleb (dog), IIamor (ass), Rahel (ewe) and Leah (wild cow), as well as by the laws respecting clean and unclean animals, is too intricate and speculative a problem to be discussed here.

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  • We note the laws respecting the clean and unclean animals (certainly based on ancient custom).

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  • Harting in his work on Extinct British Animals, from which the following account is abridged.

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  • In Athelstan's reign these animals abounded to such an extent in Yorkshire that a retreat was built by one Acehorn, at Flixton, near Filey, wherein travellers might seek refuge if attacked by them.

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  • wolves were sufficiently numerous in some parts of the country to induce the king to make grants of land to various individuals upon the express condition of their taking measures to destroy these animals wherever they could be found.

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  • Of native animals the varieties are few and the numbers of individuals small.

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  • Large animals, such as the black and the grizzly bear, and deer are found on the slopes of the Sierra Mountains, and antelope, deer and elk visit the northernmost valleys in the winter.

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  • That conditions are favourable to the animal industry is shown by the fact that in 1897 the valleys of northern Nevada were so overrun with wild horses, to the detriment of the grazing grounds for cattle, that the legislature authorized the killing of such animals.

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  • The cave, still called Mavrospelya ("black cave"), was ever afterwards regarded as sacred to Demeter, and in'it, according to information given to Pausanias, there had been set up an image of the goddess, a female form seated on a rock, but with a horse's head and mane, to which were attached snakes and other wild animals.

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  • Of animals, the cow and the pig are her favourites, the latter owing to its productivity and the cathartic properties of its blood.

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  • More original, perhaps, is the argument in the immediately preceding work, The Destiny of Man, viewed in the Light of his Origin (1884), which is, in substance, that physical evolution is a demonstrated fact; that intellectual force is a later, higher and more potent thing than bodily strength; and that, finally, in most men and some "lower animals" there is developed a new idea of the advantageous, a moral and non-selfish line of thought and procedure, which in itself so transcends the physical that it cannot be identified with it or be measured by its standards, and may or must be enduring, or at its best immortal.

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  • In the other animals several parasites have been described by different observers, but the alternate hosts are not known.

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  • Theological writers were not in the least prepared to question the worth of the marvellous descriptions of creatures that were current in the schools on the faith of authorities vaguely known as "the history of animals," "the naturalists," and "the naturalist" in the singular number (Ouo-coMyos).

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  • Father Cahier would even trace the book to Tatian, and it is true that that heresiarch mentions a writing of his own upon animals.

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  • It has, moreover, been remarked that almost all the animals mentioned were at home in the Egypt of those days, or at least, like the elephant, were to be seen there occasionally, whereas the structure of the hedgehog, for instance, is explained by a reference to the sea-porcupine, better known to fish-buyers on the Mediterranean.

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  • That Diptera of the type of the common house-fly are often in large measure responsible for the spread of such diseases as cholera and enteric fever is undeniable, and as regards blood-sucking forms, in addition to those to which reference has already been made, it is sufficient to mention the vast army of pests constituted by the midges, sand-flies, horseflies, &c., from the attacks of which domestic animals suffer equally with man, in addition to being frequently infested with the larvae of the bot and warble flies (Gastrophilus, Oestrus and Hypoderma).

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  • But there has been considerable interference (ostensibly on humanitarian grounds) with the Jewish method of slaughtering animals for food (Shehitah) and the method was prohibited by a referendum in 1893.

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  • Of the wild animals of Crete, the wild goat or agrimi (Capra aegagrus) alone need be mentioned; it is still found in considerable numbers on the higher summits of Psiloriti and the White Mountains.

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  • These latter, as in the well-known case of the Lion's Gate at Mycenae, often appear with guardian animals as their supporters.

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  • They live on small animals or soft vegetable substances, which they root up from the bottom.

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  • Perhaps the ants derive from these seemingly useless guests the same satisfaction as we obtain by keeping pet animals.

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  • S.) Flora And Fauna The general assemblage of animals and plants found over northern Asia resembles greatly that found in the parts of Europe which are adjacent and have a similar climate.

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  • The plants and animals along it are found to have a marked similarity of character to those of south Europe, with which region the zone is virtually continuous.

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  • Its animals and plants have a special character suited to the peculiar climatal conditions, more closely allied to those of the adjacent northern Siberian tract than of the other bordering regions.

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  • A peculiar form of baboon, Cynopithecus, and the singular ruminant, Anoa, found in Celebes, seem to have no relation to Asiatic animals, and rather to be allied to those in Africa.

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  • The Polynemidae, which range from the Atlantic through the Indian Ocean to the Pacific, supply animals from which isinglass is prepared; one of them, the mango-fish, esteemed a great delicacy, inhabits the seas from the Bay of Bengal to Siam.

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  • Of the domesticated animals of Asia may first be mentioned the elephant.

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  • Sheep abound in the more temperate regions, and goats are universally met with; both of these animals are used as beasts of burden in the mountains of Tibet.

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  • Very large doses in animals cause lethargy, collapse and death.

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  • A number of dogs were inoculated, the same number were untreated, and both sets were bitten by rabid animals.

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  • Thousands of people suffering from bites from rabid animals, from all lands, have been treated in this institute, and the death-rate from this most horrible of all diseases has been reduced to less than i %.

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  • The true Baggara tribesmen employ oxen as saddle and pack animals, carry no shield, and though many possess firearms the customary weapons are lance and sword.

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  • The wild animals of Caucasia are for the most part the same as those which frequent the mountainous parts of central Europe, though there is also an irruption of Asiatic forms, e.g.

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  • In the legend of Nisus and Scylla there is a trace of the custom which was still observed in classical times in the sacrifice of animals.

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  • He professed the most open materialism, denied immortality in all forms and taught that the soul of man is homogeneous with the soul of animals and plants, material in origin and incapable of separate existence.

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  • As the Hebrews did not mutilate any of their animals, bulls were in common use.

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  • The threshing-floor must be smooth and rammed hard to leave no crevices for weeds and small animals to get through.

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  • During the middle ages cattle and sheep were the chief farm animals, but the intermixture of stock consequent on the common-field system was a barrier to improvement in the breed and conduced to the propagation of disease.

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  • It spread rapidly over the country, affecting all domesticated animals except horses, and although seldom attended by fatal results, caused everywhere great alarm and loss.

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  • Several weeks elapsed before the true character of the disease was known, and in this brief space it had already been carried by animals purchased in Smithfield market to all parts of the country.

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  • After causing the most frightful losses, it was at last stamped out by the resolute slaughter of all affected animals and of all that had been in contact with them.

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  • The fattening of animals was conducted on more scientific principles.

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  • In 1883 the veterinary department of the Privy Council - which had been constituted in 1865 when the country was ravaged by cattle plague - was abolished by order in council, and the " Agricultural Department " was substituted, but no alteration was effected in the work of the department, so far as it related to animals.

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  • The Diseases of Animals Act 1896 provided for the compulsory slaughter of imported live stock at the place of landing.

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  • British Imports of Live Animals and Meat.

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  • Up to 1896 store cattle were admitted into the United Kingdom for the purpose of being fattened, but under the Diseases of Animals Act of that year animals imported since then have to be slaughtered at the place of landing.

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  • [[Table Xiv]].-Numbers of Cattle, Sheep and Pigs imported into the United Kingdom, 1891-1905 The animals come mainly from the United States of America, Canada and Argentina, and the traffic in cattle is more uniform than that in sheep, whilst that in pigs seems practically to have reached extinction.

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  • As the main object of the act is to obtain records of prices, it follows that only in so far as statements of the prices realized, together with the description of the animals involved, are obtained, is the full advantage of the statute secured.

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  • It has further been shown that, in the exercise of force by animals, there is a greatly increased expenditure of the non-nitrogenous constituents of food, but little, if any, of the nitrogenous.

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  • As, however, the manure of the animals of the farm is valuable largely in proportion to the nitrogen it contains, there is, so far, an advantage in giving a food somewhat rich in nitrogen, provided it is in other respects a good one, and, weight for weight, not much more costly.

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  • This table is taken from Warington's Chemistry of the Farm, 19th edition (Vinton and Co.), to which reference may be made for a detailed discussion of the feeding of animals.

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  • In the fattening of animals for the butcher the principle of 2 Returns for only ten months were available for this year.

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  • The judges, in making their awards at the show held annually in December, at Islington, North London (since 1862), are instructed to decide according to quality of flesh, lightness of offal, age and early maturity, with no restrictions as to feeding, and thus to promote the primary aim of the club in encouraging the selection and breeding of the best and most useful animals for the production of meat, and testing their capabilities in respect of early maturity.

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  • At the centenary show in 1898 provision was made for 40 classes for cattle, 29 for sheep, 18 for pigs, and 7 for animals to be slaughtered, whilst to mark the importance of the occasion the prizes offered amounted to close upon 5000 in value.

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  • In the cattle classes, aged beasts of huge size and of considerably over a ton in weight used to be common, but in recent years the tendency has been to reduce the upper limit of age, and thus to bring out animals ripe for the butcher in a shorter time than was formerly the case.

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  • animals three to four years old, was abolished, the maximum age at which steers were allowed to compete for prizes being reduced to three years.

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  • The competition thus constitutes what is termed a " block test," and it is instructive in affording the opportunity of seeing the quality of the carcases furnished by the several animals, and in particular the relative proportion and distribution of fat and lean meat.

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  • The live animals are judged and subsequently the carcases, and, though the results sometimes agree, more often they do not.

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  • By the Diseases of Animals Act 1896 (59 & 60 Vict.

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  • Moreover, live animals are admitted freely from certain countries, provided such animals are slaughtered at the place of landing.

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  • The animals which are shipped in this way are necessarily of the best quality, because the freight on a superior beast is no more costly than on an inferior one, and the proportion of freight to sale price is therefore less.

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  • In 1900 the discovery early in the year of the existence of foot-and-mouth disease amongst cattle and sheep shipped from Argentina to the United Kingdom led to the issue of an order by which all British ports were closed against live animals from the country named.

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  • The principle of this act in regard to foreign animals was that of free importation, with power for the Privy Council to prohibit or subject to quarantine and slaughter, as circumstances seemed to require.

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  • The act of 1869 was at that time the most complete measure that had ever been passed for dealing with diseases of animals.

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  • c. 74, 1878, which repealed the act of 1869, and affirmed as a principle the landing of foreign animals for slaughter only, though free importation or quarantine on the one hand and prohibition on the other were provided for in exceptional circumstances.

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  • c. 47 power was given to the Board of Agriculture to use the sums voted on account of pleuro-pneumonia for paying the costs involved in dealing with foot-and-mouth disease; under this act the board could order the slaughter of diseased animals and of animals in contact with these, and could pay compensation for animals so slaughtered.

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  • In 1894 was passed the Diseases of Animals Act (57 & 58 Vict.

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  • The Diseases of Animals Act 1896 (59 & 60 Vict.

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  • The ports in Great Britain at which foreign animals may be landed are Bristol, Cardiff, Glasgow, Hull, Liverpool, London; t 'Manchester and Newcastle-upon-Tyne.

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  • Animals from the Channel Islands may be landed at Southampton.

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  • The Diseases of Animals.

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  • It is compulsory on owners to notify the authorities as to the existence of scab amongst their sheep. By the Diseases of Animals Act (1903) powers to prescribe the dipping of sheep, irrespective of the presence or otherwise of sheep scab, were conferred upon the Board of Agriculture.

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  • In addition there have been some cases of rabies in animals other than dogs.

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  • On the 1st of September 1890 the Board of Agriculture assumed powers with respect to pleuro-pneumonia under the Diseases of Animals Act of that year.

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  • The compulsory slaughter at the place of landing does not extend to animals shipped from Ireland into Great Britain, and this is a matter of the highest importance to Irish stock-breeders, who find their best market close at hand on the east of St George's Channel.

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  • The returns from Ireland under the Diseases of Animals Acts 1894 and 1896 are less significant than those of Great Britain.

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  • Compared with the export trade in live stock from Ireland to Great Britain the reciprocal trade from Great Britain to Ireland is small, and is largely restricted to animals for breeding purposes.

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  • Exports of Animals from the United Kingdom.

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  • The general export trade of the United Kingdom in living animals represented an aggregate average annual value over the five years 1896-1900 of £1,017,000 as against £935,801 over the five years 1901-1905.

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  • The export trade in cattle, sheep and pigs is practically restricted to pedigree animals required for breeding purposes, and though its aggregate value [[Table Xxvi]].-Quantities and Value of Home-bred Live Stock exported from the United Kingdom, 1900-1905.

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  • ECONOMIC ENTOMOLOGY, the name given to the study of insects based on their relation to man, his domestic animals and his crops, and, in the case of those that are injurious, of the practical methods by which they can be prevented from doing harm, or be destroyed when present.

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  • These two-winged insects attack all kinds of plants, and also animals in their larval stage.

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  • Animals suffer from the ravages of bot flies (Oestridae) and gad flies (Tabanidae); while the tsetse disease is due to the tsetse fly (Glossina morsitans), carrying the protozoa that cause the disease from one horse to another.

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  • GASTROPODA, the second of the five classes of animals constituting the phylum Mollusca.

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  • Shell irregular; radula absent; foot and siphon short; sedentary animals, living in corals.

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  • Grosvenor these nematocysts are derived from the hydroids on which the animals feed.

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  • Animals either swim or burrow.

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  • animals, with shell coiled h, Median dorsal spine.

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  • Animals either swim or crawl.

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  • The next six families include the animals formerly known as Gymnosomatous Pteropods, characterized by the absence of mantle and shell, the reduction of the ventral surface of the foot, and the parapodial fins at the anterior end of the body.

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  • Visceral mass and shell conical; tentacles atrophied; head expanded; genital apertures contiguous; marine animals, with an aquatic pallial cavity containing secondary branchial laminae.

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  • They were, however, essentially marsh-dwelling animals, and exhibit no tendency to the cursorial type of limb so characteristic of the horse-line.

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  • The goddess sometimes appears with doves, as uranic, at others with snakes, as chthonic. In the ritual fetishes, often of miniature form, played a great part: all sorts of plants and animals were sacred: sacrifice (not burnt, and human very doubtful), dedication of all sorts of offerings and simulacra, invocation, &c., were practised.

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  • Now the most striking characteristic of man, that in fact which marks him specially, as contrasted with other animals, is self-consciousness.

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  • They are all desert animals.

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  • Linnaeus in his Systema naturae (1735) grouped under the class Insecta all segmented animals with firm exoskeleton and jointed limbs - that is to say, the insects, centipedes, millipedes, crustaceans, spiders, scorpions and their allies.

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  • Animals, 1877), they really belong to the labial segment which has not become completely fused with the headcapsule.

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  • Such a young insect is a larva - a term used by zoologists for young animals generally that are decidedly unlike their parents.

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  • Young animals always unlike parents, the wing-rudiments developing beneath the larval cuticle and only appearing in a penultimate pupal instar, which takes no food and is usually passive.

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  • The Hexapoda, being aerial, terrestrial and fresh-water animals, are but occasionally preserved in stratified rocks, and our knowledge of extinct members of the class is therefore fragmentary, while the description, as insects, of various obscure fossils, which are perhaps not even Arthropods, has not tended to the advancement of this branch of zoology.

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  • The Aptera have perhaps the most extensive distribution of all animals, being found in Franz Josef Land and South Victoria Land, on the snows of Alpine glaciers, and in the depths of the most extensive caves.

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  • Aristotle was the first serious author on ornithology with whose writings we are acquainted, but even he had, as he tells us, predecessors; and, looking to that portion of his works on animals which has come down to us, one Early s.

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  • 140, and compiled in Greek (though he was an Italian by birth) a number of miscellaneous observations on the peculiarities of animals.

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  • Absurd as much that we find both in Albertus Magnus and the Ortus seems to modern eyes, if we go a step lower in the scale and consult the " Bestiaries " or treatises on animals which were common from the 12th to the 14th century we shall meet with many more absurdities.

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  • 2 The Seventh of Wotton's De differentiis animalium Libri Decem, published at Paris in 1552, treats of birds; but his work is merely a compilation from Aristotle and Pliny, with references to other classical writers who have more or less incidentally mentioned birds and other animals.

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  • Hitherto, from the nature of the case, the works aforesaid treated of scarcely any but the birds belonging to the orbis veteribus notus; but the geographical discoveries of the 16th century began to bear fruit, and many animals of kinds un suspected were, about one hundred years later, made known.

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  • ' The Hierozoicon of Bochart - a treatise on the animals named in Holy Writ - was published in 1619.

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  • Buffon was the first man who formed any theory that may be called reasonable of the geographical distribution of animals.

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  • Muller brought out at Nuremberg a German translation of the Systema Naturae, completing it in 1776 by a Supplement containing a list of animals thus described, which had hitherto been technically anonymous, with diagnoses and names on the Linnaean model.

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  • Between 1666 and 1669 Perrault edited at Paris eight accounts of the dissection by du Verney of as many species of birds, which, translated into English, were published by the Royal Society in 1702, under the title of The Natural History of Animals.

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  • But in 1681 Gerard Blasius had brought out at Amsterdam an Anatome Animalium, containing the results of all the dissections of animals that he could find; and the second part of this book, treating of Volatilia, makes a respectable show of more than one hundred and twenty closely-printed quarto pages, though nearly two-thirds is devoted to a treatise De Ovo et Pullo, containing among other things a reprint of Harvey's researches, and the scientific rank of the whole book may be inferred from bats being still classed with birds.

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  • The travels of Le Vaillant in South Africa having been completed in 5785, his great Oiseaux d'Afrique began to appear in Paris in 1797; but it is hard to speak properly of this work, for several of the species described in it are certainly not, and never were in his time, inhabitants of that country, though he sometimes gives a long account of the circumstances under which he observed them.1° From travellers who employ themselves in collecting the animals of any distant country the zoologists who stay at home and study those of their own district, be it great or small, are really not so much divided as at first might appear.

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  • Forster published a Catalogue of the Animals of North America in London in 1771, and the following year described in the Philosophical Transactions a few birds from Hudson Bay.

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  • In 1830 John Edward Gray commenced the Illustrations of Indian Zoology, a series of plates of vertebrated animals, G w but mostly of birds, from drawings, it is believed by dlcke..

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  • The chief object of the author, who had been naturalist to the Niger Expedition, and curator to the Museum of the Zoological Society of London, was to figure the animals contained in its gardens or described in its Proceedings, which until the year 1848 were not illustrated.

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  • The publication of the Zoological Sketches of Joseph Wolf, from animals in the gardens of the Zoological Society of London, was Wolf.

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  • and Classific. of Animals, p. 202) to have consisted of the following propositions: 1 " i.

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  • That the series of natural animals is continuous, forming, as it were, a circle; so that, upon commencing at any one given point, and thence tracing all the modifications of structure, we shall be imperceptibly led, after passing through numerous forms, again to the point from which we started.

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  • In 1828 Fleming brought out his History of British Animals (8vo), in which the birds are treated at considerable length (pp. 41-146), though not with great success.

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  • Considering the extent of their materials, which was limited to the bodies of such animals as they could obtain from dealers and the several menageries that then existed in or near London, the progress made in what has since proved to be the right direction is very wonderful.

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  • Thus he (prompted very likely by Macgillivray) wrote: " I believe the time to be approaching when much of the results obtained from the inspection of the exterior alone will be laid aside; when museums filled with stuffed skins will be considered insufficient to afford a knowledge of birds; and when the student will go forth, not only to observe the habits and haunts of animals, but to preserve specimens of them to be carefully dissected" (Ornith.

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  • Bonaparte, in his Saggio di una distribuzione metodica degli Animali Vertebrati, published at Rome, and in 1837 communicated to the Linnean 'Society of London, " A new Systematic Arrangement of Vertebrated Animals," which was subsequently printed in that Society's Transactions (xviii.

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  • Many of them were climbing animals, and from these true birds with the power of flight were developed.

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  • Harting, Extinct British Animals, 1880).

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  • Sculptured ornamentation, flowing scrollwork of semi-conventional foliage mingled with grotesque animals, birds or dragons, is freely applied to arches and string courses.

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  • Domestic animals are evenly distributed throughout the state; in no county was their total value, in June 1900, less than $500,000, and in only three counties (Licking, Trumbull and Wood) did their value exceed $2,000,000; in 73 counties their value exceeded $1,000,000, but was less than $2,000,000.

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  • All the world over it is held that such people can assume the form of animals; sometimes the power of the shaman is held to depend on his being able to summon his familiar; among the Ostiaks the shaman's coat was covered with representations of birds and beasts; two bear's claws were on his hands; his wand was covered with mouse-skin; when he wished to divine he beat his drum till a black bird appeared and perched on his hut; then the shaman swooned, the bird vanished, and the divination could begin.

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  • In Russia the domovoi (house spirit) is an important personage in folk-belief; he may object to certain kinds of animals, or to certain colours in cattle; and must, generally speaking, be propitiated and cared for.

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  • The wild animals found in the district comprise a few tigers, leopards and wild elephants, deer, wild pig, porcupines, jackals, foxes, hares, otters, &c. The green monkey is very common; porpoises abound in the large rivers.

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  • They are merely practising the inherited instinct to lie motionless, movement being the only indication of the presence of living prey known to many insectivorous animals.

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  • Ants, however, are not the only animals mimicked by spiders.

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  • of the animals i