Aniline Sentence Examples
When heated with aniline it yields phenol and acetanilide.
It has an increasing trade in iron, timber, coal and agricultural products, a trade which is fostered by a harbour opened in 1897; and also large factories for making aniline dyes and soda.
Its solvent power is also utilized in the production of various colouring fluids, where the colouring matter would not dissolve in water alone; thus aniline violet, the tinctorial constituents of madder, and various allied colouring matters dissolve in glycerin, forming liquids which remain coloured even when diluted with water, the colouring matters being either retained in suspension or dissolved by the glycerin present in the diluted fluid.
Moreover, while methylamine, dimethylamine, and trimethylamine increase in basicity corresponding to the introduction of successive methyl groups, phenylamine or aniline, diphenylamine, and triphenylamine are in decreasing order of basicity, the salts of diphenylamine being decomposed by water.
Substitution of the Benzene Ring.-As a general rule, homologues and mono-derivatives of benzene react more readily with substituting agents than the parent hydrocarbon; for example, phenol is converted into tribromphenol by the action of bromine water, and into the nitrophenols by dilute nitric acid; similar activity characterizes aniline.Advertisement
This theory explains the fluorescence of anthranilic acid (o-aminobenzoic acid), by regarding the aniline residue as the luminophore, and the carboxyl group as the fluorogen, since, apparently, the introduction of the latter into the non-fluorescent aniline molecule involves the production of a fluorescent substance.
When boiled with aniline it gives methylaniline and phenol.
Miller (Ber., 1892, 25, p. 2864; 1896, 29, p. 59) have shown that in the presence of aniline and sulphuric acid they give substituted quinolines.
The presence of so small a quantity as i% of alcohol may be detected in ether by the colour imparted to it by aniline violet; if water or acetic acid be present, the ether must be shaken with anhydrous potassium carbonate before the application of the test.
The irritant may be chemical, as is seen in the skin cancers that develop in workers in paraffin, petroleum, arsenic and aniline.Advertisement
Aniline and similar bases are oxidized and partially nitrated by nitroglycerin, with the production of non-explosive compounds.
Among the city's manufactories are breweries, iron and brass foundries, stove factories, knitting mills, cotton mills, clothing factories, slaughtering and meat-packing establishments, cigar and cigarette factories, and manufactories of adhesive pastes, court plaster, spring beds, ribbed underwear, aniline dyes, chemicals, gas meters, fire-brick, and glazed paper and cardboard.
Koerner (Ber., 1884, 17, p. 203) by condensing ortho-nitrobenzaldehyde with aniline, the resulting ortho-nitro-para-diamino-triphenylmethane being reduced to the corresponding orthoamino compound, which on oxidation yields chrysaniline.
In the earlier stages 30%, 50% and go% benzols were required, the 30% being mainly used for the manufacture of "aniline for red," and the 90% for "aniline for blue."
The simplest aromatic monamine is aniline, and the simplest mixed amines are monoand di-methyl aniline.Advertisement
These substances are treated in the article Aniline.
Instances of its application are found in the separation of orthoand para-nitrophenol, the o-compound distilling and the p- remaining behind; in the separation of aniline from the mixture obtained by reducing nitrobenzene; of the naphthols from the melts produced by fusing the naphthalene monosulphonic acids with potash; and of quinoline from the reaction between aniline, nitrobenzene, glycerin, and sulphuric acid (the product being first steam distilled to remove any aniline, nitrobenzene, or glycerin, then treated with alkali, and again steam distilled when quinoline comes over).
The imports are chiefly cotton yarn and piece goods, kerosene oil, palm-leaf fans, aniline dyes, sugar and matches.
Perkin by heating crude aniline with potassium bichromate and sulphuric acid.
His first research, carried out in Liebig's laboratory at Giessen, was on coal-tar, and his investigation of the organic bases in coal-gas naphtha established the nature of aniline.Advertisement
In this attempt he was unsuccessful, but the observations he made in the course of his experiments induced him, early in 1856, to try the effect of treating aniline sulphate with bichromate of potash.
The result was a precipitate, aniline black, from which he obtained the colouring matter subsequently known as aniline blue or mauve.
Benzoquinone (para) or ordinary quinone, C 6 H 4 0 2, is formed by the oxidation of aniline with sodium bichromate and sulphuric acid.
Kundt found that similar effects occur with a large number of substances, in particular with all those which possess the property of "surface colour," i.e., which strongly reflect light of a definite colour, as do many of the aniline dyes.
In studying the dispersion of the aniline dyes, a prism with a very small refracting angle is made of two glass plates slightly inclined to each other and enclosing a very thin wedge of the dye, which is either melted between the plates, or is in the form of a solution retained in position by surface-tension.Advertisement
Mitscherlich in 1834, may be prepared by reducing nitrobenzene in alcoholic solution with zinc dust and caustic soda; by the condensation of nitrosobenzene with aniline in hot glacial acetic acid solution; or by the oxidation of aniline with sodium hypobromite.
When heated with aniline and aniline hydrochloride they yield indulines.
The constitution of methyl orange follows from the fact that on reduction by stannous chloride in hydrochloric acid solution it yields sulphanilic acid and para-aminodimethyl aniline.
It will be advantageous if the spectra of ammonia, benzene, aniline and dimethyl aniline be compared, when the re-' markable coincidences will at once become apparent, as also the different weighting of the molecule.
Other articles of manufacture are leather, tobacco, porcelain, cement, spirits, lead pencils (Nuremberg), plate-glass, sugar, matches, aniline dyes, straw hats and baskets.
Chloroform may be readily detected by the production of an isonitrile when it is heated with alcoholic potash and a primary amine; thus with aniline, phenyl isocyanide (recognized by its nauseating smell) is produced, CHC13+C6H5NH2+3KHO=C6H5NC+3KC1+3H20.
Hofmann having previously shown that oxidation of pure aniline alone or of pure toluidine yielded no fuchsine, whilst oxidation of a mixture of aniline and para-toluidine gave rise to the fine red dyestuff para-fuchsine (pararosaniline hydrochloride) CH 3 C 6 H 4 NH 2 +2C 6 H 5 NH 2 +30 = HOC(C 6 H 4 NH 2) 3 +2H20.
Rosenstiehl (Jahres., 1869, p. 693) found also that different rosanilines were obtained according to whether orthoor para-toluidine was oxidized with aniline; and he gave the name rosaniline to the one obtained from aniline and ortho-toluidine, reserving the term pararosaniline for the other.
When heated with aniline and its salts it yields phenylrosindulin (German patent 67339 (1888)).
Concentrated hydrochloric acid converts it into chlorbenzene, aniline and nitrogen.
Zinc dust and alcoholic acetic acid reduce it to aniline and phenylhydrazine.
It unites with aldehydes to form esters of ketonic acids, and with aniline yields anilido-acetic acid.
It is used commercially for the preparation of aniline and of benzidine; and in perfumery (oil of mirbane).
With aniline and acetic acid it yields azobenzene.
It may be synthetically obtained by distilling oxindole (C 8 H 8 NO) with zinc dust; by heating orthonitrocinnamic acid with potash and iron filings; by the reduction of indigo blue; by the action of sodium ethylate on orthoaminochlorstyrene; by boiling aniline with dichloracetaldehyde; by the dry distillation of ortho-tolyloxamic acid; by heating aniline with dichioracetal; by distilling a mixture of calcium formate and calcium anilidoacetate; and by heating pyruvic acid phenyl hydrazone with anhydrous zinc chloride.
In these latter the basic aniline dyes in solution are almost exclusively used, on account of their special affinity for the bacterial protoplasm.
The reaction is a perfectly general one, for the aniline may be replaced by other aromatic amines and the aldehyde by other aldehydes, and so a large number of quinoline homologues may be prepared in this way.
The Oriental character of the carpets has been almost destroyed by the adoption of aniline dyes and the introduction of Western patterns.
It has been used in dyeing with aniline black.
Fritzsche showed that by treating indigo with caustic potash it yielded an oil, which he named aniline, from the specific name of one of the indigo-yielding plants, Indigofera anil, anil being derived from the Sanskrit nila, dark-blue, and nila, the indigo plant.
Aniline is a weak base and forms salts with the mineral acids.
Aniline hydrochloride forms large colourless tables, which become greenish on exposure; it is the "aniline salt" of commerce.
Although aniline is but feebly basic, it precipitates zinc, aluminium and ferric salts, and on warming expels ammonia from its salts.
Anilides, compounds in which the amino group is substituted by an acid radical, are prepared by heating aniline with certain acids; antifebrin or acetanilide is thus obtained from acetic acid and aniline.
The oxidation of aniline has been carefully investigated.
Chromic acid converts it into quinone, while chlorates, in the presence of certain metallic salts (especially of vanadium), give aniline black.
Potassium permanganate in neutral solution oxidizes it to nitrobenzene, in alkaline solution to azobenzene, ammonia and oxalic acid, in acid solution to aniline black.
The great commercial value of aniline is due to the readiness with which it yields, directly or indirectly, valuable dyestuffs.
In addition to dyestuffs, it is a starting-product for the manufacture of many drugs, such as antipyrine, antifebrin, &c. Aniline is manufactured by reducing nitrobenzene with iron and hydrochloric acid and steam-distilling the product.
In commerce three brands of aniline are distinguished - aniline oil for blue, which is pure aniline; aniline oil for red, a mixture of equimolecular quantities of aniline and orthoand para-toluidines; and aniline oil for safranine, which contains aniline and ortho-toluidine, and is obtained from the distillate (echappes) of the fuchsine fusion.
Nubuck Aniline dyed leather which has been lightly abraded on the grain surface to create a velvety finish or nap.
The brushing also makes the leather even more absorbent than aniline leathers.
Full grain aniline leather or russet leathers cannot be cleaned with water or soap solution.
They also include an Italian double sofa bed, a 3 seater sofa and a footstool all made in aniline leather.
The most significant discoveries of KSU include non-Euclidean geometry, obtaining aniline from nitrobenzene, new element ruthenium, phenomenon of EPR.
Lignified tissues are colored yellow by aniline sulphate or aniline chloride, violet with phloroglucin and hydrochloric acid, and characteristic reactions are also given by mixtures containing phenol, indol, skatol, thailin, sulphate, &c. (see Zimmermanns Microtechnique).
The same authorities recommend a powder, composed of larvicide (an aniline substance), chrysanthemum flowers, and valerian root, to be burnt in bedrooms. Anointing the skin with strong-smelling substances is of little use in the open air, but more effective in the house; turpentine appears to be the best.
In the first group we have to notice the use of iron or zinc and dilute sulphuric acid for the manufacture of hydrogen, which may be used directly, as for inflating balloons or for purposes of combustion, or in the nascent condition, for reduction purposes, as generally is the case in organic chemistry (see Aniline).
The most significant discoveries of KSU include non-Euclidean geometry, obtaining aniline from nitrobenzene, new element Ruthenium, phenomenon of EPR.
Fully aniline dyed leathers are better and more expensive than semi-aniline dyed leathers.
This has a strong attraction for basic aniline dyes, and can usually be distinguished from other parts of the cell which are more easily colored by acid anilines.