Andes sentence example

andes
  • The sierra is the region of the Andes, and is about 250 m.
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  • The last section through the Andes was finished in 1910.
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  • Along the Brazilian frontier and about the sources of the Orinoco tributaries on the eastern slops of the Andes there are extensive forests, sometimes broken with grassy campos.
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  • Their advance to the south was checked by the indomitable opposition of the Araucanians, but from the southern Andes the Spaniards overflowed on to the great plains which now form the interior of the Argentine Republic. The first permanent settlement at the mouth of the river Plate at Buenos Aires dates from 1580.
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  • The principal silverproducing districts, the greater part on the high table-lands and slopes of the Andes, are those of Salpo, Hualgayoc, Huari, Huallanca, Huaylas, Huaraz, Recuay, Cajatambo, Yauli, Cerro de Pasco, Morococha, Huarochiri, Huancavelica, Quespisisa, Castrovirreyna, Lucanas, Lampa, Caylloma and Puno, but there are hundreds of others outside their limits.
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  • The Trans-Andine region is similar to the neighbouring territories of the upper Amazon basin occupied by Colombia, Brazil and Peru - a great forest-covered plain descending gently toward the east, broken on its western margin by short spurs from the Andes enclosing highly fertile valleys, and by low, isolated ranges between the larger river courses, and traversed by large rivers flowing into the Napo and Maranon.
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  • Farther north the rainfall becomes heavier, the plateau is covered with vegetation, and a considerable number of small rivers flow westward through the Cordillera to the Pacific. The Eastern Cordillera, or Andes, forms the water-parting between the two systems. The largest of the eastward-flowing rivers is the Napo, which rises in the eastern defiles of Cotopaxi and Sincholagua - the principal source being the Rio del Valle, which traverses the Valle Vicioso.
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  • The principal tribes are the Quijos or Canelos, who are settled about the headwaters of the Napo, on the eastern slopes of the Andes, and are in great part grouped about the missions; the Jivaros who inhabit the valley of the Pastaza; the Zaparos who occupy the forest region between the Pastaza and Napo; the Piojes of the middle Napo, and eastward to the Putumayo; and the Iquitos and Mazanes of the lower Napo and Tigre, chiefly in territory occupied by Peru.
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  • The remainder of the great Argentine plain is the treeless, grassy pampa (Quichua for " level spaces "), apparently a dead level, but in reality rising gradually from the Atlantic westward toward the Andes.
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  • Towards the east they lie at a lower level; but in the Andes they reach a height of nearly 10,000 ft., and are strongly folded, showing that the elevation of the chain was not completed until after their deposition.
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  • The marine facies of the later Tertiaries is confined to the neighbourhood of the coast, and was probably formed after the elevation of the Andes; but inland, freshwater deposits of this period are met with, especially in Patagonia.
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  • Farther south, in Patagonia, the prevailing wind is westerly, in which case the Andes again " blanket " an extensive region and deprive it of rain, turning it into an arid desolate steppe.
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  • The Antarctic beech and Winter's bark (Drimys Winteri) are found at intervals along the Andes to the northern limits of this zone.
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  • On the lower slopes of the Andes are found oak, beech, cedar, Winter's bark, pine (Araucaria imbricata), laurel and calden (Prosopis algarobilla).
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  • Of birds the number of species greatly exceeds that of the mammals, including the rhea of the pampas and condor of the Andes, and the tiny, brilliant-hued humming-birds of the tropical North.
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  • In the meantime the Spaniards had penetrated into the interior of what is now the Argentine Republic, and established themselves on the eastern slopes of the Andes.
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  • It was evident that the president intended to use all the influence which the party in power could exercise, to secure the return of General Julio Roca, who had distinguished himself in 1878 by a successful campaign against the warlike Indian tribes bordering on the Andes.
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  • This definition unfortunately ignored the fact that the Andes do not run from north to south in one continuous line, but are separated into cordilleras with valleys between them, and covering in their total breadth a considerable extent of country.
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  • In the interior of South America the Spanish conquerors had explored the region of the Andes from the isthmus of Panama to Chile.
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  • Pedro de Valdivia in 1540 made an expedition into the country of the Araucanian Indians of Chile, and was the first to explore the eastern base of the Andes in what is now Argentine Patagonia.
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  • In 1541 Francisco de Orellana discovered the whole course of the Amazon from its source in the Andes to the Atlantic. A second voyage on the Amazon was made in 1561 by the mad pirate Lope de Aguirre; but it was not until 1639 that a full account was written of the great river by Father Cristoval de Acufia, who ascended it from its mouth and reached the city of Quito.
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  • Lofty lines of fold mountains form the " backbones " of North America in the Rocky of Mountains and the west coast systems, of South America in the Cordillera of the Andes, of Europe in the Pyrenees, Alps, Carpathians and Caucasus, and of Asia in the mountains of Asia Minor, converging on the Pamirs and diverging thence in the Himalaya and the vast mountain systems of central and eastern Asia.
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  • Naturally the company named does not reach all of these points, but its line across the Andes supplies the indispensable link of communication, in the absence of which the east coast towns and the west coast towns have hitherto been as widely separated as if they had been located on different continents-indeed, far more widely separated in point of time and of freight charges than Great Britain and the United States.
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  • Holoarctic types reappear on the Andes and in South Africa, and even in New Zealand.
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  • The ship to which he was appointed was ordered to China, and he found opportunities during the voyage for indulging his passion for exploration, making a journey from Rio de Janeiro to the base of the Andes, and another from Bombay through India to Ceylon.
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  • India-rubber is derived principally from the Hevea guayanensis, sometimes called the Siphonia elastica, which is found on the Amazon and its tributaries as far inland as the foothills of the Andes.
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  • The best bark comes from the Carabaya district in southeastern Peru, but it is found in many localities on the eastern slopes of the Andes.
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  • The principal copper-bearing districts are Chimbote, Cajamarca, Huancayo, Huaraz, Huallanca, Junin, Huancavelica, Ica, Arequipa, Andahuaylas and Cuzco - chiefly situated in the high, bleak regions of the Andes.
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  • It is beautifully situated in a large fertile valley between parallel ranges of the Maritime Andes, about 1625 ft.
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  • O'Higgins with most of the patriots fled across the Andes to Mendoza, where Jose de San Martin was preparing a force for the liberation of Chile.
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  • The loyalty and energy with which he acted under San Martin contributed not a little to the organization of the liberating army, to its transportation over the Andes, and to the defeat of the royalists at Chacabuco (1817) and Maipo (1818).
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  • The eastern part of this territory is also claimed by Peru, which would have the effect, if allowed, of restricting Ecuador to a comparatively small area covered by the Andes and western Cordillera and the narrow plain on the Pacific coast.
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  • The eastern chain is known as the Andes of Ecuador, or the Cordillera Oriental, and the western as the Cordillera Occidental (Western Cordillera).
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  • It is estimated that there was a considerable decrease in the elevation of this part of the Andes during the past century, Quito having sunk 26 ft.
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  • Cayambe, or Cayembi, the second highest peak of the Ecuadorean Andes, has the noteworthy distinction of standing very nearly on the equator.
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  • Turning to the Cordillera Occidental and taking the principal peaks in order from south to north, the first to claim attention is Chimborazo (from Chimpu-raza, " mountain of snow "), the highest summit of Ecuador, and once believed to be the culminating point of the Andes.
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  • The Aguarico also rises on the eastern slopes of the Andes north of Cayambe and flows southeastward to a junction with the Napo in about long.
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  • The Tigre, of which little was known until a recent date, is formed by the confluence of the Cunambo and Huiviyacu, whose sources are on the eastern slopes of the Andes near those of the Curaray.
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  • The Pastaza, or Pastassa, unlike the rivers already described, has its source on the central plateau west of the principal chain of the Andes, within the shadow of Cotopaxi, and breaks through the Cordillera to the north of Tunguragua.
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  • After flowing southward along the base of the high Andes for a short distance and receiving a number of torrents from the snowclad heights, it turns south-eastward across the plain and enters the Maranon about 70 m.
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  • The two confluents just mentioned have their sources in the Andes, and flow for some distance across the plain before uniting to form the Morona.
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  • On the western versant of the Andes of Ecuador there are three river systems of considerable size - the Mira, the Esmeraldas and the Guayas.
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  • Most of the country between the Andes and the sea is covered by Tertiary and Quaternary beds; but the range of hills which runs north-west from Guayaquil is formed of Cretaceous and porphyritic rocks similar to those of the Andes.
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  • Farther north nearly the whole of the depression is filled with lavas, tuffs and agglomerates, derived from the Tertiary and recent volcanoes which form the most striking feature of the Andes of Ecuador.
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  • The flora of the forested lowlands on both sides of the Andes has not been studied and described so fully.
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  • Of the flora of the highest Andes, Whymper found 42 species, of various orders, above 16,000 ft., almost all of which were from Antisana and Chimborazo; 12 genera of mosses were found above 15,000 ft., and 59 species of flowering plants above 14,000 ft., of which 35 species came from above 15,000 and 20 species from above 16,000 ft.
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  • On the eastern slopes of the Andes, where the rainfall is continuous throughout the year and the atmosphere is surcharged with moisture, the forest growth is phenomenal.
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  • East of the Andes the forests are inhabited by tribes of what are termed " aucas " or " infieles " (infidels) - Indians who are independent of both church and political control.
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  • The best grazing lands are on the lower elevations west of the Cordilleras in certain districts of the plateau and on the slopes of some of the higher Andes, as on Chimborazo and Antisana.
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  • The product is derived from the Castilloa elastica, the Heveas not being found west of the Andes.
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  • It is also found in the provinces of Loja, Esmeraldas, and in the river-beds along the eastern slopes of the Andes.
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  • The coastal zone is traversed by the Tumbes, Chira and Piura rivers, which have their sources in the melting snows of the higher Andes and flow westward across the desert to the coast.
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  • The main Nicaraguan cordillera, which flanks the depression on the east, has often been called the Cordillera de los Andes, from its supposed continuity with the mountain-chains of Panama and the west coast of South America.
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  • But we have the same phenomenon in single varieties of man, such as the American, which inhabits alike the frozen wastes of Hudson's Bay and Tierra del Fuego, and the hottest regions of the tropics, - the low equatorial valleys and the lofty plateaux of the Andes.
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  • Now there is a zone of the equatorial Andes, ranging between about 4000 and 6000 feet altitude, where the very best flavoured coffee is grown, where cane is less luxuriant but more saccharine than in the plains, and which is therefore very desirable to cultivate, but where the red man sickens and dies.
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  • In what is now the republic of Ecuador, the only peopled portions are the central valley, between the two ridges of the Andes - height 7000 to 12,000 feet - and the hot plain at their western base; nor do the wooded slopes appear to have been inhabited, except by scattered savage hordes, even in the time of the Incas.
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  • Alpacas are kept in large flocks which graze on the level heights of the Andes of southern Peru and northern Bolivia, at an elevation of from 14,000 to 16,000 ft.
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  • Chile is thus a ribbon-like strip of territory between the Andes and the Pacific, comparatively regular north of the 42nd parallel, but with an extremely ragged outline south of that line.
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  • The desert region is an elevated arid plateau descending gradually from the Andes towards the coast, where it breaks down abruptly from elevations of 800 to 1500 ft.
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  • The surface is made up of extensive plains covered with sand and deposits of alkaline salts, broken by ranges of barren hills having the appearance of spurs from the Andes, and by irregular lateral ranges in the vicinity of the main cordillera enclosing elevated saline plateaus.
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  • The eastern parts of this region lie within the higher ranges of the Andes and include a large district awarded to Chile in 1899 (see Argentina and Atacama).
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  • The slopes of the Andes are precipitous, the general surface is rough, and in the north the higher ground and coast are still barren.
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  • Lying between this coast range and the Andes is a broad valley, or plain, extending from the Aconcagua river south to the Gulf of Ancud, a distance slightly over 620 m.
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  • It is sometimes called the " Vale of Chile," and is the richest and most thicklypopulated part of the republic. It is a highly fertile region, is well watered by numerous streams from the Andes, has a moderate rainfall, and forms an agricultural and grazing region of great productiveness.
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  • The western slopes of the Andes, with its spurs and lateral ranges, cover a broad zone on the eastern side of the republic, and the Cordillera Maritima covers another broad zone on its western side from about lat.
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  • The Andes, however, present an unbroken barrier on the east, except at a few points in the south where the general elevation is not over 5000 to 6000 ft., and where some of the Chilean rivers, as the Palena and Las Heras, have their sources on its eastern side.
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  • From the 52nd to about the 31st parallel this great mountain system, known locally as the Cordillera de los Andes, apparently consists of a single chain, though in reality it includes short lateral ranges at several points; continuing northward several parallel ranges appear on the Argentine side and one on the Chilean side which are ultimately merged in the great Bolivian plateau.
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  • The western slopes of the Andes are precipitous, with short spurs enclosing deep valleys.
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  • The culminating point of the Chilean Andes is Aconcagua, which rises to a height of 23, 0 97 ft.
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  • In southern Chile the coast is highly mountainous, but the relation of these elevations to the Andes has not been clearly determined.
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  • Between central Chile and the northern desert region there is a highly mountainous district where distinct ranges or elongated spurs cross the republic from the Andes to the coast, forming transverse valleys of great beauty and fertility.
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  • The Chilean Andes between Tacna and Valdivia are crossed by 24 passes, the majority of them at elevations exceeding 10,000 ft.
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  • The volcanic origin of the Andes and their comparatively recent elevation still subject Chile, in common with other parts of the western coast region, to frequent volcanic and seismic disturbances.
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  • Andes and flowing westward to the Pacific. Their courses Rivers are necessarily short, and only a few have navigable channels, the aggregate length of which is only 705 m.
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  • The central agricultural provinces are traversed by several important rivers, all of them rising on the western slopes of the snow-clad Andes and breaking through the lower coast range to the Pacific after being extensively used to irrigate the great central valley of Chile.
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  • They have their sources in the Andes, some of them on the eastern side of the line of highest summits.
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  • The Comau Inlet and river form the boundary line between the provinces of Llanquihue and Chiloe, and traverse a densely wooded country in a northwesterly direction from the Andes to the north-eastern shore of the Gulf of Chacao.
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  • It flows south-west through the Andes, and then north-west through Lake Yelcho to the Gulf of Corcovado.
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  • Lake San Martin lies in a crooked deeply cut passage through the Andes, and the divide between its southern extremity (Laguna Tar) and Lake Viedma, which discharges through the Santa Cruz river into the Atlantic, is so slight as to warrant the hypothesis that this was once a strait between the two oceans.
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  • Some of the larger lakes of the Andes have glaciers discharging into them.
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  • They are fed from the melting snows and periodical storms of the higher Andes, and most of them are completely dry part of the year.
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  • The Chilean Andes correspond with the Western Cordillera of Bolivia and Peru, and consist almost entirely of Jurassic and Cretaceous beds, together with the products of the Tertiary eruptions.
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  • These porphyritic rocks form a characteristic feature of the southern Andes, and were at one time supposed to be metamorphic; but they are certainly volcanic, and as they contain marine fossils they must have been laid down beneath the sea.
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  • A large part of the chain is covered by the products of the great volcanoes which still form the highest summits of the Chilean and Argentine Andes.
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  • The plains as well as the western slopes of the Andes are covered with forest, the rivers become torrents, and the sky is covered with heavy clouds a great part of the year.
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  • The Andes, although much broken in these latitudes, also exert a modifying influence on these eastern districts, sheltering them from the cold westerly storms and giving them a drier climate.
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  • The strawberry is also indigenous to these latitudes on both sides of the Andes, and Chile is credited 1 Notes of a Naturalist in South America, p. 134.2 Also classified as Nothofagus (Mirb.).
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  • The Chilean slopes of the Andes appear to be a favourite haunt of the condor, where neighbouring stock-raisers suffer severe losses at times from its attacks.
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  • These conditions subsist with but few modifications, if any, from the Straits northward to the 42nd parallel, the extreme humidity, abnormal rainfall and dark skies being unfavourable to the development of insect life, while the Andes interpose an impassable barrier to migration from the countries of the eastern coast.
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  • Philippi and Hans Steffen, who deserves special mention for his excellent geographical work in the southern Andes.
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  • About the same time the government began the construction of a longitudinal trunk line running southward from Santiago midway between the Andes and the Coast range, and connecting with all the provincial capitals and prominent ports.
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  • A branch of the Valparaiso and Santiago line runs to Los Andes, and its extension across the Andes connects with the Argentine lines from Buenos Aires to Mendoza and the Chilean frontier-all sections together forming a transcontinental route about 850 m.
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  • Cable communication with Europe by way of Buenos Aires was opened in 1875, and is now maintained by means of two underground cables across the Andes, 32 m.
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  • Wild strawberries are found on both sides of the Andes; the cultivated varieties are unsurpassed, especially those of the province of Concepcion.
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  • Silver is found principally on the elevated slopes and plateaus of the Andes in the desert provinces of the north.
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  • For three years the Spaniards maintained their hold on Chile, ruling the country with tyrannical harshness, but in the spring of 1817 a patriot force which had been organized at Mendoza in the Argentine by Jose de San Martin, an Argentine officer, and by O'Higgins, crossed the Andes and overwhelmed the royalists at the battle of Chacabuco.
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  • There is a chain of lakes across its eastern side near the Andes, the largest of which are Villarica, Rinihue and Ranco.
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  • Guayaquil sarsaparilla is obtained chiefly in the valley of Alausi, on the western side of the equatorial Andes.
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  • It is collected on the eastern slope of the Mexican Andes throughout the year, and is the produce of Smilax medica.
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  • They are known as the Sierras de Chiquitos, and are geologically interesting because of their proximity to the eastern projection of the Andes.
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  • Between the Chiquitos sierras and the Andes are the Llanos de Chiquitos, which have a higher general elevation and a more diversified surface.
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  • The lower slopes of the Andes, especially toward the north-west, where the country is traversed by the Beni and Madre de Dios, are covered with heavy forests.
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  • The other large Bolivian tributaries of the Mamore, all rising on the north-east flanks of the Andes, are the Chapare, Secure, Manique or Apere and Yacuma, the last draining a region of lakes and swamps north of the Sierra Chamaya.
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  • The eastern ranges of the Bolivian Andes are formed of Palaeozoic rocks with granitic and other intrusions; the Western Cordillera consists chiefly of Jurassic and Cretaceous beds, together with the lavas and ashes of the great volcanoes; while the intervening plateau is covered by freshwater and terrestrial deposits through which rise ridges of Palaeozoic rock and of a series of red sandstones and gypsiferous marls of somewhat uncertain age (probably, in part at least, Cretaceous).
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  • In southern Bolivia Cambrian and Ordovician beds form the greater part of the eastern Andes, but farther north the, Devonian and Carboniferous are extensively developed, especially in the northeastern ranges.
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  • No later marine deposits have been found either in the eastern Andes or in the plains of Bolivia, but freshwater beds of Tertiary and later date occupy a wide area.
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  • They are able to go without food and drink for long periods, and inhabit the arid and semiarid plateaus of the Andes and the steppes of Patagonia.
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  • Coca, one of the most important plants of the country, is cultivated on the eastern slopes of the Andes at an altitude of 5000 to 6000 ft., where the temperature is uniform and frosts are unknown.
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  • Quina or calisaya is a natural product of the eastern Andes, and is found at an altitude of 3000 to 9000 ft.
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  • The Indian population (920,860) is largely composed of the so-called civilized tribes of the Andes, which once formed part of the nationality ruled by the Incas, and of those of the Mojos and Chiquitos regions, which were organized into industrial communities by the Jesuits in the 17th century.
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  • Inhabiting the southern part of the Bolivian plain are the Chiriguanos, a detached tribe of the Guarani race which drifted westward to the vicinity of the Andes long ago.
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  • The cultivation of cereals, fruits and vegetables in the temperate and warm valleys of the Andes followed closely the mining settlements.
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  • Tobacco of a fair quality is produced in the warm regions of the east, including the yungas valleys of La Paz and Cochabamba; cacao of a superior grade is grown in the department of Beni, where large orchards were planted at the missions, and also in the warm Andean valleys of La Paz and Cochabamba; and coffee of the best flavour is grown in some of the warmer districts of the eastern Andes.
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  • It consists of a great plain extending eastward from the base of the Andes to the frontiers of Brazil, broken by occasional isolated hills, and in the N.E.
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  • On the western side of the department is an upland zone belonging to the eastern slope of the Andes, and here the Bolivian settlements are chiefly concentrated.
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  • The principal markets for Santa Cruz products are in the Bolivian cities of the Andes where sugar, rum, cacao and coffee find a ready sale.
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  • The tacsonias, by some considered to form part of this genus, inhabit the Andes at considerable elevations.
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  • One species of Arundinaria reaches northwards as far as Virginia, and the elevation attained in the Andes by some species of Chusquea is very remarkable, - one, C. aristata, being abundant from 15,000 ft.
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  • To the south of the lake rises the south-eastern prolongation of the Cordillera of the Andes, with ridges of a uniform height of 3500 ft., in which predominate crystalline schists which do not seem to be very old.
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  • Pinguicula is abundant in the north temperate zone, and ranges down the Andes as far as Patagonia; the 250 species of Utricularia are mostly aquatic, and some are found in all save polar regions; their unimportant congeners, Genlisea and Polypompholix, occur in tropical America and south-western Australia respectively.
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  • Cuenca stands at the northern end of a broad valley, or basin, of the Andes, lying between the transverse ridges of Azuay and Loja, and is about 8640 ft.
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  • Nearly one half its area lies south-east of the Andes and consists of extensive llanos and forested plains, traversed by several of the western tributaries of the Amazon and Orinoco.
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  • In northern Ecuador the Andes narrows into a single massive range which has the character of a confused mass of peaks and ridges on the southern frontier of Colombia.
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  • The Eastern Cordillera is in some respects the most important of the three branches of the Colombian Andes.
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  • In all these branches of the Andes the folds run approximately in the direction of the chains, but the Sierra de Santa Marta appears to belong to a totally distinct system of folding, the direction of the folds being from west to east, bending gradually towards the south-east.
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  • Although volcanoes are by no means absent, they are much less important than in Ecuador, and their products take a far smaller share in the formation of the Andes.
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  • The elevated plateaus and summits of the Andes are responsible, however, for many important and profound modifications in climate, not only in respect to the lower temperatures of the higher elevations, but also in respect to the higher temperatures of the sheltered lowland valleys and the varying climatic conditions of the neighbouring plains.
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  • The rainfall is heavy in the wet season, causing many of the rivers to spread over extensive areas, but in the dry season the inundated plains become dry, the large rivers fed by the snows and rainfall of the Andes return within their banks, the shallow lagoons and smaller streams dry up, vegetation disappears, and the level plain becomes a desert.
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  • The fauna is essentially tropical, though a few species characteristic of colder regions are to be found in the higher Andes.
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  • There are deer in the forests and on the open savannahs, the rabbit and squirrel are to be seen on the eastern slopes of the Andes, and partly amphibious rodents, the "capybara" (Hydrochoerus) and "guagua" (Coelogenys subniger), are very numerous along the wooded watercourses.
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  • Southern Colombia, especially the eastern slopes of the Andes, produces another valuable tree, the Cinchona calisaya, from the bark of which quinine is made.
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  • The genus comprises a few species of shrubs or trees, seldom reaching a large size, distributed through the North Temperate zone, and in the New World passing along the Andes southwards to Chile.
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  • The first descent of the mighty artery from the Andes to the sea was made by Orellana in 1541, and the name Amazonas arises from the battle which he had with a tribe of Tapuya savages where the women of the tribe fought alongside the men, as was the custom among all of the Tapuyas.
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  • The Pongo de Manseriche, at the base of the Andes and the head of useful navigation, seems to be the natural terminus of the Maranon; and an examination of the hydrographic conditions of the great valley makes the convenience and accuracy of this apparent.
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  • The Grande is a river of enormous length, rising in a great valley of the Andes between the important cities of Sucre and Cochabamba, and having its upper waters in close touch with those of the Pilcomayo branch of the river Paraguay.
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  • It runs through a continuous forest at the bottom of the great depression lying between the Madeira river, which skirts the edge of the Brazilian sandstone plateau, and the Ucayali which hugs the base of the Andes.
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  • According to their accounts, the huge rent in the Andes, the Pongo, is about five or six m.
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  • Its main affluent is the Uaupes, which disputes with the headwaters of the Guaviari branch of the Orinoco the drainage of the eastern slope of the " oriental " Andes of Colombia.
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  • Despite the impediments, canoes ascend this stream to the Andes.
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  • It rises in the Colombian Andes, nearly in touch with the sources of the Magdalena, and augments its volume from many branches as it courses through Colombia.
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  • There was not a stone to be seen up to the base of the Andes; the river banks were of argillaceous earth and the bottom of fine sand.
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  • It rises on the Ecuadorian tableland, where a branch from the valley of Riobamba unites with one from the Latacunga basin and breaks through the inland range of the Andes; and joined, afterwards, by several important tributaries, finds its way south-east among the gorges; thence it turns southward into the plains, and enters the Amazon at a point about 60 m.
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  • It is formed from a multitude of water-courses which descend the slopes of the Ecuadorian Andes south of the gigantic volcano of Sangay; but it soon reaches the plain, which commences where it receives its Cusulima branch.
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  • A river called the Paute dashes through the eastern Andes from the valley of Cuenca; and a second, the Zamora, has broken through the same range from the basin of Loja.
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  • The Amazon is not so much a river as it is a gigantic reservoir, extending from the sea to the base of the Andes, and, in the wet season, varying in width from 5 to 400 m.
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  • It is remarkable that it should persist in the spectacled bear of the Andes, although it has disappeared in all other living members of the group. The third trochanter of the femur, on the other hand, can scarcely be regarded as primitive, seeing that it is absent in several of the lower groups of mammals.
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  • In length and size of its tributaries the Madre de Dios is a more important river than the Beni itself, and is navigable during the wet season to the foot of the Andes, 180 m.
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  • Crevaux, in the Andes, found that the Indians believed that the beasts have piays (sorcerers and doctors) like themselves.
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  • The eastern disappears in the centre of Argentina, and it is therefore only the Cordillera de los Andes that is prolonged as far as the south-eastern extremity of the continent.
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  • The Cordillera de la Costa begins near Cape Horn, which is composed principally of crystalline rocks, and its heights are inconsiderable when compared with those of the trueCordillera of the Andes.
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  • The Cordillera of the Andes in Tierra del Fuego is formed of crystalline schists, and culminates in the snowcapped peaks of Mount Darwin and Mount Sarmiento (7200 ft.), which contains glaciers of greater extent than those of Mont Blanc. The extent of the glaciers is considerable in this region, which, geographically, is more complex than was formerly supposed.
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  • The insular region between Mount Sarmiento and the Cordillera de los Andes, properly so called, i.e.
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  • As Admiralty Sound and Lake Fagnano bound the Cordillera to the north in Tierra del Fuego, so at the eastern side of the Cordillera in the southernmost part of the continent there is a longitudinal depression which separates the Andes from some independent ridges pertaining to a secondary parallel broken chain called the pre-Cordillera.
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  • These two rivers have emptied a large system of lakes, which in pre-Glacial times occupied the eastern zone, thus forming a region suitable for colonization in the broad valleys and hollows, where the rivers, as in the case with those in the north, cut through the Andes by narrow gaps, forming cataracts and rapids between the snowy peaks.
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  • The surroundings of Mount Tronador, consisting of Tertiary granite and basalt, form one of the most interesting regions in the Patagonian Andes for the mountaineers of the future.
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  • While the scenery of the western slope of the Andes is exceedingly grand, with its deep fjords, glaciers and woods, yet the severity of its climate detracts considerably from its charm.
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  • To the north of this mountain, situated at the watershed of the Andes, extends a lofty region comprising peaks such as Chimbote (18,645 ft.) and Mount Polleras (20,266 ft.).
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  • Canada Colorado YV YV ITV Pircala' ' R_Malargue - Sea --- ----- - - ------ -- M OV YV C (21,982 ft.) are the highest peaks of the central Argentine-Chilean Andes.
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  • While in the west of the Andes, from the latitude of Aconcagua, the central valley of Chile runs without any notable interruption to the south end of the continent, a valley which almost disappears to the north, leaving only some rare inflexions which are considered by Chilean geographers and geologists to be a continuation of the same valley; to the east in Argentina a longitudinal valley, perfectly characterized, runs along the eastern foot of the Cordillera, separating this from the preCordillera, which is parallel to the Cordillera de la Costa of Chile.
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  • The Cordillera of the Andes borders the Puna to the west, while the Bolivian Cordillera Real bounds it to the east.
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  • The principal peaks of the Bolivian Andes and its prolongation from south to north, are Famatina, in the centre of Argentina, (20,340 ft.), Languna Blanca (18,307), Diamante (18,045), Cachi (20,000), Granadas, Lipez (19,680), Guadalupe (18,910), Chorolque (18,480), Cuzco (17,930), Enriaca (18,716), Junari (16,200), Michiga (17,410), Quimza-Cruz (18,280), Illimani (21,190) and Sorata (21,490).
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  • While the western range of the Cordillera is principally formed by volcanic rocks, the eastern (to the east of the range is Cerro Potosi, 15,400 ft.) Andes of Bolivia are chiefly composed of old crystalline rocks.
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  • The snow-line of the Andes is highest in parts of Peru where it lies at about 16,500 ft.
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  • The structure of the Andes is least complex in the southern portion of the range.
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  • The curvature of the range around the Brazilian massif, and the position of the zone of older rocks upon the eastern flank, led Suess to the conclusion that the Andes owe their origin to an overthrust from east to west, and that the Vorland lies beneath the Pacific. In the south Wehrli and Burckhardt maintain that the thrust came from the west, and they look upon the ancient rocks of Argentina as the Vorland.
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  • At present this order is confined to the northern hemisphere, with the exception of two Spelerpes from the Andes of Ecuador and Peru, and a Plethodon from Argentina.
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  • His 2003 film Touching the Void earned worldwide acclaim for its gripping true account of two climbers ' perilous journey in the Peruvian Andes.
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  • Spirit of the Andes alpaca and pima cotton knitwear hand made using the highest quality alpaca and pima cotton from Peru.
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  • From here, you can join an optional air excursion to the scenic Torres del Paine National Park, high in the Andes.
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  • Along with the Himalayas only the Andes offers the scale of landscape and sheer mountain grandeur.
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  • In 1540 Orellana and some 50 Spanish soldiers crossed the Andes and reached the headwaters of the Amazon River.
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  • The main chain of the Andes runs from west to east, leaving a narrow coastal plain.
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  • In 1881 a treaty was signed which provided that the boundary line should follow the highest crests of the Andes forming the watershed as far south as the 52nd parallel,thence east to the 10th meridian and south-east to Cape Dungeness at the eastern entrance to the Straits of Magellan.
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  • Flanking this great widening of the Andes on the south-east are the three short parallel ranges of Cordoba, belonging to another and older formation.
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  • The eastern ranges parallel to the Andes are here broken into detached extensions and spurs, which soon disappear in the elevated western pampas, and the Andes contract south of Aconcagua to a single range, which descends gradually to the great plains of La Pampa and Neuquen.
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  • Another considerable river flowing into the same great morass is the Atuel, which rises in the Andes not far south of the Diamante.
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  • In the western hemisphere they range along the Mexican highlands and the Andes far into the tropics, while in the Old World the genus, well represented in the Himalayas and the hills of China, exists likewise in the peninsula of Malacca, in the Indian Archipelago and Malaya to the Philippine Islands and Borneo.
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  • East and south of the Sierra de Merida and the Maritime Andes the region is thinly populated and little known.
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  • Some of the larger tributaries of these rivers, whose economic value has been equally great, are the Mapocho, which flows through Santiago and enters the Maipo from the north; the turbulent Cachapoal, which joins the Rapel from the north; the Claro, which waters an extensive part of the province of Talca and enters the Maule from the north; the Nuble, which rises in the higher Andes north of the peaks of Chillan and flows entirely across the province of Nuble to join the Itata on its western frontier; the Laja, which rises in a lake of the same name near the Argentine frontier in about lat.
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  • The Chilean peon, however, comes from a hardy stock, and has borne ail strip of territory west of the Andes, but also a large piece of the Patagonian mainland, south of lat.
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  • The Chilian and Peruvian Andes and Patagonia are the homes of two peculiar deer locally known as guemals (huemals), and constituting the subgenus Xenelaphus, or Hippocamelus.
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  • To the west and south-west the general character of the land changes; the ends of the Tertiary beds are raised in small hills and Mesozoic rocks appear, forming broken ridges of the Pre-Cordillera, a name given on the continent to the ridges which precede, to the east, the Andes.
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  • The Andes are covered in temperate rainforests, from which a myriad of rivers flowing down.
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  • From the heights on the Andes to the lush verdant rainforest, this ten day trip is packed with varied highlights.
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  • Something as inexpensive as a couple of Andes' mints wrapped in tulle with a pretty ribbon is perfectly acceptable and may cost less than a quarter per person.
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  • Other kinds are natives of the Chilian Andes, and have simple leaves, rigid in texture, and their habit is, as a rule, bushy and not climbing.
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  • The bodega is at the base of the Andes in Mendoza, Argentina and the label's image represents the moon either rising or setting over the South American mountain range.
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  • When looking at the Andes facing towards the west, I always think it interesting that Argentina's wine country is just a short, albeit big, hop over the high mountains to Chile's competing wine region.
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  • So, is the moon rising or setting over the Andes?
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  • Nacional--This bean is the most widely cultivated cocoa bean west of the Andes mountains.
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  • During the Tertiary period the great volcanoes of the Andes were formed, and there were smaller eruptions in the Sierras.
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  • Not only has scientific study advanced at the university of Buenos Aires, but scientific research is promoting the development of the country; examples are the geographical explorations of the Andean frontier, and especially of the Patagonian Andes, by Francisco P. Moreno.
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  • The population is concentrated in a few small towns on the rivers and in some colonies, established by the national government to check Chilean invasions, in the fertile districts of the Andes.
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  • This decline in its prosperity was checked, and the modern development of the port began, when a railway was built from Callao into the heart of the Andes, and Callao is now an important factor in the development of copper-mining.
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  • America its natural occurrence appears to be limited to west of the Andes, but the tree is abundant in Mexico, Guatemala and Nicaragua.
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  • America down to the slopes of Chimborazo; the Cordilleras of the Andes separating the Castilloas from the Heveas of Brazil.
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  • There are winter winds from the Andes, but in the summer season there are cold currents of air from up-river (ventos da cima) which are usually followed by downpours of rain.
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  • The tapir also has an extensive range between the coast and the foothills of the Andes, and from northern Argentina to south-eastern Colombia.
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  • The latter region is densely forested from the Atlantic to the Andes, but with a varying width of about 200 m.
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  • Beyond the Cojedes begin two parallel ranges known as the Maritime Andes of Venezuela, which stretch east and west along the coast.
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  • Behind the wide bay between Cape Codera and Cumana there is an interruption in the Maritime Andes; but both ranges reappear between Cumana and the Gulf of Paria.
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  • West of the Maritime Andes low ranges (3500-5000 ft.) trend northwards from the end of the Sierra de Merida towards the coast on the east side of the Lake of Maracaibo, while the region on the west of that lake consists of lagoon-studded lowlands.
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  • The Orinoco is supposed to have 436 tributaries, of which, among the largest, the Caroni-Paragua, Aro, Caura, Cuchivero, Suapure, Sipapo and Ventuari have their sources in the Guiana highlands; the Suata, Manapere and Guaritico in the northern sierras; and the Apure, Uricana, Arauca, Capanaparo, Meta, Vichada and Guaviare (the last three being Colombian rivers) in the llanos and Andes.
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  • These ranges appear to belong to two systems. The Cordillera of Merida is one of the branches of the Andes, and the strike of the folds which compose it is usually from south-west to north-east.
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  • In the Maritime Andes at and above the altitude of Caracas it may be described as semitropical, and in the still higher regions of western Venezuela it approaches the mild temperate.
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  • On the coast and the northern slopes of the Maritime Andes the tropical heat is greatly modified by the trade-winds.
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  • Irrigation, which has not been used to any great extent, is needed in some parts of the country for the best results, but in others, as in the valleys and on the northern slopes of the Maritime Andes, the rainfall is sufficiently well distributed to meet most requirements.
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  • The universities are at Caracas and Merida, the latter known as the Universidad de los Andes.
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  • Chinchillas live in burrows, and these subterranean dwellings undermine the ground in some parts of the Chilean Andes to such an extent as to cause danger to travellers on horseback.
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  • The Peruvian chinchilla (C, brevicaudata) is larger, with relatively shorter ears and tail; while still larger species constitute the genus Lagidium, ranging from the Andes to Patagonia, and distinguished by having four in place of five front-toes, more pointed ears, and a somewhat differently formed skull.
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  • Among them may be mentioned the aperea or restless cavy (C. porcellus or C. aperea) of Brazil; the Bolivian C. boliviensis, found at great elevations in the Andes; the Brazilian rock-cavy (C. rupestris), characterized by its short blunt claws; and the Peruvian C. cutleri.
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  • The province lies partly in the great central valley of Chile, noted for its fine climate and fertility, and partly on the western slopes of the Andes.
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  • The montana is the region of tropical forests within the valley of the Amazon, and skirts the eastern slopes of the Andes.
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  • Half of these have their origin in the summits of the Andes, and run with a permanent supply of water into the ocean.
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  • The absence of rain here is ascribed to the action of the lofty uplands of the Andes on the trade-wind, and to the influence of the cold Humboldt current sweeping northward along the west coast of the continent.
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  • When the wind rises above the snow-capped Andes, the last particle of moisture is wrung from it that a very low temperature can extract.
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  • Those of Carabayllo and Rimac are connected, and the view from the Bay of Callao extends over a vast expanse of fertile plain bounded by the Andes, with the white towers of Lima in a setting of verdure.
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  • The region of the Cordilleras of the Andes is divided into Puna, or lofty uninhabited wilderness, and sierra, or inhabitable moun- Sierra.
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  • These three chains are called the Western or Maritime Cordillera, the Central Cordillera and the Andes.
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  • Paz Soldan and other Peruvian geographers give the name of Andes, par excellence, to the Eastern Cordillera.
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  • In most parts ofithe Peruvian Andes the line of perpetual snow is at 16,400 ft.; but on the Cordillera Nevada, above the Callejon de Huaylas, it sinks to 15,400 ft.
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  • The Eastern Andes is a magnificent range in the southern part of Peru, of Silurian formation, with talcose and clay slates, many quartz veins and eruptions of granitic rocks.
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  • The range of the Andes in south Peru has a high plateau to the west and the vast plains of the Amazonian basin to the east.
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  • The Andes lose their majestic height to the northward; and beyond Cerro Pasco the eastern chain sinks into a lower range between the Huallaga and Ucayali.
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  • The animals which specially belong to the Peruvian Andes are the domestic llamas and alpacas and the wild vicunas.
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  • The third division of Peru is the region of the tropical forests, at the base of the Andes, and within the basin of the Amazon.
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  • The southern half of the montana is watered by streams flowing from the eastern Andes, which go to form the river Madre de Dios or Amaru mayu, the principal branch of the river Beni, which falls into the Madeira.
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  • Long spurs run off from the Andes, gradually decreasing in elevation, and it is sometimes a distance of 60 or 80 m.
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  • Geology.'--The Eastern Cordillera., which, however, is but little known, appears to consist, as in Bolivia, chiefly of Palaeozoic rocks; the western ranges of the Andes are formed of Mesozoic beds, together with recent volcanic lavas and ashes; and the lower hills near the coast are composed of granite, syenite and other crystalline rocks, sometimes accompanied by limestones and sandstones, which are probably of Lower Cretaceous age, and often covered by marine Tertiary deposits.
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  • Above Lima the western chain of the Andes is composed of porphyritic tuffs and massive limestones, while the longitudinal valley of the Oroya is hollowed in carbonaceous sandstones.
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  • Surveys were completed in 1909 for an extension of the Oroya line from a point on its Cerro de Pasco branch eastward to the Ucayali, and another transandean line frequently discussed is projected from Paita across the Andes to Puerto Limon, on the Maranon-a distance of 410 m.
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  • A superior quality of bean is produced in the eastern valleys of the Andes, especially in the Chanchamayo valley.
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  • The llama was the only beast of burden known to the South American natives before the arrival of the Spaniards and is highly serviceable on the difficult trails of the Andes.
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  • It is traversed by several rivers, fed by the melting snows of the Andes and discharging into the swamps and lagoons in the S.E.
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  • Pastoral interests are largely in feeding cattle for the Chilean markets, for which large areas of alfalfa are grown in the irrigated valleys of the Andes.
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  • The nitrate and borax deposits are extensive and productive, and common salt is a natural product of large areas in the elevated desert regions of the Andes.
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  • The plain lying between this coast range and the Andes dips below sea-level in the gulfs of Ancud and Corcovado (average width, 30 m.).
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  • The city stands in a deep ravine of the Andes at an elevation of about 12,400 ft.
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  • Iquitos was put in wireless telegraphic communication with Puerto Bermudez on the 8th of July 1908, whence a land line runs across the Andes to Lima.
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  • Bailey, was accordingly despatched (1889), and the meridian photometer erected successively in three different positions on the slopes of the Andes.
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  • Several of these rodents live in the Andes, where the ground is covered for months with snow.
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  • The "Oriental" Andes of Colombia give birth to another great affluent of the Orinoco, the Arauca, which soon reaches the plain and parallels the Apure on the south.
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  • Its head-waters do not reach the Andes.
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  • San Luis belongs partly to the semi-arid pampa region, and partly to the mountainous region of the eastern Andes and Cordoba whose ranges terminate between the 33rd and 34th parallels.
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  • Professor POffig, also cited by Dr Twining, states that on the east side of the Andes in Chile, in some of the races which live there, he did not see a single case of goitre, and yet in the white inhabitants, who live exactly as the natives, it prevails in a great degree.
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  • The Alps, however, do not present so continuous a barrier as the Himalayas, the Andes or even the Pyrenees.
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  • At the time when it is hottest and driest on the coast it is raining heavily in the Andes, and the rivers are full.
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