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anhydrous

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anhydrous

anhydrous Sentence Examples

  • The soluble salts are, when in the hydrated condition, also red, but in the anhydrous condition are blue.

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  • It becomes anhydrous at about 360° C., and is unattacked by acids and alkalis.

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  • However, in 1833, Berzelius reverted to his earlier opinion that oxygenated radicals were incompatible with his electrochemical theory; he regarded benzoyl as an oxide of the radical C 14 H 1Q, which he named " picramyl " (from 7rucp6s, bitter, and &uvyalk, almond), the peroxide being anhydrous benzoic acid; and he dismissed the views of Gay Lussac and Dumas that ethylene was the radical of ether, alcohol and ethyl chloride, setting up in their place the idea that ether was a suboxide of ethyl, (C2H5)20, which was analogous to K 2 0, while alcohol was an oxide of a radical C 2 H 6; thus annihilating any relation between these two compounds.

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  • The raw materials used in the manufacture are: (I) iron-free kaolin, or some other kind of pure clay, which should contain its silica and alumina as nearly as possible in the proportion of 2SiO 2: Al203 demanded by the formula assigned to ideal kaolin (a deficit of silica, however, it appears can be made up for by addition of the calculated weight of finely divided silica); (2) anhydrous sulphate of soda; (3) anhydrous carbonate of soda; (4) sulphur (in the state of powder); and (5) powdered charcoal or relatively ash-free coal, or colophony in lumps.

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  • anhydrous it melts at 178°.

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  • It forms hard white rhombic prisms (with 1H 2 0), which become anhydrous at 400 and melt with decomposition at 205°.

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  • The anhydrous chloride is formed by heating strontium or its monoxide in chlorine, or by heating the hydrated chloride in a current of hydrochloric acid gas.

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  • The olefines may be synthetically prepared by eliminating water from the alcohols of the general formula CnH2n+1 OH, using sulphuric acid or zinc chloride generally as the dehydrating agent, although phosphorus pentoxide, syrupy phosphoric acid and anhydrous oxalic acid may frequently be substituted.

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  • Cobalt chloride, CoC1 2, in the anhydrous state, is formed by burning the metal in chlorine or by heating the sulphide in a current of the same gas.

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  • The most common of these sulphides is cobaltous sulphide, CoS, which occurs naturally as syepoorite, and can be artificially prepared by heating cobaltous oxide with sulphur, or by fusing anhydrous cobalt sulphate with barium sulphide and common salt.

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  • By dissolving it in concentrated sulphuric acid and warming the solution, the anhydrous salt is obtained.

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  • Boron nitride BN is formed when boron is burned either in air or in nitrogen, but can be obtained more readily by heating to redness in a platinum crucible a mixture of one part of anhydrous borax with two parts of dry ammonium chloride.

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  • Thus the heat of formation of anhydrous zinc sulphate, ZnSO 4j which cannot be determined directly, may be arrived at by summation (in Hess's units) as follows: Heats of formation are still determined for the most part in a precisely similar manner.

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  • Thus its non-liability to freeze (when not absolutely anhydrous, which it practically never is when freely exposed to the air) and its nonvolatility at ordinary temperatures, combined with its power of always keeping fluid and not drying up and hardening, render it valuable as a lubricating agent for clockwork, watches, &c., as a substitute for water in wet gas-meters, and as an ingredient in cataplasms, plasters, modelling clay, pasty colouring matters, dyeing materials, moist colours for artists, and numerous other analogous substances which are required to be kept in a permanently soft condition.

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  • This product melts at 86° C., and becomes anhydrous when heated to 110° C. The anhydrous compound can also be prepared, as hard crusts melting at 146°, by crystallizing concentrated aqueous solutions at 30 to 35°.

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  • The presence of so small a quantity as i% of alcohol may be detected in ether by the colour imparted to it by aniline violet; if water or acetic acid be present, the ether must be shaken with anhydrous potassium carbonate before the application of the test.

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  • It is found in the form of oxide (silica), either anhydrous or hydrated as quartz, flint, sand, chalcedony, tridymite, opal, &c., but occurs chiefly in the form of silicates of aluminium, magnesium, iron, and the alkali and alkaline earth metals, forming the chief constituent of various clays, soils and rocks.

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  • The anhydrous acid is not known, since on evaporating the aqueous solution it gradually decomposes into silicon fluoride and hydrofluoric acid.

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  • Here very clean non-magnetic concentrate of willemite, which is an anhydrous zinc silicate and a very highgrade zinc ore, is separated from an intimate mixture of willemite, zincite and franklinites, with calcite and some manganese silicates.

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  • The anhydrous salt, when exposed to a red heat, breaks up into oxide, sulphur dioxide and oxygen.

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  • Soc., 1901, 79, p. 828) has resolved benzyl-allyl-phenyl-methylamine iodide by boiling with silver d-camphorsulphonate in a nearly anhydrous mixture of acetone and ethyl acetate.

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  • It is an alkaline liquid, which when anhydrous boils at 116.5° C. Nitrous acid converts it into ethylene oxide.

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  • The secondary amines may be of two types-namely,the purely aromatic amines, and the mixed secondary amines, which contain an aromatic residue and an alkyl group. The purely aromatic amines result upon heating the primary amines with their hydrochlorides, and, in some cases, by heating a phenol with a primary amine and anhydrous zinc chloride.

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  • It may be obtained crystalline by fusing the anhydrous chloride with a large excess of potassium hydrogen fluoride or by heating the amorphous variety to redness with an excess of an alkaline chloride.

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  • When heated it fuses in its own water of crystallization and becomes anhydrous at 110° C. It is used in pyrotechny for the manufacture of red-fire.

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  • The substances which we at present term anhydrous acids (acid oxides) only become, for the most part, capable of forming salts with metallic oxides after the addition of water, or they are compounds which decompose these oxides at somewhat high temperatures."

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  • Ethyl oxalate, (C0.0C2H5)2, prepared by boiling anhydrous oxalic acid with absolute alcohol, is a colourless liquid which boils at 186° C. Methyl oxalate (CO.

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  • This water cannot be entirely removed by fractional distillation, and to prepare anhydrous or "absolute" alcohol the commercial product must be allowed to stand over some dehydrating agent, such as caustic lime, baryta, anhydrous copper sulphate, &c., and then distilled.

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  • The brine is cooled in a tank filled with spiral pipes, in which anhydrous ammonia, previously liquefied by compression, is vaporized in vacuo at the atmospheric temperature by the sensible heat of the returncurrent of brine, whose temperature has been slightly raised in its passage through the circulating tubes.

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  • The chloride, SmC1 3.6H 2 0, is a deliquescent solid which when heated in hydrochloric acid gas to 180° C. yields the anhydrous chloride.

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  • This anhydrous chloride is reduced to a lower chloride, of composition SmC1 2, when heated to a high temperature in a current of hydrogen or ammonia (Matignon and Cazes, Coupes rendus, 2906, 142, p. 183).

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  • The distillate is treated with anhydrous calcium chloride, the crystalline compound formed with the alcohol being separated and decomposed by redistilling with water.

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  • The anhydrous oxide is with difficulty soluble even in hydrofluoric acid; but a mixture of two parts of concentrated sulphuric acid and one of water dissolves it on continued heating as the sulphate, Zr(S04)2.

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  • Its maximum solubility in water is at 34 0; above that temperature it ceases to exist in the solution as a decahydrate, but changes to the anhydrous salt, the solubility of which decreases with rise of temperature.

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  • It is permanent when dry; on heating to 130° C. it loses water and gives the anhydrous dioxide as an unstable, pale buff-coloured powder, very sparingly soluble in water.

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  • Anhydrous calcium chloride, prepared by heating the hydrate to 200° (preferably in a current of hydrochloric acid gas, which prevents the formation of any oxychloride), is very hygroscopic, and is used as a desiccating agent.

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  • The anhydrous nitrate, obtained by heating the crystallized salt, is very phosphorescent, and constitutes "Baldwin's phosphorus."

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  • Moissan in 1886 by the electrolysis of pure anhydrous hydrofluoric acid containing dissolved potassium fluoride.

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  • The perfectly anhydrous acid is a very volatile colourless liquid and is best obtained, according to G.

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  • It can also be prepared in the anhydrous condition by passing a current of hydrogen over dry silver fluoride.

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  • Potassium and sodium readily dissolve in the anhydrous acid with evolution of hydrogen and formation of x.

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  • Natural sulphate occurs in an anhydrous condition as thenardite, Na2SO 4, at Tarapaca, Chile, and in the rock-salt deposits at Espartinas near Aranjuez, Spain.

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  • When anhydrous it is a colourless opaque solid which melts at 310 °, and decomposes at about 110o°.

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  • The bromide and iodide crystallize from hot solutions in anhydrous cubes; from solutions at ordinary temperatures in monoclinic prisms with 2H 2 O; and at low temperatures with 5H 2 O.

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  • The anhydrous salt may be prepared by heating a saturated solution of the hydrated salt.

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  • The anhydrous salt is a colourless powder or porous mass, having an alkaline taste and reaction.

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  • The very beautiful (anhydrous) crystals have the habit of a double six-sided pyramid, but really belong to the rhombic system.

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  • In making the acid by this process benzaldehyde, acetic anhydride and anhydrous sodium acetate are heated for some hours to about 180 C., the resulting product is made alkaline with sodium carbonate, and any excess of benzaldehyde removed by a current of steam.

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  • Anhydrous acetic acid - glacial acetic acid - is a leafy crystalline mass melting at 16.7° C., and possessing an exceedingly pungent smell.

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  • Wdhler, Ann., 1850, 73, p. 219), the anhydrous acid being.

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  • The anhydrous acid combines with hydrochloric, hydrobromic and hydriodic acids to form crystalline addition products, which are decomposed by water with the formation of the corresponding ammonium salt and formic acid.

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  • 242938 (1894)] passes anhydrous ammonia over heated sodium to form sodamide, which is then brought in a molten condition into contact with carbon: NaNH 2 +C = NaNC+H 2.

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  • A concentrated acid may be obtained from the diluted acid either by neutralization with soda, the sodium salt thus obtained being then dried and heated with the equivalent quantity of anhydrous oxalic acid (Lorin, Bull.

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  • Chromic chloride, CrC1 31 is obtained in the anhydrous form by igniting a mixture of the sesquioxide and carbon in a current of dry chlorine; it forms violet laminae almost insoluble in water, but dissolves rapidly in presence of a trace of chromous chloride; this action has been regarded as a catalytic action, it being assumed that the insoluble chromic chloride is first reduced by the chromous chloride to the chromous condition and the original chromous chloride converted into soluble chromic chloride, the newly formed chromous chloride then reacting with the insoluble chromic chloride.

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  • Chromic bromide, CrBr 3, is prepared in the anhydrous form by the same method as the chloride, and resembles it in its properties.

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  • Heated with anhydrous sodium acetate and acetic anhydride it gives cinnamic acid; with ethyl bromide and sodium it forms triphenyl-carbinol (C 6 H 5) 3 C OH; with dimethylaniline and anhydrous zinc chloride it forms leuco-malachite green C6H5CH[C6H4N(CH3)2]2; and with dimethylaniline and concentrated hydrochloric acid it gives dimethylaminobenzhydrol, C 6 H 5 CH(OH)C 6 H 4 N(CH 3) 2.

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  • 1829, 15, p. 30; 1830, 16, p. 142), who fused the anhydrous chloride with potassium; H.

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  • To obtain the anhydrous salt, the double magnesium ammonium chloride, MgCl2 NH 4 C1.6H 2 O, is prepared by adding ammonium chloride to a solution of magnesium chloride.

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  • The solution is evaporated, and the residue strongly heated, when water and ammonium chloride are expelled, and anhydrous magnesium chloride remains.

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  • Grignard (Comptes rendus, 1900 et seq.) observed that magnesium and alkyl or aryl halides combined together in presence of anhydrous ether at ordinary R temperatures (with the appearance of brisk boiling) to form compounds of the type RMgX(R = an alkyl or aryl group and X = halogen).

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  • His work included investigations of osmic acid, of the ferrates, stannates, plumbates, &c., and of ozone, attempts to obtain free fluorine by the electrolysis of fused fluorides, and the discovery of anhydrous hydrofluoric acid and of a series of acides sulphazotes, the precise nature of which long remained a matter of discussion.

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  • HYDRATE, in chemistry, a compound containing the elements of water in combination; more specifically, a compound containing the monovalent hydroxyl or OH group. The first and more general definition includes substances containing water of crystallization; such salts are said to be hydrated, and when deprived of their water to be dehydrated or anhydrous.

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  • Sodium sulphate, for instance, crystallizes below 32.6° as Na 2 SO 4 IoH 2 O, and above that temperature as the anhydrous solid Na2S04.

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  • At that temperature crystals of the anhydrous Na 2 SO 4 appear, and a new fixed equilibrium exists between the four phases - hydrate, anhydrous salt, solution and vapour.

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  • As heat is supplied, the hydrate is transformed gradually into the anhydrous salt and water.

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  • When this process is complete the temperature rises, and we pass along a new curve giving the equilibrium between anhydrous crystals, solution and vapour.

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  • At the point K, 66°, begins the solubility curve of the anhydrous salt, Fe2C16, the fusion point of which when pure is beyond the limits of the diagram.

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  • Still further evaporation causes these crystals to effloresce and pass into the anhydrous salt.

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  • He took the same course soon afterwards with four other papers, two of which - "On the quantity of acids, bases and salts in different varieties of salts" and "On a new and easy method of analysing sugar," contain his discovery, regarded by him as second in importance only to the atomic theory, that certain anhydrous salts when dissolved in water cause no increase in its volume, his inference being that the "salt enters into the pores of the water."

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  • Kaolin or China clay is essentially a pure disilicate (Al 2 O 3.2SiO 2.2H 2 O), occurring in large beds almost throughout the world, and containing in its anhydrous state 2 4.4% of the metal, which, however, in common clays is more or less replaced by calcium, magnesium, and the alkalis, the proportion of silica sometimes reaching 70%.

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  • To obtain the anhydrous single or double chloride, alumina must be ignited with carbon in a current of chlorine, and to exclude iron from the finished metal, either the alumina must be pure or the chloride be submitted to purification.

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  • On heating, the crystals lose water, swell up, and give the anhydrous sulphate, which, on further heating, gives alumina.

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  • In 1886 he succeeded in obtaining the element fluorine in the free state by the electrolysis of potassium fluoride and anhydrous hydrofluoric acid at a low temperature.

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  • Soc., 1886, 49, p. 322); by the action of anhydrous ferric chloride on acid chlorides (J.

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  • In order to isolate the anhydrous diazonium salts, the method of E.

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  • Wolffenstein (Ber., 1894, 27, p. 2307) prepared practically anhydrous hydrogen peroxide (containing 99.1% H 2 0 2) by first removing all traces of dust, heavy metals and alkali from the commercial 3% solution.

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  • Berthelot, Comptes rendus, 1878, 86, P. 71) The anhydrous hydrogen peroxide obtained by Wolffenstein boils at 84-85°C. (68 mm.); its specific gravity is 1.4996 (I.

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  • It may be synthetically prepared by the action of anhydrous aluminium chloride on a mixture of naphthalene and ethylene dibromide (R.

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  • Muthmann and Weiss (Ann., 1904, 33 1, p. 1) obtained it by electrolysing the anhydrous chloride.

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  • Lanthanum chloride, LaC1 3, is obtained in the anhydrous condition by heating lanthanum ammonium chloride or, according to C. Matignon (Comet.

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  • By careful heating it may be made to yield the anhydrous salt.

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  • 500° C. (= 932° F.), and the whole of the combined water of the gypsum is expelled, the anhydrous sulphate CaSO 4 being obtained.

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  • The quantity of these materials is so small that analyses of Keene's cement show it to be almost pure anhydrous calcium sulphate, and make it difficult to explain what, if any, influence these minute amounts of alum and the like can exert on the setting of the cement.

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  • The setting of Keene's cement takes place by the same sort of process which has been described for the setting of plaster of Paris, the chief differences being that the substance dissolved is anhydrous calcium sulphate and that the operation takes a longer time.

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  • The chloride when anhydrous is a crystalline mass which melts at 24°.

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  • Gattermann, Ann., 1888, 244, p. 30), melts at 50° C. and boils at 61-62° C. In the presence of anhydrous aluminium chloride it reacts with aromatic hydrocarbons to form the amides of aromatic acids.

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  • Benzoic anhydride, (C 6 H 5 C0) 2 0, is prepared by the action of benzoyl chloride on sodium benzoate, or by heating benzoyl chloride with anhydrous oxalic acid (R.

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  • Manganous oxide, MnO, is obtained by heating a mixture of anhydrous manganese chloride and sodium carbonate with a small quantity of ammonium chloride (J.

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  • The anhydrous chloride, MnCl2, is obtained as a rose-red crystalline solid by passing hydrochloric acid gas over manganese carbonate, first in the cold and afterwards at a moderate red heat.

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  • Ann., 18 74, 1 5 1, 449) obtained a crystalline variety by melting sulphur with anhydrous manganous sulphate and dry potassium carbonate, extracting the residue and drying it in a current of hydrogen.

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  • Four sulphides are known; the red and green are anhydrous, a grey variety contains much water, whilst the pink is a mixture of the grey and red (J.

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  • If this is anhydrous, as it must be in any case for this purpose, it does not act upon the metal of the compressors, nor upon the iron bottles in which it is sent out.

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  • The salts of scandium are all colourless, the chloride and bromide corresponding in composition to Sc 2 X 6.12H 2 0; the fluoride is anhydrous.

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  • In the anhydrous state they are usually of a yellow colour, whilst in the hydrated condition they are green.

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  • Nickel chloride, NiC1 2, is obtained in the anhydrous condition by heating the hydrated salt to 140° C., or by gently heating the finely divided metal in a current of chlorine.

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  • Nickel chloride ammonia, NiC1 2.6NH3, is obtained as a white powder when anhydrous nickel chloride is exposed to the action of ammonia gas (H.

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  • Nickel sulphate, NiSO 4, is obtained anhydrous as a yellow powder when any of its hydrates are heated.

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  • It loses four molecules of water of crystallization when heated to 100° C. and becomes anhydrous at about 300° C. The hexahydrate is dimorphous, a tetragonal form being obtained by crystallization of a solution of the heptahydrate between 20° and 30° C., and a monoclinic form between 50° and 70° C. Nickel sulphate combines with many metallic sulphates to form double salts, and also forms addition compounds with ammonia aniline and hydroxylamine.

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  • With aromatic hydrocarbons in the presence of anhydrous aluminium chloride, in the cold, there is a large evolution of hydrochloric acid gas, and an aldehyde is formed; at 100° C., on the other hand, anthracene derivatives are produced.

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  • Nickel carbonate, NiC03, is obtained in the anhydrous state by heating nickel chloride with calcium carbonate in a sealed tube to 150°C. (H.

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  • By using hot acid the yellow anhydrous tungstic acid is precipitated, which is insoluble in water and in all acids except hydrofluoric. It may be obtained in a flocculent form by exposing the hexachloride to moist air.

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  • It forms yellow octahedra, which become anhydrous at 100°, and are converted into the trioxide on ignition.

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  • It may be synthetically obtained by distilling oxindole (C 8 H 8 NO) with zinc dust; by heating orthonitrocinnamic acid with potash and iron filings; by the reduction of indigo blue; by the action of sodium ethylate on orthoaminochlorstyrene; by boiling aniline with dichloracetaldehyde; by the dry distillation of ortho-tolyloxamic acid; by heating aniline with dichioracetal; by distilling a mixture of calcium formate and calcium anilidoacetate; and by heating pyruvic acid phenyl hydrazone with anhydrous zinc chloride.

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  • Succinic anhydride, C 2 H 4 (CO) 2 0, is obtained by heating the acid or its sodium salt with acetic anhydride; by the action of acetyl chloride on the barium salt; by distilling a mixture of succinic acid and succinyl chloride, or by heating succinyl chloride with anhydrous oxalic acid.

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  • The salts derived from cupric oxide are generally white when anhydrous, but blue or green when hydrated.

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  • The hydrated form, (CuF 21 2H 2 O, 5HF),is obtained as blue crystals, sparingly soluble in cold water; when heated to 100° C. it gives the compound CuF(OH), which, when heated with ammonium fluoride in a current of carbon dioxide, gives anhydrous copper fluoride as a white powder.

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  • The anhydrous salt is very hygroscopic, and hence finds application as a desiccating agent.

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  • In the anhydrous state it melts at 205-206° C. Mesotartaric acid is formed when cinchonine tartrate is heated for some time at 170° C. (L.

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  • It crystallizes in prisms, and in the anhydrous state melts at 140° C. On prolonged boiling with aqueous hydrochloric acid it yields racemic acid.

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  • These crystals on heating to 130° C. lose the water of crystallization and leave a residue of the anhydrous peroxide.

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  • It can be obtained in the anhydrous condition by heating it gently to about 120° C. It has a bitter taste and is a strong poison.

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  • In chloroform solution it combines with anhydrous oxalic acid to form a compound, Sb2C18(C204), which is to be considered as COOSbC14 tetra-chlorstibonium oxalate I (R.

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  • The precipitate is then washed with water and dried at 100° C., by which treatment it is obtained in the anhydrous form.

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  • It may be prepared by distilling calcium benzoate; by condensing benzene with benzoyl chloride in the presence of anhydrous aluminium chloride; by the action of mercury diphenyl on benzoyl chloride, or by oxidizing diphenylmethane with chromic acid.

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  • The oxide, Yb203, is white and forms colourless salts; the crystallized chloride, YbC1 3.6H 2 0, forms colourless, deliquescent crystals; the anhydrous chloride sublimes on heating (C. Matignon, Ann.

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  • Silver nitrate, AgNO 3, one of the most important silver salts, is obtained by dissolving the metal in moderately dilute nitric acid; on evaporation it separates in the anhydrous form as colourless triclinic plates.

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  • Potassium selenocyanide, KSeCN, is obtained by the action of selenium on a concentrated aqueous solution of potassium cyanide, or by heating selenium with anhydrous potassium ferrocyanide (W.

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  • They are both crystalline solids, the former melting when anhydrous at 199-200°, and the latter at 52° C. ' Of the homologues of quinoline, the most important are quinaldine, lepidine, -y-phenylquinoline, and flavoline.

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  • Closely related to flavoline is flavaniline or (a)-para-aminophenyl-y-methylquinoline, which is formed when acctanilide and anhydrous zinc chloride are heated together for many hours at 250-270° C. (0.

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  • It crystallizes from water in needles or prisms and in the anhydrous state melts at 253-254° C. Potassium permanganate oxidizes it to pyridine tricarboxylic acid (234).

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  • down to - 16° C. when H 2 SO 4 crystallizes out, or by the addition of anhydrous S0 3 in the shape of fuming acid.

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  • 18 99, 3 2, p. 333 2): Cn112n_10Na - >C,,H2n_10 CS.SNa(R) -->Cn,H 2 n_2+COS- FR SH; or simply by dehydrating with anhydrous oxalic acid (N.

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  • Doebner (Ber., 1902, 35, pp. 2129, 2 53 8; 1903, 3 6, p. 43 18) obtained compounds, which in all probability are cyclo-octadienes, by the distillation of s-vinylacrylic acid, sorbic acid, and cinnamenyl acrylic acid with anhydrous baryta.

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  • It oxidizes on exposure with considerable evolution of heat; it rapidly absorbs carbon dioxide; and readily dissolves in acids to form ferrous salts, which are usually white when anhydrous, but greenish when hydrated.

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  • Red ferric hydroxide dissolves in acids to form a well-defined series of salts, the ferric salts, also obtained by oxidizing ferrous salts; they are usually colourless when anhydrous, but yellow or brown when hydrated.

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  • Ferrous fluoride, FeF21 is obtained as colourless prisms (with 8H2O) by dissolving iron in hydrofluoric acid, or as anhydrous colourless rhombic prisms by heating iron or ferric chloride in dry hydrofluoric acid gas.

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  • By adding ammonium chloride to the solution, evaporating in vacuo, and then volatilizing the ammonium chloride, anhydrous ferrous chloride is obtained.

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  • Ferric chloride, FeCl31 known in its aqueous solution to Glauber as oleum martis, may be obtained anhydrous by the action of dry chlorine on the metal at a moderate red-heat, or by passing hydrochloric acid gas over heated ferric oxide.

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  • By gently heating in a vacuum to 140°, the hepta-hydrate loses 6 molecules of water, and yields a white powder, which on heating in the absence of air gives the anhydrous salt.

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  • The anhydrous salt is obtained by heating, or by adding concentrated sulphuric acid to a solution.

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  • Soc., 1901, p. 285) obtained a nitride Fe2N by acting upon anhydrous ferrous chloride or bromide, finely divided reduced iron, or iron amalgam with ammonia at 420°; and, also, in a compact form, by the action of ammonia on red hot iron wire.

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  • Reddish brown amorphous powders of the formulae 2FeC1 3NO and 4FeC13NO are obtained by passing the gas over anhydrous ferric chloride.

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  • Pure anhydrous .hydroxylamine has been obtained by C. A.

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  • by the action of the aluminium-mercury couple and water), but better, according to C. Goldschmidt (Ber., 1896, 29, p. 2307) by dissolving nitrobenzene in ten times its weight of ether containing a few cubic centimetres of water, and heating with excess of zinc dust and anhydrous calcium chloride for three hours on a water bath.

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  • The thiophen ketones may be prepared by the interaction of thiophen and its homologues with acid chlorides in the presence of anhydrous aluminium chloride.

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  • It crystallizes in prisms, containing one molecule of water of crystallization, the anhydrous form melting at 234-235° C. Nitrous acid converts it into malic acid, [[Hooc Choh Ch 2 Cooh]].

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  • By evaporation of its aqueous solution at temperatures above 30° C. it may be obtained in the anhydrous condition.

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  • The refrigerating liquid (ether, sulphur dioxide, anhydrous ammonia, or carbonic acid) passes from the bottom of the condenser through the regulating valve into the refrigerator in a continuous stream.

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  • The results show that the loss is least in the case of anhydrous ammonia and greatest in the case of carbonic acid.

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  • The critical temperature of anhydrous ammonia is about 266° F., which is never approached in the ordinary working of refrigerating machines.

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  • Some of the principal physical properties of sulphurous acid, anhydrous ammonia, and carbonic cold are given in Tables III., IV.

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  • -Ledoux's Table for Saturated Sulphur Dioxide Vapour (S02) [[Table Iv]].- Mollier's Table for Saturated Anhydrous Ammonia Vapour (NH3).

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  • Carre in France; but no very high degree of perfection was arrived at, owing to the impossibility of getting an anhydrous product of distillation.

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  • In 1867 Rees Reece, taking advantage of the fact that two vapours of different boiling-points, when mixed, can be separated by means of fractional condensation, brought out an absorption machine in which the distillate was very nearly anhydrous.

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  • The metallic salts all crystallize in the anhydrous condition and decompose on heating, leaving a residue of the pure metal.

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  • anhydrous copper(II) sulfate.

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  • anhydrous colloidal silica, maize starch, povidone, microcrystalline cellulose and magnesium stearate.

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  • anhydrous copper sulfate is the white powder which results.

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  • anhydrous calcium chloride (also called fused calcium chloride) is a drying agent.

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  • anhydrous salt.

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  • anhydrous nickel catalyst, but the selectivity is not satisfactory.

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  • Fat tissue is comparatively anhydrous and acts as a resistor to the flow of an electrical signal.

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  • Within the Earth mantle, nominally anhydrous minerals contain small amounts of hydrogen as point defects within their crystal structure.

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  • Run off the lower layer of 1-bromobutane and add some granular anhydrous calcium chloride.

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  • Anusol Ointment base also contains: magnesium stearate, cocoa butter, anhydrous lanolin, castor oil, light kaolin, white petroleum jelly.

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  • Add some anhydrous potassium carbonate to the ethoxyethane solution, and leave to stand until it is clear.

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  • The tablets also contain the following ingredients: anhydrous colloidal silica, maize starch, povidone, microcrystalline cellulose and magnesium stearate.

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  • Metric Sodium sulfite (anhydrous) 2 ozs 70 grams Hydroquinone 176 grains 10 grams sodium carbonate (anhydrous) 1 oz.

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  • Molten anhydrous zinc chloride gives zinc (+) and chlorine (- ), equations 1 and 2.

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  • The hydrated salt readily loses water on heating, forming at 100° C. the hydrate CoBr 2.2H 2 O, and at 130° C. passing into the anhydrous form.

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  • Berzelius), also by conversion of anhydrous borax into sodium chloride (W.

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  • It becomes anhydrous at about 360° C., and is unattacked by acids and alkalis.

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  • Succinic aldehyde dioxime, HON: CH CH2 CH2 CH: NOH, is obtained by boiling an alcoholic solution of pyrrol with hydroxylamine hydrochloride and anhydrous sodium carbonate (G.

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  • It can be prepared by distilling a mixture of dry calcium benzoate and acetate, Ca(O2CC6H5)2 + (CH3CO2)2Ca = 2CaCO3 + 2 C6H5CO.CH3, or by condensing benzene with acetyl chloride in the presence of anhydrous aluminium chloride (C. Friedel and J.

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  • This product melts at 86° C., and becomes anhydrous when heated to 110° C. The anhydrous compound can also be prepared, as hard crusts melting at 146°, by crystallizing concentrated aqueous solutions at 30 to 35°.

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  • anhydrous it melts at 178°.

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  • The simplest member of the series is acrolein, C 3 H 4 0 or CH 2: CH�CHO, which can be prepared by the oxidation of allyl alcohol, or by the abstraction of the elements of water from glycerin by heating it with anhydrous potassium bisulphate.

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  • In 1849 he discovered anhydrous nitric acid (nitrogen pentoxide), a substance interesting as the first obtained of the so-called " anhydrides " of the monobasic acids.

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  • If it is evaporated slowly, anhydrous stannous oxide crystallizes out in forms which are combinations of the cube and dodecahedron.

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  • It forms hard white rhombic prisms (with 1H 2 0), which become anhydrous at 400 and melt with decomposition at 205°.

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  • It is an alkaline liquid, which when anhydrous boils at 116.5° C. Nitrous acid converts it into ethylene oxide.

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  • When heated it fuses in its own water of crystallization and becomes anhydrous at 110° C. It is used in pyrotechny for the manufacture of red-fire.

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  • The anhydrous acid melts at 189.5° C. (E.

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  • Ethyl oxalate, (C0.0C2H5)2, prepared by boiling anhydrous oxalic acid with absolute alcohol, is a colourless liquid which boils at 186° C. Methyl oxalate (CO.

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  • The chloride, SmC1 3.6H 2 0, is a deliquescent solid which when heated in hydrochloric acid gas to 180° C. yields the anhydrous chloride.

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  • It is permanent when dry; on heating to 130° C. it loses water and gives the anhydrous dioxide as an unstable, pale buff-coloured powder, very sparingly soluble in water.

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  • Anhydrous calcium chloride, prepared by heating the hydrate to 200° (preferably in a current of hydrochloric acid gas, which prevents the formation of any oxychloride), is very hygroscopic, and is used as a desiccating agent.

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  • The anhydrous acid boils at 19 0.5 C. (H Moissan), and on cooling, sets to a solid mass at - 102°.

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  • When anhydrous it is a colourless opaque solid which melts at 310 °, and decomposes at about 110o°.

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  • The anhydrous chlorides of nickel, cobalt, cadmium, barium, iron and lead act in the same way as catalysts at about 300° C., and the bromides of lead, cadmium, nickel and barium at about 320° C.

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  • The filtrate is evaporated at a temperature not exceeding 60° or at most 70° C.; after sufficient concentration it deposits on cooling anhydrous crystals of the salt, while the potassium chloride, which may be present as an impurity, remains mostly in the motherliquor; the rest is easily removed by repeated recrystallization.

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  • Anhydrous acetic acid - glacial acetic acid - is a leafy crystalline mass melting at 16.7° C., and possessing an exceedingly pungent smell.

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  • It may also be prepared by oxidizing benzyl alcohol with concentrated nitric acid; by distilling a mixture of calcium benzoate and calcium formate; by the condensation of chlor-oxalic ester with benzene in the presence of aluminium chloride, the ester of the ketonic acid formed being then hydrolysed and the resulting acid distilled: C 6 H 6 +Cl CO Cooc 2 H 5 = C,H5co COOC2H5d-HC1, C 6 H 5 CO 000H =C6H5CHO+C02; by the action of anhydrous hydrocyanic acid and hydrochloric acid on benzene, an aldime being formed as an intermediate product: C 6 H 6 +HCN+HC1= C6H5CH :NH HC1, Benzaldine hydrochloride C 6 H 5 CH: NH HC1+H 2 O =NH4C1+C6H5CHO; and by the action of chromium oxychloride on toluene dissolved in carbon bisulphide (A.

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  • Sodium sulphate, for instance, crystallizes below 32.6° as Na 2 SO 4 IoH 2 O, and above that temperature as the anhydrous solid Na2S04.

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  • At the point K, 66°, begins the solubility curve of the anhydrous salt, Fe2C16, the fusion point of which when pure is beyond the limits of the diagram.

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  • It forms hydroxyhydrocollidine when heated with acetamide and anhydrous zinc chloride (F.

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  • Berthelot, Comptes rendus, 1878, 86, P. 71) The anhydrous hydrogen peroxide obtained by Wolffenstein boils at 84-85°C. (68 mm.); its specific gravity is 1.4996 (I.

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  • Esters may be prepared by heating the silver salt of an acid with an alkyl iodide; by heating the alcohols or alcoholates with an acid chloride; by distilling the anhydrous sodium salt of an acid with a mixture of the alcohol and concentrated sulphuric acid; or by heating for some hours on the water bath, a mixture of an acid and an alcohol, with a small quantity of hydrochloric or sulphuric acids (E.

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  • Amyl nitrite, C5H1, ONO, boils at 96° C. and is used in the preparation of the anhydrous diazonium salts (E.

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  • 500° C. (= 932° F.), and the whole of the combined water of the gypsum is expelled, the anhydrous sulphate CaSO 4 being obtained.

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  • The chloride when anhydrous is a crystalline mass which melts at 24°.

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  • Gattermann, Ann., 1888, 244, p. 30), melts at 50° C. and boils at 61-62° C. In the presence of anhydrous aluminium chloride it reacts with aromatic hydrocarbons to form the amides of aromatic acids.

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  • 2N102, by heating the monoxide with anhydrous baryta in the electric furnace (E.

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  • Nickel chloride, NiC1 2, is obtained in the anhydrous condition by heating the hydrated salt to 140° C., or by gently heating the finely divided metal in a current of chlorine.

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  • It loses four molecules of water of crystallization when heated to 100° C. and becomes anhydrous at about 300° C. The hexahydrate is dimorphous, a tetragonal form being obtained by crystallization of a solution of the heptahydrate between 20° and 30° C., and a monoclinic form between 50° and 70° C. Nickel sulphate combines with many metallic sulphates to form double salts, and also forms addition compounds with ammonia aniline and hydroxylamine.

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  • With aromatic hydrocarbons in the presence of anhydrous aluminium chloride, in the cold, there is a large evolution of hydrochloric acid gas, and an aldehyde is formed; at 100° C., on the other hand, anthracene derivatives are produced.

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  • Nickel carbonate, NiC03, is obtained in the anhydrous state by heating nickel chloride with calcium carbonate in a sealed tube to 150°C. (H.

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  • It forms yellow octahedra, which become anhydrous at 100°, and are converted into the trioxide on ignition.

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  • The hydrated form, (CuF 21 2H 2 O, 5HF),is obtained as blue crystals, sparingly soluble in cold water; when heated to 100° C. it gives the compound CuF(OH), which, when heated with ammonium fluoride in a current of carbon dioxide, gives anhydrous copper fluoride as a white powder.

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  • In the anhydrous state it melts at 205-206° C. Mesotartaric acid is formed when cinchonine tartrate is heated for some time at 170° C. (L.

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  • It crystallizes in prisms, and in the anhydrous state melts at 140° C. On prolonged boiling with aqueous hydrochloric acid it yields racemic acid.

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  • These crystals on heating to 130° C. lose the water of crystallization and leave a residue of the anhydrous peroxide.

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  • It can be obtained in the anhydrous condition by heating it gently to about 120° C. It has a bitter taste and is a strong poison.

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  • The precipitate is then washed with water and dried at 100° C., by which treatment it is obtained in the anhydrous form.

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  • They are both crystalline solids, the former melting when anhydrous at 199-200°, and the latter at 52° C. ' Of the homologues of quinoline, the most important are quinaldine, lepidine, -y-phenylquinoline, and flavoline.

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  • Closely related to flavoline is flavaniline or (a)-para-aminophenyl-y-methylquinoline, which is formed when acctanilide and anhydrous zinc chloride are heated together for many hours at 250-270° C. (0.

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  • It crystallizes from water in needles or prisms and in the anhydrous state melts at 253-254° C. Potassium permanganate oxidizes it to pyridine tricarboxylic acid (234).

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  • down to - 16° C. when H 2 SO 4 crystallizes out, or by the addition of anhydrous S0 3 in the shape of fuming acid.

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  • By gently heating in a vacuum to 140°, the hepta-hydrate loses 6 molecules of water, and yields a white powder, which on heating in the absence of air gives the anhydrous salt.

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  • Soc., 1901, p. 285) obtained a nitride Fe2N by acting upon anhydrous ferrous chloride or bromide, finely divided reduced iron, or iron amalgam with ammonia at 420°; and, also, in a compact form, by the action of ammonia on red hot iron wire.

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  • It crystallizes in prisms, containing one molecule of water of crystallization, the anhydrous form melting at 234-235° C. Nitrous acid converts it into malic acid, [[Hooc Choh Ch 2 Cooh]].

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  • By evaporation of its aqueous solution at temperatures above 30° C. it may be obtained in the anhydrous condition.

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  • The critical temperature of anhydrous ammonia is about 266° F., which is never approached in the ordinary working of refrigerating machines.

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  • An absorption apparatus as applied to the cooling of liquids consist s s of a generator containing coils to which steam is supplied at suitable pressure, an analyser, a rectifier, a condenser either of the submerged or open type, a refrigerator in which the nearly anhydrous ammonia obtained in the condenser is allowed to evaporate, an absorber through which the weak liquor from the generator continually flows and absorbs the anhydrous vapour produced in the refrigerator, and a pump for forcing the strong liquor produced in the absorber back through an economizer into the analyser where, meeting with steam from the generator, the ammonia gas is again driven off, the process being thus carried on continuously.

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  • Metric Sodium sulfite (anhydrous) 2 ozs 70 grams Hydroquinone 176 grains 10 grams Sodium carbonate (anhydrous) 1 oz.

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  • Molten anhydrous zinc chloride gives zinc (+) and chlorine (-), equations 1 and 2.

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  • It's good to note that products containing caffeine anhydrous often have as much caffeine as one or two cups of coffee.

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  • soc. chim., 1904 [31, 31, p.1306) prepares aldehydes by the gradual addition of disubstituted formamides (dissolved in anhydrous ether) to magnesium alkyl haloids, the best yields being obtained by the use of diethyl formamide.

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  • The simplest member of the series is acrolein, C 3 H 4 0 or CH 2: CH�CHO, which can be prepared by the oxidation of allyl alcohol, or by the abstraction of the elements of water from glycerin by heating it with anhydrous potassium bisulphate.

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  • employing such an excess of sulphuric over nitric that the latter will be rendered anhydrous or concentrated and maintained as such in solution in the sulphuric acid, and that the sulphuric acid shall still be sufficiently strong to absorb and combine with the water produced during the actual formation of the guncotton.

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  • The anhydrous acid boils at 19 0.5 C. (H Moissan), and on cooling, sets to a solid mass at - 102°.

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  • The anhydrous chlorides of nickel, cobalt, cadmium, barium, iron and lead act in the same way as catalysts at about 300° C., and the bromides of lead, cadmium, nickel and barium at about 320° C.

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  • The filtrate is evaporated at a temperature not exceeding 60° or at most 70° C.; after sufficient concentration it deposits on cooling anhydrous crystals of the salt, while the potassium chloride, which may be present as an impurity, remains mostly in the motherliquor; the rest is easily removed by repeated recrystallization.

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