Anhydride sentence example

anhydride
  • A higher temperature decomposes this body into carbon dioxide and itaconic acid, C 5 H 6 0 4, which, again, by the expulsion of a molecule of water, yields citraconic anhydride, C 5 H 4 0 3.
    2
    1
  • When distilled with phosphoric anhydride they yield nitriles.
    0
    0
  • Dimethyl-meta-aminophenol crystallizes in small prisms which melt at 87° C. It condenses with phthalic anhydride to form rhodamine, and with succinic anhydride to rhodamine S.
    0
    0
  • 91): - 98'734 An ichthyo-coprolite from Tenby was found to contain 15.4% of phosphoric anhydride.
    0
    0
  • Four oxides of sulphur a.re known, namely sulphur dioxide, S02, sulphur trioxide, S03, sulphur sesquioxide, S203, and persulphuric anhydride, S 2 0 7.
    0
    0
    Advertisement
  • Although this acid appears to be derived from an oxide S203, it is not certain that the known sesquioxide is its anhydride.
    0
    0
  • Persulphuric anhydride, S207, is a thick viscous liquid obtained by the action of the silent discharge upon a mixture of sulphur trioxide and oxygen.
    0
    0
  • In the presence of a dehydrating agent (such as acetic anhydride), it combines with aldehydes to form compounds of the type R CH: C(COOH) 2, or their decomposition products (formed by loss of C02) R CH: CH COOH.
    0
    0
  • 7-dihydroxyxanthone, known as euxanthone, is prepared by heating euxanthic acid with hydrochloric acid or by heating hydroquinone carboxylic acid with 3-resorcylic acid and acetic anhydride (S.
    0
    0
  • 6-dihydroxyxanthone, isoeuxanthone, is formed when 0-resorcylic acid is heated with acetic anhydride.
    0
    0
    Advertisement
  • Again, in nitrous oxide we have a compound of 8 parts by weight of oxygen and 14 of nitrogen; in nitric oxide a compound of 16 or 8 X 2 parts of oxygen and 1 4 of nitrogen; in nitrous anhydride a compound of 24 or 8 X 3 parts of oxygen and 14 of nitrogen; in nitric peroxide a compound of 3 2 or 8 X 4 parts of oxygen and 14 of nitrogen; and lastly, in nitric anhydride a compound of 4 o or 8 X 5 parts of oxygen and 14 of nitrogen.
    0
    0
  • Both phosphoric and phosphorous acids became known, although imperfectly, towards the end of the 18th century; phosphorous acid was first obtained pure by Davy in 1812, while pure phosphorous oxide, the anhydride of phosphorous acid, remained unknown until T.
    0
    0
  • anhydride.
    0
    0
  • A notable example is provided by the phthaleins, which result by the condensation of phthalic anhydride with phenols.
    0
    0
  • Glucoseoxime on warming with acetic anhydride is simultaneously acetylated and dehydrated, yielding an acetylated gluconitrile, which when warmed with ammoniacal silver nitrate loses hydrocyanic acid and is transformed into an acetyl pentose.
    0
    0
    Advertisement
  • It is also formed by heating benzoic anhydride with glycocoll (Th.
    0
    0
  • Bladin HC -N (Ber., 1892, 25, p. 183) by the action of acetic)NH anhydride on dicyanophenylhydrazine (formed N: CH from cyanogen and phenylhydrazine), the resulting acetyl derivative losing water and yielding phenylmethylcyanotriazole, which, on hydrolysis, gives the free acid.
    0
    0
  • The newer glasses, on the other hand, contain a much wider variety of chemical constituents, the most important being the oxides of barium, magnesium, aluminium and zinc, used either with or without the addition of the bases already named in reference to the older glasses, and - among acid bodies - boric anhydride (B20 3) which replaces the silica of the older glasses to a varying extent.
    0
    0
  • It is decomposed by cold water with the formation of silicoformic anhydride, H2S1203.
    0
    0
  • Wohl forms the oxime and converts it into an acetylated nitrile by means of acetic anhydride and sodium acetate; ammoniacal silver nitrate solution removes hydrocyanic acid and the resulting acetate is hydrolysed by acting with ammonia to form an amide, which is finally decomposed with sulphuric acid.
    0
    0
    Advertisement
  • When heated to about 200° it yields a brown amorphous substance, named caramel, used in colouring liquors, &c. Concentrated sulphuric acid gives a black carbonaceous mass; boiling nitric acid oxidizes it to d-saccharic, tartaric and oxalic acids; and when heated to 160° with acetic anhydride an octa-acetyl ester is produced.
    0
    0
  • It is oxidized by nitric acid to d-saccharic and mucic acids; and acetic anhydride gives an octa-acetate.
    0
    0
  • It forms deliquescent crystals, which are readily soluble in alcohol and melt at ioo° C. When heated for some time at 130° C. it yields fumaric acid (q.v.), and on rapid heating at 180° C. gives maleic anhydride and fumaric acid.
    0
    0
  • Dorp (Ber.,1874,7,P.578) obtained orthobenzoyl benzoic acid by heating phthalic anhydride with benzene in the presence of aluminium chloride.
    0
    0
  • This compound on heating with phosphoric anhydride loses water and yields anthraquinone, CsH4 O 15 CsH <% CsH4.
    0
    0
    Advertisement
  • The hydroxide readily loses its water at a dull red heat and passes into anhydride with vivid incandescence.
    0
    0
  • Krafft, Ber., 1883, 16, p. 3018): C16H33 CH2 CH2.0H->C161-133CH2 CH2.0 CO R-> C16H33CH: CH 2 -j-R COOH; from tertiary alcohols by the action of acetic anhydride in the presence of a small quantity of sulphuric acid (L.
    0
    0
  • In making the acid by this process benzaldehyde, acetic anhydride and anhydrous sodium acetate are heated for some hours to about 180 C., the resulting product is made alkaline with sodium carbonate, and any excess of benzaldehyde removed by a current of steam.
    0
    0
  • Fittig and his pupils (Annalen, 1883, 216, pp. loo, 115; 1885, 227, pp. 55, 119), in which it was shown that the aldehyde forms an addition compound with the sodium salt of the fatty acid, and that the acetic anhydride plays the part of a dehydrating agent.
    0
    0
  • I propionic anhydride C6H5C(N-O COC2H5 ]-?C 6 H 5 C N O%C.C2H5.
    0
    0
    Advertisement
  • soc. chim., 18 95, (3) 1 3, p. 735); and from the syn-aldoximes by the action of acetyl chloride or acetic anhydride.
    0
    0
  • It is distinguished from the other members of the series by certain characteristic properties; for example, it shows an aldehydic character in reducing silver salts to metallic silver, and it does not form an acid chloride or an acid anhydride.
    0
    0
  • Chromium forms three series of compounds, namely the chromous salts corresponding to CrO, chromous oxide, chromic salts, corresponding to Cr203, chromium sesquioxide, and the chromates corresponding to Cr0,, chromium trioxide or chromic anhydride.
    0
    0
  • Heated with anhydrous sodium acetate and acetic anhydride it gives cinnamic acid; with ethyl bromide and sodium it forms triphenyl-carbinol (C 6 H 5) 3 C OH; with dimethylaniline and anhydrous zinc chloride it forms leuco-malachite green C6H5CH[C6H4N(CH3)2]2; and with dimethylaniline and concentrated hydrochloric acid it gives dimethylaminobenzhydrol, C 6 H 5 CH(OH)C 6 H 4 N(CH 3) 2.
    0
    0
  • Heated with sulphur it forms benzoic acid and stilbene: 2C 7 H 6 0+S = C6HS000H+C6H5CHS, 2C 6 H 5 CHS =2S +C14H12 Its addition compound with hydrocyanic acid gives mandelic acid C 6 H 5 CH(OH) COOH on hydrolysis; when heated with sodium succinate and acetic anhydride, phenyl-iso-crotonic acid C 6 H 5 CH: CH CH 2 000H is produced, which on boiling is converted into a-naphthol C 10 H 7 0H.
    0
    0
    Advertisement
  • Acid esters yield carbinols, many of which are unstable and readily pass over into unsaturated compounds, especially when warmed with acetic anhydride: R.
    0
    0
  • They may be prepared by the oxidation of secondary alcohols; by the addition of the elements of water to hydrocarbons of the acetylene type RC CH; by oxidation of primary alcohols of the type RR' CH CH 2 OH:RR' CH CH 2 OH --> R CO R'+H20+H2C02; by distillation of the calcium salts of the fatty acids, C.H2.02; by heating the sodium salts of these acids CnH2n02 with the corresponding acid anhydride to 190 C. (W.
    0
    0
  • The ethoxymethylene aceto-acetic esters are prepared by condensing aceto-acetic ester with ortho-formic ester in the presence of acetic anhydride (German patents 77354, 79087, 79863).
    0
    0
  • The free acid is not known; by the addition of the potassium salt to 50% acetic acid at - 20° C., the acid anhydride, benzene diazo oxide, (C6H5N2)20, is obtained as a very unstable, yellow, insoluble compound, exploding spontaneously at o° C. Strong acids convert it into a diazonium salt, and potash converts it into the diazotate.
    0
    0
  • Bamberger (Ber., 18 94, 27, p. 9 1 4) obtained the diazoic acids, R NH NO 2, substances which he had previously prepared by similarly oxidizing the diazonium salts, by dehydrating the nitrates of primary amines with acetic anhydride, and by the action of nitric anhydride on the primary amines.
    0
    0
    Advertisement
  • Bamberger (Ber., 1895, 28, p. 1682) regards it as the anhydride of iso-diazomethane, CH 3 N: N OH, and has prepared it by a method similar to that used for the preparation of iso-diazobenzene.
    0
    0
  • Its hydrochloride melts at 163° C., and crystallizes from alcohol in colourless deliquescent prisms. Acetic anhydride converts the base into an acetamino-dimethyl pyrimidine, acetic acid and acetamide being also formed.
    0
    0
  • Acetyl urea, NH 2 CO NH 000H 31 formed by the action of acetic anhydride on urea, crystallizes in needles which melt at 212° C. and, on heating, strongly decomposes into acetamide and cyanuric acid.
    0
    0
  • Benzoic anhydride, (C 6 H 5 C0) 2 0, is prepared by the action of benzoyl chloride on sodium benzoate, or by heating benzoyl chloride with anhydrous oxalic acid (R.
    0
    0
  • can also be synthesized by heating catechol with phthalic anhydride and sulphuric acid at 150 C. ' 'C 6 H4>Cg>O+C 6 H4(OH)2[1.2] = H 2 0 -}-C6H4C6H2(OH)2.
    0
    0
    Advertisement
  • Anthragallol is synthetically prepared by the condensation of benAoic and gallic acids with sulphuric acid OH i [[Cooh + I 10h - 2h20+ Hooc /Oh]] or from pyrogallol and phthalic anhydride in the presence of sulphuric acid or zinc chloride.
    0
    0
  • It crystallizes in prisms or plates which melt at 185° C. and boil at 235° C. with partial conversion into the anhydride.
    0
    0
  • Succinic anhydride, C 2 H 4 (CO) 2 0, is obtained by heating the acid or its sodium salt with acetic anhydride; by the action of acetyl chloride on the barium salt; by distilling a mixture of succinic acid and succinyl chloride, or by heating succinyl chloride with anhydrous oxalic acid.
    0
    0
  • It forms an anhydride when heated.
    0
    0
  • It does not yield an anhydride, but when heated loses carbon dioxide and leaves a residue of propionic acid.
    0
    0
    Advertisement
  • 91, p. 1938) among the gaseous products formed when a platinum wire is electrically heated under the surface of acetic anhydride.
    0
    0
  • Diethyl ketene, (C2H5)2C :CO, is formed on heating diethylmalonic anhydride (Staudinger, ibid.).
    0
    0
  • It crystallizes from water in large prisms which melt at 168-170° C., and on further heating gives an anhydride and finally chars, emitting a characteristic odour and forming pyroracemic and pyrotartaric acids.
    0
    0
  • Phosphorous acid, P(OH) 3, discovered by Davy in 1812, may be ' obtained by dissolving its anhydride, P 4 0 61 in cold water; by immersing sticks of phosphorus in a solution of copper sulphate contained in a well-closed flask, filtering from the copper sulphide and precipitating the sulphuric acid simultaneously formed by baryta water, and concentrating the solution in vacuo; or by passing chlorine into melted phosphorus covered with water, the first formed phosphorus trichloride being decomposed by the water into phosphorous and hydrochloric acids.
    0
    0
  • It is a colourless liquid which boils at 247° C. The -CH 3 group is very reactive, condensing readily with aldehydes and with phthalic anhydride.
    0
    0
  • The re-formed nitrous acid, although not stable, any more than is its anhydride, N203, is nevertheless the j` oxygen carrier" in question, as the products of its spontaneous decomposition, when meeting with other compounds, always react like nitrous acid itself and thus may transfer an indefinite quantity of oxygen to the corresponding quantities of SO 2 and H 2 O, with the corresponding formation of H2S04.
    0
    0
  • It does not yield an anhydride.
    0
    0
  • The anhydride of the cis-I.2 acid, obtained by heating the anhydride of the trans-acid, forms prisms which melt at 192° C. When heated with hydrochloric acid it passes into the trans-variety.
    0
    0
  • The trans-acid is a racemic compound, which on heating with acetyl chloride gives the anhydride of the cis-acid.
    0
    0
  • The A' acid is obtained as its anhydride by heating the 2 acid to 220° C., or by distilling hydropyromellitic acid.
    0
    0
  • The A 3 acid is formed when the anhydride of tetrahydro rimesic acid is distilled (W.
    0
    0
  • The A l -' 4 acid is obtained as its anhydride by heating A 2.4 dihydrophthalic anhydride with acetic anhydride.
    0
    0
  • When heated for some time with acetic anhydride it changes to the cis-form.
    0
    0
  • The relationships existing between the various hydrophthalic acids may be shown as follows: - Dihydro (Trans.) Acetic anhydride A 3.5 Dihydro (Cis.) A.
    0
    0
  • Dihydro Anhydride with acetic anhydride Sodium amalgam in faintly alkaline solution Sodium amalgam (hot) .1 Hydrobromide on reduction Remove H Br from 1.3 Dihydro dibromide Cyclo-heptane Group. Cyclo-heptane (suberane), C 7 H 14, obtained by the reduction of suberyl iodide, is a liquid which boils at 117° C. On treatment with bromine in the presence of aluminium bromide it gives chiefly pentabromtoluene.
    0
    0
  • Moissan (Comptes rendus, 1896, 122, p. 1297) obtained a vanadium containing from Io to 16% of carbon by fusing vanadic anhydride with carbon in the electric furnace.
    0
    0
  • It forms white crystals, melting at 213° with decomposition into water and phthalic anhydride; the latter forms long white needles, melting at 128° and boiling at 284°.
    0
    0
  • Phthalyl chloride, C 6 H 4 (COC1) 2 or C 6 H 4 (CCl2)(CO)0, formed by heating the anhydride with phosphorus chloride, is an oil which solidifies at 0° and boils at 275°.
    0
    0
  • Phthalimide, C6H4(CO)2NH, is formed by heating phthalic anhydride or chloride in ammonia gas or by molecular rearrangement of ortho-cyanbenzoic acid.
    0
    0
  • It may be obtained in small quantity by passing ethylene or acetylene into boiling sulphur; by passing ethyl sulphide through a red-hot tube; by heating crotonic acid, butyric acid or erythrite with phosphorus pentasulphide; by heating succinic anhydride with phosphorus pentasulphide or sodium succinate with phosphorus trisulphide (J.
    0
    0
  • Unlike resorcin it does not give a fluorescein with phthalic anhydride.
    0
    0
  • By long heating the acid is converted into its anhydride, which, however, is obtained more readily by heating the silver salt of the acid with acetyl chloride.
    0
    0
  • Gum arabic, when heated to 150° C. with two parts of acetic anhydride, swells up to a mass which, when washed with boiling water, and then with alcohol, gives a white amorphous insoluble powder called acetyl arabin C 6 H $ (C 2 H 3 O) 2 O 5.
    0
    0
  • acetic anhydride, which was prepared in 1851.
    0
    0
  • The reasons for using ethanoic anhydride rather than ethanoyl chloride include: Ethanoic anhydride is cheaper than ethanoyl chloride.
    0
    0
  • Koppers makes carbon pitch, coal tar distillates, and phthalic anhydride and ships products to customers in rail cars.
    0
    0
  • Fumaric Acid is produced from petroleum feed stock (butane) via maleic anhydride.
    0
    0
  • Thus, in 1850 he predicted the existence of acetic anhydride, which was prepared in 1851.
    0
    0
  • The same reactions with acid anhydrides Ethanoic anhydride is the only one you are likely to come across for UK A level purposes.
    0
    0
  • Example: Write the structural formula for propanoic anhydride.
    0
    0
  • anhydride bonds.
    0
    0
  • The overall equation for the reaction is: With ethanoic anhydride, heat is needed.
    0
    0
  • We'll take ethanoyl chloride as a typical acyl chloride, and ethanoic anhydride as a typical acid anhydride.
    0
    0
  • Of the hygroscopic substances in common use, phosphoric anhydride, concentrated sulphuric acid, and dry potassium hydrate are almost equal in power; sodium hydrate and calcium chloride are not much behind.
    0
    0
  • CO 2 R C02R It may also be prepared by heating the anhydride of y-methyloxyglutaric acid with concentrated sulphuric acid, and by oxidation of methyl heptenone and of geraniol.
    0
    0
  • Dimethyl-meta-aminophenol crystallizes in small prisms which melt at 87° C. It condenses with phthalic anhydride to form rhodamine, and with succinic anhydride to rhodamine S.
    0
    0
  • The osotriazoles are obtained by heating the osazones of orthodiketones with mineral acids; by the action of acetic anhydride on the hydrazoximes of orthodiketones, or by condensing diazo-methane with cyanogen derivatives (A.
    0
    0
  • When heated to about 200° it yields a brown amorphous substance, named caramel, used in colouring liquors, &c. Concentrated sulphuric acid gives a black carbonaceous mass; boiling nitric acid oxidizes it to d-saccharic, tartaric and oxalic acids; and when heated to 160° with acetic anhydride an octa-acetyl ester is produced.
    0
    0
  • It forms deliquescent crystals, which are readily soluble in alcohol and melt at ioo° C. When heated for some time at 130° C. it yields fumaric acid (q.v.), and on rapid heating at 180° C. gives maleic anhydride and fumaric acid.
    0
    0
  • CH2([[Coon)2+Ch3cho-->Ch3 Ch:C(000h)2->Ch3 Ch:Ch 000h]]; or by heating pyruvic acid with an excess of acetic anhydride and sodium acetate to 160-180° C. (B.
    0
    0
  • The free acid is not known; by the addition of the potassium salt to 50% acetic acid at - 20° C., the acid anhydride, benzene diazo oxide, (C6H5N2)20, is obtained as a very unstable, yellow, insoluble compound, exploding spontaneously at o° C. Strong acids convert it into a diazonium salt, and potash converts it into the diazotate.
    0
    0
  • Its hydrochloride melts at 163° C., and crystallizes from alcohol in colourless deliquescent prisms. Acetic anhydride converts the base into an acetamino-dimethyl pyrimidine, acetic acid and acetamide being also formed.
    0
    0
  • It condenses with acetic anhydride to form a methyldiphenyl triazine, acetamide being also formed; with acetyl-acetone to form dimethylphenyl pyrimidine (A.
    0
    0
  • Acetyl urea, NH 2 CO NH 000H 31 formed by the action of acetic anhydride on urea, crystallizes in needles which melt at 212° C. and, on heating, strongly decomposes into acetamide and cyanuric acid.
    0
    0
  • It crystallizes in prisms or plates which melt at 185° C. and boil at 235° C. with partial conversion into the anhydride.
    0
    0
  • It crystallizes from water in large prisms which melt at 168-170° C., and on further heating gives an anhydride and finally chars, emitting a characteristic odour and forming pyroracemic and pyrotartaric acids.
    0
    0
  • Hofmann (Berichte, 1881, 1 4, pp. 494, 6 59) is converted into the hydrocarbon conylene C 8 H 14, a compound that can also be obtained by heating nitrosoconine with phosphoric anhydride to 80-90° C. On heating conine with concentrated hydriodic acid and phosphorus it is decomposed into ammonia and normal octane CsH18.
    0
    0
  • Kulisch, Monats., 1894, 15, p. 276); by the action of phosphorus pentachloride on hydrocarbostyril (the inner anhydride of ortho-aminohydrocinnamic acid), the chlorinated compound first formed being then reduced by hydriodic acid (A.
    0
    0
  • It is a colourless liquid which boils at 247° C. The -CH 3 group is very reactive, condensing readily with aldehydes and with phthalic anhydride.
    0
    0
  • The anhydride of the cis-I.2 acid, obtained by heating the anhydride of the trans-acid, forms prisms which melt at 192° C. When heated with hydrochloric acid it passes into the trans-variety.
    0
    0
  • The A' acid is obtained as its anhydride by heating the 2 acid to 220° C., or by distilling hydropyromellitic acid.
    0
    0
  • Dihydro Anhydride with acetic anhydride Sodium amalgam in faintly alkaline solution Sodium amalgam (hot) .1 Hydrobromide on reduction Remove H Br from 1.3 Dihydro dibromide Cyclo-heptane Group. Cyclo-heptane (suberane), C 7 H 14, obtained by the reduction of suberyl iodide, is a liquid which boils at 117° C. On treatment with bromine in the presence of aluminium bromide it gives chiefly pentabromtoluene.
    0
    0
  • It forms white crystals, melting at 213° with decomposition into water and phthalic anhydride; the latter forms long white needles, melting at 128° and boiling at 284°.
    0
    0
  • The acid (and anhydride) are largely used in the colour industry (see Fluorescein; Phenol Phthalein) .
    0
    0
  • Phthalyl chloride, C 6 H 4 (COC1) 2 or C 6 H 4 (CCl2)(CO)0, formed by heating the anhydride with phosphorus chloride, is an oil which solidifies at 0° and boils at 275°.
    0
    0
  • With regard to Graham's more purely chemical work, in 1833 he showed that phosphoric anhydride and water form three distinct acids, and he thus established the existence of polybasic acids, in each of which one or more equivalents of hydrogen are replaceable by certain metals (see Acid).
    0
    0
  • Gum arabic, when heated to 150° C. with two parts of acetic anhydride, swells up to a mass which, when washed with boiling water, and then with alcohol, gives a white amorphous insoluble powder called acetyl arabin C 6 H $ (C 2 H 3 O) 2 O 5.
    0
    0