I went to college and studied animal husbandry.
He is blessed who is assured that the animal is dying out in him day by day, and the divine being established.
What's the most dangerous animal out there?
The man before her was poised like an animal on a hunt, his penetrating, dark eyes pinned on her.
Any time a wild animal isn't afraid of you, there is probably something wrong.
The steady tread of some large animal continued in her direction - a mountain lion?
She frequently walks a dog, a loathsome animal who fails to warm to my affection.
He does me a favor by allowing you to ride on the animal, and I do him a favor by taking care of it.
They are the biggest thing out there, but actually, under the right circumstances, any animal can be dangerous.
But when he saw that the horsemen did not dismount and that the wolf shook herself and ran for safety, Daniel set his chestnut galloping, not at the wolf but straight toward the wood, just as Karay had run to cut the animal off.
She instantly leaped to the side and rolled away from the animal, glancing up as the rifle belched flames.
Unwilling to root for either animal, Carmen turned Ed back toward the tree line.
in the dead animal, and for its great elasticity and power of muscular contraction while living.
They, of course, are Walden all over and all through; are themselves small Waldens in the animal kingdom, Waldenses.
I tried to describe to her the appearance of a camel; but, as we were not allowed to touch the animal, I feared that she did not get a correct idea of its shape.
Curious about the great animal, Yully approached the fence.
I won't be turned into a vegetable or an animal or anything else weird?
"You're as much a wild animal as they are," Damian agreed.
Lana exclaimed as the large animal knocked her back.
In him the animal man chiefly was developed.
The boy you adopted is now an animal without restraint.
If you throw one more dead animal at my feet, I'm going to beat you over the head with it.
The ship anchored near the shore, where barbarians in ill-fitting clothing made of animal skins awaited them.
Every animal had to earn its keep.
All this time you haven't allowed yourself to have a pet simply because your father thought every animal on the place should earn its keep.
He lay quite still till the animal was very near.
Rhyn was a wild animal with a wild beauty, harsh angles and planes, a body built for survival.
The animal started to move again, this time in her direction.
If you gave me free rein I'd have every kind of animal there was.
"I take it those aren't yours," Darian said, leaning in to look at the animal heads on her bed.
Between veterinary school and the animal safari that had been Alex's dream, it should have been no surprise that they had common interest.
Maybe a little noise would frighten the animal away.
I didn't get a degree in animal husbandry so I could sit in the house knitting booties.
The panicked animal fought him for its head instead, refusing to obey him.
Natasha looked from one to the other as a hunted and wounded animal looks at the approaching dogs and sportsmen.
You're one animal he would have been proud to have on the farm.
Of course, she would have expected nothing less of any animal Alex owned.
Taran cursed the animal again under his breath and blocked two strikes before they broke free of the footmen.
Like some huge many-limbed animal, the regiment began to prepare its lair and its food.
Jenn drew a knife in case an animal had also taken refuge in the cave.
The poor animal was beginning to think "Bad Cat" was her new name.
Darian growled, sounding more animal than human.
The biggest animal I've ever seen born was a goat, and it wasn't much bigger than a cat.
My dad always used to say that every animal on the farm should pay its own way.
The wooden animal gave a start, and then examined the other intently.
I can track any animal, any kind of creature.
When she was studying animal husbandry, there was a chapter about increasing fertility.
I'm sure one more animal isn't going to upset him.
Xander cracked the door for the animal to enter and pulled on a shirt.
The animal groaned with pain, and Helen, perceiving his groans, was filled with pity.
Most men would feel shame if caught preparing with their own hands precisely such a dinner, whether of animal or vegetable food, as is every day prepared for them by others.
Jule asked, looking at the animal in the paddock.
Funny, the things you can say to an animal, isn't it?
Damn animal tricked me.
The fluffy white tail of a rabbit bobbed through the brush as the terrified animal bounded away.
"What curious animal is that which is eating the grass on my lawn?" enquired the man's voice.
The animal wound its way through his legs until he picked it up.
"But don't hurt my little horse!" said the Alsatian good-naturedly to Rostov when the animal was handed over to the hussar.
It fled like a wounded animal and it was impossible to block its path.
Somehow, he'd survived and was auctioned off like an animal with several other children his age.
"I feel like some sort of animal," she told him.
You're the one with a degree in animal husbandry.
"Want me to clean up your bed?" he asked, gaze going to the animal heads.
If the animals leading the herd change, this happens because the collective will of all the animals is transferred from one leader to another, according to whether the animal is or is not leading them in the direction selected by the whole herd.
The children were inclined to be frightened by the sight of the small animal, which reminded them of the bears; but Dorothy reassured them by explaining that Eureka was a pet and could do no harm even if she wished to.
It bit another animal before they killed it.
With a wild neigh of terror the animal fell bodily into the pit, drawing the buggy and its occupants after him.
"You are at least six feet high, and that is higher than any other animal in this country," said the Steward.
Would such a gentle animal be guilty of eating a fellow creature?
The animal was coming nearer.
Her tone was now querulous and her lip drawn up, giving her not a joyful, but an animal, squirrel-like expression.
Piteous, helpless, animal moans came through the door.
It was difficult to imagine how a veterinarian could be so unconcerned about the pain of any animal, much less Princess.
There was a note affixed to the deer head, and she suspected it said the same thing as the other notes on animal heads she'd found around the house.
She stripped down in the locker room and tossed her shirt over the animal head in the bottom of her locker.
She forced her face to remain emotionless, her form still enough not to draw attention, like a wounded animal trying not to distract the hungry predators fighting over it.
If this dog is what you want, it isn't important who gave it to you – and you don't need to ask me before you put another animal on this place.
The African elephant is a very different animal from its Asiatic cousin, both as regards structure and habits; and were it not for the existence of intermediate extinct species, might well be regarded as the representative of a distinct genus.
Man is an animal who more than any other can adapt himself to all climates and circumstances.
Such an exuberance of animal spirits had he that he sometimes tumbled down and rolled on the ground with laughter at anything which made him think and tickled him.
The repugnance to animal food is not the effect of experience, but is an instinct.
She was an old animal with a gray back and big reddish belly.
The French invaders, like an infuriated animal that has in its onslaught received a mortal wound, felt that they were perishing, but could not stop, any more than the Russian army, weaker by one half, could help swerving.
Very often a wounded animal, hearing a rustle, rushes straight at the hunter's gun, runs forward and back again, and hastens its own end.
The animal is in a certain sense, indeed, the food of the god.
the explanation of animal (and vegetable) mechanism, colouring, habits, &c., as advantageous to the species or to its ancestors, are only gradually being carried further.
Lamarck had put forward the hypothesis that structural alterations acquired by (that is to say, superimposed upon) a parent in the course of its life are transmitted to the offspring, and that, as these structural alterations are acquired by an animal or plant in consequence of the direct action of the environment, the offspring inheriting them would as a consequence not unfrequently start with a greater fitness for those conditions than its parents started with.
Man thus not only works for the animal within him, but, for a symbol of this, he works for the animal without him.
I feel as if I were nearer to the vitals of the globe, for this sandy overflow is something such a foliaceous mass as the vitals of the animal body.
"Is not the Real Horse a beautiful animal?" asked the Sawhorse admiringly.
We are conscious of an animal in us, which awakens in proportion as our higher nature slumbers.
"Come, let's argue then," said Prince Andrew, "You talk of schools," he went on, crooking a finger, "education and so forth; that is, you want to raise him" (pointing to a peasant who passed by them taking off his cap) "from his animal condition and awaken in him spiritual needs, while it seems to me that animal happiness is the only happiness possible, and that is just what you want to deprive him of.
In Siberia they lead the same animal life, and the stripes on their bodies heal, and they are happy as before.
The herd goes in that direction because the animal in front leads it and the collective will of all the other animals is vested in that leader.
When seeing a dying animal a man feels a sense of horror: substance similar to his own is perishing before his eyes.
The unspeakable deeds of this animal who held us were well known to me, vicariously, through the notes of Howie's visits to his past.
Giddon deposited Lisa on the animal's back and, putting a foot in the stirrup, swung up behind her.
Was it an animal?
The fact is, when wolves attack a herd, they always take the weakest animal.
He rode as if he were part of the horse, his lean body swaying with the stride of the graceful animal.
Han asked, extending his hand as if approaching a wounded animal.
You might as well make it on your terms, ordering him to submit, rather than begging and mauling him like an animal.
Or maybe an animal?
He hadn't been attacked by anything remotely human or animal.
She saw the white of his knuckles as he gripped her shoe hard and sensed she was pushing a wild animal.
As she walked, she began to wonder how to train a wild animal.
Tell Kris—next time he wants something—to call instead of sending this animal.
She thinks she is some kind of vicious animal.
You want to act like an animal?
In the time she'd been gone fighting Others, some vamp had left her the head of another dead animal.
I thought that was a South American animal.
He stepped between Sam and the animal.
"Get behind a tree," he ordered as he turned to face the animal.
I thought you were some kind of wild animal.
Even admitting this, she didn't believe he was an animal.
Or maybe some sort of animal.
Bit by an animal.
"Yeah," Xander replied and set down the animal.
Nothing was stated as to the probability of an increase in the stature of the French Congo animal as it grows older; but even if we allow another foot, its height would be considerably less than half that of a large Central African bull of the ordinary elephant.
The most important of these are the greater tolerance by the African animal of sunlight, and the hard nature of its food, which consists chiefly of boughs and roots.
The specific name was given on account of the extraordinary swiftness of the animal.
The question of their affinity to other divisions of the animal kingdom depends principally on the views which are held with regard to the relationships of the Enteropneusta and Phoronidea respectively.
Thenard stated that yeast was the cause of fermentation, and held it to be of an animal nature, since it contained nitrogen and yielded ammonia on distillation, nor was it conclusively proved that the yeast cell was the originator of fermentation until the researches of C. Cagniard de la Tour, T.
Fermentation now includes all changes in organic compounds brought about by ferments elaborated in the living animal or vegetable cell.
The first class include such changes as the alcoholic fermentation of sugar solutions, the acetic acid fermentation of alcohol, the lactic acid fermentation of milk sugar, and the putrefaction of animal and vegetable nitrogenous matter.
He may, in fact, be called the father of modern pathology, for his view, that every animal is constituted by a sum of vital units, each of which manifests the characteristics of life, has almost uniformly dominated the theory of disease.since the middle of the 59th century, when it was enunciated.
CAT,' properly the name of the well-known domesticated feline animal usually termed by naturalists Felis domestics, but in a wider sense employed to denote all the more typical members of the family Felidae.
The blue eyes -and the white coat of the kitten indicate that the Siamese breed is a semi-albino, which when adult tends towards melanism, such a combination of characters being apparently unknown in any other animal.
The nerves conduct the animal spirits to act upon the muscles, and in their turn convey the impressions of the organs to the brain.
One hypothesis supplants the various principles of life; the rule of absolute mechanism is as complete in the animal as in the cosmos.
It is not much comfort to learn further from Descartes that " he denies life to no animal, but makes it consist in the mere heat of the heart.
And the doctrine found acceptance among some whom it enabled to get rid of the difficulties raised by Montaigne and those who allowed more difference between animal and animal than between the higher animals and man.
The footless larvae are elongate, worm-like and very active; they feed upon almost any kind of waste animal matter, and when full-grown form a silken cocoon.
The food of the adult is almost exclusively animal, - insects, especially large ants, snails, lizards and snakes, but it also eats certain large red berries.
The pampas were almost destitute of animal life before the horses and cattle of the Spanish invaders were there turned out to graze, and the puma and jaguar never came there until the herds of European cattle attracted them.
The general shape of the animal is ungainly, owing to a huge hump on the withers, at which point the height is about 3 ft.
This animal can scarcely be regarded as more than a local race, and should be styled Oreamnus montanus kennedyi.
- Teeth of Upper Jaw of Opossum (Didelphys marsupialis), all of which are unchanged, except the third premolar, the place of which is occupied in the young animal by a molariform tooth, represented in the figure below the line of the other teeth.
molar very small, and shed before the animal leaves the mother's pouch.
Deciduous premolar preceded by a minute molariform tooth, which remains in place until the animal is nearly full grown.
Ears large and pointed, and folded down when the animal is at rest.
The portion of the lachrymal duct communicating with the cavity of the nose has, on the other hand, been abnormally developed, apparently for the purpose of cleansing that chamber from particles of sand which may obtain an entrance while the animal is burrowing.
lowed by two slender toes, Complete skeletons disinterred by which in the living animal are Dr E.
Broom believes Thylacoleo to have been "a purely carnivorous animal, and one which would be quite able to, and probably did, kill animals as large or larger than itself."
Arboreal species include the well-known opossums (Phalanger); the extraordinary tree-kangaroo of the Queensland tropics; the flying squirrel, which expands a membrane between the legs and arms, and by its aid makes long sailing jumps from tree to tree; and the native bear (Phascolarctos), an animal with no affinities to the bear, and having a long soft fur and no tail.
This odd animal is provided with a bill or beak, which is not, like that of a bird, affixed to the skeleton, but is merely attached to the skin and muscles.
The monitor lizard is popularly known as the goanna, a name derived from the iguana, an entirely different animal.
No word exists in their language for such general terms as tree, bird or fish; yet they have invented a name for every species of vegetable and animal they know.
They never, in any situation, cultivated the soil for any kind of food-crop. They never reared any kind of cattle, or kept any domesticated animal except the dog, which probably came over with them in their canoes.
Cannibalism was almost universal, either in the case of enemies killed in battle or when animal food was scarce.
One of the oldest and most widespread methods of divining the future, both among primitive people and among several of the civilizations of antiquity, was the reading of omens in the signs noted on the liver of the animal offered as a sacrifice to some deity.
The custom is vouched for by travellers as still observed in Borneo, Burma, Uganda and elsewhere, the animal chosen being a pig or a fowl.
3, which identifies the blood with the soul of the animal and therefore prohibits its use fairly represents the current conception both among primitive peoples as well as among those who had advanced along the road of culture and civilization.
The question, however, still remains to be answered how people came to the belief or to the assumption that through the soul, or the seat of life of the sacrificial animal, the intention of the gods could be divined.
The one is that the animal sacrificed was looked upon as a deity, and that, therefore, the liver represented the soul of the god; the other theory is that the deity in accepting the sacrifice identified himself with the animal, and that, therefore, the liver as the soul of the animal was the counterpart of the soul of the god.
On the other hand, serious difficulties arise if we assume that every animal sacrificed represents a deity; and even assuming that such a belief underlies the rite of animal sacrifice, a modification of the belief must have been introduced when such sacrifices became a common rite resorted to on every occasion when a deity was to be approached.
that the daily sacrifices which form a feature of advanced cults involved the belief of the daily slaughter of some deity, and even before this stage was reached the primitive belief of the actual identification of the god with the animal must have yielded to some such belief as that the deity in accepting the sacrifice assimilates the animal to his own being, precisely as man assimilates the food that enters into his body.
The theory underlying hepatoscopy therefore consists of these two factors: the belief (I) that the liver is the seat of life, or, to put it more succinctly, what was currently regarded as the soul of the animal; and (2) that the liver of the sacrificial animal, by virtue of its acceptance on the part of the god, took on the same character as the soul of the god to whom it was offered.
The two souls acted in accord, the soul of the animal becoming a reflection, as it were, of the soul of the god.
If, therefore, one understood the signs noted on a particular liver, one entered, as it were, into the mind - as one of the manifestations of soul-life of the deity who had assimilated the being of the animal to his own being.
The inspection of the liver for purposes of divination led to the study of the anatomy of the liver, and there are indeed good reasons for believing that hepatoscopy represents the startingpoint for the study of animal anatomy in general.
Among the Greeks and Romans likewise it was the liver that continued throughout all periods to play the chief role in divination through the sacrificial animal.
We are justified in concluding, therefore, that among the Greeks and Romans likewise the examination of the liver was the basis of divination in the case of the sacrificial animal.
It is well known that the Romans borrowed their methods of hepatoscopy from the Etruscans, and, apart from the direct evidence for this in Latin writings, we have, in the case of the bronze model of a liver found near Piacenza in 1877, and of Etruscan origin, the unmistakable proof that among the Etruscans the examination of the liver was the basis of animal divination.
Just as there were supposed to be several Pans and Fauns, so there were many Silenuses, whose father was called Papposilenus ("Daddy Silenus"), represented as completely covered with hair and more animal in appearance.
The parasitic Nematodes include by far the greatest number of the known genera; they are found in nearly all the orders of the animal kingdom, but more especially among the Vertebrata, and of these the Mammalia are infested by a greater variety than any of the other groups.
Thus Nepenthes secures a supply of nitrogenous food from the animal world in a manner somewhat similar to that adopted by the British sundew, butterwort, and other insectivorous plants.
It may be mentioned that the Bactrian camel, which is a shorter-legged and more ponderous animal than the Arabian species, grows an enormously long and thick winter coat, which is shed in blanket-like masses in spring.
The hump (or humps) varies in size according to the condition of the animal, becoming small and flaccid after hard work and poor diet.
But if the epithet is intended to designate an animal that takes an interest in its rider so far as a beast can, that in some way understands his intentions, or shares them in a subordinate fashion, that obeys from a sort of submissive or halffellow-feeling' with his master, like the horse or elephant, then I say that the camel is by no means docile - very much the contrary.
In a word, he is from first to last an undomesticated and savage animal rendered serviceable by stupidity alone, without much skill on his master's part, or any co-operation on his own, save that of an extreme passiveness.
The peasants somewhat rarely use animal foodthis is most largely used in Sardinia and least in Sicilybread and polenta or macaroni and vegetables being the staple diet.
The principal other ceremonies of this class are the new and full moon offerings, the oblations made at the commencement of the three seasons, the offering of first-fruits, the animal sacrifice, and the Agnihotra, or daily morning and evening oblation of milk, which, however, is also included amongst the grihya, or domestic rites, as having to be performed daily on the domestic fire by the householder who keeps no regular set of sacrificial fires.
It is of nocturnal and burrowing habits, and feeds on decomposed animal substances, larvae and termites.
avri, against, and vrJIrrucos, putrefactive), the name given to substances which are used for the prevention of bacterial development in animal or vegetable matter.
==Fauna== Animal life is generally deficient throughout the Andamans, especially as regards mammalia, of which there are only nineteen separate species in all, twelve of these being peculiar to the islands.
This paucity of animal life seems inconsistent with the theory that the islands were once connected with the mainland.
As in other cases where animal colonies are formed by organic union of separate individuals, there is ever a tendency for the polyp-colony as a whole to act as a single individual, and for the members to become subordinated to the needs of the colony and to undergo specialization for particular functions, with the result that they simulate organs and their individuality becomes masked to a greater or less degree.
23 and 25); and, fourthly, in structure, being hollow or solid, as in the polyp. In some medusae, for instance, the remarkable deep-sea family Pectyllidae, the tentacles may bear suckers, by which the animal may attach itself temporarily.
The circular system is developed continuously over the entire subumbral surface, and the velum represents a special local development of this system, at a region where it is able to act at the greatest mechanical advantage in producing the contractions of the umbrella by which the animal progresses.
By means of vibrations or shocks transmitted through the - Sub water, or by displacements in the balance or position of the animal, the otoliths are caused to impinge against the bristles of the sensory cells, now on one side, now on the other, causing shocks or stimuli which are transmitted by the basal nerve-fibre to the central nervous system.
(histocytes) and germinal cells, actual or potential (archaeocytes), amongst the constituent cells of the animal body.
Hydra must, in short, be a living representative of the ancestor of which the actinula-stage is a transient reminiscence in the development of higher forms. It may be pointed out in this connexion that the fixation of Hydra is only temporary, and that the animal is able at all times to detach itself, to move to a new situation, and to fix itself again.
The animal is a solitary polyp bearing a great number of medusa-buds.
It can only be said that their organization, so far as the state of their preservation permits it to be ascertained, offers closer analogies with the Hydrozoa, especially the Calyptoblastea, than with any other existing group of the animal kingdom.
It is noteworthy that he sought to establish the identity of organic and inorganic matter by help of the facts of vegetal and animal nutrition.
Lucretius traces, in the fifth book of his poem, the progressive genesis of vegetal and animal forms out of the motherearth.
All parts of matter are capable of developing into all forms; thus the materials of the table and chair may under proper circumstances be developed to the life of the plant or of the animal.
The foundations of this theory of history as an upward progress of man out of a barbaric and animal condition were laid by Vico in his celebrated work Principii di scienza nuova.
He says Lamarck's original animal is something metaphysical, not physical, namely, the will to live.
In his Entwickelungsgeschichte der Thiere (p. 264) he distinctly tells us that the law of growing individuality is " the fundamental thought which goes through all forms and degrees of animal development and all single relations.
The observation that large groups of species of widely different habits present the same fundamental plan of structure; and that parts of the same animal or plant, the functions of which are very different, likewise exhibit modifications of a common plan.
In fact, there is a period when, as Aristotle long ago said, the embryo of the highest animal has the form of a mere worm, and, devoid of internal and external organization, is merely an almost structureless lump of polype-substance.
Lamarck introduced the conception of the action of an animal on itself as a factor in producing modification.
Starting from the wellknown fact that the habitual use of a limb tends to develop the muscles of the limb, and to produce a greater and greater facility in using it, he made the general assumption that the effort of an animal to exert an organ in a given direction tends to develop the organ in that direction.
The aye-aye, Chiromys (or Daubentonia) madagascariensis, is an animal with a superficial resemblance to a longhaired and dusky-coloured cat with unusually large eyes.
There can be no doubt that Aurelius believed in a deity, although Schultz is probably right in maintaining that all his theology amounts to this - the soul of man is most intimately united to his body, and together they make one animal which we call man; and so the deity is most intimately united to the world or the material universe, and together they form one whole.
It is no "fugitive and cloistered virtue" that Aurelius seeks to encourage; on the contrary, man must lead the "life of the social animal," must "live as on a mountain"; and "he is an abscess on the universe who withdraws and separates himself from the reason of our common nature through being displeased with the things which happen."
anbar, probably through the Spanish, but this word referred originally to ambergris, which is an animal substance quite distinct from yellow amber.
According to Frazer, these traditions may be " distorted reminiscences " of the practice of human sacrifice, especially of divine kings, the object of which was to ensure fertility in the animal and vegetable worlds.
The body thus formed ment of is called the embryo, and this develops into the adult Primary plant, not by continued growth of all its parts as in an animal, but by localization of the regions of cell-division and growth, such a localized region being called a growing-point.
It is only comparatively recently that the methods of histological investigation used by animal physiologists have been carefully and systematically applied to the study of the vegetable organisms. They have, however, been attended with wonderful results, and have revolutionized the whole study of vegetable structure.
Cellulose, the material of which vegetable cell-walls are almost universally composed, at any rate in their early condition, is known to occur, though only seldom, among animal organisms. Such forms as Volvox and the group of the Myxomycetes have been continually referred to both kingdoms, and their true systematic position is still a subject of controversy.
Now, as the materials which plants absorb are carbon dioxide from the air, and various inorganic compounds from the soil, together with water, it is clear that if this view is correct, vegetable protoplasm must be fed in a very different way from animal, and on very different materials.
Those Fungi which are saprophytic can only live when supplied with organic compounds of some complexity, which they derive from decomposing animal or vegetable matter.
We find them to consist of representatives of the great classes of foodstuffs on which animal protoplasm is nourished, and whose presence renders seeds such valuable material for animal consumptien.
The differences between the nutritive processes of the animal and the plant are not therefore fundamental, as they were formerly held to be.
The general vegetable protoplasm has not the capacity of being nourished by inorganic substances which are denied to the living substance of the animal world.
It is sometimes forgotten, when discussing questions of animal nutrition, that all the food materials of all living organisms are prepared originally from inorganic substances in exactly the same way, in exactly the same place, and by the same machinery, which is the chlorophyll apparatus of the vegetable kingdom.
Another enzyme, rennet, which in the animal body is proteolytic, is frequently met with in plants, but its function has not been ascertained.
This is anextremely important question, since the supply of energy to the animal world has been found to depend entirely upon the vegetable one.
Certain plants possess another source of energy which is common to them and the animal world.
Even the root tip, which shows a certain differentiation into root cap and root apex, cannot be said to be a definite sense organ in the same way as the sense organs of an animal.
We do not find their behaviour like that of the motor mechanism of an animal.
It reminds us of a similar property of animal protoplasm which finds its expression in the rhythmic beat of the heart and other phenomena.
The elementary unit of plant structure, as of animal structure, is the cell.
The nucleus was definitely recognized in the plant cell by Robert Brown in 1831, but its presence had been previously indicated by various observers and it had been seen by Fontana in some animal cells as early as 1781.
The cytological evidence for this appears to be made stronger for animal than for plant cells.
6); and it has been suggested that the association of these two is analogous to the association of the rods and cones of the animal eye with their pigment layer, the light absorbed by the red pigment-spot setting up changes which react upon the refractive granule and being transmitted to the flagellum bring about those modifications in its vibrations by which the direction of movement of the organism is regulated.
Botanik (1898), 32; Lee, The Microtomists Vade Mecum (London, 1900); Macallum, On the Detection and Localization of Phosphorus in Animal and Vegetable Cells, Proc. Roy.
lxiii.; On the Distribution of Assimilated Iron Cornpotrnds other than Haemoglobin and Haematins, in Animal and Vegetable Cells, Quart.
For instance, the animal traps of carnivorous plants (Drosera, Nepenihes, &c.) did not, presumably, originate as such; they began as organs of quite another kind which became adapted to their present function in consequence of animals having been accidentally caught.
Buffon remarked that the same temperature might have been expected, all other circumstances being equal, to produce the same beings in different parts of the globe, both in the animal and vegetable kingdoms. Yet lawns in the United States are destitute of the common English daisy, the wild hyacinth of the woods of the United Kingdom is absent from Germany, and the foxglove from Switzerland.
In the Gnetaceous Welwitschia it possesses a vegetable type whose extraordinary peculiarities make it seem amongst contemporary vegetation much as some strange and extinct animal form would if suddenly endowed with life.
The influence of physical environment becomes clearer and stronger when the distribution of plant and animal life is considered, and if it is less distinct in the case of man, the reason is found in the modifications of environment consciously produced by human effort.
Thus he demonstrated that the forms of the land exercise a directive and determining influence on climate, plant life, animal life and on man himself.
Different species of organisms come to perfection in different climates; and it may be stated as a general rule that a species, whether of plant or animal, once established at one point, would spread over the whole zone of the climate congenial to it unless some barrier were interposed to its progress.
Plant life, utilizing solar light to combine the inorganic elements of water, soil and air into living substance, is the basis of all animal life.
This is not by the supply of food alone, but also by the withdrawal of carbonic acid from the atmosphere, by which vegetation maintains the composition of the air in a state fit for the support of animal life.
Under such conditions we might expect to find an extremely plentiful animal population, one as rich as that.
which inhabits the same latitudes in Central America, not many degrees farther to the west; but no instance perhaps can be cited, which shows more strikingly the difference between a continental and an'insular fauna, since, making every allowance for the ravages, of cultivation by civilized man, the contrary is the case, and possibly no area of land so highly favoured by nature is so poorly furnished with the, higher forms of animal life.
It may be safely deemed the most peculiar area of the earth's surface, while from the richness and multifariousness of its animal, and especially of its ornithic population, New Zealand cannot be 'compared with it.
Each of these affords animal, vegetable or mixed diet.
Animal diet implies the greatest variety with regard to locality and the modes of procuring the food.
BANDICOOT, any animal of the marsupial genus Perameles, which is the type of a family Peramelidae.
The chief exports are animal products and agricultural products.
The element also occurs in the animal and vegetable kingdoms. It is present in hair and wool, and in albuminous bodies; and is also a constituent of certain vegetable oils, such as the oils of garlic and mustard.
1 It is a common practice of keepers of dogs to place a piece of roll sulphur in the animal's water but this serves no useful purpose owing to this property.
Later writers add nothing to our knowledge, and are chiefly interested in the tarandus, an animal which dwelt in the woods of the Budini and seems to have been the reindeer (Aristotle ap. Aelian, Hist.
It included theatrical performances and animal hunts in the circus, and vegetables were distributed to the people.
"Just as a steamengine," he says in Kraft and Stoff (7th ed., p. 130), "produces motion, so the intricate organic complex of force-bearing substance in an animal organism produces a total sum of certain effects, which, when bound together in a unity, are called by us mind, soul, thought."
According to Sharp, all Dermestid larvae probably feed on dried animal matters; he mentions one species that can find sufficient food in the horsehair of furniture, and another that eats the dried insect-skins hanging in old cobwebs.
They feed in wood or spend an underground life devouring roots or animal excrement.
27), and allied genera - feed both in the adult and larval stages, on dung or decaying animal matter.
The animal commonly met with is small and possessed of very little strength; the best are those of Poland, the W.
On the Stockton & Darlington railway, which was authorized by parliament in 1821, animal power was at first proposed, but on the advice of Stephenson, its engineer, steam-engines were adopted.
so that a known animal may give rise to another known animal of a different race, species, genus, or even family, or to a plant, or vice versa.
The victim was the animal of a hostile totem-kin or an animal commonly offered to the god.
This was naturally found in the non-human member of the totem-kin - the totem animal; in a sense, therefore, the god died for his people.
With the decline of totemism arose the need for human sacrifice - the only means of re-establishing the broken tie of kinship when the animal species was no longer akin to man.
239), between the whole of the kinship group, whether adult or not; and, moreover, nowhere are rites found which are intended to strengthen the union between a man and his totem by means of the blood bond, unless we include the aberrant totemism of the Arunta (Spencer and Gillen, Native Tribes of Central Australia, 167), who eat their totems in order to gain magical powers of increasing the stock of the totem animal.
Marillier further argues that if, on the other hand, there was no bond between god and people but that of the common meal, it does not appear that the god is a totem god; there is no reason why the animal should have been a totem; and in any case this idea of sacrifice can hardly have been anything but a slow growth and consequently not the origin of the practice.
For Hinduism and later Judaism we possess a wealth of material on which to base a comparative study of the forms of sacrifice; a form of this - animal sacrifice in the Vedas - has been analysed by MM.
After excuses made to the animal or to the species in general, the victim was placed in position, and silence observed by all who were present.
Hubert and Mauss interpret this to mean that the sanctity of the remainder of the herd was concentrated on a single animal; the god, incarnate in the herd, was eliminated by the sacrifice, and the cattle saved from the dangers to which their association with the god exposed them.
Where the victim is an animal specially associated with a god (the most conspicuous case is perhaps that of the corn spirit), it may be granted that the god is eaten; but precisely in these cases there is no custom of giving a portion of the victim to the god.
(b) In parts of North America the nagual or manitu animal, of which the Indian dreams during the initiation fast and which is to be his tutelary spirit, is killed with certain rites.
Many theories of the relation of human to animal sacrifice have been put forward, most of them on an insufficient basis of facts.
It has been held that animal sacrifice is the primitive form and that the decay of totemism or lack of domestic animals has brought about the substitution of a human victim; but it has also been urged that in many cases animal victims are treated like human beings and must consequently have replaced them, that human beings are smeared with the blood of sacrifice, and must therefore have themselves been sacrificed before a milder regime allowed an animal to replace them.
Many animal sacrifices were known; of especial importance is the annual sacrifice of a goat on the Acropolis, though at other times the animal was not permitted to enter the temple.
It was held inauspicious if the animal were unwilling; if it nodded all was well.
The animal was then clubbed, its throat cut and the altar sprinkled with its blood.
Many forms of animal sacrifice were found; the generalized account given above for Greece is true also for the Romans.
At Deir el Bahri we see that the animal had its throat cut in Mahommedan fashion; it lay on its side, the legs tied together; the heart was taken out, then the liver; the burnt sacrifice was hardly known.
An account of animal sacrifice has been given above.
At the present day the animal victim may be burned or drowned, buried in the earth or simply exposed.
on "The Survival of Animal Sacrifices" in the American Journal of Theology (Chicago, Jan.
How far totemism, or belief in deified animal ancestors, existed in prehistoric Israel, as evidenced by the tribal names Simeon (hyena, wolf), Caleb (dog), IIamor (ass), Rahel (ewe) and Leah (wild cow), as well as by the laws respecting clean and unclean animals, is too intricate and speculative a problem to be discussed here.
But we have in addition to the animal sacrifices, vegetable offerings of meal, oil and cakes (massoth, ashishah and kawwan, which last is specially connected with the `Ashtoreth cult: Jer.
It is probable that in some primitive sanctuaries no real distinction was made between this stonepillar and the altar or place where the animal was slaughtered.
In northern countries the fur is longer and thicker, and the animal generally larger and more powerful than in the southern portion of its range.
long, with the skin of its neck loose, so as to render it dilatable at the will of the animal, as in the cobra of India, a species from which it differs only in the absence of the spectacle-like mark on the back of the neck.
That conditions are favourable to the animal industry is shown by the fact that in 1897 the valleys of northern Nevada were so overrun with wild horses, to the detriment of the grazing grounds for cattle, that the legislature authorized the killing of such animals.
Various interpretations have been given of the horse-headed form of the Black Demeter: (I) that the horse was one of the forms of the corn-spirit in ancient Greece; (2) that it was an animal " devoted " to the chthonian goddess; (3) that it is totemistic; (4) that the form was adopted from Poseidon Hippios, who is frequently associated with the earth-goddess and is said to have received the name Hippios first at Thelpusa, in order that Demeter might figure as the mother of Areion (for a discussion of the whole subject see Farnell, Cults, iii.
Although the offerings at the festival were bloodless, the ceremony of the presentation of the airapxai was probably accompanied by animal sacrifice (Farnell, Foucart); Mommsen, however, considers the offerings to have been pastry imitations.
As nearly all its imagery is taken from the animal world, it is also known as the Bestiary.
Diptera as an order are probably more widely distributed over the earth's surface than are the representatives of any similar division of the animal kingdom.
To a geographical distribution of the widest extent, Diptera add a range of habits of the most diversified nature; they are both animal and vegetable feeders, an enormous number of species acting, especially in the larval state, as scavengers in consuming putrescent or decomposing matter of both kinds.
The heat attendant on these actions, and on the vital processes of the animal organism, naturally first attracted attention.
We now have categories for Dutch writers, Dutch historians, Journalism (linked to Industry and business), Animal Husbandry and Horticulture (linked to agriculture and agriculture was linked to economics and biology).
The climate itself encourages to passivity, and the very luxuriance of vegetable and animal life tends to blunt the feeling of the value of life.
A mountain range such as this, attaining altitudes at which vegetable life ceases, and the support of animal life is extremely difficult, constitutes an almost impassable barrier against the spread of all forms of living creatures.
The Carnivora are likewise numerous; and this region may be considered as the true home of the tiger, though this animal has wandered far north into the Palaearctic division of Asia.
Two days after the departure of the Simons the prisoner is said by the Restoration historians to have been put in a dark room which was barricaded like the cage of a wild animal.
The chief constituent of hard animal fats, such as beef and mutton tallow, &c.; also contained in many vegetable fats in smaller quantity.
Largely present in olive oil and other saponifiable vegetable oils and soft fats; also present in animal fats, especially hog's lard.
The chief constituent of palm oil; also contained in greater or less quantities in human fat, olive oil, and other animal and vegetable fats.
One makes him the son of Mandane, a daughter of Astyages (originally evidently by a god), who is exposed in the mountains by his grandfather on account of an oracle, but suckled by a dog (a sacred animal of the Iranians) and educated by a shepherd; i.e.
CAPRICORNUS (" THE Goat"), in astronomy, the tenth sign of the zodiac, represented by the symbol T-2° intended to denote the crooked horns of this animal.
Pasteur had the good fortune, and just reward, of seeing the results of his work applied to the benefit both of the human race and of the animal world.
But by a process of successive and continued artificial cultures under different conditions, the virus of the organism is found to become attenuated; and when this weakened virus is administered, the animal is rendered immune against further attacks.
This, after long and serious labour, he effected; the dog thus inoculated proved to be immune when bitten by a rabid animal.
Would the inoculation of the attenuated virus have a remedial effect on an animal already bitten ?
In addition to the use of several kinds of animal and other manures, green crops were sometimes ploughed in by the Romans.
The greater part of the nitrogen of the cereals is, however, sold off the farm; but perhaps not more than to or 15% of that of either the root-crop or the clover (or other forage leguminous crop) is sold off in animal increase or in milk.
old-fashioned system of guessing at the weight of an animal by the sounder method of obtaining the exact weight by means of the weighbridge.
In the feeding experiments which have been carried on at Rothamsted it has been shown that the amount consumed both for a given live weight of animal within a given time, and for the production of a given amount of increase, is, as current food-stuffs go, measurable more by the amounts they contain of digestible and available non-nitrogenous constituents than by the amounts of the digestible and available nitrogenous constituents they supply.
The non-nitrogenous substance (the fat) in the increase in live weight of an animal is, at any rate in great part, if not entirely, derived from the non-nitrogenous constituents of the food.
Of the nitrogenous compounds in food, on the other hand, only a small proportion of the whole consumed is finally stored up in the increase of the animal - in other words, a very large amount of nitrogen passes through the body beyond that which is finally retained in the increase, and so remains for manure.
If the sole purpose for which an animal is reared is to prepare it for the block - and this is the case with steers amongst cattle and with wethers amongst sheep - the sooner it is ready for slaughter the less should be the outlay involved.
During the whole time the animal is living the feeder has to pay what has been termed the " life tax " - that is, so much of the food has to go to the maintenance of the animal as a living organism, independently of that which may be undergoing conversion into what will subsequently be available in the form of beef or mutton.
If a bullock can be rendered fit for the butcher at the age of two or three years, will the animal repay another year's feeding?
In the 1899 show, with 311 entries of cattle, and the age limited to three years, no beast reached the weight of a ton, the heaviest animal being a crossbred(Aberdeen-Angus and Shorthorn)which,at three years old, turned the scale at 19 cwt.
The average daily gain in live weight is thus arrived at, and as the animal increases in age this average gradually diminishes, until the daily gain reaches a stage at which it does not afford any profitable return upon the food consumed.
Of animal pests the ox warbles (Hypoderma lineata and H.
In a dextral Gastropod the shell is coiled in a right-handed spiral from apex to mouth, and the spiral also projects to the right of the median plane of the animal.
burr.- p T 9 pl.y ped.g: reversal of the cleavage planes in sinistral as compared with dextral forms. The facts, however, strongly suggest that the original cause of the torsion was the weight of the exogastric shell and visceral hump, which in an animal creeping on its ventral surface necessarily fell over to one side.
(Lankester.) the animal into the large anterior region of the sub-pallial space.
There is no reason in the actual significance of the word why the term " proboscis " should be applied to an alternately introversible and eversible tube connected with an animal's body, and yet such is a very customary use of the term.
19) are intended to show certain important distinctions which obtain amongst the various " introverts," or intro-and e-versible tubes so frequently met with in animal bodies.
- Animal and shell of Pyrula laevigata.
23 the proboscis is seen in an everted state; it is only so carried when feeding, being withdrawn when the animal is at rest.
- Male of Littorinaz littoralis, Lin., removed from its shell; the mantle-skirt cut along its right line of attachment and thrown over to the left side of the animal so as to expose the organs on its inner face.
20, will serve to exhibit the disposition of viscera which prevails in the group. The branchial chamber formed by the mantle-skirt overhanging the head has been exposed by cutting along a line extending backward from the letters vd to the base of the columella muscle mc, and the whole roof of the chamber thus detached from the right side of the animal's neck has been thrown over to the left, showing the organs which lie upon the roof.
Salivary glands are present, and in some carnivorous forms (Dolium) these secrete free sulphuric acid (as much as 2% is present in the secretion), which assists the animal in boring holes by means of its FIG.
- Female of Purpura lapillus removed from its shell; the mantleskirt cut along its left line of attachment and thrown over to the right side of the animal so as to expose the organs on its inner face.
- Animal and shell of Phorus exutus.
In forms which are naked in the adult state, the shell falls off soon after the reduction of the velum, but in Cenia, Runcina and Vaginula the shell-gland and shell are not developed, and the young animal when hatched has already the naked form of the adult.
- Animal and a, Snout or rostrum.
The Heteropoda belong to the " pelagic fauna " occurring near the surface in the Mediterranean and great oceans in company with the Pteropoda, the Siphonophorous Hydrozoa, Salpae, Leptocephali, and other specially-modified transparent swimming representatives of various groups of the animal kingdom.
(From Owen.) A, The animal.
Animal fixed by the shell, the last whorls of which are not in contact with each other; foot small; two anterior pedal tentacles.
Shell conical; foot secreting a ventral calcareous plate; animal fixed.
Eulima, foot well developed, with an operculum, animal usually free, but some live in the digestive cavity of Holothurians.
Mucronalia, foot reduced, but still operculate, eyes present, animal fixed by its very long proboscis which is deeply buried in the tissues of an Echinoderm, no pseudopallium.
Entocolax, mouth at free extremity, animal fixed by aboral orifice of pseudopallium, Pacific. Entoconcha, body elongated and tubular, animal fixed by the oral extremity, protandric hermaphrodite, parasitic in testes of Holothurians causing their abortion.
Laterally the foot gives rise to a pair of mobile fleshy lobes, the parapodia (ep), which can be thrown up so as to cover in the dorsal surface of the animal.
This forms the nucleus of the adult shell, and, as the animal grows, becomes enclosed by a reflection of the mantle-skirt.
When the pericardium is cut open from above in an animal otherwise entire, the anterior face of the kidney is seen forming the posterior wall of the pericardial chamber; on the deep edge of this face, a little to the left of the attachment of the auricle to the floor of the pericardium, is seen a depression; this depression contains the opening from the pericardium into the kidney.
37), in which it is possible most satisfactorily to study in the living animal, by means of the microscope, the course of the blood-stream, and also the reno-pericardial communication.
It seems probable that it is identical with one of the open sacs in which each shell-plate of a Chiton is formed, and the series of plate-like imbrications which are placed behind the single shell-sac on the dorsum of the curious slug, Plectrophorus, suggest the possibility of the formation of a series of shellsacs on the back of that animal similar to those which we find in Chiton.
Shell dextral, hyperstrophic, animal sinistral.
ancient animal), a name applied by Cuvier to the remains of ungulate mammals recalling tapirs in general appearance, from the Lower Oligocene gypsum quarries of Paris.
Human experience consists, not of processes in an animal organism, but of these processes recognized as such.
dpoE, a pickaxe, hence applied to the animal), the scientific name of a group of African antelopes of relatively large size with long straight or scimitar-shaped horns, which are present in both sexes, and long tufted tails.
This assemblage is now generally regarded as a great division (phylum or sub-phylum) of the animal kingdom and known by K.
Latreille in 1825 (Families naturelles du regne animal), since it has the advantage of expressing, in a single word, an important characteristic of the group. The terms "Hexapoda " and " hexapod " had already been used by F.
Exoskeleton The outer cellular layer (ectoderm or " hypodermis ") of insects as of other Arthropods, secretes a chitinous cuticle which has to be periodically shed and renewed during the growth of the animal.
On the other hand, we find in the vast majority of the Hexapoda a very marked difference between the perfect insect (imago) and the young animal when newly hatched and for some time after hatching.
They afford an example - paralleled in other classes of the animal kingdom - of an order which, though specialized in some respects, retains many primitive characters, and has won its way to dominance rather by perfection of behaviour, and specially by the development of family life and helpful socialism, than by excessive elaboration of structure.
maux, to lay the foundation of a thoroughly and Cuvler hitherto unknown mode of appreciating the value of the various groups of the animal kingdom.
In the work just mentioned few details are given; but even the more elaborate classification of birds contained in his Lecons d'anatomie comparee of 1805 is based wholly on external characters, such as had been used by nearly all his predecessors; and the Regne Animal of 1817, when he 1 This was reprinted in 5882 by the Willughby Society.
7 It is unnecessary to enumerate the various editions of the Regne Animal.
There is not a single plate that is unworthy of the greatest of all animal painters.
The contents of such a circular group are symbolically (or analogically) represented by the contents of all other circles in the animal kingdom.
That these primary divisions of every group are characterized by definite peculiarities of form, structure and economy, which, under diversified modifications, are uniform throughout the animal kingdom, and are therefore to be regarded as the primary types of nature.
That the different ranks or degrees of circular groups exhibited in the animal kingdom are Nine k in number, each being involved within the other."
185-215), though an abstract forming part of a Prodrome d'une nouvelle distribution du regne animal appeared earlier (op. cit.
They all grow slowly, and it is not until the animal is about six months old that they are united into one firm bone.
These terms were explained in his great work L' Organisation du regne animal, oiseaux, begun in 1855, to mean exactly the same as those applied by Merrem to his two primary divisions.
Thus the Mintra of the Malay Peninsula have a demon corresponding to every kind of disease known to them; the Tasmanian ascribed a gnawing pain to the presence within him of the soul of a dead man, whom he had unwittingly summoned by mentioning his name and who was `devouring his liver; the Samoan held that the violation of a food tabu would result in the animal being formed within the body of the offender and cause his death.
A Norse belief found in Iceland is that the fylgia, a genius in animal form, attends human beings; and these animal guardians may sometimes be seen fighting; in the same way the Siberian shamans send their animal familiars to do battle instead of deciding their quarrels in person.
Corresponding to the animal guardian of the ordinary man, we have the familiar of the witch or wizard.
Similarly the Greenland angekok is said to summon his torngak (which may be an ancestral ghost or an animal) by drumming; he is heard by the bystanders to carry on a conversation and obtain advice as to how to treat diseases, the prospects of good weather and other matters of importance.
The assignment of genii to buildings and gates is connected with an important class of sacrifices; in order to provide a tutelary spirit, or to appease chthonic deities, it was often the custom to sacrifice a human being or an animal at the foundation of a building; sometimes we find a similar guardian provided for the frontier of a country or of a tribe.
Mannhardt collected a mass of information proving that the life of the corn is supposed to exist apart from the corn itself and to take the form, sometimes of an animal, sometimes of a man or woman, sometimes of a child.
Side by side with the conception of the corn spirit as an animal is the anthropomorphic view of it; and this element must have predominated in the evolution of the cereal deities like Demeter; at the same time traces of the association of gods and goddesses of corn with animal embodiments of the corn spirit are found.
PSOROSPERMIASIS, the medical term for a disease caused by the animal parasites known as psorosperms or gregarinidae, found in the liver, kidneys and ureters.
But it still contains a large amount of oil, which forms animal fat and heat, and thus makes up for part of its deficiency in carbohydrates.
When this is done, from 80 to 90% of the fertilizing material of the meal is recovered in the manure, only 10 to 20% being converted by the animal into meat and milk.
Among those who have considered that it is derived from the decomposition of both animal and vegetable marine organisms may be mentioned J.
Peckham, but others have held that it is of exclusively animal origin, a view supported by such occurrences as those in the orthoceratities of the Trenton limestone, and by the experiments of C. Engler, who obtained a liquid like crude petroleum by the distillation of menhaden (fish) oil.
Consideration of the evidence leads us to the conclusion that, at least in commercially valuable deposits, mineral oil has generally been formed by the decomposition of marine organisms, in some cases animal, in others vegetable, in others both, under practically normal conditions of temperature and pressure.
Some of the more viscous crude oils obtained in the United States are employed as lubricants under the name of " natural oils," either without any treatment or after clarification by subsidence and filtration through animal charcoal.
On the other hand, an ozoneless east wind (sirocco) is occasionally experienced - especially during the second half of May and before the beginning of the rainy season - which has a prejudicial influence on both animal and vegetable life.
At the same time it renders more intelligible the extreme sensitiveness of the bodywall of the Nemertines, a local and instantaneous irritation often resulting in spasmodic rupture of the animal at the point touched.
No other intermediate stages have as yet been noticed between this arrangement and that of the Heteronemertini, in which a separate posterior brain-lobe receives a similar ciliated canal, and in which the oesophageal outgrowths have made their appearance and are coalesced with the nerve-tissue in the organ of the adult animal.
At the tip of the tail, where the growth of the animal takes place, the.
The blood is probably circulated by the general contraction of the whole animal, since it is very doubtful if there are any intrinsic muscles in the vessel-walls.
Affinities.-The position of the Nemertines in the animal kingdom is now looked upon as more isolated than was formerly thought, and recent writers have been inclined to treat them as a separate phylum.
The most important of the animal fats are those of the ox and hog, and of the vegetable oils cotton-seed and coco-nut; it is also to be remembered that resin, although not a fat, is also important in soap-making.
In habits the animal was cursorial and herbivorous, or possibly carnivorous.
In the Puerco, or Lowest Eocene of North America the place of the above species was taken by Euprotogonia puercensis, an animal only half the size of Phenacodus primaevus, with the terminal joints of the limbs intermediate between hoofs and claws, and the first and fifth toes taking their full share in the support of the weight of the body.
If they fall on pasture land or fodder of any kind and are eaten by any herbivorous animal, such as a hare, rabbit, horse, sheep or ox, the active embryos or larvae are set free in the alimentary canal of the new host.
In the event of the host escaping being killed and eaten it is believed that some of these larvae wander about or ultimately make their way to the exterior, possibly through the bronchi; nevertheless it seems to be certain that they can only reach sexual maturity in the nasal passages of some carnivorous animal, and the chance of attaining this environment is afforded when the viscera of the host are devoured by some flesh-eating mammal.
It is rather a heavilybuilt animal, with a broad head, no distinct neck, and short limbs, the eyes are small, and the ears project very little beyond the fur.
Valvata is common in fresh waters throughout Britain; the gill when the animal is expanded is protruded beyond the mantle-chamber.
Neritina has a very small spire, the terminal portion of the shell containing nearly the whole animal.
dissecare, to cut apart), the separation into parts by cutting, particularly the cutting of an animal or plant into parts for the purpose of examination or display of its structure.
Organic Chemistry While inorganic chemistry was primarily developed through the study of minerals - a connexion still shown by the French appellation chimie minerale - organic chemistry owes its origin to the investigation of substances occurring in the vegetable and animal organisms. The quest of the alchemists for the philosopher's stone, and the almost general adherence of the iatrochemists to the study of the medicinal characters and preparation of metallic compounds, stultified in some measure the investigation of vegetable and animal products.
Taking as a basis the nature of the source of compounds, he framed three classes: " mineral," comprising the metals, minerals, earths and stones; " vegetable," comprising plants, resins, gums, juices, &c.; and " animal," comprising animals, their different parts and excreta.
The phlogistonists endeavoured to introduce chemical notions to support it: Becher, in his Physica subterranea (1669), stated that mineral, vegetable and animal matter contained the same elements, but that more simple combinations prevailed in the mineral kingdom; while Stahl, in his Specimen Becherianum (1702), held the " earthy " principle to predominate in the mineral class, and the " aqueous " and " combustible " in the vegetable and animal classes.
Bergman worked in the same direction; while Rouelle was attracted to the study of animal chemistry.
Theoretical speculations were revived by Lavoisier, who, having explained the nature of combustion and determined methods for analysing compounds, concluded that vegetable substances ordinarily contained carbon, hydrogen and oxygen, while animal substances generally contained, in addition to these elements, nitrogen, and sometimes phosphorus and sulphur.
Lavoisier, to whom chemistry was primarily the chemistry of oxygen compounds, having developed the radical theory initiated by Guyton de Morveau, formulated the hypothesis that vegetable and animal substances were oxides of radicals composed of carbon and hydrogen; moreover, since simple radicals (the elements) can form more than one oxide, he attributed the same character to his hydrocarbon radicals: he considered, for instance, sugar to be a neutral oxide and oxalic acid a higher oxide of a certain radical, for, when oxidized by nitric acid, sugar yields oxalic acid.
At the same time, however, he adhered to the classification of Lemery; and it was only when identical compounds were obtained from both vegetable and animal sources that this subdivision was discarded, and the classes were assimilated in the division organic chemistry.
ACANTHOCEPHALA, a compact group of cylindrical, parasitic worms, with no near allies in the animal kingdom.
The proboscis bears rings of recurved hooks arranged in horizontal rows, and it is by means of these hooks that the animal attaches itself to the tissues of its host.
Similarly throughout the Moslem world, all who can afford it sacrifice at this time a legal animal, and either consume the flesh themselves or give it to the poor.
mors) in the animal body.
His best-known work is De motu animalium (Rome, 1680-1681), in which he sought to explain the movements of the animal body on mechanical principles; he thus ranks as the founder of the iatrophysical school.
In the male the right tooth usually remains similarly concealed, but the left is immensely developed, attaining a length equal to more than half that of the entire animal.
Little doubt exists amongst naturalists that all the varieties of the domestic animal are descended from Oryctolagus cuniculus.
The more accurately the coloured portion is defined, the higher is the animal esteemed.
After the death of any of his favourite disciples he would hold a dog to the mouth of the man in order to receive the departing spirit, saying that there was no animal which could perpetuate his virtues better than that quadruped.
In the early periods of the history of other countries this seems to have been the case even where the dog was esteemed and valued, and had become the companion, the friend and the defender of man and his home; and in the and century of the Christian era Arrian wrote that "there is as much difference between a fair trial of speed in a good run, and ensnaring a poor animal without an effort, as between the secret piratical assaults of robbers at sea and the victorious naval engagements of the Athenians at Artemisium and at Salamis."
The animal is thoroughly adapted for extreme speed, the long, rat-like tail being used in balancing the body in quick turns.
The Sussex is a lighter, more noisy animal, with a wavy, golden coat.
The Gordon setter, the chief Scottish variety, is a heavier animal with coarser hair, black-andtan in colour.
The bulldog is a small, compact but extremely heavily built animal of great strength, vigour and tenacity.
This animal spends most of its time burrowing in the sand in search of insects and their larvae, but occasionally makes its appearance on the surface.
In biological chemistry he worked at the problems of animal heat and at the phenomena accompanying the growth of plants, and he also devoted much time to meteorological questions and observations.
It was now essentially an animal den, the occasional visits of man being indicated by the rare occurrence of flintimplements.
and a weasel-like animal which hunts in packs.
with a complete list of every animal and bird known to inhabit that country ...
The musky odour from which the animal takes its name does not appear to be due to the secretion of any gland.
The greater part of the animal is covered with long brown hair, thick, matted and curly on the shoulders, so as to give the appearance of a hump, but elsewhere straight and hanging down - that of the sides, back and haunches reaching as far as the middle of the legs and entirely concealing the very short tail.
The Greenland animal is a distinct race (0.
This, however, is not the whole of the past history of the muskox group; and in this connexion it may be mentioned that palaeontological discoveries are gradually making it evident that the poverty of America in species of horned ruminants is to a great extent a feature of the present day, and that in past times it possessed a considerable number of representatives of this group. One of the latest additions to the list is a large sheep-like animal from a cave in California, apparently representing a new generic type, which has been described by E.
He carried this tendency to mysticism into his physical researches, and was led by it to take a deep interest in the phenomena of animal magnetism.
In Zoroaster's eyes this is an abomination: for the cow is a gift of Ormazd to man, and the religion of Mazda protects the sacred animal.
By using the term instinctive in both its strict and its wider significance, Wasmann includes under it the whole range of animal behaviour.
See C. Lloyd Morgan, Habit and Instinct (1896), and Animal Behaviour (1900); G.
Romanes, Mental Evolution in Animals (1883), and Natural History of Instinct (1886); Lord Avebury, On the Instincts of Animals (1889); Marshall, Instinct and Reason (1898); Mills, Nature of Animal Intelligence (1898); St George Mivart, Nature and Thought (1882), and Origin of Human Reason (1899); E.
(I) The Spirit (neshamah), which is the highest degree of being, corresponds to and is operated upon by the Crown, which is the highest triad in the Sephiroth, and is called the Intellectual World; (2) the Soul (rah), which is the seat of the moral qualities, corresponds to and is operated upon by Beauty, which is the second triad in the Sephiroth, and is called the Moral World; and (3) the Cruder Soul (nephesh), which is immediately connected with the body, and is the cause of its lower instincts and the animal life, corresponds to and is operated upon by Foundation, the third triad in the Sephiroth, called the Material World.
In the combined state nitrogen is fairly widely distributed, being found in nitre, Chile saltpetre, ammonium salts and in various animal and vegetable tissues and liquids.
It is probable that some are carnivorous, either attacking other larvae or subsisting on more minute forms of animal life; but others perhaps feed more exclusively on vegetable matters of a low type, such as diatoms.
Now dead animal substance and the excreta of animals decompose in the long run into carbonic acid, water and mineral salts, and so there is a continual destruction of animal substance both on the land and in the sea.
The increasing temperature raises the rate of animal metabolism, while the higher alkalinity is a stimulus to cell-division.
Therefore the animal organisms, as a rule, reproduce in the spring or early summer just after the vernal phyto-plankton maximum.
Following the great spring production of plant substance there is, therefore, a summer outburst of animal life.
The plankton, both animal and vegetable, attains its minimal values and many of the larger forms of animal life pass into a kind of condition of hibernation.
The name has reference to the tongue-shaped muscular proboscis by which the animal works its way through the sand.
Eschscholtz at the Marshall Islands in 1825, Balanoglossus was described as a worm-like animal belonging to the Echinoderm order of Holothurians or sea-cucumbers.
On this account the animal was subsequently placed by Gegenbaur in a special class of Vermes, the Enteropneusta.
They are sometimes called the histogenetic bodies or proteids, because they are essential to the building up of the animal organism.
They are usually insoluble in water, alcohol and ether; and their presence as solutes in vegetable and animal fluids is not yet perfectly understood, but it is probably to be connected with the presence of salts or other substances.
Halliburton) is the chief albumin of milk; its composition varies with the animal.
According to the story in Genesis, Noah's ark was large enough to contain his family and representatives of each kind of animal.
In the animal kingdom, also, it is very widely distributed, being sometimes a normal and sometimes a pathological constituent of the fluids and tissues; in particular, it is present in large amount in the urine of those suffering from diabetes, and may be present in nearly all the body fluids.
In the external trade the exports to Russia consist chiefly of grain, cattle, sheep, butter and other animal products, furs, game, feathers and down.