When heated with aniline it yields phenol and acetanilide.
This has a strong attraction for basic aniline dyes, and can usually be distinguished from other parts of the cell which are more easily colored by acid anilines.
The mono-amino derivatives or eurhodines are obtained when the arylmonamines are condensed with orthoamino zo compounds; by condensing quinone dichlorimide or para-nitrosodimethyl aniline with monamines containing a free para position, or by oxidizing ortho-hydroxydiaminodiphenylamines (R.
Wurtz); by the action of nitrous acid on aniline; by passing oxygen into boiling benzene containing aluminium chloride (C. Friedel and J.
It has an increasing trade in iron, timber, coal and agricultural products, a trade which is fostered by a harbour opened in 1897; and also large factories for making aniline dyes and soda.
Its solvent power is also utilized in the production of various colouring fluids, where the colouring matter would not dissolve in water alone; thus aniline violet, the tinctorial constituents of madder, and various allied colouring matters dissolve in glycerin, forming liquids which remain coloured even when diluted with water, the colouring matters being either retained in suspension or dissolved by the glycerin present in the diluted fluid.
Moreover, while methylamine, dimethylamine, and trimethylamine increase in basicity corresponding to the introduction of successive methyl groups, phenylamine or aniline, diphenylamine, and triphenylamine are in decreasing order of basicity, the salts of diphenylamine being decomposed by water.
aniline, C 6 H 5 NH 2, monomethyl aniline, C 6 H 5 NH CH 3, and dimethyl aniline, C 6 H 5 N(CH 3) 2, are in increasing order of basicity.
Substitution of the Benzene Ring.-As a general rule, homologues and mono-derivatives of benzene react more readily with substituting agents than the parent hydrocarbon; for example, phenol is converted into tribromphenol by the action of bromine water, and into the nitrophenols by dilute nitric acid; similar activity characterizes aniline.
This theory explains the fluorescence of anthranilic acid (o-aminobenzoic acid), by regarding the aniline residue as the luminophore, and the carboxyl group as the fluorogen, since, apparently, the introduction of the latter into the non-fluorescent aniline molecule involves the production of a fluorescent substance.
When boiled with aniline it gives methylaniline and phenol.
It is a pleasantsmelling liquid which boils at 233° C. It is practically unchanged when boiled with aniline.
Miller (Ber., 1892, 25, p. 2864; 1896, 29, p. 59) have shown that in the presence of aniline and sulphuric acid they give substituted quinolines.
The presence of so small a quantity as i% of alcohol may be detected in ether by the colour imparted to it by aniline violet; if water or acetic acid be present, the ether must be shaken with anhydrous potassium carbonate before the application of the test.
The irritant may be chemical, as is seen in the skin cancers that develop in workers in paraffin, petroleum, arsenic and aniline.
Aniline and similar bases are oxidized and partially nitrated by nitroglycerin, with the production of non-explosive compounds.
Among the city's manufactories are breweries, iron and brass foundries, stove factories, knitting mills, cotton mills, clothing factories, slaughtering and meat-packing establishments, cigar and cigarette factories, and manufactories of adhesive pastes, court plaster, spring beds, ribbed underwear, aniline dyes, chemicals, gas meters, fire-brick, and glazed paper and cardboard.
Fischer); by heating salicylic aldehyde with aniline and zinc chloride to 260° C. (R.
Koerner (Ber., 1884, 17, p. 203) by condensing ortho-nitrobenzaldehyde with aniline, the resulting ortho-nitro-para-diamino-triphenylmethane being reduced to the corresponding orthoamino compound, which on oxidation yields chrysaniline.
Silicon nitrogen hydride, SiNH, is a white powder formed with silicon amide when ammonia gas (diluted with hydrogen) is brought into contact with the vapour of silicon chloroform at -10° C. Trianilino silicon hydride, SiH (NHC 6 H 5) 3, is obtained by the action of aniline on a benzene solution of silicon chloroform.
In the earlier stages 30%, 50% and go% benzols were required, the 30% being mainly used for the manufacture of "aniline for red," and the 90% for "aniline for blue."
(The term " 30% benzol " means that 30% by volume distils below ioo°.) A purer benzol was subsequently required for the manufacture of aniline black and other dye-stuffs.
- Fischer found that if one molecule of phenylhydrazine acted upon one molecule of an aldose or ketose a hydrazone resulted which in most cases was very soluble in water, but if three molecules of the hydrazine reacted (one of which is reduced to ammonia and aniline) insoluble crystalline substances resulted, termed osazones, which readily characterized the sugar from which it was obtained.
in the production of aniline from nitrobenzene, but the use of iron is generally preferable in view of the cheapness of this metal.
They form condensation products with aldehydes, benzaldehyde and aniline forming benzylidene aniline, C 6 H 5 N: CHC 6 H 5, and when heated with acids they form anilides.
The simplest aromatic monamine is aniline, and the simplest mixed amines are monoand di-methyl aniline.
These substances are treated in the article Aniline.
Instances of its application are found in the separation of orthoand para-nitrophenol, the o-compound distilling and the p- remaining behind; in the separation of aniline from the mixture obtained by reducing nitrobenzene; of the naphthols from the melts produced by fusing the naphthalene monosulphonic acids with potash; and of quinoline from the reaction between aniline, nitrobenzene, glycerin, and sulphuric acid (the product being first steam distilled to remove any aniline, nitrobenzene, or glycerin, then treated with alkali, and again steam distilled when quinoline comes over).
NAPHTHYLAMINES, or Aminonaphthalenes, C10H7NH2, the naphthalene homologues of aniline, in contrast to which they may be prepared by heating the naphthols with ammoniazinc chloride.
The imports are chiefly cotton yarn and piece goods, kerosene oil, palm-leaf fans, aniline dyes, sugar and matches.
The first aniline dye-stuff to be prepared on a manufacturing scale was mauveine, C 27 H 25 N 4 C1, which was obtained by Sir W.
Perkin by heating crude aniline with potassium bichromate and sulphuric acid.
"WILLIAM HENRY PERKIN (1860-), English chemist, was born at Sudbury, England, in 1860, eldest son of Sir William Perkin, founder of the aniline dye industry.
His first research, carried out in Liebig's laboratory at Giessen, was on coal-tar, and his investigation of the organic bases in coal-gas naphtha established the nature of aniline.
In this attempt he was unsuccessful, but the observations he made in the course of his experiments induced him, early in 1856, to try the effect of treating aniline sulphate with bichromate of potash.
The result was a precipitate, aniline black, from which he obtained the colouring matter subsequently known as aniline blue or mauve.
above), also known as diethylene diamine, may be prepared by reducing pyrazine, or, better, by combining aniline and ethylene bromide to form diphenyl diethylene diamine, the dinitroso compound of which hydrolyses to para-dinitrosophenol and pipera zine.
Benzoquinone (para) or ordinary quinone, C 6 H 4 0 2, is formed by the oxidation of aniline with sodium bichromate and sulphuric acid.
It combines directly with aniline to form dianilidoquinone, dianilidoquinone-anil and dianilidoquinone-dianil or azophenine.
Kundt found that similar effects occur with a large number of substances, in particular with all those which possess the property of "surface colour," i.e., which strongly reflect light of a definite colour, as do many of the aniline dyes.
In studying the dispersion of the aniline dyes, a prism with a very small refracting angle is made of two glass plates slightly inclined to each other and enclosing a very thin wedge of the dye, which is either melted between the plates, or is in the form of a solution retained in position by surface-tension.
Mitscherlich in 1834, may be prepared by reducing nitrobenzene in alcoholic solution with zinc dust and caustic soda; by the condensation of nitrosobenzene with aniline in hot glacial acetic acid solution; or by the oxidation of aniline with sodium hypobromite.
It crystallizes from alcohol in orange red plates which melt at 68° C. and boil at 293° C. It does not react with acids or alkalis, but on reduction with zinc dust in acetic acid solution yields aniline.
When heated with aniline and aniline hydrochloride they yield indulines.
Amino-azo-benzene, C6H5 N2 C 6 H 4 NH 2, crystallizes in yellow plates or needles and melts at 126° C. Its constitution is determined by the facts that it may be prepared by reducing nitro-azo-benzene by ammonium sulphide and that by reduction with stannous chloride it yields aniline and.
The constitution of methyl orange follows from the fact that on reduction by stannous chloride in hydrochloric acid solution it yields sulphanilic acid and para-aminodimethyl aniline.
Para-oxyazobenzene (benzene-azo-phenol), C 6 H 5 N: N (1) C6H4 011(4), is prepared by coupling diazotized aniline with phenol in alkaline solution.
It crystallizes in orange-red needles which melt at 82.5-83° C. On reduction with zinc dust in dilute sal - ammoniac solution, it yields ortho-aminophenol and aniline.
Azoxybenzene, (C 6 H 5 N) 2 0, crystallizes from alcohol in yellow needles, which melt at 36° C. On distillation, it yields aniline and azobenzene.
It will be advantageous if the spectra of ammonia, benzene, aniline and dimethyl aniline be compared, when the re-' markable coincidences will at once become apparent, as also the different weighting of the molecule.
With aniline it forms benzylidine aniline C 6 H 5 CH: N C 6 H 5, and with acetone, benzal acetone C 6 H 5 CH: CH CO CH 3.
H 3 C CO NH 3 CO CH 3 H3C C - NH - C CH3 On nitration it yields chiefly meta-nitro-benzaldehyde, crystallizing in needles which melt at 58° C. The ortho-compound may be obtained by oxidizing ortho-nitrocinnamic acid with alkaline potassium permanganate in the presence of benzene; or from ortho - nitrobenzyl chloride by condensing it with aniline, oxidizing the product so obtained to ortho-nitrobenzylidine aniline, and then hydrolysing this compound with an acid (Farben fabrik d.
Other articles of manufacture are leather, tobacco, porcelain, cement, spirits, lead pencils (Nuremberg), plate-glass, sugar, matches, aniline dyes, straw hats and baskets.
Chloroform may be readily detected by the production of an isonitrile when it is heated with alcoholic potash and a primary amine; thus with aniline, phenyl isocyanide (recognized by its nauseating smell) is produced, CHC13+C6H5NH2+3KHO=C6H5NC+3KC1+3H20.
Natanson (Ann., 1856, 9 8, p. 297) by the action of ethylene chloride on aniline, and by A.
Hofmann in 1858 from aniline and carbon tetrachloride.
Jour., 1860, 158, p. 146); by heating aniline for red with nitrobenzene, concentrated hydrochloric acid and iron (Coupier, Ber., 1873, 6, p. 423); or by condensing formaldehyde with aniline and ortho-toluidine and oxidizing the mixture.
Hofmann having previously shown that oxidation of pure aniline alone or of pure toluidine yielded no fuchsine, whilst oxidation of a mixture of aniline and para-toluidine gave rise to the fine red dyestuff para-fuchsine (pararosaniline hydrochloride) CH 3 C 6 H 4 NH 2 +2C 6 H 5 NH 2 +30 = HOC(C 6 H 4 NH 2) 3 +2H20.
Rosenstiehl (Jahres., 1869, p. 693) found also that different rosanilines were obtained according to whether orthoor para-toluidine was oxidized with aniline; and he gave the name rosaniline to the one obtained from aniline and ortho-toluidine, reserving the term pararosaniline for the other.
The third is also in the para position; for if benzaldehyde be condensed with aniline, condensation occurs in the para position, for the compound formed may be converted into para-dioxybenzophenone, C6H5CHO -)C6H5CH(C6H4NH2)2 - >C6H5CH(C6H40H)2 -->CO(C6H40H)2 but if para-nitrobenzaldehyde be used in the above reaction and the resulting nitro compound N02 C6H4 CH(C6H4NH2)2 be reduced, then pararosaniline is the final product, and consequently the third amino group occupies the para position.
It is a liquid of boiling point 136° C. It condenses readily with aniline to give ay-dimethyl quinoline.
When heated with aniline and its salts it yields phenylrosindulin (German patent 67339 (1888)).
Concentrated hydrochloric acid converts it into chlorbenzene, aniline and nitrogen.
Zinc dust and alcoholic acetic acid reduce it to aniline and phenylhydrazine.
It unites with aldehydes to form esters of ketonic acids, and with aniline yields anilido-acetic acid.
It is used commercially for the preparation of aniline and of benzidine; and in perfumery (oil of mirbane).
It crystallizes in prisms which melt at 121° C. It yields addition compounds with aniline and naphthalene, and combines directly with potassium methylate, sodio-malonic ester and hydrocyanic ester.
Bamberger, Ber., 18 93, 26, PP. 473, 4 8 3, 18 94, 2 7, p. 1 349), or of aniline by monopersulphuric acid (German patent 110575).
With aniline and acetic acid it yields azobenzene.
Water Is Always Selected, Although Some Less Volatile Liquid, Such As Aniline Or Mercury, Would Possess Many Advantages.
It loses four molecules of water of crystallization when heated to 100° C. and becomes anhydrous at about 300° C. The hexahydrate is dimorphous, a tetragonal form being obtained by crystallization of a solution of the heptahydrate between 20° and 30° C., and a monoclinic form between 50° and 70° C. Nickel sulphate combines with many metallic sulphates to form double salts, and also forms addition compounds with ammonia aniline and hydroxylamine.
It may be synthetically obtained by distilling oxindole (C 8 H 8 NO) with zinc dust; by heating orthonitrocinnamic acid with potash and iron filings; by the reduction of indigo blue; by the action of sodium ethylate on orthoaminochlorstyrene; by boiling aniline with dichloracetaldehyde; by the dry distillation of ortho-tolyloxamic acid; by heating aniline with dichioracetal; by distilling a mixture of calcium formate and calcium anilidoacetate; and by heating pyruvic acid phenyl hydrazone with anhydrous zinc chloride.
In these latter the basic aniline dyes in solution are almost exclusively used, on account of their special affinity for the bacterial protoplasm.
It is prepared by the action of carbonyl chloride on dimethyl aniline in the presence of aluminium chloride: COC12+2C6H5N(CH3)2=2HC1+CO[C6H4N(CH3)2]2.
Drewson, Ber., 1883, 16, p. 2207); by passing the vapour of allyl aniline over heated lead oxide; by the condensation of ortho-aminobenzaldehyde with acetaldehyde in the presence of aqueous.
`NH - CO N =C Cl N = CH and by the so-called "Skraup" reaction, which consists i111 oxidizing a mixture of aniline, glycerin and concentrated.
one, and its mechanism may probably be explained as follows: The glycerin is first converted into acrolein, which combines with the aniline to form acrolein-aniline, and this product is then oxidized by the nitrobenzene: C3H803-*C,H40 (C6H5NH2)-sC6H5N: CH CH: CH2-*C9H7N.
Quinaldine (a-methylquinoline) is present in coal-tar; it may be prepared by condensing aniline with paraldehyde and concentrated hydrochloric acid (0.
The reaction is a perfectly general one, for the aniline may be replaced by other aromatic amines and the aldehyde by other aldehydes, and so a large number of quinoline homologues may be prepared in this way.
Knorr, Ann., 1886, 236, p. 69) or from aniline, acetone, formaldehyde and hydrochloric acid (C. Beyer, Jour.
The oxy derivatives of the quinoline homologues are best obtained from the aniline derivatives of (3-ketonic acids.
At iio° C. aniline and acetoacetic ester condense to form anilido-acetoacetic ester, CH 3 C0 CH 2 C0 NH C 6 H 51 which is converted by concentrated acids into a-oxy-y-methylquinoline (L.
The Oriental character of the carpets has been almost destroyed by the adoption of aniline dyes and the introduction of Western patterns.
It has been used in dyeing with aniline black.
ANILINE, PHENYLAMINE, Or Aminobenzene, (C 6 H 5 Nh 2), an organic base first obtained from the destructive distillation of indigo in 1826 by O.
Fritzsche showed that by treating indigo with caustic potash it yielded an oil, which he named aniline, from the specific name of one of the indigo-yielding plants, Indigofera anil, anil being derived from the Sanskrit nila, dark-blue, and nila, the indigo plant.
von Hofmann investigated these variously prepared substances, and proved them to be identical, and thenceforth they took their place as one body, under the name aniline or phenylamine.
Pure aniline is a basic substance of an oily consistence, colourless, melting at - 8° and boiling at 184° C. On exposure to air it absorbs oxygen and resinifies, becoming deep brown in colour; it ignites readily, burning with a large smoky flame.
Aniline is a weak base and forms salts with the mineral acids.
Aniline hydrochloride forms large colourless tables, which become greenish on exposure; it is the "aniline salt" of commerce.
Although aniline is but feebly basic, it precipitates zinc, aluminium and ferric salts, and on warming expels ammonia from its salts.
Aniline combines directly with alkyl iodides to form secondary and tertiary amines; boiled with carbon disulphide it gives sulphocarbanilide (diphenyl thio-urea), CS(NHC 6 H 5) 2, which may be decomposed into phenyl mustard-oil, C 6 H 5 CNS, and triphenyl guanidine, C 6 H 5 N: C(NHC6H5)2.
Anilides, compounds in which the amino group is substituted by an acid radical, are prepared by heating aniline with certain acids; antifebrin or acetanilide is thus obtained from acetic acid and aniline.
The oxidation of aniline has been carefully investigated.
Chromic acid converts it into quinone, while chlorates, in the presence of certain metallic salts (especially of vanadium), give aniline black.
Potassium permanganate in neutral solution oxidizes it to nitrobenzene, in alkaline solution to azobenzene, ammonia and oxalic acid, in acid solution to aniline black.
The great commercial value of aniline is due to the readiness with which it yields, directly or indirectly, valuable dyestuffs.
In addition to dyestuffs, it is a starting-product for the manufacture of many drugs, such as antipyrine, antifebrin, &c. Aniline is manufactured by reducing nitrobenzene with iron and hydrochloric acid and steam-distilling the product.
In commerce three brands of aniline are distinguished - aniline oil for blue, which is pure aniline; aniline oil for red, a mixture of equimolecular quantities of aniline and orthoand para-toluidines; and aniline oil for safranine, which contains aniline and ortho-toluidine, and is obtained from the distillate (echappes) of the fuchsine fusion.
Monomethyl and dimethyl aniline are colourless liquids prepared by heating aniline, aniline hydrochloride and methyl alcohol in an autoclave at 220°.
Monomethyl aniline boils at 193-195'; dimethyl aniline at 192°.
Nubuck Aniline dyed leather which has been lightly abraded on the grain surface to create a velvety finish or nap.
The brushing also makes the leather even more absorbent than aniline leathers.
aniline dyed in a vat process with no color coating added to the surface.
full aniline dyed leathers are more susceptible to absorbing liquids because of the natural porosity of the hide.
aniline leathers, which absorb stains easily.
aniline dimer was in good agreement with that very recently reported  .
aniline colors are by no means common.
Full grain aniline leather or russet leathers cannot be cleaned with water or soap solution.
They also include an Italian double sofa bed, a 3 seater sofa and a footstool all made in aniline leather.
The most significant discoveries of KSU include non-Euclidean geometry, obtaining aniline from nitrobenzene, new element ruthenium, phenomenon of EPR.
Claus, Ber., 1873, 6, p. 723); by passing aniline vapour over lead oxide, or by the oxidation of dihydrophenazine, which is prepared by heating pyrocatechin with orthophenylene diamine (C. Ris, Ber., 1886, 19, p. 2206).
Lignified tissues are colored yellow by aniline sulphate or aniline chloride, violet with phloroglucin and hydrochloric acid, and characteristic reactions are also given by mixtures containing phenol, indol, skatol, thailin, sulphate, &c. (see Zimmermanns Microtechnique).
The same authorities recommend a powder, composed of larvicide (an aniline substance), chrysanthemum flowers, and valerian root, to be burnt in bedrooms. Anointing the skin with strong-smelling substances is of little use in the open air, but more effective in the house; turpentine appears to be the best.
It is a pleasantsmelling liquid which boils at 233Ã‚° C. It is practically unchanged when boiled with aniline.
The principal products of this class are india-rubber, mate, Brazil nuts, vegetable wax, palm fibre, cabinet woods, and medicinal leaves, roots, resins, &c. Before the discovery of the cheaper aniline colours, dye-woods were among the most valuable products of the country; in fact, Brazil derives her name from that of a dye-wood (Brazil-wood-Caesalpinia echinata), known as bresill, brasilly, bresilji, braxilis, or brasile long before the discovery of America (see Humboldt's Geographie du nouveau continent, tom.
Fischer); by heating salicylic aldehyde with aniline and zinc chloride to 260Ã‚° C. (R.
Silicon nitrogen hydride, SiNH, is a white powder formed with silicon amide when ammonia gas (diluted with hydrogen) is brought into contact with the vapour of silicon chloroform at -10Ã‚° C. Trianilino silicon hydride, SiH (NHC 6 H 5) 3, is obtained by the action of aniline on a benzene solution of silicon chloroform.
(The term " 30% benzol " means that 30% by volume distils below iooÃ‚°.) A purer benzol was subsequently required for the manufacture of aniline black and other dye-stuffs.
It is prepared by heating aniline and aniline hydrochloride for some hours to 210-240Ã‚° C, (Ch.
Calm, Bert, 1882, 15, p. 616); by heating a-naphthol with calcium chloride-ammonia to 270Ã‚° C.; and by heating pyromucic acid, aniline, zinc chloride and lime to 300Ã‚° C. (F.
It crystallizes from alcohol in orange red plates which melt at 68Ã‚° C. and boil at 293Ã‚° C. It does not react with acids or alkalis, but on reduction with zinc dust in acetic acid solution yields aniline.
Amino-azo-benzene, C6H5 N2 C 6 H 4 NH 2, crystallizes in yellow plates or needles and melts at 126Ã‚° C. Its constitution is determined by the facts that it may be prepared by reducing nitro-azo-benzene by ammonium sulphide and that by reduction with stannous chloride it yields aniline and.
It crystallizes in orange-red needles which melt at 82.5-83Ã‚° C. On reduction with zinc dust in dilute sal - ammoniac solution, it yields ortho-aminophenol and aniline.
Azoxybenzene, (C 6 H 5 N) 2 0, crystallizes from alcohol in yellow needles, which melt at 36Ã‚° C. On distillation, it yields aniline and azobenzene.
H 3 C CO NH 3 CO CH 3 H3C C - NH - C CH3 On nitration it yields chiefly meta-nitro-benzaldehyde, crystallizing in needles which melt at 58Ã‚° C. The ortho-compound may be obtained by oxidizing ortho-nitrocinnamic acid with alkaline potassium permanganate in the presence of benzene; or from ortho - nitrobenzyl chloride by condensing it with aniline, oxidizing the product so obtained to ortho-nitrobenzylidine aniline, and then hydrolysing this compound with an acid (Farben fabrik d.
It is prepared by oxidizing "aniline for red" (a mixture of aniline and orthoand para-toluidine) with arsenic acid (H.
It is a liquid of boiling point 136Ã‚° C. It condenses readily with aniline to give ay-dimethyl quinoline.
It also results in the oxidation of aniline by monopersulphuric acid (H.
It crystallizes in prisms which melt at 121Ã‚° C. It yields addition compounds with aniline and naphthalene, and combines directly with potassium methylate, sodio-malonic ester and hydrocyanic ester.
Griffiths Subsequently Applied The Same Method To The Measurement Of The Specific Heat Of Aniline, And The Latent Heat Of Va Orization Of Benzene And Water.
It loses four molecules of water of crystallization when heated to 100Ã‚° C. and becomes anhydrous at about 300Ã‚° C. The hexahydrate is dimorphous, a tetragonal form being obtained by crystallization of a solution of the heptahydrate between 20Ã‚° and 30Ã‚° C., and a monoclinic form between 50Ã‚° and 70Ã‚° C. Nickel sulphate combines with many metallic sulphates to form double salts, and also forms addition compounds with ammonia aniline and hydroxylamine.
PICRIC ACID, or [[Trinitrophenol, C6h2 Oh]] (N02)3 [22.214.171.124], an explosive and dyestuff formed by the action of concentrated nitric acid on indigo, aniline, resins, silk, wool, leather, &c. It is the final product of the direct nitration of phenol, and is usually prepared by the nitration of the mixture of phenol sulphonic acids obtained by heating phenol with concentrated sulphuric acid (E.
At iioÃ‚° C. aniline and acetoacetic ester condense to form anilido-acetoacetic ester, CH 3 C0 CH 2 C0 NH C 6 H 51 which is converted by concentrated acids into a-oxy-y-methylquinoline (L.
In the first group we have to notice the use of iron or zinc and dilute sulphuric acid for the manufacture of hydrogen, which may be used directly, as for inflating balloons or for purposes of combustion, or in the nascent condition, for reduction purposes, as generally is the case in organic chemistry (see Aniline).
100.00 These elements in tar are built up into an enormous number of compounds (see Coal Tar), and its value as a by-product may be gathered from the fact that on fractional distillation it yields - (I) benzene and its homologues, from which aniline, the source of most of the coal-tar colours, can be derived; (2) carbolic acid, from which picric acid, used as a dye, a powerful explosive, and to give the bitter flavour to some kinds of beer, is made, also many most valuable disinfectants; (3) naphthalene, used for disinfecting, and also as the "Albo-carbon" employed in an enriching burner for gas; (4) pitch, extensively used in path-making, from which such bodies as anthracene and saccharin can be extracted.
Pure aniline is a basic substance of an oily consistence, colourless, melting at - 8Ã‚° and boiling at 184Ã‚° C. On exposure to air it absorbs oxygen and resinifies, becoming deep brown in colour; it ignites readily, burning with a large smoky flame.
Monomethyl and dimethyl aniline are colourless liquids prepared by heating aniline, aniline hydrochloride and methyl alcohol in an autoclave at 220Ã‚°.
Monomethyl aniline boils at 193-195'; dimethyl aniline at 192Ã‚°.
The most significant discoveries of KSU include non-Euclidean geometry, obtaining aniline from nitrobenzene, new element Ruthenium, phenomenon of EPR.
Fully aniline dyed leathers are better and more expensive than semi-aniline dyed leathers.
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