Animal sentence example

animal
  • I went to college and studied animal husbandry.
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  • He is blessed who is assured that the animal is dying out in him day by day, and the divine being established.
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  • What's the most dangerous animal out there?
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  • The man before her was poised like an animal on a hunt, his penetrating, dark eyes pinned on her.
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  • The steady tread of some large animal continued in her direction - a mountain lion?
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  • But when he saw that the horsemen did not dismount and that the wolf shook herself and ran for safety, Daniel set his chestnut galloping, not at the wolf but straight toward the wood, just as Karay had run to cut the animal off.
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  • She frequently walks a dog, a loathsome animal who fails to warm to my affection.
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  • I tried to describe to her the appearance of a camel; but, as we were not allowed to touch the animal, I feared that she did not get a correct idea of its shape.
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  • They, of course, are Walden all over and all through; are themselves small Waldens in the animal kingdom, Waldenses.
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  • They are the biggest thing out there, but actually, under the right circumstances, any animal can be dangerous.
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  • in the dead animal, and for its great elasticity and power of muscular contraction while living.
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  • Any time a wild animal isn't afraid of you, there is probably something wrong.
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  • Curious about the great animal, Yully approached the fence.
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  • Every animal had to earn its keep.
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  • She instantly leaped to the side and rolled away from the animal, glancing up as the rifle belched flames.
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  • In him the animal man chiefly was developed.
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  • Unwilling to root for either animal, Carmen turned Ed back toward the tree line.
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  • If you gave me free rein I'd have every kind of animal there was.
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  • He does me a favor by allowing you to ride on the animal, and I do him a favor by taking care of it.
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  • I didn't get a degree in animal husbandry so I could sit in the house knitting booties.
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  • "I take it those aren't yours," Darian said, leaning in to look at the animal heads on her bed.
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  • "You're as much a wild animal as they are," Damian agreed.
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  • The panicked animal fought him for its head instead, refusing to obey him.
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  • The ship anchored near the shore, where barbarians in ill-fitting clothing made of animal skins awaited them.
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  • Lana exclaimed as the large animal knocked her back.
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  • Taran cursed the animal again under his breath and blocked two strikes before they broke free of the footmen.
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  • Natasha looked from one to the other as a hunted and wounded animal looks at the approaching dogs and sportsmen.
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  • Bit by an animal.
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  • The animal is in a certain sense, indeed, the food of the god.
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  • and a weasel-like animal which hunts in packs.
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  • These subdivisions of the larger groups are not necessarily those theoretically approved by the present writer, but they have the valuable sanction of the individual experts who have given special attention to different of the vast field represented by the animal kingdom.'
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  • Diagram showing the primary grades and branches' of the Animal Pedigree.
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  • Giddon deposited Lisa on the animal's back and, putting a foot in the stirrup, swung up behind her.
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  • Was it an animal?
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  • The fact is, when wolves attack a herd, they always take the weakest animal.
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  • He rode as if he were part of the horse, his lean body swaying with the stride of the graceful animal.
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  • Han asked, extending his hand as if approaching a wounded animal.
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  • You might as well make it on your terms, ordering him to submit, rather than begging and mauling him like an animal.
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  • Or maybe an animal?
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  • He hadn't been attacked by anything remotely human or animal.
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  • She saw the white of his knuckles as he gripped her shoe hard and sensed she was pushing a wild animal.
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  • As she walked, she began to wonder how to train a wild animal.
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  • Tell Kris—next time he wants something—to call instead of sending this animal.
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  • She thinks she is some kind of vicious animal.
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  • You want to act like an animal?
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  • In the time she'd been gone fighting Others, some vamp had left her the head of another dead animal.
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  • I thought that was a South American animal.
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  • He stepped between Sam and the animal.
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  • "Get behind a tree," he ordered as he turned to face the animal.
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  • I thought you were some kind of wild animal.
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  • Even admitting this, she didn't believe he was an animal.
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  • Or maybe some sort of animal.
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  • "Yeah," Xander replied and set down the animal.
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  • Nothing was stated as to the probability of an increase in the stature of the French Congo animal as it grows older; but even if we allow another foot, its height would be considerably less than half that of a large Central African bull of the ordinary elephant.
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  • The most important of these are the greater tolerance by the African animal of sunlight, and the hard nature of its food, which consists chiefly of boughs and roots.
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  • The specific name was given on account of the extraordinary swiftness of the animal.
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  • The question of their affinity to other divisions of the animal kingdom depends principally on the views which are held with regard to the relationships of the Enteropneusta and Phoronidea respectively.
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  • Thenard stated that yeast was the cause of fermentation, and held it to be of an animal nature, since it contained nitrogen and yielded ammonia on distillation, nor was it conclusively proved that the yeast cell was the originator of fermentation until the researches of C. Cagniard de la Tour, T.
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  • Fermentation now includes all changes in organic compounds brought about by ferments elaborated in the living animal or vegetable cell.
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  • The first class include such changes as the alcoholic fermentation of sugar solutions, the acetic acid fermentation of alcohol, the lactic acid fermentation of milk sugar, and the putrefaction of animal and vegetable nitrogenous matter.
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  • He may, in fact, be called the father of modern pathology, for his view, that every animal is constituted by a sum of vital units, each of which manifests the characteristics of life, has almost uniformly dominated the theory of disease.since the middle of the 59th century, when it was enunciated.
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  • CAT,' properly the name of the well-known domesticated feline animal usually termed by naturalists Felis domestics, but in a wider sense employed to denote all the more typical members of the family Felidae.
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  • The blue eyes -and the white coat of the kitten indicate that the Siamese breed is a semi-albino, which when adult tends towards melanism, such a combination of characters being apparently unknown in any other animal.
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  • The nerves conduct the animal spirits to act upon the muscles, and in their turn convey the impressions of the organs to the brain.
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  • One hypothesis supplants the various principles of life; the rule of absolute mechanism is as complete in the animal as in the cosmos.
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  • It is not much comfort to learn further from Descartes that " he denies life to no animal, but makes it consist in the mere heat of the heart.
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  • And the doctrine found acceptance among some whom it enabled to get rid of the difficulties raised by Montaigne and those who allowed more difference between animal and animal than between the higher animals and man.
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  • The footless larvae are elongate, worm-like and very active; they feed upon almost any kind of waste animal matter, and when full-grown form a silken cocoon.
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  • The food of the adult is almost exclusively animal, - insects, especially large ants, snails, lizards and snakes, but it also eats certain large red berries.
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  • The pampas were almost destitute of animal life before the horses and cattle of the Spanish invaders were there turned out to graze, and the puma and jaguar never came there until the herds of European cattle attracted them.
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  • The general shape of the animal is ungainly, owing to a huge hump on the withers, at which point the height is about 3 ft.
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  • This animal can scarcely be regarded as more than a local race, and should be styled Oreamnus montanus kennedyi.
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  • - Teeth of Upper Jaw of Opossum (Didelphys marsupialis), all of which are unchanged, except the third premolar, the place of which is occupied in the young animal by a molariform tooth, represented in the figure below the line of the other teeth.
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  • molar very small, and shed before the animal leaves the mother's pouch.
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  • Deciduous premolar preceded by a minute molariform tooth, which remains in place until the animal is nearly full grown.
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  • Ears large and pointed, and folded down when the animal is at rest.
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  • The portion of the lachrymal duct communicating with the cavity of the nose has, on the other hand, been abnormally developed, apparently for the purpose of cleansing that chamber from particles of sand which may obtain an entrance while the animal is burrowing.
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  • lowed by two slender toes, Complete skeletons disinterred by which in the living animal are Dr E.
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  • Broom believes Thylacoleo to have been "a purely carnivorous animal, and one which would be quite able to, and probably did, kill animals as large or larger than itself."
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  • Arboreal species include the well-known opossums (Phalanger); the extraordinary tree-kangaroo of the Queensland tropics; the flying squirrel, which expands a membrane between the legs and arms, and by its aid makes long sailing jumps from tree to tree; and the native bear (Phascolarctos), an animal with no affinities to the bear, and having a long soft fur and no tail.
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  • This odd animal is provided with a bill or beak, which is not, like that of a bird, affixed to the skeleton, but is merely attached to the skin and muscles.
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  • The monitor lizard is popularly known as the goanna, a name derived from the iguana, an entirely different animal.
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  • No word exists in their language for such general terms as tree, bird or fish; yet they have invented a name for every species of vegetable and animal they know.
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  • They never, in any situation, cultivated the soil for any kind of food-crop. They never reared any kind of cattle, or kept any domesticated animal except the dog, which probably came over with them in their canoes.
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  • Cannibalism was almost universal, either in the case of enemies killed in battle or when animal food was scarce.
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  • One of the oldest and most widespread methods of divining the future, both among primitive people and among several of the civilizations of antiquity, was the reading of omens in the signs noted on the liver of the animal offered as a sacrifice to some deity.
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  • The custom is vouched for by travellers as still observed in Borneo, Burma, Uganda and elsewhere, the animal chosen being a pig or a fowl.
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  • 3, which identifies the blood with the soul of the animal and therefore prohibits its use fairly represents the current conception both among primitive peoples as well as among those who had advanced along the road of culture and civilization.
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  • The question, however, still remains to be answered how people came to the belief or to the assumption that through the soul, or the seat of life of the sacrificial animal, the intention of the gods could be divined.
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  • The one is that the animal sacrificed was looked upon as a deity, and that, therefore, the liver represented the soul of the god; the other theory is that the deity in accepting the sacrifice identified himself with the animal, and that, therefore, the liver as the soul of the animal was the counterpart of the soul of the god.
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  • On the other hand, serious difficulties arise if we assume that every animal sacrificed represents a deity; and even assuming that such a belief underlies the rite of animal sacrifice, a modification of the belief must have been introduced when such sacrifices became a common rite resorted to on every occasion when a deity was to be approached.
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  • that the daily sacrifices which form a feature of advanced cults involved the belief of the daily slaughter of some deity, and even before this stage was reached the primitive belief of the actual identification of the god with the animal must have yielded to some such belief as that the deity in accepting the sacrifice assimilates the animal to his own being, precisely as man assimilates the food that enters into his body.
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  • The theory underlying hepatoscopy therefore consists of these two factors: the belief (I) that the liver is the seat of life, or, to put it more succinctly, what was currently regarded as the soul of the animal; and (2) that the liver of the sacrificial animal, by virtue of its acceptance on the part of the god, took on the same character as the soul of the god to whom it was offered.
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  • The two souls acted in accord, the soul of the animal becoming a reflection, as it were, of the soul of the god.
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  • If, therefore, one understood the signs noted on a particular liver, one entered, as it were, into the mind - as one of the manifestations of soul-life of the deity who had assimilated the being of the animal to his own being.
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  • The inspection of the liver for purposes of divination led to the study of the anatomy of the liver, and there are indeed good reasons for believing that hepatoscopy represents the startingpoint for the study of animal anatomy in general.
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  • Among the Greeks and Romans likewise it was the liver that continued throughout all periods to play the chief role in divination through the sacrificial animal.
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  • We are justified in concluding, therefore, that among the Greeks and Romans likewise the examination of the liver was the basis of divination in the case of the sacrificial animal.
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  • It is well known that the Romans borrowed their methods of hepatoscopy from the Etruscans, and, apart from the direct evidence for this in Latin writings, we have, in the case of the bronze model of a liver found near Piacenza in 1877, and of Etruscan origin, the unmistakable proof that among the Etruscans the examination of the liver was the basis of animal divination.
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  • Just as there were supposed to be several Pans and Fauns, so there were many Silenuses, whose father was called Papposilenus ("Daddy Silenus"), represented as completely covered with hair and more animal in appearance.
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  • The parasitic Nematodes include by far the greatest number of the known genera; they are found in nearly all the orders of the animal kingdom, but more especially among the Vertebrata, and of these the Mammalia are infested by a greater variety than any of the other groups.
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  • Thus Nepenthes secures a supply of nitrogenous food from the animal world in a manner somewhat similar to that adopted by the British sundew, butterwort, and other insectivorous plants.
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  • It may be mentioned that the Bactrian camel, which is a shorter-legged and more ponderous animal than the Arabian species, grows an enormously long and thick winter coat, which is shed in blanket-like masses in spring.
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  • The hump (or humps) varies in size according to the condition of the animal, becoming small and flaccid after hard work and poor diet.
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  • But if the epithet is intended to designate an animal that takes an interest in its rider so far as a beast can, that in some way understands his intentions, or shares them in a subordinate fashion, that obeys from a sort of submissive or halffellow-feeling' with his master, like the horse or elephant, then I say that the camel is by no means docile - very much the contrary.
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  • In a word, he is from first to last an undomesticated and savage animal rendered serviceable by stupidity alone, without much skill on his master's part, or any co-operation on his own, save that of an extreme passiveness.
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  • The peasants somewhat rarely use animal foodthis is most largely used in Sardinia and least in Sicilybread and polenta or macaroni and vegetables being the staple diet.
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  • The principal other ceremonies of this class are the new and full moon offerings, the oblations made at the commencement of the three seasons, the offering of first-fruits, the animal sacrifice, and the Agnihotra, or daily morning and evening oblation of milk, which, however, is also included amongst the grihya, or domestic rites, as having to be performed daily on the domestic fire by the householder who keeps no regular set of sacrificial fires.
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  • It is of nocturnal and burrowing habits, and feeds on decomposed animal substances, larvae and termites.
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  • avri, against, and vrJIrrucos, putrefactive), the name given to substances which are used for the prevention of bacterial development in animal or vegetable matter.
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  • ==Fauna== Animal life is generally deficient throughout the Andamans, especially as regards mammalia, of which there are only nineteen separate species in all, twelve of these being peculiar to the islands.
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  • This paucity of animal life seems inconsistent with the theory that the islands were once connected with the mainland.
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  • As in other cases where animal colonies are formed by organic union of separate individuals, there is ever a tendency for the polyp-colony as a whole to act as a single individual, and for the members to become subordinated to the needs of the colony and to undergo specialization for particular functions, with the result that they simulate organs and their individuality becomes masked to a greater or less degree.
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  • 23 and 25); and, fourthly, in structure, being hollow or solid, as in the polyp. In some medusae, for instance, the remarkable deep-sea family Pectyllidae, the tentacles may bear suckers, by which the animal may attach itself temporarily.
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  • The circular system is developed continuously over the entire subumbral surface, and the velum represents a special local development of this system, at a region where it is able to act at the greatest mechanical advantage in producing the contractions of the umbrella by which the animal progresses.
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  • By means of vibrations or shocks transmitted through the - Sub water, or by displacements in the balance or position of the animal, the otoliths are caused to impinge against the bristles of the sensory cells, now on one side, now on the other, causing shocks or stimuli which are transmitted by the basal nerve-fibre to the central nervous system.
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  • (histocytes) and germinal cells, actual or potential (archaeocytes), amongst the constituent cells of the animal body.
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  • Hydra must, in short, be a living representative of the ancestor of which the actinula-stage is a transient reminiscence in the development of higher forms. It may be pointed out in this connexion that the fixation of Hydra is only temporary, and that the animal is able at all times to detach itself, to move to a new situation, and to fix itself again.
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  • The animal is a solitary polyp bearing a great number of medusa-buds.
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  • It can only be said that their organization, so far as the state of their preservation permits it to be ascertained, offers closer analogies with the Hydrozoa, especially the Calyptoblastea, than with any other existing group of the animal kingdom.
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  • It is noteworthy that he sought to establish the identity of organic and inorganic matter by help of the facts of vegetal and animal nutrition.
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  • Lucretius traces, in the fifth book of his poem, the progressive genesis of vegetal and animal forms out of the motherearth.
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  • All parts of matter are capable of developing into all forms; thus the materials of the table and chair may under proper circumstances be developed to the life of the plant or of the animal.
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  • The foundations of this theory of history as an upward progress of man out of a barbaric and animal condition were laid by Vico in his celebrated work Principii di scienza nuova.
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  • He says Lamarck's original animal is something metaphysical, not physical, namely, the will to live.
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  • In his Entwickelungsgeschichte der Thiere (p. 264) he distinctly tells us that the law of growing individuality is " the fundamental thought which goes through all forms and degrees of animal development and all single relations.
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  • The observation that large groups of species of widely different habits present the same fundamental plan of structure; and that parts of the same animal or plant, the functions of which are very different, likewise exhibit modifications of a common plan.
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  • In fact, there is a period when, as Aristotle long ago said, the embryo of the highest animal has the form of a mere worm, and, devoid of internal and external organization, is merely an almost structureless lump of polype-substance.
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  • Lamarck introduced the conception of the action of an animal on itself as a factor in producing modification.
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  • Starting from the wellknown fact that the habitual use of a limb tends to develop the muscles of the limb, and to produce a greater and greater facility in using it, he made the general assumption that the effort of an animal to exert an organ in a given direction tends to develop the organ in that direction.
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  • The aye-aye, Chiromys (or Daubentonia) madagascariensis, is an animal with a superficial resemblance to a longhaired and dusky-coloured cat with unusually large eyes.
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  • There can be no doubt that Aurelius believed in a deity, although Schultz is probably right in maintaining that all his theology amounts to this - the soul of man is most intimately united to his body, and together they make one animal which we call man; and so the deity is most intimately united to the world or the material universe, and together they form one whole.
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  • It is no "fugitive and cloistered virtue" that Aurelius seeks to encourage; on the contrary, man must lead the "life of the social animal," must "live as on a mountain"; and "he is an abscess on the universe who withdraws and separates himself from the reason of our common nature through being displeased with the things which happen."
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  • anbar, probably through the Spanish, but this word referred originally to ambergris, which is an animal substance quite distinct from yellow amber.
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  • According to Frazer, these traditions may be " distorted reminiscences " of the practice of human sacrifice, especially of divine kings, the object of which was to ensure fertility in the animal and vegetable worlds.
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  • The body thus formed ment of is called the embryo, and this develops into the adult Primary plant, not by continued growth of all its parts as in an animal, but by localization of the regions of cell-division and growth, such a localized region being called a growing-point.
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  • It is only comparatively recently that the methods of histological investigation used by animal physiologists have been carefully and systematically applied to the study of the vegetable organisms. They have, however, been attended with wonderful results, and have revolutionized the whole study of vegetable structure.
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  • Cellulose, the material of which vegetable cell-walls are almost universally composed, at any rate in their early condition, is known to occur, though only seldom, among animal organisms. Such forms as Volvox and the group of the Myxomycetes have been continually referred to both kingdoms, and their true systematic position is still a subject of controversy.
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  • Now, as the materials which plants absorb are carbon dioxide from the air, and various inorganic compounds from the soil, together with water, it is clear that if this view is correct, vegetable protoplasm must be fed in a very different way from animal, and on very different materials.
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  • Those Fungi which are saprophytic can only live when supplied with organic compounds of some complexity, which they derive from decomposing animal or vegetable matter.
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  • We find them to consist of representatives of the great classes of foodstuffs on which animal protoplasm is nourished, and whose presence renders seeds such valuable material for animal consumptien.
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  • The differences between the nutritive processes of the animal and the plant are not therefore fundamental, as they were formerly held to be.
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  • The general vegetable protoplasm has not the capacity of being nourished by inorganic substances which are denied to the living substance of the animal world.
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  • It is sometimes forgotten, when discussing questions of animal nutrition, that all the food materials of all living organisms are prepared originally from inorganic substances in exactly the same way, in exactly the same place, and by the same machinery, which is the chlorophyll apparatus of the vegetable kingdom.
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  • Another enzyme, rennet, which in the animal body is proteolytic, is frequently met with in plants, but its function has not been ascertained.
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  • This is anextremely important question, since the supply of energy to the animal world has been found to depend entirely upon the vegetable one.
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  • Certain plants possess another source of energy which is common to them and the animal world.
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  • Even the root tip, which shows a certain differentiation into root cap and root apex, cannot be said to be a definite sense organ in the same way as the sense organs of an animal.
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  • We do not find their behaviour like that of the motor mechanism of an animal.
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  • It reminds us of a similar property of animal protoplasm which finds its expression in the rhythmic beat of the heart and other phenomena.
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  • The elementary unit of plant structure, as of animal structure, is the cell.
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  • The nucleus was definitely recognized in the plant cell by Robert Brown in 1831, but its presence had been previously indicated by various observers and it had been seen by Fontana in some animal cells as early as 1781.
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  • The cytological evidence for this appears to be made stronger for animal than for plant cells.
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  • 6); and it has been suggested that the association of these two is analogous to the association of the rods and cones of the animal eye with their pigment layer, the light absorbed by the red pigment-spot setting up changes which react upon the refractive granule and being transmitted to the flagellum bring about those modifications in its vibrations by which the direction of movement of the organism is regulated.
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  • Botanik (1898), 32; Lee, The Microtomists Vade Mecum (London, 1900); Macallum, On the Detection and Localization of Phosphorus in Animal and Vegetable Cells, Proc. Roy.
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  • lxiii.; On the Distribution of Assimilated Iron Cornpotrnds other than Haemoglobin and Haematins, in Animal and Vegetable Cells, Quart.
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  • For instance, the animal traps of carnivorous plants (Drosera, Nepenihes, &c.) did not, presumably, originate as such; they began as organs of quite another kind which became adapted to their present function in consequence of animals having been accidentally caught.
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  • Buffon remarked that the same temperature might have been expected, all other circumstances being equal, to produce the same beings in different parts of the globe, both in the animal and vegetable kingdoms. Yet lawns in the United States are destitute of the common English daisy, the wild hyacinth of the woods of the United Kingdom is absent from Germany, and the foxglove from Switzerland.
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  • In the Gnetaceous Welwitschia it possesses a vegetable type whose extraordinary peculiarities make it seem amongst contemporary vegetation much as some strange and extinct animal form would if suddenly endowed with life.
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  • The influence of physical environment becomes clearer and stronger when the distribution of plant and animal life is considered, and if it is less distinct in the case of man, the reason is found in the modifications of environment consciously produced by human effort.
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  • Thus he demonstrated that the forms of the land exercise a directive and determining influence on climate, plant life, animal life and on man himself.
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  • Different species of organisms come to perfection in different climates; and it may be stated as a general rule that a species, whether of plant or animal, once established at one point, would spread over the whole zone of the climate congenial to it unless some barrier were interposed to its progress.
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  • Plant life, utilizing solar light to combine the inorganic elements of water, soil and air into living substance, is the basis of all animal life.
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  • This is not by the supply of food alone, but also by the withdrawal of carbonic acid from the atmosphere, by which vegetation maintains the composition of the air in a state fit for the support of animal life.
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  • Under such conditions we might expect to find an extremely plentiful animal population, one as rich as that.
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  • which inhabits the same latitudes in Central America, not many degrees farther to the west; but no instance perhaps can be cited, which shows more strikingly the difference between a continental and an'insular fauna, since, making every allowance for the ravages, of cultivation by civilized man, the contrary is the case, and possibly no area of land so highly favoured by nature is so poorly furnished with the, higher forms of animal life.
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  • It may be safely deemed the most peculiar area of the earth's surface, while from the richness and multifariousness of its animal, and especially of its ornithic population, New Zealand cannot be 'compared with it.
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  • Each of these affords animal, vegetable or mixed diet.
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  • Animal diet implies the greatest variety with regard to locality and the modes of procuring the food.
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  • BANDICOOT, any animal of the marsupial genus Perameles, which is the type of a family Peramelidae.
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  • The chief exports are animal products and agricultural products.
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  • The element also occurs in the animal and vegetable kingdoms. It is present in hair and wool, and in albuminous bodies; and is also a constituent of certain vegetable oils, such as the oils of garlic and mustard.
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  • 1 It is a common practice of keepers of dogs to place a piece of roll sulphur in the animal's water but this serves no useful purpose owing to this property.
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  • Later writers add nothing to our knowledge, and are chiefly interested in the tarandus, an animal which dwelt in the woods of the Budini and seems to have been the reindeer (Aristotle ap. Aelian, Hist.
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  • It included theatrical performances and animal hunts in the circus, and vegetables were distributed to the people.
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  • "Just as a steamengine," he says in Kraft and Stoff (7th ed., p. 130), "produces motion, so the intricate organic complex of force-bearing substance in an animal organism produces a total sum of certain effects, which, when bound together in a unity, are called by us mind, soul, thought."
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  • According to Sharp, all Dermestid larvae probably feed on dried animal matters; he mentions one species that can find sufficient food in the horsehair of furniture, and another that eats the dried insect-skins hanging in old cobwebs.
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  • They feed in wood or spend an underground life devouring roots or animal excrement.
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  • 27), and allied genera - feed both in the adult and larval stages, on dung or decaying animal matter.
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  • The animal commonly met with is small and possessed of very little strength; the best are those of Poland, the W.
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  • On the Stockton & Darlington railway, which was authorized by parliament in 1821, animal power was at first proposed, but on the advice of Stephenson, its engineer, steam-engines were adopted.
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  • so that a known animal may give rise to another known animal of a different race, species, genus, or even family, or to a plant, or vice versa.
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  • The victim was the animal of a hostile totem-kin or an animal commonly offered to the god.
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  • This was naturally found in the non-human member of the totem-kin - the totem animal; in a sense, therefore, the god died for his people.
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  • With the decline of totemism arose the need for human sacrifice - the only means of re-establishing the broken tie of kinship when the animal species was no longer akin to man.
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  • 239), between the whole of the kinship group, whether adult or not; and, moreover, nowhere are rites found which are intended to strengthen the union between a man and his totem by means of the blood bond, unless we include the aberrant totemism of the Arunta (Spencer and Gillen, Native Tribes of Central Australia, 167), who eat their totems in order to gain magical powers of increasing the stock of the totem animal.
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  • Marillier further argues that if, on the other hand, there was no bond between god and people but that of the common meal, it does not appear that the god is a totem god; there is no reason why the animal should have been a totem; and in any case this idea of sacrifice can hardly have been anything but a slow growth and consequently not the origin of the practice.
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  • For Hinduism and later Judaism we possess a wealth of material on which to base a comparative study of the forms of sacrifice; a form of this - animal sacrifice in the Vedas - has been analysed by MM.
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  • After excuses made to the animal or to the species in general, the victim was placed in position, and silence observed by all who were present.
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  • Hubert and Mauss interpret this to mean that the sanctity of the remainder of the herd was concentrated on a single animal; the god, incarnate in the herd, was eliminated by the sacrifice, and the cattle saved from the dangers to which their association with the god exposed them.
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  • Where the victim is an animal specially associated with a god (the most conspicuous case is perhaps that of the corn spirit), it may be granted that the god is eaten; but precisely in these cases there is no custom of giving a portion of the victim to the god.
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  • (b) In parts of North America the nagual or manitu animal, of which the Indian dreams during the initiation fast and which is to be his tutelary spirit, is killed with certain rites.
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  • Many theories of the relation of human to animal sacrifice have been put forward, most of them on an insufficient basis of facts.
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  • It has been held that animal sacrifice is the primitive form and that the decay of totemism or lack of domestic animals has brought about the substitution of a human victim; but it has also been urged that in many cases animal victims are treated like human beings and must consequently have replaced them, that human beings are smeared with the blood of sacrifice, and must therefore have themselves been sacrificed before a milder regime allowed an animal to replace them.
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  • Many animal sacrifices were known; of especial importance is the annual sacrifice of a goat on the Acropolis, though at other times the animal was not permitted to enter the temple.
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  • It was held inauspicious if the animal were unwilling; if it nodded all was well.
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  • The animal was then clubbed, its throat cut and the altar sprinkled with its blood.
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  • Many forms of animal sacrifice were found; the generalized account given above for Greece is true also for the Romans.
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  • At Deir el Bahri we see that the animal had its throat cut in Mahommedan fashion; it lay on its side, the legs tied together; the heart was taken out, then the liver; the burnt sacrifice was hardly known.
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  • An account of animal sacrifice has been given above.
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  • At the present day the animal victim may be burned or drowned, buried in the earth or simply exposed.
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  • on "The Survival of Animal Sacrifices" in the American Journal of Theology (Chicago, Jan.
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  • How far totemism, or belief in deified animal ancestors, existed in prehistoric Israel, as evidenced by the tribal names Simeon (hyena, wolf), Caleb (dog), IIamor (ass), Rahel (ewe) and Leah (wild cow), as well as by the laws respecting clean and unclean animals, is too intricate and speculative a problem to be discussed here.
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  • But we have in addition to the animal sacrifices, vegetable offerings of meal, oil and cakes (massoth, ashishah and kawwan, which last is specially connected with the `Ashtoreth cult: Jer.
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  • It is probable that in some primitive sanctuaries no real distinction was made between this stonepillar and the altar or place where the animal was slaughtered.
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  • In northern countries the fur is longer and thicker, and the animal generally larger and more powerful than in the southern portion of its range.
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  • long, with the skin of its neck loose, so as to render it dilatable at the will of the animal, as in the cobra of India, a species from which it differs only in the absence of the spectacle-like mark on the back of the neck.
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  • That conditions are favourable to the animal industry is shown by the fact that in 1897 the valleys of northern Nevada were so overrun with wild horses, to the detriment of the grazing grounds for cattle, that the legislature authorized the killing of such animals.
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  • Various interpretations have been given of the horse-headed form of the Black Demeter: (I) that the horse was one of the forms of the corn-spirit in ancient Greece; (2) that it was an animal " devoted " to the chthonian goddess; (3) that it is totemistic; (4) that the form was adopted from Poseidon Hippios, who is frequently associated with the earth-goddess and is said to have received the name Hippios first at Thelpusa, in order that Demeter might figure as the mother of Areion (for a discussion of the whole subject see Farnell, Cults, iii.
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  • Although the offerings at the festival were bloodless, the ceremony of the presentation of the airapxai was probably accompanied by animal sacrifice (Farnell, Foucart); Mommsen, however, considers the offerings to have been pastry imitations.
    0
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  • As nearly all its imagery is taken from the animal world, it is also known as the Bestiary.
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  • Diptera as an order are probably more widely distributed over the earth's surface than are the representatives of any similar division of the animal kingdom.
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  • To a geographical distribution of the widest extent, Diptera add a range of habits of the most diversified nature; they are both animal and vegetable feeders, an enormous number of species acting, especially in the larval state, as scavengers in consuming putrescent or decomposing matter of both kinds.
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  • The heat attendant on these actions, and on the vital processes of the animal organism, naturally first attracted attention.
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  • We now have categories for Dutch writers, Dutch historians, Journalism (linked to Industry and business), Animal Husbandry and Horticulture (linked to agriculture and agriculture was linked to economics and biology).
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  • The climate itself encourages to passivity, and the very luxuriance of vegetable and animal life tends to blunt the feeling of the value of life.
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  • A mountain range such as this, attaining altitudes at which vegetable life ceases, and the support of animal life is extremely difficult, constitutes an almost impassable barrier against the spread of all forms of living creatures.
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  • The Carnivora are likewise numerous; and this region may be considered as the true home of the tiger, though this animal has wandered far north into the Palaearctic division of Asia.
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  • Two days after the departure of the Simons the prisoner is said by the Restoration historians to have been put in a dark room which was barricaded like the cage of a wild animal.
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  • The chief constituent of hard animal fats, such as beef and mutton tallow, &c.; also contained in many vegetable fats in smaller quantity.
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  • Largely present in olive oil and other saponifiable vegetable oils and soft fats; also present in animal fats, especially hog's lard.
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  • The chief constituent of palm oil; also contained in greater or less quantities in human fat, olive oil, and other animal and vegetable fats.
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  • One makes him the son of Mandane, a daughter of Astyages (originally evidently by a god), who is exposed in the mountains by his grandfather on account of an oracle, but suckled by a dog (a sacred animal of the Iranians) and educated by a shepherd; i.e.
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  • CAPRICORNUS (" THE Goat"), in astronomy, the tenth sign of the zodiac, represented by the symbol T-2° intended to denote the crooked horns of this animal.
    0
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  • Pasteur had the good fortune, and just reward, of seeing the results of his work applied to the benefit both of the human race and of the animal world.
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  • But by a process of successive and continued artificial cultures under different conditions, the virus of the organism is found to become attenuated; and when this weakened virus is administered, the animal is rendered immune against further attacks.
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  • This, after long and serious labour, he effected; the dog thus inoculated proved to be immune when bitten by a rabid animal.
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  • Would the inoculation of the attenuated virus have a remedial effect on an animal already bitten ?
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  • In addition to the use of several kinds of animal and other manures, green crops were sometimes ploughed in by the Romans.
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  • The greater part of the nitrogen of the cereals is, however, sold off the farm; but perhaps not more than to or 15% of that of either the root-crop or the clover (or other forage leguminous crop) is sold off in animal increase or in milk.
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  • old-fashioned system of guessing at the weight of an animal by the sounder method of obtaining the exact weight by means of the weighbridge.
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  • In the feeding experiments which have been carried on at Rothamsted it has been shown that the amount consumed both for a given live weight of animal within a given time, and for the production of a given amount of increase, is, as current food-stuffs go, measurable more by the amounts they contain of digestible and available non-nitrogenous constituents than by the amounts of the digestible and available nitrogenous constituents they supply.
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  • The non-nitrogenous substance (the fat) in the increase in live weight of an animal is, at any rate in great part, if not entirely, derived from the non-nitrogenous constituents of the food.
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  • Of the nitrogenous compounds in food, on the other hand, only a small proportion of the whole consumed is finally stored up in the increase of the animal - in other words, a very large amount of nitrogen passes through the body beyond that which is finally retained in the increase, and so remains for manure.
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  • If the sole purpose for which an animal is reared is to prepare it for the block - and this is the case with steers amongst cattle and with wethers amongst sheep - the sooner it is ready for slaughter the less should be the outlay involved.
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  • During the whole time the animal is living the feeder has to pay what has been termed the " life tax " - that is, so much of the food has to go to the maintenance of the animal as a living organism, independently of that which may be undergoing conversion into what will subsequently be available in the form of beef or mutton.
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  • If a bullock can be rendered fit for the butcher at the age of two or three years, will the animal repay another year's feeding?
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  • In the 1899 show, with 311 entries of cattle, and the age limited to three years, no beast reached the weight of a ton, the heaviest animal being a crossbred(Aberdeen-Angus and Shorthorn)which,at three years old, turned the scale at 19 cwt.
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  • The average daily gain in live weight is thus arrived at, and as the animal increases in age this average gradually diminishes, until the daily gain reaches a stage at which it does not afford any profitable return upon the food consumed.
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  • Of animal pests the ox warbles (Hypoderma lineata and H.
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  • In a dextral Gastropod the shell is coiled in a right-handed spiral from apex to mouth, and the spiral also projects to the right of the median plane of the animal.
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  • burr.- p T 9 pl.y ped.g: reversal of the cleavage planes in sinistral as compared with dextral forms. The facts, however, strongly suggest that the original cause of the torsion was the weight of the exogastric shell and visceral hump, which in an animal creeping on its ventral surface necessarily fell over to one side.
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  • (Lankester.) the animal into the large anterior region of the sub-pallial space.
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  • There is no reason in the actual significance of the word why the term " proboscis " should be applied to an alternately introversible and eversible tube connected with an animal's body, and yet such is a very customary use of the term.
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  • 19) are intended to show certain important distinctions which obtain amongst the various " introverts," or intro-and e-versible tubes so frequently met with in animal bodies.
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  • - Animal and shell of Pyrula laevigata.
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  • 23 the proboscis is seen in an everted state; it is only so carried when feeding, being withdrawn when the animal is at rest.
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  • - Male of Littorinaz littoralis, Lin., removed from its shell; the mantle-skirt cut along its right line of attachment and thrown over to the left side of the animal so as to expose the organs on its inner face.
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  • 20, will serve to exhibit the disposition of viscera which prevails in the group. The branchial chamber formed by the mantle-skirt overhanging the head has been exposed by cutting along a line extending backward from the letters vd to the base of the columella muscle mc, and the whole roof of the chamber thus detached from the right side of the animal's neck has been thrown over to the left, showing the organs which lie upon the roof.
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  • Salivary glands are present, and in some carnivorous forms (Dolium) these secrete free sulphuric acid (as much as 2% is present in the secretion), which assists the animal in boring holes by means of its FIG.
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  • - Female of Purpura lapillus removed from its shell; the mantleskirt cut along its left line of attachment and thrown over to the right side of the animal so as to expose the organs on its inner face.
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  • - Animal and shell of Phorus exutus.
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  • In forms which are naked in the adult state, the shell falls off soon after the reduction of the velum, but in Cenia, Runcina and Vaginula the shell-gland and shell are not developed, and the young animal when hatched has already the naked form of the adult.
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  • - Animal and a, Snout or rostrum.
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  • The Heteropoda belong to the " pelagic fauna " occurring near the surface in the Mediterranean and great oceans in company with the Pteropoda, the Siphonophorous Hydrozoa, Salpae, Leptocephali, and other specially-modified transparent swimming representatives of various groups of the animal kingdom.
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  • (From Owen.) A, The animal.
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  • Animal fixed by the shell, the last whorls of which are not in contact with each other; foot small; two anterior pedal tentacles.
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  • Shell conical; foot secreting a ventral calcareous plate; animal fixed.
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  • Eulima, foot well developed, with an operculum, animal usually free, but some live in the digestive cavity of Holothurians.
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  • Mucronalia, foot reduced, but still operculate, eyes present, animal fixed by its very long proboscis which is deeply buried in the tissues of an Echinoderm, no pseudopallium.
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  • Entocolax, mouth at free extremity, animal fixed by aboral orifice of pseudopallium, Pacific. Entoconcha, body elongated and tubular, animal fixed by the oral extremity, protandric hermaphrodite, parasitic in testes of Holothurians causing their abortion.
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  • Laterally the foot gives rise to a pair of mobile fleshy lobes, the parapodia (ep), which can be thrown up so as to cover in the dorsal surface of the animal.
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  • This forms the nucleus of the adult shell, and, as the animal grows, becomes enclosed by a reflection of the mantle-skirt.
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  • When the pericardium is cut open from above in an animal otherwise entire, the anterior face of the kidney is seen forming the posterior wall of the pericardial chamber; on the deep edge of this face, a little to the left of the attachment of the auricle to the floor of the pericardium, is seen a depression; this depression contains the opening from the pericardium into the kidney.
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  • 37), in which it is possible most satisfactorily to study in the living animal, by means of the microscope, the course of the blood-stream, and also the reno-pericardial communication.
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  • It seems probable that it is identical with one of the open sacs in which each shell-plate of a Chiton is formed, and the series of plate-like imbrications which are placed behind the single shell-sac on the dorsum of the curious slug, Plectrophorus, suggest the possibility of the formation of a series of shellsacs on the back of that animal similar to those which we find in Chiton.
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  • Shell dextral, hyperstrophic, animal sinistral.
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  • ancient animal), a name applied by Cuvier to the remains of ungulate mammals recalling tapirs in general appearance, from the Lower Oligocene gypsum quarries of Paris.
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  • Human experience consists, not of processes in an animal organism, but of these processes recognized as such.
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  • dpoE, a pickaxe, hence applied to the animal), the scientific name of a group of African antelopes of relatively large size with long straight or scimitar-shaped horns, which are present in both sexes, and long tufted tails.
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  • This assemblage is now generally regarded as a great division (phylum or sub-phylum) of the animal kingdom and known by K.
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  • Latreille in 1825 (Families naturelles du regne animal), since it has the advantage of expressing, in a single word, an important characteristic of the group. The terms "Hexapoda " and " hexapod " had already been used by F.
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  • Exoskeleton The outer cellular layer (ectoderm or " hypodermis ") of insects as of other Arthropods, secretes a chitinous cuticle which has to be periodically shed and renewed during the growth of the animal.
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  • On the other hand, we find in the vast majority of the Hexapoda a very marked difference between the perfect insect (imago) and the young animal when newly hatched and for some time after hatching.
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  • They afford an example - paralleled in other classes of the animal kingdom - of an order which, though specialized in some respects, retains many primitive characters, and has won its way to dominance rather by perfection of behaviour, and specially by the development of family life and helpful socialism, than by excessive elaboration of structure.
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  • maux, to lay the foundation of a thoroughly and Cuvler hitherto unknown mode of appreciating the value of the various groups of the animal kingdom.
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  • In the work just mentioned few details are given; but even the more elaborate classification of birds contained in his Lecons d'anatomie comparee of 1805 is based wholly on external characters, such as had been used by nearly all his predecessors; and the Regne Animal of 1817, when he 1 This was reprinted in 5882 by the Willughby Society.
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  • 7 It is unnecessary to enumerate the various editions of the Regne Animal.
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  • There is not a single plate that is unworthy of the greatest of all animal painters.
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  • The contents of such a circular group are symbolically (or analogically) represented by the contents of all other circles in the animal kingdom.
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  • That these primary divisions of every group are characterized by definite peculiarities of form, structure and economy, which, under diversified modifications, are uniform throughout the animal kingdom, and are therefore to be regarded as the primary types of nature.
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  • That the different ranks or degrees of circular groups exhibited in the animal kingdom are Nine k in number, each being involved within the other."
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  • 185-215), though an abstract forming part of a Prodrome d'une nouvelle distribution du regne animal appeared earlier (op. cit.
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  • They all grow slowly, and it is not until the animal is about six months old that they are united into one firm bone.
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  • These terms were explained in his great work L' Organisation du regne animal, oiseaux, begun in 1855, to mean exactly the same as those applied by Merrem to his two primary divisions.
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  • Thus the Mintra of the Malay Peninsula have a demon corresponding to every kind of disease known to them; the Tasmanian ascribed a gnawing pain to the presence within him of the soul of a dead man, whom he had unwittingly summoned by mentioning his name and who was `devouring his liver; the Samoan held that the violation of a food tabu would result in the animal being formed within the body of the offender and cause his death.
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  • A Norse belief found in Iceland is that the fylgia, a genius in animal form, attends human beings; and these animal guardians may sometimes be seen fighting; in the same way the Siberian shamans send their animal familiars to do battle instead of deciding their quarrels in person.
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  • Corresponding to the animal guardian of the ordinary man, we have the familiar of the witch or wizard.
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  • Similarly the Greenland angekok is said to summon his torngak (which may be an ancestral ghost or an animal) by drumming; he is heard by the bystanders to carry on a conversation and obtain advice as to how to treat diseases, the prospects of good weather and other matters of importance.
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  • The assignment of genii to buildings and gates is connected with an important class of sacrifices; in order to provide a tutelary spirit, or to appease chthonic deities, it was often the custom to sacrifice a human being or an animal at the foundation of a building; sometimes we find a similar guardian provided for the frontier of a country or of a tribe.
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  • Mannhardt collected a mass of information proving that the life of the corn is supposed to exist apart from the corn itself and to take the form, sometimes of an animal, sometimes of a man or woman, sometimes of a child.
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  • Side by side with the conception of the corn spirit as an animal is the anthropomorphic view of it; and this element must have predominated in the evolution of the cereal deities like Demeter; at the same time traces of the association of gods and goddesses of corn with animal embodiments of the corn spirit are found.
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  • PSOROSPERMIASIS, the medical term for a disease caused by the animal parasites known as psorosperms or gregarinidae, found in the liver, kidneys and ureters.
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  • But it still contains a large amount of oil, which forms animal fat and heat, and thus makes up for part of its deficiency in carbohydrates.
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  • When this is done, from 80 to 90% of the fertilizing material of the meal is recovered in the manure, only 10 to 20% being converted by the animal into meat and milk.
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  • Among those who have considered that it is derived from the decomposition of both animal and vegetable marine organisms may be mentioned J.
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  • Peckham, but others have held that it is of exclusively animal origin, a view supported by such occurrences as those in the orthoceratities of the Trenton limestone, and by the experiments of C. Engler, who obtained a liquid like crude petroleum by the distillation of menhaden (fish) oil.
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  • Consideration of the evidence leads us to the conclusion that, at least in commercially valuable deposits, mineral oil has generally been formed by the decomposition of marine organisms, in some cases animal, in others vegetable, in others both, under practically normal conditions of temperature and pressure.
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  • Some of the more viscous crude oils obtained in the United States are employed as lubricants under the name of " natural oils," either without any treatment or after clarification by subsidence and filtration through animal charcoal.
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  • On the other hand, an ozoneless east wind (sirocco) is occasionally experienced - especially during the second half of May and before the beginning of the rainy season - which has a prejudicial influence on both animal and vegetable life.
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  • At the same time it renders more intelligible the extreme sensitiveness of the bodywall of the Nemertines, a local and instantaneous irritation often resulting in spasmodic rupture of the animal at the point touched.
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  • No other intermediate stages have as yet been noticed between this arrangement and that of the Heteronemertini, in which a separate posterior brain-lobe receives a similar ciliated canal, and in which the oesophageal outgrowths have made their appearance and are coalesced with the nerve-tissue in the organ of the adult animal.
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  • At the tip of the tail, where the growth of the animal takes place, the.
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  • The blood is probably circulated by the general contraction of the whole animal, since it is very doubtful if there are any intrinsic muscles in the vessel-walls.
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  • Affinities.-The position of the Nemertines in the animal kingdom is now looked upon as more isolated than was formerly thought, and recent writers have been inclined to treat them as a separate phylum.
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  • The most important of the animal fats are those of the ox and hog, and of the vegetable oils cotton-seed and coco-nut; it is also to be remembered that resin, although not a fat, is also important in soap-making.
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  • In habits the animal was cursorial and herbivorous, or possibly carnivorous.
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  • In the Puerco, or Lowest Eocene of North America the place of the above species was taken by Euprotogonia puercensis, an animal only half the size of Phenacodus primaevus, with the terminal joints of the limbs intermediate between hoofs and claws, and the first and fifth toes taking their full share in the support of the weight of the body.
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  • If they fall on pasture land or fodder of any kind and are eaten by any herbivorous animal, such as a hare, rabbit, horse, sheep or ox, the active embryos or larvae are set free in the alimentary canal of the new host.
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  • In the event of the host escaping being killed and eaten it is believed that some of these larvae wander about or ultimately make their way to the exterior, possibly through the bronchi; nevertheless it seems to be certain that they can only reach sexual maturity in the nasal passages of some carnivorous animal, and the chance of attaining this environment is afforded when the viscera of the host are devoured by some flesh-eating mammal.
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  • It is rather a heavilybuilt animal, with a broad head, no distinct neck, and short limbs, the eyes are small, and the ears project very little beyond the fur.
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  • Valvata is common in fresh waters throughout Britain; the gill when the animal is expanded is protruded beyond the mantle-chamber.
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  • Neritina has a very small spire, the terminal portion of the shell containing nearly the whole animal.
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  • dissecare, to cut apart), the separation into parts by cutting, particularly the cutting of an animal or plant into parts for the purpose of examination or display of its structure.
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  • Organic Chemistry While inorganic chemistry was primarily developed through the study of minerals - a connexion still shown by the French appellation chimie minerale - organic chemistry owes its origin to the investigation of substances occurring in the vegetable and animal organisms. The quest of the alchemists for the philosopher's stone, and the almost general adherence of the iatrochemists to the study of the medicinal characters and preparation of metallic compounds, stultified in some measure the investigation of vegetable and animal products.
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  • Taking as a basis the nature of the source of compounds, he framed three classes: " mineral," comprising the metals, minerals, earths and stones; " vegetable," comprising plants, resins, gums, juices, &c.; and " animal," comprising animals, their different parts and excreta.
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  • The phlogistonists endeavoured to introduce chemical notions to support it: Becher, in his Physica subterranea (1669), stated that mineral, vegetable and animal matter contained the same elements, but that more simple combinations prevailed in the mineral kingdom; while Stahl, in his Specimen Becherianum (1702), held the " earthy " principle to predominate in the mineral class, and the " aqueous " and " combustible " in the vegetable and animal classes.
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  • Bergman worked in the same direction; while Rouelle was attracted to the study of animal chemistry.
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  • Theoretical speculations were revived by Lavoisier, who, having explained the nature of combustion and determined methods for analysing compounds, concluded that vegetable substances ordinarily contained carbon, hydrogen and oxygen, while animal substances generally contained, in addition to these elements, nitrogen, and sometimes phosphorus and sulphur.
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  • Lavoisier, to whom chemistry was primarily the chemistry of oxygen compounds, having developed the radical theory initiated by Guyton de Morveau, formulated the hypothesis that vegetable and animal substances were oxides of radicals composed of carbon and hydrogen; moreover, since simple radicals (the elements) can form more than one oxide, he attributed the same character to his hydrocarbon radicals: he considered, for instance, sugar to be a neutral oxide and oxalic acid a higher oxide of a certain radical, for, when oxidized by nitric acid, sugar yields oxalic acid.
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  • At the same time, however, he adhered to the classification of Lemery; and it was only when identical compounds were obtained from both vegetable and animal sources that this subdivision was discarded, and the classes were assimilated in the division organic chemistry.
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  • ACANTHOCEPHALA, a compact group of cylindrical, parasitic worms, with no near allies in the animal kingdom.
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  • The proboscis bears rings of recurved hooks arranged in horizontal rows, and it is by means of these hooks that the animal attaches itself to the tissues of its host.
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  • Similarly throughout the Moslem world, all who can afford it sacrifice at this time a legal animal, and either consume the flesh themselves or give it to the poor.
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  • mors) in the animal body.
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  • His best-known work is De motu animalium (Rome, 1680-1681), in which he sought to explain the movements of the animal body on mechanical principles; he thus ranks as the founder of the iatrophysical school.
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  • In the male the right tooth usually remains similarly concealed, but the left is immensely developed, attaining a length equal to more than half that of the entire animal.
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  • Little doubt exists amongst naturalists that all the varieties of the domestic animal are descended from Oryctolagus cuniculus.
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  • The more accurately the coloured portion is defined, the higher is the animal esteemed.
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  • After the death of any of his favourite disciples he would hold a dog to the mouth of the man in order to receive the departing spirit, saying that there was no animal which could perpetuate his virtues better than that quadruped.
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  • In the early periods of the history of other countries this seems to have been the case even where the dog was esteemed and valued, and had become the companion, the friend and the defender of man and his home; and in the and century of the Christian era Arrian wrote that "there is as much difference between a fair trial of speed in a good run, and ensnaring a poor animal without an effort, as between the secret piratical assaults of robbers at sea and the victorious naval engagements of the Athenians at Artemisium and at Salamis."
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  • The animal is thoroughly adapted for extreme speed, the long, rat-like tail being used in balancing the body in quick turns.
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  • The Sussex is a lighter, more noisy animal, with a wavy, golden coat.
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  • The Gordon setter, the chief Scottish variety, is a heavier animal with coarser hair, black-andtan in colour.
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  • The bulldog is a small, compact but extremely heavily built animal of great strength, vigour and tenacity.
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  • This animal spends most of its time burrowing in the sand in search of insects and their larvae, but occasionally makes its appearance on the surface.
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  • In biological chemistry he worked at the problems of animal heat and at the phenomena accompanying the growth of plants, and he also devoted much time to meteorological questions and observations.
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  • It was now essentially an animal den, the occasional visits of man being indicated by the rare occurrence of flintimplements.
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  • with a complete list of every animal and bird known to inhabit that country ...
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  • The musky odour from which the animal takes its name does not appear to be due to the secretion of any gland.
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  • The greater part of the animal is covered with long brown hair, thick, matted and curly on the shoulders, so as to give the appearance of a hump, but elsewhere straight and hanging down - that of the sides, back and haunches reaching as far as the middle of the legs and entirely concealing the very short tail.
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  • The Greenland animal is a distinct race (0.
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  • This, however, is not the whole of the past history of the muskox group; and in this connexion it may be mentioned that palaeontological discoveries are gradually making it evident that the poverty of America in species of horned ruminants is to a great extent a feature of the present day, and that in past times it possessed a considerable number of representatives of this group. One of the latest additions to the list is a large sheep-like animal from a cave in California, apparently representing a new generic type, which has been described by E.
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  • He carried this tendency to mysticism into his physical researches, and was led by it to take a deep interest in the phenomena of animal magnetism.
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  • In Zoroaster's eyes this is an abomination: for the cow is a gift of Ormazd to man, and the religion of Mazda protects the sacred animal.
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  • By using the term instinctive in both its strict and its wider significance, Wasmann includes under it the whole range of animal behaviour.
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  • See C. Lloyd Morgan, Habit and Instinct (1896), and Animal Behaviour (1900); G.
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  • Romanes, Mental Evolution in Animals (1883), and Natural History of Instinct (1886); Lord Avebury, On the Instincts of Animals (1889); Marshall, Instinct and Reason (1898); Mills, Nature of Animal Intelligence (1898); St George Mivart, Nature and Thought (1882), and Origin of Human Reason (1899); E.
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  • (I) The Spirit (neshamah), which is the highest degree of being, corresponds to and is operated upon by the Crown, which is the highest triad in the Sephiroth, and is called the Intellectual World; (2) the Soul (rah), which is the seat of the moral qualities, corresponds to and is operated upon by Beauty, which is the second triad in the Sephiroth, and is called the Moral World; and (3) the Cruder Soul (nephesh), which is immediately connected with the body, and is the cause of its lower instincts and the animal life, corresponds to and is operated upon by Foundation, the third triad in the Sephiroth, called the Material World.
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  • In the combined state nitrogen is fairly widely distributed, being found in nitre, Chile saltpetre, ammonium salts and in various animal and vegetable tissues and liquids.
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  • It is probable that some are carnivorous, either attacking other larvae or subsisting on more minute forms of animal life; but others perhaps feed more exclusively on vegetable matters of a low type, such as diatoms.
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  • Now dead animal substance and the excreta of animals decompose in the long run into carbonic acid, water and mineral salts, and so there is a continual destruction of animal substance both on the land and in the sea.
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  • The increasing temperature raises the rate of animal metabolism, while the higher alkalinity is a stimulus to cell-division.
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  • Therefore the animal organisms, as a rule, reproduce in the spring or early summer just after the vernal phyto-plankton maximum.
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  • Following the great spring production of plant substance there is, therefore, a summer outburst of animal life.
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  • The plankton, both animal and vegetable, attains its minimal values and many of the larger forms of animal life pass into a kind of condition of hibernation.
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  • The name has reference to the tongue-shaped muscular proboscis by which the animal works its way through the sand.
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  • Eschscholtz at the Marshall Islands in 1825, Balanoglossus was described as a worm-like animal belonging to the Echinoderm order of Holothurians or sea-cucumbers.
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  • On this account the animal was subsequently placed by Gegenbaur in a special class of Vermes, the Enteropneusta.
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  • They are sometimes called the histogenetic bodies or proteids, because they are essential to the building up of the animal organism.
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  • They are usually insoluble in water, alcohol and ether; and their presence as solutes in vegetable and animal fluids is not yet perfectly understood, but it is probably to be connected with the presence of salts or other substances.
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  • Halliburton) is the chief albumin of milk; its composition varies with the animal.
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  • According to the story in Genesis, Noah's ark was large enough to contain his family and representatives of each kind of animal.
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  • In the animal kingdom, also, it is very widely distributed, being sometimes a normal and sometimes a pathological constituent of the fluids and tissues; in particular, it is present in large amount in the urine of those suffering from diabetes, and may be present in nearly all the body fluids.
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  • In the external trade the exports to Russia consist chiefly of grain, cattle, sheep, butter and other animal products, furs, game, feathers and down.
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  • The valves are also in some species very unequal in their respective thickness, as may be seen in Productus (Daviesiella) 1 llangollensis, Davidsonia verneuilii, &c., and while the space allotted to the animal is very great in many species, as in Terebratula sphaeroidalis, it is very small in others belonging to Stro phomena, Leptaena, Chonetes, &c. The ventral valve is usually the thickest, and in some forms is six or seven times as great as the opposite one.
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  • Through the foramen passes a peduncle, by which the animal is in many species attached to submarine objects during at least a portion of its existence.
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  • Longitudinal section with a portion of the animal.
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  • It was long a matter in discussion whether the animal could displace its valves sideways when about to open its shell, but this has been actually observed by Professors K.
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  • Morse, who saw the animal perform the operation.
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  • Those who have not seen the animal in life, or who did not believe in the possibility of the valves crossing each other with a slight obliquity, would not consent to appropriating any of its muscles to that purpose, and consequently attributed to all the lateral muscles the simple function of keeping the valves in an opposite position, or holding them adjusted.
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  • I t may, however, be pointed out that Brachiopods seem to belong to that class of animal which commences life as a larva with three segments, and that tri-segmented larvae have been found now in several of the larger groups.
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  • After this every portion of the animal is thoroughly examined, for if there is any organic disease the devout Jew cannot taste the meat.
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  • The various comparisons previously made between the structure of Limulus and the Eurypterines on the one hand, and that of a typical Arachnid, such as Scorpio, on the other, had been vitiated by erroneous notions as to the origin of the nerves supplying the anterior appendages of Limulus (which were finally removed by Alphonse Milne-Edwards in his beautiful memoir (6) on the structure of that animal), and secondly by the erroneous identification of the double sternal plates of Limulus, called " chilaria," by Owen, with a pair of appendages (7).
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  • The first pair of foliaceous appendages in each animal is the genital operculum; beneath it are found the openings of the genital ducts.
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  • Scorpio, being a terrestrial animal, fertilizes by copulation.
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  • a, Restored thoracic limbs in transverse section of the animal; b, section across a posterior somite; c, section across one of the sub-terminal somites.
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  • It is all the more remarkable that the scorpion proves to be the oldest animal form of high elaboration which has persisted to the present day.
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  • It is probable that the Silurian scorpion was an aquatic animal, and that its respiratory lamellae were still projecting from the surface of the body to serve as branchiae.
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  • Sci., Igor.) orifices of the lung-chambers of modern scorpions, can be found in the Scottish specimen of Palaeophonus, which presents the ventral surface of the animal to view.
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  • The latter are only formed by the female, which is a larger and more powerful animal than the male.
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  • B, Dorsal view of the same animal; II to VI, 2nd to 6th pairs of appendages.
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  • Others have a special faculty of consuming dry, powdery vegetable and animal refuse, and are liable to multiply in manufactured products of this nature, such as mouldy cheese.
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  • General works on Arachnida: - Blanchard, " Les Arachnides " in L' Organisation du regne animal; Gaubert, " Recherches sur les Arachnides," Ann.
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  • Thus we speak of man as essentially a rational animal, it being implied that man differs from all other animals in that he can consciously draw inferences from premises.
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  • AMPHIBIA, a zoological term originally employed by Linnaeus to denote a class of the Animal Kingdom comprising crocodiles, lizards and salamanders, snakes and Caeciliae, tortoises and turtles and frogs; to which, in the later editions of the Systema N aturae he added some groups of fishes.
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  • Cuvier went no further than Brongniart, and, in the Regne Animal, he dropped the term Amphibia, and substituted Reptilia for it.
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  • 4 "Prodrome d'une Nouvelle Distribution du Regne Animal," Bulletin des sciences par la Societe Philomatique de Paris (1816), p.113.
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  • The second group represents, first, the birth of Mithras; then the god nude, cutting fruit and leaves from a fig-tree in which is the bust of a deity, and before which one of the winds is blowing upon Mithras; the god discharging an arrow against a rock from which springs a fountain whose water a figure is kneeling to receive in his palms; the bull in a small boat, near which again occurs the figure of the animal under a roof about to be set on fire by two figures; the bull in flight, with Mithras in pursuit; Mithras bearing the bull on his shoulders; Helios kneeling before Mithras; Helios and Mithras clasping hands over an altar; Mithras with drawn bow on a running horse; Mithras and Helios banqueting; Mithras and Helios mounting the chariot of the latter and rising in full course over the ocean.
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  • The hero seized it by the horns and was borne headlong in the flight of the animal, which he finally subdued and dragged into a cavern.
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  • From the dying animal sprang the life of the earth, although Ahriman sent his emissaries to prevent it.
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  • Brazil has three groups of animals similar to the common rat - the Capromydae, Loncheridae and Psammoryctidae- the best known of which is the " tuco-tuco " (Ctenomys brasiliensis), a small burrowing animal of Rio Grande do Sul which excavates long subterranean galleries and lives on roots and bulbs.
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  • The sloth (Bradypus) is an arboreal animal which feeds almost exclusively on the foliage of the Cecropias.
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  • The popular name for the animal is tamandud.
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  • The substitution of electricity for animal traction was begun in Sao Salvador in 1906.
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  • Mules are universally employed for animal traction, and narrow gauge lines with single-mule trams are generally used where the traffic is light.
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  • Pastoral and Animal.
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  • as Plato, man, animal, &c., according to the " status " or point of view which we assume.
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  • Finally, by abstraction from the individual things of sense, the mind is able to contemplate the universal apart from its accompaniments (animal sine homine, asino, et aliis speciebus); these subjective existences are the universalia post rem of the Nominalists and Conceptualists.
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  • As animal becomes homo by the addition of humanitas, so homo becomes Socrates by the addition of the qualities signified by Socratitas.
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  • In the last year of his life he became acquainted with Mesmer, and published a Lettre sur le magnetisme animal.
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  • The principal domesticated animal is the yak.
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  • Anatomy and the study of animal mechanism, animal physics and animal chemistry, all of which form part of a true zoology, were excluded from the usual definition of the word by the mere accident that the zoologist had his museum but not his garden of living specimens as the botanist had; 1 and, whilst the zoologist was thus deprived of the means of anatomical and physiological study - only later supplied by the method of preserving animal bodies in alcohol - the demands of medicine for a knowledge of the structure of the human animal brought into existence a separate and special study of human anatomy and physiology.
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  • It was not until the 19th century that the microscope, thus early applied by Leeuwenhoek, Malpighi, Hook and Swammerdam to the study of animal structure, was perfected as an instrument, and accomplished for zoology its final and most important service.
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  • Thus mysticism was finally banished from the domain of biology, and zoology became one of the physical sciences - the science which seeks to arrange and discuss the phenqmena of animal life and form, as the outcome of the operation of the laws of physics and chemistry.
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  • No such distinction of mental activities as that involved in the division of the study of animal life into morphology and physiology has ever really existed: the investigator of animal forms has never entirely ignored the functions of the forms studied by him, and the experimental inquirer into the functions and properties of animal tissues and organs has always taken very careful account of the forms of those tissues and organs.
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  • Gradually since the time of Hunter and Cuvier anatomical study has associated itself with the more superficial morphography until to-day no one considers a study of animal form of any value which does not include internal structure, histology and embryology in its scope.
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  • By the introduction of a method of classification which was due to the superficial Pliny - depending, not on structure, but on the medium inhabited by an animal, whether earth, air or waterWotton is led to associate Fishes and Whales as aquatic animals.
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  • Vivipara, ovipara, a y es, pisces, serpentes et Scorpio - and contains descriptions and illustrations of a large number of animal forms with reference to the lands inhabited by them.
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  • The exploration of parts of the New World next brought to hand descriptions and specimens of many novel forms of animal life, and in the latter part of the 16th century and the Medical beginning of the 17th that careful study by " special- anatomists" of the structure a.nd life-history of particular groups of animals was commenced, which, directed micro- at first to common and familiar kinds, was gradually scopists.
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  • Linnaeus by his binomial system made it possible to write and speak with accuracy of any given species of plant or animal.
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  • The species of Linnaeus were supposed to represent a series of steps in a scale of ascending complexity, and it was thought possible thus to arrange the animal kingdom in a single series - the orders within the classes succeeding one another in regular gradation, and the classes succeeding one another in a similar rectilinear progression.
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  • It is astonishing how many good observers it requires to dissect and draw and record over and over again the structure of an animal before an approximately correct account of it is obtained.
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  • Animal (Paris, 1829) is as follows: First Branch.
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  • Cuvier was familiar with the speculations of the " Natur-philosophen," and with the doctrine of transmutation and filiation by which they endeavoured to account for existing animal forms. The noble aim of F.
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  • Cuvier's morphological doctikne received its fullest development in the principle of the " correlation of parts," which he applied to palaeontological investigation, namely, that every animal is a definite whole, and that no part can be varied without entailing correlated and law-abiding variations in other parts, so that from a fragment it should be possible, had we a full knowledge of the laws of animal structure or morphology, to reconstruct the whole.
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  • Here Cuvier was imperfectly formulating, without recognizing the real physical basis of the phenomena, the results of the laws of heredity, which were subsequently investigated and brought to bear on the problems of animal structure by Darwin.
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  • Owen not only occupied himself with the dissection of rare animals, such as the Pearly Nautilus, Lingula, Limulus, Protopterus, Apteryx, &c., and with the description and reconstruction of extinct reptiles, birds and mammals - following the Cuvierian tradition - but gave precision and currency to the morphological doctrines which had taken their rise in the beginning of the century by the introduction of two terms, " homology " and " analogy," which were defined so as to express two different kinds of agreement in animal structures, which, owing to the want of such " counters of thought," had been hitherto continually confused.
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  • The greatest of all investigators of animal structure in the 19th century was Johann Miller (1801-1858), the successor in Germany of the anatomists Rathke (1793-1860) and Meckel (1781-1833).
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  • He could do more with a single specimen of a rare animal (e.g.
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  • Van Beneden, Claparede, and Allman, who during the 19th century approached the study of the lower marine organisms in the same spirit as that in which Trembley and Schaffer in the 18th century, and Swammerdam in the 17th, gave themselves to the study of the minute fresh-water forms of animal life.
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  • Contemporaneous with these were various schemes of classification which were based, not on a consideration of the entire structure of each animal, but on the variations of a single organ, or on the really non-significant fact of the structure of the egg.
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  • The pre-Darwinian systematists since the time of Von Baer had attached very great importance to embryological facts, holding that the stages in an animal's development were often more significant of its true affinities than its adult structure.
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  • But it was only after Darwin that the cell-theory of Schwann was extended to the embryology of the animal kingdom generally, and that the knowledge of the development of an animal became a knowledge of the way in which the millions of cells of which its body is composed take their origin by fission from a smaller number of cells, and these at last from the single egg-cell.
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  • Haeckel's second pedigree is as follows: - In representing pictorially the groups of the animal kingdom as the branches of a tree, it becomes obvious that a distinction may be drawn, not merely between the individual main branches, but further as to the level at which they are given off from the main stem, so that one branch or set of branches may be marked off as belonging to an earlier or lower level than another set of branches; and the same plan may be adopted with regard to the clades, classes and smaller branches.
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  • The mechanism for the statement of the genealogical relationships of the groups of the animal kingdom was thus completed.
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  • It renders the task a more complicated one; at the same time it removes some serious difficulties and throws a flood of light on every group of the animal kingdom.
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  • A genealogical tree of animal kingdom (Lankester, 1884).
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  • Thus, to begin with, the animal pedigree is divided into two very distinct grades, the Protozoa and the Metazoa.
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  • The Metazoa form two main branches; one, Parazoa, is but a small unproductive stock comprising only the Phylum Porifera or Sponges; the other, the great stem of the animal series Enterozoa, gives rise to a large number of diverging Phyla which it is necessary to assign to two levels or grades - a lower, Enterocoela (often called Coelentera), and a higher, Coelomocoela (often called Coelomata).
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  • This process is known as " direct adaptation "; and there is no doubt that such structural adaptations are acquired by an animal in the course of its life, though such changes are strictly limited in degree and rare rather than frequent and obvious.
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  • The advantage to the animal of this imitation of surrounding objects is that it escapes the pursuit of (say) a bird which would, were it not deceived by the resemblance, attack and eat the caterpillar.
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  • The view that instinct is the hereditarily fixed result of habit derived from experience long dominated all inquiry into the subject, but we may now expect to see a renewed and careful study of animal instincts carried out with the view of testing the applicability to each instance of the pure Darwinian theory without the aid of Lamarckism.
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  • Every higher vertebrate animal possesses the power of forming for itself a series of cerebral mechanisms or reasoned conclusions based on its individual experience, in proportion as it has a large cerebrum and has got rid of or has acquired the power of controlling its inherited instincts.
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  • He builds up, from birth onwards, his own mental mechanisms, and forms more of them, that is to say, is more " educable," and takes longer in doing so, that is to say, in growing up and maturing his experience, than any other animal.
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  • Its first beginnings are seen in the imitative tendencies of animals by which the young of one generation acquire some of the habits of their parents, and by which gregarious and social animals acquire a community of procedure ensuring the advantage of the group. " Taboo," the systematic imposition by the community of restrictions upon the conduct of the individual, is one of its earliest manifestations in primitive man and can be observed even in animal communities.
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  • The imperishable Record invests the human race like a protective atmosphere, a new and yet a natural dispensation, giving to man, as compared with his animal ancestry, a new heaven and a new earth !
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  • The Africander breed of cattle is a well-marked variety, and a characteristic native domestic animal.
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  • Doubtless many of the smaller objects with which primitive man adorned himself, especially trophies from the animal world, were supposed to exert some beneficial or protective influence on the wearer, or to produce in him the distinguishing characteristics attributed to the object, or to the whole of which the object was a part.
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  • I I) is difficult to explain, though Maimonides perhaps correctly regarded the law as a protest against heathenism (on the magical use of representatives of the animal and vegetable kingdom, in conjunction with a metal ring, see I.
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  • When the pancreas is excised in an animal, or when it is destroyed in man by disease, grape-sugar appears in the urine.
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  • The transplantation of a piece of living pancreas into the tissues of an animal, thus rendered artificially diabetic, is said to restore it to health.
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  • Hence not only must the study of our subject include the diseases peculiar to man and the higher animals, but those of the lowest forms of animal life, and of plant life, must be held equally worthy of attention.
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  • II.); that is to say, it dies and falls a prey to the organisms which excite putrefaction, just as would happen to any other dead animal tissue were it unconnected with the body.
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  • Nevertheless, gangrene is nothing more or less than the putrefactive fermentation of an animal tissue still attached to the body.
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  • The tissues of an animal or plant are all under a certain pressure, caused, in the one case, by the expulsive action of the heart and the restraint of the skin and other elastic tissues, and, in the other case, by the force of the rising sap and the restraint of the periderm or bark.
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  • Every living organism, animal and vegetable, tends to maintain a normal state of health; it is when the natural laws of health are violated that the liability to disease begins to assert itself.
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  • Of all external agents acting for evil, however, probably vegetable and animal micro-organisms with a pathogenic bent are most to be feared.
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  • When Virchow wrote, in 1850, " every animal presents itself as a sum of vital unities, every one of which manifests all the characteristics of life," he expressed a doctrine whose sway since then has practically been uninterrupted.
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  • The same inter-communication prevails between adjacent cells in some animal tissues, and more particularly in those which are pathological, as in the case of the epithelial cells of cancer.
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  • The fact that it is possible to propagate these cells of one animal for years in other animals of the same species, without any loss of their vegetative vitality, suggests that this continued growth is kept up by a growth-stimulating substance present in the proper species of animal; this substance, however, has not the power of transforming the normal tissue into a cancerous one.
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  • The sugars are taken up from the circulation and stored in a less soluble form - known as " animal starch " - in the liver and muscle cells; they play an important part in the normal metabolism of the body.
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  • The normal animal pigments and closely allied pigments.
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  • The animal most suitable for experimenting upon is the fowl, but other animals have been found to react.
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  • A plant or animal in perfect health is more resistant to parasitical invasion than one which is ill-nourished and weakly.
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  • Jiirgehinas makes out that when an animal is rendered immune to a particular micro-organism this histolytic property becomes exalted.
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  • The sick person, or his representative, after ablution, prayer and sacrifice, was made to sleep on the hide of the sacrificed animal, or at the feet of the statue of the god, while sacred rites were performed.
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  • He regarded all bodies, organic and inorganic, as composed of the three elements - spirit, sulphur and salt, the first being only found abundantly in animal bodies.
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  • The sensible properties and physical alterations of animal fluids and solids depended upon different proportions, movements and combinations of these particles.
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  • For mechanical conceptions he substituted the theory of" animism "- attributing to the soul the functions of ordinary animal life in man, while the life of other creatures was left to mechanical laws.
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  • Haller's definition of irritability as a property of muscular tissue, and its distinction from sensibility as a property of nerves, struck at the root of the prevailing hypothesis respecting animal activity.
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  • He advocated the use of" animal soups "or beef-tea.
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  • By chemical warnings the defensive processes seem to be awakened, or summoned; and when we think of the infinite variety of such possible phases, and of the multitude of corresponding defensive agents, we may form some dim notion of the complexity of the animal blood and tissues, and within them of the organic molecules.
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  • The grouping of reflex "units," and the paths wherein impulses travel and become associated, have been made out by the physiologist (Sherrington and others) working on the healthy animal, as well as by the record of disease; and not of spontaneous disease alone, for the artificial institution of morbid processes in animals has led to many of these discoveries, as in the method of A.
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  • Highly complex as are all animal tissues, or nearly all, yet in this category of high complexity are degrees higher and higher again of which we can form little conception, so elaborate they are, so peculiar in their respective properties, and probably so fugitive.
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  • The animal excreta, musk and civet, also enter into the composition of modern European pastils and clous fumants.
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  • Probably nowhere can the actual historical progress from the primitive use of animal sacrifices to the later refinement of burning incense be more clearly traced than in the pages of the Old Testament, where no mention of the latter rite occurs before the period of the Mosaic legislation; but in the monuments of ancient Egypt the authentic traces of the use of incense that still exist carry us back to a much earlier date.
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  • 499, and elsewhere) and in Hesiod (Works and Days, 338), there is some uncertainty whether they were incense offerings at all, and if so, whether they were ever offered alone, and not always in conjunction with animal sacrifices.
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  • - The following works are the most important: Denny, Monographia Anoplurorum Britanniae (London, 18 43); Giebel, Insecta Epizoa (which contains the working-up of Nitzsch's posthumous materials; Leipzig, 1874); van Beneden, Animal Parasites (London, 1876); Piaget, Les Pediculines (Leiden, 1880); Megnin, Les Parasites et les maladies parasitaires (Paris, 1880); Neumann, Parasites and Parasitic Diseases of Domesticated Animals (1892); Osborn, Pediculi and Mallophaga affecting Man and the Lower Animals (Washington, 1891; U.S. Dept.
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  • For hand tramming, animal and rope haulage, the rails weigh from 8 to 24 lb per yard, for locomotive haulage 30 to 40 lb.
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  • Animal haulage is employed chiefly in collieries and large metal mines; sometimes for main haulage lines, but oftener for distributing empty cars and making up trains for mechanical haulage.
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  • These markings generally fade, and quite disappear before the animal becomes full grown.
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  • A certain number are heads (human and animal) detached from bodies, in a manner not known in the Egyptian hieroglyphic system, with which some of the other symbols show obvious analogies.
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  • As for the author, he was no Essene, for he recognizes animal sacrifices and cherishes the Messianic hope; he was not a Sadducee, for he looks forward to the establishment of the Messianic kingdom (x.); nor a Zealot, for the quietistic ideal is upheld (ix.), and the kingdom is established by God Himself (x.).
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  • sugar of lead, but it is now restricted to certain oxyaldehydes and oxy-ketones, which occur in the vegetable and animal kingdoms either free or in combination as glucosides (q.v.) and to artificial preparations of similar chemical structure.
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  • From the centrifugal the sugar is either turned out without washing as raw sugar, only fit for the refinery, or else it is well washed with a spray of water and air until white and dry, and it is then offered in the market as refined sugar, although it has never passed through animal charcoal (bone-black).
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  • But the great achievement of recent manufacture is the production, without the use of animal charcoal, of a cheaper, but good and wholesome article, in appearance equal to refined sugar for all intents and purposes, except for making preserves of fruits in the old-fashioned way.
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  • In some factories for refining sugar made from beet or canes this system of carbonatation is used, and enables the refiner to work with syrups distinctly alkaline and to economize a notable amount of animal charcoal.
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  • Briefly, sugar-refining consists of melting raw or unrefined sugar with water into a syrup of 27° to 28° Beaume, or 1230 specific gravity, passing it through filtering cloth to remove the sand and other matters in mechanical suspension, and then through animal charcoal to remove all traces of colouring matter and lime, thus producing a perfectly clear white syrup, which, cooked in the vacuum pan and crystallized, becomes the refined sugar of commerce.
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  • high, and of such diameter as to hold a given quantity of animal charcoal (also called " bone-black " and " char ") in proportion to the contemplated output of the refinery.
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  • It would appear that the purchasing power of the inhabitants of India has increased of late years, and there is a growing demand for refined sugar, fostered by the circumstance that modern processes of manufacture can make a quality of sugar, broadly speaking, equal to sugar refined by animal charcoal, without using charcoal, and so the religious objections to the refined sugars of old days have been overcome.
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  • The finer structure of the animal has been investigated by Mrazek (to), whose account, however, is published in the Hungarian language.
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  • Caryophyllaeus is an elongated, flattened worm provided with one extremely mobile extremity, the other being drawn out during the animal's sojourn in Tubifex into a short hexacanth tail.
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  • The loss of substance represented by this growth is probably only of serious account when the host is a young growing animal that needs all available nourishment.
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  • - (I) Leuckart, The Parasites of Man (Edinburgh, 1886); (2) Braun, The Animal Parasites of Man (London, 1906); (3) Id., " Cestodes " in Braun's Klassen u.
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  • If the latter is too compact or has its interstices filled with carbon dioxide gas or with water - as is the case when the ground is water-logged - the roots rapidly die of suffocation just as would an animal under the same conditions.
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  • Humus, the remaining constituent of soil, is the term used for the decaying vegetable and animal matter in the soil.
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  • The conditions which favour the vitality, growth and multiplication of the typhoid bacillus are the following: the soil should be pervious; it should be permeated with a sufficiency of decaying - preferably animal - organic matters; it should possess a certain amount of moisture, and be subject to a certain temperature.
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  • In animal physiology he set himself to trace out the operation of determinate chemical and physical laws in the maintenance of life and health.
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  • To this end he examined such immediate vital products as blood, bile and urine; he analysed the juices of flesh, establishing the composition of creatin and investigating its decomposition products, creatinin and sarcosin; he classified the various articles of food in accordance with the special function performed by each in the animal economy, and expounded the philosophy of cooking; and in opposition to many of the medical opinions of his time taught that the heat of the body is the result of the processes of combustion and oxidation performed within the organism.
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  • A very different animal is the Patagonian cavy, or mara (Dolichotis patachonica), the typical representative of a genus characterized by long limbs, comparatively large ears, and a short tail.
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  • The animal is about the size of a hare, to which it approximates in form and habits.
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  • At night it crawls about in search of food, which consists to a small extent of dead animal or vegetable matter, but principally, as gardeners are aware, of the petals and other parts of flowers of growing shoots and soft ripe fruit.
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