SentencesSentence examples

And Sentence Examples

  • The boy laughed cheerfully and jumped out.
  • Then they turned bottom side up, and continued to roll slowly over until they were right side up again.
  • He laughed at that, and his laugh was merry and frank.
  • Dorothy grabbed fast hold of the buggy top and the boy did the same.
  • They have two fertilized eggs and they want final consent.
  • The voice and words belonged to Josh, and yet he had been dead for more than two years.
  • Carmen brushed them away and returned to her prayer.
  • Dorothy sighed and commenced to breathe easier.
  • And yet, didn't clinical words like selective reduction and gestational carrier mask the facts?
  • The speech he gave in September 1962, announcing that goal, spent a good amount of time justifying the expense and explaining the urgency.
  • All that did was to enwich the pwiests' sons and thieves and wobbahs....
  • He parked the truck in front of the house and headed down the hill.
  • Taking her in his arms, he held her close for a moment and then planted a kiss on her forehead.
  • The sky had grown darker again and the wind made queer sobbing sounds as it swept over the valley.
  • Reluctantly she pulled away, her pulse and respiration in a race.
  • At some point, that stopped bugging her and became an attraction.
  • Humor danced in his eyes and twisted smooth lips.
  • Count Ilya Rostov smiled blandly and nodded approval.
  • With a wild neigh of terror the animal fell bodily into the pit, drawing the buggy and its occupants after him.
  • He was not going very fast, but on his flanks specks of foam began to appear and at times he would tremble like a leaf.
  • It was indicative of dissipation and the exercise of authority.
  • She stopped and gazed up at his face.
  • There was a breath of danger in the very air, and every few moments the earth would shake violently.
  • People overwhelmingly believed the future would be better, and they were right!
  • He reached her and turned, walking beside her as they started back up the hill to the house.
  • Long dark lashes and black curly hair - he had it all.
  • It should have arrived at Hugson's Siding at midnight, but it was already five o'clock and the gray dawn was breaking in the east when the little train slowly rumbled up to the open shed that served for the station-house.
  • The conductor helped her off the car and then the engineer started his train again, so that it puffed and groaned and moved slowly away up the track.
  • She walked toward it and found the horse tied to a tree and standing motionless, with its head hanging down almost to the ground.
  • It was a big horse, tall and bony, with long legs and large knees and feet.
  • She could count his ribs easily where they showed through the skin of his body, and his head was long and seemed altogether too big for him, as if it did not fit.
  • His tail was short and scraggly, and his harness had been broken in many places and fastened together again with cords and bits of wire.
  • The buggy seemed almost new, for it had a shiny top and side curtains.
  • She set down the bird-cage and poked the boy with her parasol.
  • We've been away for a long time, you know, and so we're anxious to get home again.
  • Next minute there was a roar and a sharp crash, and at her side Dorothy saw the ground open in a wide crack and then come together again.
  • Zeb shook the reins and urged him to go, but Jim was stubborn.
  • Then she looked at Zeb, whose face was blue and whose hair was pink, and gave a little laugh that sounded a bit nervous.
  • Dorothy had a green streak through the center of her face where the blue and yellow lights came together, and her appearance seemed to add to his fright.
  • Dorothy and Zeb looked at one another in wonder.
  • "Those were the first words I ever said," called out the horse, who had overheard them, "and I can't explain why I happened to speak then.
  • All this was so terrible and unreal that he could not understand it at all, and so had good reason to be afraid.
  • They saw the mother robin flying about, and crying to her mate.
  • Such a house my father built after the Civil War, and when he married my mother they went to live in it.
  • It was the favourite haunt of humming-birds and bees.
  • I confess all these festivities and fireworks are becoming wearisome.
  • Anna Pavlovna Scherer on the contrary, despite her forty years, overflowed with animation and impulsiveness.
  • Yes, and Jonathan is at school.
  • She and Dad would have loved Alex.
  • They entered the house and she glanced at the dark fireplace.
  • Without answering, he headed for the fireplace and opened the wood box.
  • She sighed and walked over to the window seat.
  • His somber gaze met hers and then drifted to her lips.
  • Pulling his head down, she met warm lips again and surrendered to the passion he always managed to arouse.
  • Jumping out of the buggy he put Dorothy's suit-case under the seat and her bird-cage on the floor in front.
  • He and Uncle Hugson have been having a fine visit.
  • Jim's ears were standing erect upon his head and every muscle of his big body was tense as he trotted toward home.
  • The top of the buggy caught the air like a parachute or an umbrella filled with wind, and held them back so that they floated downward with a gentle motion that was not so very disagreeable to bear.
  • With this thought in mind the girl took heart and leaned her head over the side of the buggy to see where the strange light was coming from.
  • The boy was startled and his eyes were big.
  • But they continued to fall, all together, and the boy and girl had no difficulty in remaining upon the seat, just as they were before.
  • "Of course," growled the horse, "and then we shall be sorry it happened."
  • He got down from his horse and very gently took the little ones up in his big warm hands.
  • He stooped and picked up a bird's nest that had fallen upon the ground.
  • He lifted the nest gently and put it in a safe place in the forks of the tree.
  • Two children, brother and sister, were on their way to school.
  • They may have missed on specifics (such as each of us owning a personal jet pack and a flying car) but in general were dead-on.
  • We have, in fact, envisioned a better world and have made it happen.
  • They have got to live a man's life, pushing all these things before them, and get on as well as they can.
  • She smiled to herself - and not always because he rubbed her the wrong way.
  • They even agreed to take care of the animals while Alex and Carmen took their first vacation.
  • In addition to the assistance from the renters, the money finally gave her an income of her own, and the token independence that went with it.
  • A sudden gust of wind circled them and whispered words in her mind.
  • In the kitchen she removed two mugs from the holder and reached for the coffee pot.
  • Alex had destroyed it then with suspicion and accusations.
  • It was true, and it brought color to his neck, but he didn't comment.
  • No, but I can't sit on the fence forever - and I do want another baby.
  • She pushed the thought from her mind and turned to him.
  • Later, she lay in bed, tucked warmly under the covers as his boots clicked away from her on the hardwood floor - down the hall and into the den.
  • So he moved the cars slowly and with caution.
  • The shed at Hugson's Siding was bare save for an old wooden bench, and did not look very inviting.
  • As she peered through the soft gray light not a house of any sort was visible near the station, nor was any person in sight; but after a while the child discovered a horse and buggy standing near a group of trees a short distance away.
  • "Yes," she answered, looking gravely at his tousled hair and blinking gray eyes.
  • Then the boy picked up the reins, shook them, and said "Gid-dap!"
  • I work for Uncle Bill on his ranch, and he pays me six dollars a month and my board.
  • "What is your name?" said Dorothy, thinking she liked the boy's manner and the cheery tone of his voice.
  • Tomorrow Uncle Henry and I must start back for Kansas.
  • The worst thing was their terror of reaching the bottom of this great crack in the earth, and the natural fear that sudden death was about to overtake them at any moment.
  • These they could not see, but they could feel them pelting the buggy top, and Jim screamed almost like a human being when a stone overtook him and struck his boney body.
  • Also, turning her head, she found that she could see the boy beside her, who had until now remained as still and silent as she herself.
  • Swiftly they drew near to the flaming colored suns, and passed close beside them.
  • We are somewhere in the middle of the earth, and the chances are we'll reach the other side of it before long.
  • At this they both put their heads over the side of the buggy and looked down.
  • He leaped into the saddle, and away he dashed with his officers close behind him.
  • He married Lucy Helen Everett, who belonged to the same family of Everetts as Edward Everett and Dr. Edward Everett Hale.
  • Self-emancipation even in the West Indian provinces of the fancy and imagination--what Wilberforce is there to bring that about?
  • The nobility don't gwudge theah lives--evewy one of us will go and bwing in more wecwuits, and the sov'weign" (that was the way he referred to the Emperor) "need only say the word and we'll all die fo' him!" added the orator with animation.
  • And yet, didn't clinical words like selective reduction and gestational carrier mask the facts?
  • Presently he woke up, rose to a sitting position and rubbed his eyes briskly.
  • Then he got into the buggy again and took the reins, and the horse at once backed away from the tree, turned slowly around, and began to trot down the sandy road which was just visible in the dim light.
  • The horse had stopped short, and stood firm as a rock.
  • The central and largest one was white, and reminded her of the sun.
  • Around it were arranged, like the five points of a star, the other five brilliant balls; one being rose colored, one violet, one yellow, one blue and one orange.
  • Dorothy was too dazed to say much, but she watched one of Jim's big ears turn to violet and the other to rose, and wondered that his tail should be yellow and his body striped with blue and orange like the stripes of a zebra.
  • Yes; there was land below them; and not so very far away, either.
  • They saw a landscape with mountains and plains, lakes and rivers, very like those upon the earth's surface; but all the scene was splendidly colored by the variegated lights from the six suns.
  • Here and there were groups of houses that seemed made of clear glass, because they sparkled so brightly.
  • But don't let us worry over such things, Zeb; we can't help ourselves just now, you know, and I've always been told it's foolish to borrow trouble.
  • They seemed to be falling right into the middle of a big city which had many tall buildings with glass domes and sharp-pointed spires.
  • These spires were like great spear-points, and if they tumbled upon one of them they were likely to suffer serious injury.
  • Jim the horse had seen these spires, also, and his ears stood straight up with fear, while Dorothy and Zeb held their breaths in suspense.
  • The houses of the city were all made of glass, so clear and transparent that one could look through the walls as easily as through a window.
  • The roof beside them had a great hole smashed through it, and pieces of glass were lying scattered in every direction.
  • A nearby steeple had been broken off short and the fragments lay heaped beside it.
  • The rainbow tints from the colored suns fell upon the glass city softly and gave to the buildings many delicate, shifting hues which were very pretty to see.
  • Suddenly a man appeared through a hole in the roof next to the one they were on and stepped into plain view.
  • He was not a very large man, but was well formed and had a beautiful face--calm and serene as the face of a fine portrait.
  • His clothing fitted his form snugly and was gorgeously colored in brilliant shades of green, which varied as the sunbeams touched them but was not wholly influenced by the solar rays.
  • He reached the edge of the tall roof, stepped one foot out into the air, and walked into space as calmly as if he were on firm ground.
  • The girl, greatly astonished, ran to lean over the edge of the roof, and saw the man walking rapidly through the air toward the ground.
  • Soon he reached the street and disappeared through a glass doorway into one of the glass buildings.
  • "Yes; but it's lots of fun, if it IS strange," remarked the small voice of the kitten, and Dorothy turned to find her pet walking in the air a foot or so away from the edge of the roof.
  • "Of course; can't you see?" and again the kitten wandered into the air and back to the edge of the roof.
  • "And maybe he won't!" answered Jim.
  • "None of us has had breakfast," said the boy; "and in a time of danger like this it's foolish to talk about eating."
  • I can see plenty of nice gardens and fields down below us, at the edge of this city.
  • I'm as hungry as the horse is, and I want my milk.
  • Dorothy kept hold of his hand and followed him, and soon they were both walking through the air, with the kitten frisking beside them.
  • So, with a snort and a neigh and a whisk of his short tail he trotted off the roof into the air and at once began floating downward to the street.
  • There were men and women, but no children at all, and the folks were all beautifully formed and attractively dressed and had wonderfully handsome faces.
  • Then, remembering the stones that had fallen with them and passed them long before they had reached this place, he answered:
  • In this quake a big crack opened and we fell through--horse and buggy, and all--and the stones got loose and came down with us.
  • "The Rain of Stones has done much damage to our city," he said, "and we shall hold you responsible for it unless you can prove your innocence."
  • He turned and walked down the street, and after a moment's hesitation Dorothy caught Eureka in her arms and climbed into the buggy.
  • The boy took his seat beside her and said: "Gid-dap Jim."
  • As the horse ambled along, drawing the buggy, the people of the glass city made way for them and formed a procession in their rear.
  • There was even a thorn upon the tip of his nose and he looked so funny that Dorothy laughed when she saw him.
  • "Why did you wickedly and viciously send the Rain of Stones to crack and break our houses?" he continued.
  • We only know that yesterday came a Rain of Stones upon us, which did much damage and injured some of our people.
  • This second one was a Rain of People-and-Horse-and-Buggy.
  • And some stones came with them.
  • Just then a man came running into the hall and addressed the Prince after making a low bow.
  • Immediately the Prince and all of his people flocked out of the hall into the street, that they might see what was about to happen.
  • Dorothy and Zeb jumped out of the buggy and ran after them, but the Sorcerer remained calmly in his throne.
  • The throng stood still and waited.
  • It was all they could do, for to go away and leave that strange sight was impossible; nor could they hurry its fall in any way.
  • A balloon meant to her some other arrival from the surface of the earth, and she hoped it would be some one able to assist her and Zeb out of their difficulties.
  • Then a little man jumped out of the basket, took off his tall hat, and bowed very gracefully to the crowd of Mangaboos around him.
  • He was quite an old little man and his head was long and entirely bald.
  • The little man looked toward her and seemed as much surprised as she was.
  • But he smiled and bowed as he answered:
  • Yes, my dear; I am Oz, the Great and Terrible.
  • And you are little Dorothy, from Kansas.
  • Just then the man with the star came and stood before the Wizard.
  • I had let so much gas out of my balloon that I could not rise again, and in a few minutes the earth closed over my head.
  • So he followed the Prince into the great domed hall, and Dorothy and Zeb came after them, while the throng of people trooped in also.
  • There sat the thorny Sorcerer in his chair of state, and when the Wizard saw him he began to laugh, uttering comical little chuckles.
  • I belong to Bailum & Barney's Great Consolidated Shows--three rings in one tent and a menagerie on the side.
  • But I've just had the bad luck to come out of the sky, skip the solid earth, and land lower down than I intended.
  • He waved a thorny hand and at once the tinkling of bells was heard, playing sweet music.
  • Now was the Wizard's turn, so he smiled upon the assemblage and asked:
  • No one did, because the Mangaboos did not wear hats, and Zeb had lost his, somehow, in his flight through the air.
  • You see, there is nothing up my sleeve and nothing concealed about my person.
  • He took off his hat and held it upside down, shaking it briskly.
  • He took the hat and examined it carefully, returning it afterward to the Wizard.
  • The Wizard reached out, caught the wee creature in his hand, and holding its head between one thumb and finger and its tail between the other thumb and finger he pulled it apart, each of the two parts becoming a whole and separate piglet in an instant.
  • He placed one upon the floor, so that it could run around, and pulled apart the other, making three piglets in all; and then one of these was pulled apart, making four piglets.
  • With this he caught up two of the piglets and pushed them together, so that the two were one.
  • Then he caught up another piglet and pushed it into the first, where it disappeared.
  • And so, one by one, the nine tiny piglets were pushed together until but a single one of the creatures remained.
  • This the Wizard placed underneath his hat and made a mystic sign above it.
  • The little man gave a bow to the silent throng that had watched him, and then the Prince said, in his cold, calm voice:
  • I perceive that you are curiously constructed, and that if you cannot breathe you cannot keep alive.
  • He began making queer signs and passes toward the Wizard; but the little man did not watch him long.
  • Instead, he drew a leathern case from his pocket and took from it several sharp knives, which he joined together, one after another, until they made a long sword.
  • He is really dead now, and will wither very quickly.
  • There were paths through these gardens, and over some of the brooks were ornamental glass bridges.
  • Dorothy and Zeb now got out of the buggy and walked beside the Prince, so that they might see and examine the flowers and plants better.
  • But it took a good many years for them to grow as large and fine as they are now.
  • When they passed over a field of grass Jim immediately stretched down his head and began to nibble.
  • By this time the party had reached a freshly plowed field, and the Prince said to Dorothy:
  • Several Mangaboos came forward with glass spades and dug a hole in the ground.
  • After that other people brought water from a brook and sprinkled the earth.
  • "He will sprout very soon," said the Prince, "and grow into a large bush, from which we shall in time be able to pick several very good sorcerers."
  • Inside the hedge they came upon row after row of large and handsome plants with broad leaves gracefully curving until their points nearly reached the ground.
  • In the center of each plant grew a daintily dressed Mangaboo, for the clothing of all these creatures grew upon them and was attached to their bodies.
  • On some of the bushes might be seen a bud, a blossom, a baby, a half-grown person and a ripe one; but even those ready to pluck were motionless and silent, as if devoid of life.
  • If we keep cool and moist, and meet with no accidents, we often live for five years.
  • We are quite solid inside our bodies, and have no need to eat, any more than does a potato.
  • He led them within another but smaller circle of hedge, where grew one large and beautiful bush.
  • All of our Princes and Rulers have grown upon this one bush from time immemorial.
  • The maiden's gown was soft as satin and fell about her in ample folds, while dainty lace-like traceries trimmed the bodice and sleeves.
  • Her poise expressed both dignity and grace.
  • I am in no hurry to resign my office and be planted, you may be sure.
  • I think I shall keep this Wizard until a new Sorcerer is ready to pick, for he seems quite skillful and may be of use to us.
  • The children looked at each other in perplexity, and the Wizard sighed.
  • Eureka rubbed her paw on her face and said in her soft, purring voice:
  • He won't need to destroy ME, for if I don't get something to eat pretty soon I shall starve to death, and so save him the trouble.
  • But I noticed some strawberries growing in one of the gardens, and some melons in another place.
  • The words of the cold and moist vegetable Prince were not very comforting, and as he spoke them he turned away and left the enclosure.
  • The children, feeling sad and despondent, were about to follow him when the Wizard touched Dorothy softly on her shoulder.
  • "Pull!" cried Dorothy, and as they did so the royal lady leaned toward them and the stems snapped and separated from her feet.
  • She was not at all heavy, so the Wizard and Dorothy managed to lift her gently to the ground.
  • The beautiful creature passed her hands over her eyes an instant, tucked in a stray lock of hair that had become disarranged, and after a look around the garden made those present a gracious bow and said, in a sweet but even toned voice:
  • "We salute your Royal Highness!" cried the Wizard, kneeling and kissing her hand.
  • Instantly the Princess turned and faced him, and when he saw that she was picked the Prince stood still and began to tremble.
  • Slowly he took the shining star from his own brow and placed it upon that of the Princess.
  • Then all the people bowed low to her, and the Prince turned and walked away alone.
  • The people of Mangaboo now formed themselves into a procession and marched toward the glass city to escort their new ruler to her palace and to perform those ceremonies proper to the occasion.
  • No one now seemed to pay any attention to the strangers, so Dorothy and Zeb and the Wizard let the train pass on and then wandered by themselves into the vegetable gardens.
  • They did not bother to cross the bridges over the brooks, but when they came to a stream they stepped high and walked in the air to the other side.
  • This was a very interesting experience to them.
  • Only a fairy country could have veg'table people; and only in a fairy country could Eureka and Jim talk as we do.
  • In the vegetable gardens they found the strawberries and melons, and several other unknown but delicious fruits, of which they ate heartily.
  • But the pulling of them apart and pushing them together again was only a sleight-of-hand trick.
  • The little man felt carefully in his pocket and pulled out the tiny piglets, setting them upon the grass one by one, where they ran around and nibbled the tender blades.
  • "Oh, what cunning things!" cried Dorothy, catching up one and petting it.
  • A sailor brought them to Los Angeles and I gave him nine tickets to the circus for them.
  • And if I can't eat the piglets you may as well plant me at once and raise catsup.
  • And if I can't eat the piglets you may as well plant me at once and raise catsup.
  • Fishes are not animals, and they are as cold and moist as the vegetables themselves.
  • Then the Wizard bent a pin for a hook and took a long piece of string from his pocket for a fish-line.
  • Then she happened to remember that in a corner of her suit-case were one or two crackers that were left over from her luncheon on the train, and she went to the buggy and brought them.
  • Eureka stuck up her nose at such food, but the tiny piglets squealed delightedly at the sight of the crackers and ate them up in a jiffy.
  • They agreed to this plan, and when they reached the great square Jim drew the buggy into the big door of the domed hall.
  • Let us walk up, and see where the doors lead to.
  • With this he began walking in the air toward the high openings, and Dorothy and Zeb followed him.
  • Following these halls they discovered many small rooms opening from them, and some were furnished with glass benches, tables and chairs.
  • Those colored suns are exactly in the same place they were when we came, and if there is no sunset there can be no night.
  • But it is a long time since I have had any sleep, and I'm tired.
  • Then the boy returned to one of the upper rooms, and in spite of the hardness of the glass bench was soon deep in slumberland.
  • The little man, having had a good sleep, felt rested and refreshed, and looking through the glass partition of the room he saw Zeb sitting up on his bench and yawning.
  • I wish you would go and fetch my satchel, two lanterns, and a can of kerosene oil that is under the seat.
  • So the boy went willingly upon the errand, and by the time he had returned Dorothy was awake.
  • They're cold and flabby, like cabbages, in spite of their prettiness.
  • "And they have no hearts; so they can't love anyone – not even themselves," declared the boy.
  • Just then they heard the big voice of Jim the cab-horse calling to them, and going to the doorway leading to the dome they found the Princess and a throng of her people had entered the House of the Sorcerer.
  • "We shall throw you three people into the Garden of the Twining Vines," said the Princess, "and they will soon crush you and devour your bodies to make themselves grow bigger.
  • Let us see your arts, and the sorceries you are able to perform.
  • He did it very cleverly, indeed, and the Princess looked at the strange piglets as if she were as truly astonished as any vegetable person could be.
  • Then he jointed together the blades of his sword and balanced it very skillfully upon the end of his nose.
  • Just then his eye fell upon the lanterns and the can of kerosene oil which Zeb had brought from the car of his balloon, and he got a clever idea from those commonplace things.
  • So he placed Dorothy upon one side of him and the boy upon the other and set a lantern upon each of their heads.
  • When he lighted the oil a hundred tongues of flame shot up, and the effect was really imposing.
  • The advisors of the Princess did not like this test; but she commanded them to step into the flame and one by one they did so, and were scorched so badly that the air was soon filled with an odor like that of baked potatoes.
  • Some of the Mangaboos fell down and had to be dragged from the fire, and all were so withered that it would be necessary to plant them at once.
  • Once they came near to the enclosed Garden of the Clinging Vines, and walking high into the air looked down upon it with much interest.
  • They saw a mass of tough green vines all matted together and writhing and twisting around like a nest of great snakes.
  • Everything the vines touched they crushed, and our adventurers were indeed thankful to have escaped being cast among them.
  • They knew the kitten, by this time, so they scampered over to where she lay beside Jim and commenced to frisk and play with her.
  • The cab-horse, who never slept long at a time, sat upon his haunches and watched the tiny piglets and the kitten with much approval.
  • "Don't be rough!" he would call out, if Eureka knocked over one of the round, fat piglets with her paw; but the pigs never minded, and enjoyed the sport very greatly.
  • Here were more of the vegetable people with thorns, and silently they urged the now frightened creatures down the street.
  • Slowly but steadily the heartless Mangaboos drove them on, until they had passed through the city and the gardens and come to the broad plains leading to the mountain.
  • I'd kick out with those long legs and iron-shod hoofs.
  • An instant later he suddenly backed toward the crowd of Mangaboos and kicked out his hind legs as hard as he could.
  • A dozen of them smashed together and tumbled to the ground, and seeing his success Jim kicked again and again, charging into the vegetable crowd, knocking them in all directions and sending the others scattering to escape his iron heels.
  • Eureka helped him by flying into the faces of the enemy and scratching and biting furiously, and the kitten ruined so many vegetable complexions that the Mangaboos feared her as much as they did the horse.
  • "We ought to have called him and Dorothy when we were first attacked," added Eureka.
  • But never mind; be brave, my friends, and I will go and tell our masters where you are, and get them to come to your rescue.
  • The mouth of the hole was nearly filled up now, but the kitten gave a leap through the remaining opening and at once scampered up into the air.
  • The Mangaboos saw her escape, and several of them caught up their thorns and gave chase, mounting through the air after her.
  • So she ran along over their heads until she had left them far behind and below and had come to the city and the House of the Sorcerer.
  • There she entered in at Dorothy's window in the dome and aroused her from her sleep.
  • The Wizard carried his satchel, which was quite heavy, and Zeb carried the two lanterns and the oil can.
  • "Stop, I command you!" cried the Wizard, in an angry tone, and at once began pulling down the rocks to liberate Jim and the piglets.
  • At once the Mangaboos began piling up the rocks of glass again, and as the little man realized that they were all about to be entombed in the mountain he said to the children:
  • Jump out and fight?
  • I'd as soon die here as live much longer among these cruel and heartless people.
  • Noticing that the light was growing dim he picked up his nine piglets, patted each one lovingly on its fat little head, and placed them carefully in his inside pocket.
  • Zeb struck a match and lighted one of the lanterns.
  • "I'll explore it and see," replied the boy.
  • So he carried the lantern back for quite a distance, while Dorothy and the Wizard followed at his side.
  • The others agreed readily to this sensible suggestion, and at once the boy began to harness Jim to the buggy.
  • Jim stopped sometimes to rest, for the climb was rather steep and tiresome.
  • The sides of the tunnel showed before them like the inside of a long spy-glass, and the floor became more level.
  • Jim hastened his lagging steps at this assurance of a quick relief from the dark passage.
  • It was all laid out into lovely lawns and gardens, with pebble paths leading through them and groves of beautiful and stately trees dotting the landscape here and there.
  • Alluring brooks of crystal water flowed sparkling between their flower-strewn banks, while scattered over the valley were dozens of the quaintest and most picturesque cottages our travelers had ever beheld.
  • None of them were in clusters, such as villages or towns, but each had ample grounds of its own, with orchards and gardens surrounding it.
  • Several minutes were consumed in silent admiration before they noticed two very singular and unusual facts about this valley.
  • The second and even more singular fact was the absence of any inhabitant of this splendid place.
  • With some difficulty and danger Jim drew the buggy over the loose rocks until he reached the green lawns below, where the paths and orchards and gardens began.
  • "Isn't it fine?" cried Dorothy, in a joyous voice, as she sprang out of the buggy and let Eureka run frolicking over the velvety grass.
  • The fruit was so daintily colored and so fragrant, and looked so appetizing and delicious that Dorothy stopped and exclaimed:
  • Several squeals and grunts were instantly heard at his feet, but the Wizard could not discover a single piglet.
  • "But WE mus'n't eat them," the Wizard warned the children, "or we too may become invisible, and lose each other.
  • The door stood open and a table was set in the front room, with four chairs drawn up to it.
  • On the table were plates, knives and forks, and dishes of bread, meat and fruits.
  • The meat was smoking hot and the knives and forks were performing strange antics and jumping here and there in quite a puzzling way.
  • "How funny!" exclaimed Dorothy, who with Zeb and the Wizard now stood in the doorway.
  • A peal of merry laughter answered her, and the knives and forks fell to the plates with a clatter.
  • One of the chairs pushed back from the table, and this was so astonishing and mysterious that Dorothy was almost tempted to run away in fright.
  • "Here are strangers, mama!" cried the shrill and childish voice of some unseen person.
  • "So I see, my dear," answered another voice, soft and womanly.
  • And--pardon me for the foolish question--but, are you all invisible?
  • "We belong upon the face of the earth," explained the Wizard, "but recently, during an earthquake, we fell down a crack and landed in the Country of the Mangaboos."
  • Two childish voices laughed merrily at this action, and Dorothy was sure they were in no danger among such light-hearted folks, even if those folks couldn't be seen.
  • "He draws the buggy you see fastened to him, and we ride in the buggy instead of walking," she explained.
  • "No! he can kick pretty hard with his heels, and bite a little; but Jim can't 'zactly fight," she replied.
  • Many large and fierce bears roam in the Valley of Voe, and when they can catch any of us they eat us up; but as they cannot see us, we seldom get caught.
  • Yes; for they eat of the dama-fruit, as we all do, and that keeps them from being seen by any eye, whether human or animal.
  • "Does the dama-fruit grow on a low bush, and look something like a peach?" asked the Wizard.
  • The dama-fruit is the most delicious thing that grows, and when it makes us invisible the bears cannot find us to eat us up.
  • But now, good wanderers, your luncheon is on the table, so please sit down and eat as much as you like.
  • The strangers took their seats at the table willingly enough, for they were all hungry and the platters were now heaped with good things to eat.
  • In front of each place was a plate bearing one of the delicious dama-fruit, and the perfume that rose from these was so enticing and sweet that they were sorely tempted to eat of them and become invisible.
  • We who live here much prefer to be invisible; for we can still hug and kiss one another, and are quite safe from the bears.
  • "And we do not have to be so particular about our dress," remarked the man.
  • "And mama can't tell whether my face is dirty or not!" added the other childish voice, gleefully.
  • Dorothy laughed and stretched out her hands.
  • "Come here, please--Ianu and your sister--and let me feel of you," she requested.
  • The girl's hair was soft and fluffy and her skin as smooth as satin.
  • When Dorothy gently touched her nose and ears and lips they seemed to be well and delicately formed.
  • "How about the birds and beasts and fishes?" asked Zeb.
  • But the fishes that swim in our brooks we can see, and often we catch them to eat.
  • The children were inclined to be frightened by the sight of the small animal, which reminded them of the bears; but Dorothy reassured them by explaining that Eureka was a pet and could do no harm even if she wished to.
  • To her surprise an unseen hand clutched her and held her suspended in the air.
  • She placed a plate of food upon the floor and the kitten ate greedily.
  • As for reaching the top of the earth, I have never heard that it is possible to do that, and if you succeeded in getting there you would probably fall off.
  • "Oh, no," said Dorothy, "we've been there, and we know."
  • Our greatest Champion, Overman-Anu, once climbed the spiral stairway and fought nine days with the Gargoyles before he could escape them and come back; but he could never be induced to describe the dreadful creatures, and soon afterward a bear caught him and ate him up.
  • "True," he replied; "and in my satchel are other useful things to fight with."
  • But they were in great numbers, and the Champion could not shout much because he had to save his breath for fighting.
  • And if he was invis'ble, and the bears invis'ble, who knows that they really ate him up?
  • And if he was invis'ble, and the bears invis'ble, who knows that they really ate him up?
  • They now bade farewell to the kind but unseen people of the cottage, and after the man had called their attention to a high, pyramid-shaped mountain on the opposite side of the Valley, and told them how to travel in order to reach it, they again started upon their journey.
  • They followed the course of a broad stream and passed several more pretty cottages; but of course they saw no one, nor did any one speak to them.
  • Fruits and flowers grew plentifully all about, and there were many of the delicious damas that the people of Voe were so fond of.
  • About noon they stopped to allow Jim to rest in the shade of a pretty orchard.
  • The Wizard got out his sword at once, and Zeb grabbed the horse-whip.
  • Dorothy climbed into the buggy, although Jim had been unharnessed from it and was grazing some distance away.
  • The owner of the unseen voice laughed lightly and said:
  • You are strangers in the Valley of Voe, and do not seem to know our ways; so I will try to save you.
  • The next moment a broad-leaved plant was jerked from the ground where it grew and held suspended in the air before the Wizard.
  • It is a secret the bears do not know, and we people of Voe usually walk upon the water when we travel, and so escape our enemies.
  • "Thank you!" cried the Wizard, joyfully, and at once rubbed a leaf upon the soles of Dorothy's shoes and then upon his own.
  • He had nearly finished this last task when a low growling was suddenly heard and the horse began to jump around and kick viciously with his heels.
  • The horse was plunging madly about, and two or three deep gashes appeared upon its flanks, from which the blood flowed freely.
  • "Run for the river!" shouted the Wizard, and Jim quickly freed himself from his unseen tormenters by a few vicious kicks and then obeyed.
  • As soon as he trotted out upon the surface of the river he found himself safe from pursuit, and Zeb was already running across the water toward Dorothy.
  • As the little Wizard turned to follow them he felt a hot breath against his cheek and heard a low, fierce growl.
  • The third time that he thrust out the weapon there was a loud roar and a fall, and suddenly at his feet appeared the form of a great red bear, which was nearly as big as the horse and much stronger and fiercer.
  • Dorothy and the buggy had floated slowly down stream with the current of the water, and the others made haste to join her.
  • The Wizard opened his satchel and got out some sticking-plaster with which he mended the cuts Jim had received from the claws of the bears.
  • "That is true," agreed the Wizard, "and as the river seems to be flowing in the direction of the Pyramid Mountain it will be the easiest way for us to travel."
  • Zeb hitched Jim to the buggy again, and the horse trotted along and drew them rapidly over the smooth water.
  • Once a little fish swam too near the surface, and the kitten grabbed it in her mouth and ate it up as quick as a wink; but Dorothy cautioned her to be careful what she ate in this valley of enchantments, and no more fishes were careless enough to swim within reach.
  • "You'll have to make a dash, Jim," said the Wizard, "and run as fast as you can go."
  • But you must remember I'm old, and my dashing days are past and gone.
  • All three got into the buggy and Zeb picked up the reins, though Jim needed no guidance of any sort.
  • His boney legs moved so fast they could scarcely be seen, and the Wizard clung fast to the seat and yelled "Whoa!" at the top of his voice.
  • Dorothy nearly went with them, but she was holding fast to the iron rail of the seat, and that saved her.
  • The mountain before them was shaped like a cone and was so tall that its point was lost in the clouds.
  • So they began to ascend the stairs, Dorothy and the Wizard first, Jim next, drawing the buggy, and then Zeb to watch that nothing happened to the harness.
  • The light was dim, and soon they mounted into total darkness, so that the Wizard was obliged to get out his lanterns to light the way.
  • But this enabled them to proceed steadily until they came to a landing where there was a rift in the side of the mountain that let in both light and air.
  • The old horse panted a little, and had to stop often to get his breath.
  • Here one side of the mountain had a great hole in it, like the mouth of a cavern, and the stairs stopped at the near edge of the floor and commenced ascending again at the opposite edge.
  • The opening in the mountain was on the side opposite to the Valley of Voe, and our travellers looked out upon a strange scene.
  • Just above them, and almost on a level with their platform, were banks of rolling clouds which constantly shifted position and changed color.
  • Mortals who stand upon the earth and look up at the sky cannot often distinguish these forms, but our friends were now so near to the clouds that they observed the dainty fairies very clearly.
  • In the open space between the clouds and the black, bubbling sea far beneath, could be seen an occasional strange bird winging its way swiftly through the air.
  • These birds were of enormous size, and reminded Zeb of the rocs he had read about in the Arabian Nights.
  • They had fierce eyes and sharp talons and beaks, and the children hoped none of them would venture into the cavern.
  • He was a very old man, bent nearly double; but the queerest thing about him was his white hair and beard.
  • Well, I make Assorted Flutters for flags and bunting, and a superior grade of Rustles for ladies' silk gowns.
  • "Yes, indeed; come into my shop, please," and the braided man turned and led the way into a smaller cave, where he evidently lived.
  • "This," said the man, taking up a box and handling it gently, "contains twelve dozen rustles--enough to last any lady a year.
  • You will notice my braids are tied with yellow, pink, brown, red, green, white and black; but I have no blue ribbons.
  • "You may need them, some time," he said, "and there is really no use in my manufacturing these things unless somebody uses them."
  • Also I made pores for porous plasters and high-grade holes for doughnuts and buttons.
  • That made an extraordinary long hole, as you may imagine, and reached far down into the earth; and, as I leaned over it to try to see to the bottom, I lost my balance and tumbled in.
  • Here, then, I made my home; and although it is a lonely place I amuse myself making rustles and flutters, and so get along very nicely.
  • So they politely bade him good day, and went back to the outer cavern to resume their journey.
  • But the travellers were obliged to rest, and while they were sitting on the rocky floor the Wizard felt in his pocket and brought out the nine tiny piglets.
  • "Yes," sighed Eureka; "and I also can see you again, and the sight makes me dreadfully hungry.
  • "What a horrid, savage beast!" exclaimed a piglet; "and after we've been such good friends, too, and played with one another!"
  • "And we trusted you so!" said another of the nine, reproachfully.
  • "And thought you were respectable!" said another.
  • They are no bigger than mice, and I'm sure mice are proper for me to eat.
  • "And that's just what I shall do if you don't let those little balls of pork alone," said Jim, glaring at the kitten with his round, big eyes.
  • Let us all be a happy family and love one another.
  • Eureka yawned and stretched herself.
  • If you behave, and don't scare the little pigs, I'm sure they'll grow very fond of you.
  • The Wizard now put the nine tiny ones back into his pocket and the journey was resumed.
  • The stairs had become narrower and Zeb and the Wizard often had to help Jim pull the buggy from one step to another, or keep it from jamming against the rocky walls.
  • Jim, who was in advance, saw the last stair before him and stuck his head above the rocky sides of the stairway.
  • Then he halted, ducked down and began to back up, so that he nearly fell with the buggy onto the others.
  • I've taken a look at this place, and it's no fit country for real creatures to go to.
  • "Never mind; we can't turn back," said Dorothy; "and we don't intend to stay there, anyhow."
  • With this speech he bent forward and dragged the buggy up the remaining steps.
  • "The Country of the Gargoyles is all wooden!" exclaimed Zeb; and so it was.
  • The ground was sawdust and the pebbles scattered around were hard knots from trees, worn smooth in course of time.
  • The patches of grass were splinters of wood, and where neither grass nor sawdust showed was a solid wooden flooring.
  • Wooden birds fluttered among the trees and wooden cows were browsing upon the wooden grass; but the most amazing things of all were the wooden people--the creatures known as Gargoyles.
  • These were very numerous, for the place was thickly inhabited, and a large group of the queer people clustered near, gazing sharply upon the strangers who had emerged from the long spiral stairway.
  • Their bodies were round, their legs short and thick and their arms extraordinarily long and stout.
  • Some had long, curved noses and chins, small eyes and wide, grinning mouths.
  • Others had flat noses, protruding eyes, and ears that were shaped like those of an elephant.
  • The tops of their heads had no hair, but were carved into a variety of fantastic shapes, some having a row of points or balls around the top, others designs resembling flowers or vegetables, and still others having squares that looked like waffles cut criss-cross on their heads.
  • They made no sounds at all, either in flying or trying to speak, and they conversed mainly by means of quick signals made with their wooden fingers or lips.
  • The group of these queer creatures which was discovered clustered near the stairs at first remained staring and motionless, glaring with evil eyes at the intruders who had so suddenly appeared in their land.
  • In turn the Wizard and the children, the horse and the kitten, examined the Gargoyles with the same silent attention.
  • Unhitch those tugs, Zeb, and set me free from the buggy, so I can fight comfortably.
  • There's going to be trouble, and my sword isn't stout enough to cut up those wooden bodies--so I shall have to get out my revolvers.
  • He got his satchel from the buggy and, opening it, took out two deadly looking revolvers that made the children shrink back in alarm just to look at.
  • "Each of their arms is a wooden club," answered the little man, "and I'm sure the creatures mean mischief, by the looks of their eyes.
  • It's every man's duty to do the best he knows how; and I'm going to do it.
  • The horse had especially attracted their notice, because it was the biggest and strangest creature they had ever seen; so it became the center of their first attack.
  • But Jim was ready for them, and when he saw them coming he turned his heels toward them and began kicking out as hard as he could.
  • Crack! crash! bang! went his iron-shod hoofs against the wooden bodies of the Gargoyles, and they were battered right and left with such force that they scattered like straws in the wind.
  • But the noise and clatter seemed as dreadful to them as Jim's heels, for all who were able swiftly turned and flew away to a great distance.
  • The others picked themselves up from the ground one by one and quickly rejoined their fellows, so for a moment the horse thought he had won the fight with ease.
  • "Those wooden things are impossible to hurt," he said, "and all the damage Jim has done to them is to knock a few splinters from their noses and ears.
  • We have time, just now, and I'd rather face the invis'ble bears than those wooden imps.
  • They haven't defeated us yet, and Jim is worth a whole army.
  • They advanced in a great swarm, having been joined by many more of their kind, and they flew straight over Jim's head to where the others were standing.
  • The Wizard raised one of his revolvers and fired into the throng of his enemies, and the shot resounded like a clap of thunder in that silent place.
  • Some of the wooden beings fell flat upon the ground, where they quivered and trembled in every limb; but most of them managed to wheel and escape again to a distance.
  • Zeb ran and picked up one of the Gargoyles that lay nearest to him.
  • The top of its head was carved into a crown and the Wizard's bullet had struck it exactly in the left eye, which was a hard wooden knot.
  • Before this crowned Gargoyle had recovered himself Zeb had wound a strap several times around its body, confining its wings and arms so that it could not move.
  • Then, having tied the wooden creature securely, the boy buckled the strap and tossed his prisoner into the buggy.
  • "And fight at the same time," added the Wizard.
  • Dorothy must take her parasol and open it suddenly when the wooden folks attack her.
  • "I'll use the king," said the boy, and pulled his prisoner out of the buggy.
  • Even the kitten gave a dreadfully shrill scream and at the same time Jim the cab-horse neighed loudly.
  • The wooden things wound their long arms around Zeb and the Wizard and held them fast.
  • Dorothy was captured in the same way, and numbers of the Gargoyles clung to Jim's legs, so weighting him down that the poor beast was helpless.
  • The houses of this city had many corners, being square and six-sided and eight-sided.
  • The Gargoyles roughly pushed them into the opening, where there was a platform, and then flew away and left them.
  • As they had no wings the strangers could not fly away, and if they jumped down from such a height they would surely be killed.
  • The creatures had sense enough to reason that way, and the only mistake they made was in supposing the earth people were unable to overcome such ordinary difficulties.
  • "Oh, I don't know," purred Eureka, smoothing her ruffled fur with her paw; "we didn't manage to hurt anybody, and nobody managed to hurt us."
  • Let us examine our prison and see what it is like.
  • The space underneath the roof, where they stood, permitted them to see on all sides of the tall building, and they looked with much curiosity at the city spread out beneath them.
  • Everything visible was made of wood, and the scene seemed stiff and extremely unnatural.
  • From their platform a stair descended into the house, and the children and the Wizard explored it after lighting a lantern to show them the way.
  • In this country, as in all others they had visited underneath the earth's surface, there was no night, a constant and strong light coming from some unknown source.
  • Looking out, they could see into some of the houses near them, where there were open windows in abundance, and were able to mark the forms of the wooden Gargoyles moving about in their dwellings.
  • All people need rest, even if they are made of wood, and as there is no night here they select a certain time of the day in which to sleep or doze.
  • No; she just dug her claws into the wood and climbed down the sides of this house to the ground.
  • My school-teacher said so; and she knows a lot, Jim.
  • "Well, this was a figure of a cat," said Jim, "and she WENT down, anyhow, whether she climbed or crept."
  • "No they won't," said the voice of the kitten, and Eureka herself crawled over the edge of the platform and sat down quietly upon the floor.
  • If the Gargoyles can unhook the wings then the power to fly lies in the wings themselves, and not in the wooden bodies of the people who wear them.
  • "Come here," said the little man, and took her to one of the corners of the building.
  • I'll get my spy-glass, and then you can see it more plainly.
  • So, if we had the wings, and could escape the Gargoyles, we might fly to that rock and be saved.
  • He had fastened one end of the strap to a wheel of the buggy, and now he let the line dangle over the side of the house.
  • "I will," said the boy, and let himself slide over the edge.
  • Eureka clung with her claws to the wooden side of the house and let herself down easily.
  • Eureka quickly followed him, and soon they were all standing together upon the platform, with eight of the much prized wooden wings beside them.
  • The boy was no longer sleepy, but full of energy and excitement.
  • He put the harness together again and hitched Jim to the buggy.
  • However, the Wizard went once more to his satchel--which seemed to contain a surprising variety of odds and ends--and brought out a spool of strong wire, by means of which they managed to fasten four of the wings to Jim's harness, two near his head and two near his tail.
  • These preparations had not consumed a great deal of time, but the sleeping Gargoyles were beginning to wake up and move around, and soon some of them would be hunting for their missing wings.
  • The girl sat in the middle of the seat, with Zeb and the Wizard on each side of her.
  • Just you light out and make for that rock, Jim; and don't waste any time about it, either.
  • So the horse gave a groan, flopped its four wings all together, and flew away from the platform.
  • Dorothy was a little anxious about the success of their trip, for the way Jim arched his long neck and spread out his bony legs as he fluttered and floundered through the air was enough to make anybody nervous.
  • The main point, however, was that they flew, and flew swiftly, if a bit unevenly, toward the rock for which they had headed.
  • Our friends had a good start and were able to maintain it, for with their eight wings they could go just as fast as could the Gargoyles.
  • All the way to the great rock the wooden people followed them, and when Jim finally alighted at the mouth of the cavern the pursuers were still some distance away.
  • Then he poured over them all the kerosene oil that was left in his oil-can, and lighting a match set fire to the pile.
  • The flames leaped up at once and the bonfire began to smoke and roar and crackle just as the great army of wooden Gargoyles arrived.
  • Inside the archway were several doors, leading to different rooms built into the mountain, and Zeb and the Wizard lifted these wooden doors from their hinges and tossed them all on the flames.
  • But come, my children; let us explore the mountain and discover which way we must go in order to escape from this cavern, which is getting to be almost as hot as a bake-oven.
  • A sort of inclined tunnel led upward for a way, and they found the floor of it both rough and steep.
  • It carried their baggage and was useful to ride in wherever there were good roads, and since it had accompanied them so far in their travels they felt it their duty to preserve it.
  • "Anyhow," said Dorothy, "we've 'scaped those awful Gurgles, and that's ONE comfort!"
  • At such times Dorothy, Zeb and the Wizard all pushed behind, and lifted the wheels over the roughest places; so they managed, by dint of hard work, to keep going.
  • These were motionless at first, but soon began to flicker more brightly and to sway slowly from side to side and then up and down.
  • Hearing these words our friends turned in the direction of the sound, and the Wizard held his lanterns so that their light would flood one of the little pockets in the rock.
  • "What's that?" asked Dorothy, gazing fearfully at the great scaley head, the yawning mouth and the big eyes.
  • And--and--do you eat people?
  • And--and--do you eat people?
  • But they've been very scarce for a few years and we usually have to be content with elephants or buffaloes, answered the creature, in a regretful tone.
  • Quite young, I grieve to say; and all of my brothers and sisters that you see here are practically my own age.
  • Mother's about two thousand years old; but she carelessly lost track of her age a few centuries ago and skipped several hundreds.
  • She's a little fussy, you know, and afraid of growing old, being a widow and still in her prime.
  • There was a regretful accent in the creature's voice, and at the words all the other dragonettes sighed dismally.
  • Oh, she is sometimes gone for several weeks on her hunting trips, and if we were not tied we would crawl all over the mountain and fight with each other and get into a lot of mischief.
  • Mother usually knows what she is about, but she made a mistake this time; for you are sure to escape us unless you come too near, and you probably won't do that.
  • We consider ourselves very beautiful in appearance, for mother has told us so, and she knows.
  • The heads of the dragonettes were as big as barrels and covered with hard, greenish scales that glittered brightly under the light of the lanterns.
  • For, if we told you truly, you might escape us altogether; and if we told you an untruth we would be naughty and deserve to be punished.
  • But at length they came unexpectedly upon a huge rock that shut off the passage and blocked them from proceeding a single step farther.
  • This rock was separate from the rest of the mountain and was in motion, turning slowly around and around as if upon a pivot.
  • This appeared so unexpectedly that they were unprepared to take advantage of it at first, and allowed the rocky wall to swing around again before they had decided to pass over.
  • But they knew now that there was a means of escape and so waited patiently until the path appeared for the second time.
  • The children and the Wizard rushed across the moving rock and sprang into the passage beyond, landing safely though a little out of breath.
  • They heard a crunching, grinding sound, a loud snap, and the turn-table came to a stop with its broadest surface shutting off the path from which they had come.
  • The mother dragon may come down and catch us here.
  • The mother dragon probably knows the road to the earth's surface, and if she went the other way then we have come the wrong way, said the Wizard, thoughtfully.
  • The lanterns were beginning to grow dim, and the Wizard poured the remaining oil from one into the other, so that the one light would last longer.
  • That meant that their world--the real world--was not very far away, and that the succession of perilous adventures they had encountered had at last brought them near the earth's surface, which meant home to them.
  • "But we're ALMOST on earth again," cried Dorothy, "for there is the sun--the most BEAU'FUL sun that shines!" and she pointed eagerly at the crack in the distant roof.
  • "And there is no way to go back," added Zeb, with a low whistle of perplexity.
  • Folks don't fall into the middle of the earth and then get back again to tell of their adventures--not in real life.
  • And the whole thing has been unnatural because that cat and I are both able to talk your language, and to understand the words you say.
  • And the whole thing has been unnatural because that cat and I are both able to talk your language, and to understand the words you say.
  • "And so can the nine tiny piglets," added Eureka.
  • "I've heard animals talk before," said Dorothy, "and no harm came of it."
  • So he sat down upon the floor of the cave, brought the piglets out one by one, and allowed them to run around as much as they pleased.
  • We've been in the dark quite a while, and you may as well explain what has happened.
  • But he can't wiz a single thing if he hasn't the tools and machinery to work with.
  • She's a friend of mine, for I met her in the Land of Ev, not long ago, and went to Oz with her.
  • After you went up in a balloon, and escaped us, I got back to Kansas by means of a pair of magical silver shoes.
  • "And were you?" asked Zeb, astonished at what he heard.
  • "Do you mean that Princess Ozma will see this cave in her enchanted picture, and see all of us here, and what we are doing?" demanded Zeb.
  • "No, and I'm not anxious to begin," said Eureka.
  • "Don't worry, dear," Dorothy exclaimed, "I'll hold you in my arms, and take you with me."
  • All I need do is to wish you with me, and there you'll be--safe in the royal palace!
  • They are still proud of their former Wizard, and often speak of you kindly.
  • And the Cowardly Lion?
  • "I'm afraid I don't know the Hungry Tiger and Billina," said the Wizard, shaking his head.
  • No; she's a yellow hen, and a great friend of mine.
  • "Only one," replied Dorothy, "and he's a sawhorse."
  • But she's a girl now, and the sweetest, loveliest girl in all the world.
  • But this sawhorse can trot as fast as you can, Jim; and he's very wise, too.
  • She had scarcely spoken the words then she suddenly disappeared from the cave, and with her went the kitten.
  • There had been no sound of any kind and no warning.
  • One moment Dorothy sat beside them with the kitten in her lap, and a moment later the horse, the piglets, the Wizard and the boy were all that remained in the underground prison.
  • And that was the way it did happen.
  • The cab-horse gave a nervous start and Zeb began to rub his eyes to make sure he was not asleep.
  • For they were in the streets of a beautiful emerald-green city, bathed in a grateful green light that was especially pleasing to their eyes, and surrounded by merry faced people in gorgeous green-and-gold costumes of many extraordinary designs.
  • "Gid-dap!" cried the boy, and at the word Jim slowly trotted into the courtyard and drew the buggy along the jewelled driveway to the great entrance of the royal palace.
  • The little man looked at her closely and then took both the maiden's hands in his and shook them cordially.
  • "On my word," he exclaimed, "it's little Jellia Jamb--as pert and pretty as ever!"
  • "Yes," said the soldier; "but I shaved them off long ago, and since then I have risen from a private to be the Chief General of the Royal Armies."
  • "In that case you are very welcome!" cried all the servants, and it pleased the Wizard to note the respect with which the royal retainers bowed before him.
  • "Where is Dorothy?" enquired Zeb, anxiously, as he left the buggy and stood beside his friend the little Wizard.
  • But she has ordered me to make you welcome and to show you to your apartments.
  • He had seen considerable of life in the cities in his younger days, and knew that this regal palace was no place for him.
  • This mollified Jim a little, and after some thought the green maiden decided to give the cab-horse a room in the palace, such a big building having many rooms that were seldom in use.
  • So Zeb unharnessed Jim, and several of the servants then led the horse around to the rear, where they selected a nice large apartment that he could have all to himself.
  • He knew the way to it, and a servant followed him, carrying his satchel.
  • Zeb was also escorted to a room--so grand and beautiful that he almost feared to sit in the chairs or lie upon the bed, lest he might dim their splendor.
  • In the closets he discovered many fancy costumes of rich velvets and brocades, and one of the attendants told him to dress himself in any of the clothes that pleased him and to be prepared to dine with the Princess and Dorothy in an hour's time.
  • But Dorothy sprang up and ran to seize her friend's hand drawing him impulsively toward the lovely Princess, who smiled most graciously upon her guest.
  • Then the Wizard entered, and his presence relieved the boy's embarrassment.
  • Taken altogether, it was a dreadfully long name to weigh down a poor innocent child, and one of the hardest lessons I ever learned was to remember my own name.
  • When a young man I ran away from home and joined a circus.
  • I used to call myself a Wizard, and do tricks of ventriloquism.
  • One day my balloon ran away with me and brought me across the deserts to this beautiful country.
  • When the people saw me come from the sky they naturally thought me some superior creature, and bowed down before me.
  • I told them I was a Wizard, and showed them some easy tricks that amazed them; and when they saw the initials painted on the balloon they called me Oz.
  • Over this Land I ruled in peace for many years, until I grew old and longed to see my native city once again.
  • Many years before you came here this Land was united under one Ruler, as it is now, and the Ruler's name was always 'Oz,' which means in our language 'Great and Good'; or, if the Ruler happened to be a woman, her name was always 'Ozma.'
  • One wicked witch named Mombi stole him and carried him away, keeping him as a prisoner.
  • Then the Witches divided up the kingdom, and ruled the four parts of it until you came here.
  • That was why the people were so glad to see you, and why they thought from your initials that you were their rightful ruler.
  • "But, at that time," said the Wizard, thoughtfully, "there were two Good Witches and two Wicked Witches ruling in the land."
  • But Mombi was still my grandfather's jailor, and afterward my father's jailor.
  • But I escaped from her and am now the Ruler of my people.
  • "But you ruled it wisely and well for many years," said she, "and made the people proud of your magical art.
  • So, as you are now too old to wander abroad and work in a circus, I offer you a home here as long as you live.
  • You shall be the Official Wizard of my kingdom, and be treated with every respect and consideration.
  • "And that is the safest kind of a Wizard to have," replied Ozma, promptly.
  • I have sent messengers to summon all of Dorothy's old friends to meet her and give her welcome, and they ought to arrive very soon, now.
  • I'm very certain, Oz, that you gave me the best brains in the world, for I can think with them day and night, when all other brains are fast asleep.
  • But Ozma soon conquered her, with the help of Glinda the Good, and after that I went to live with Nick Chopper, the Tin Woodman.
  • Just then a loud cackling was heard outside; and, when a servant threw open the door with a low bow, a yellow hen strutted in.
  • Dorothy sprang forward and caught the fluffy fowl in her arms, uttering at the same time a glad cry.
  • "Oh, Billina!" she said; "how fat and sleek you've grown."
  • Around Billina's neck was a string of beautiful pearls, and on her legs were bracelets of emeralds.
  • She nestled herself comfortably in Dorothy's lap until the kitten gave a snarl of jealous anger and leaped up with a sharp claw fiercely bared to strike Billina a blow.
  • Everybody lives in peace here, and loves everybody else; and unless you two, Billina and Eureka, make up and be friends, I'll take my Magic Belt and wish you both home again, IMMEJITLY.
  • And now the Tin Woodman arrived, his body most beautifully nickle-plated, so that it shone splendidly in the brilliant light of the room.
  • The Tin Woodman loved Dorothy most tenderly, and welcomed with joy the return of the little old Wizard.
  • It has made me many friends, I assure you, and it beats as kindly and lovingly today as it every did.
  • Jim accepted it as a mere detail, and at his command the attendants gave his coat a good rubbing, combed his mane and tail, and washed his hoofs and fetlocks.
  • Then they told him dinner would be served directly and he replied that they could not serve it too quickly to suit his convenience.
  • They obeyed at once, and next served a fine large turbot on a silver platter, with drawn gravy poured over it.
  • "You are at least six feet high, and that is higher than any other animal in this country," said the Steward.
  • They soon mixed a tub of oatmeal with a little water, and Jim ate it with much relish.
  • Then the servants heaped a lot of rugs upon the floor and the old horse slept on the softest bed he had ever known in his life.
  • Jim stopped abruptly, being startled and amazed.
  • The Sawhorse stopped at the same time and stared at the other with its queer protruding eyes, which were mere knots in the log that formed its body.
  • The ends of the wooden legs were shod with plates of solid gold, and the saddle of the Princess Ozma, which was of red leather set with sparkling diamonds, was strapped to the clumsy body.
  • Jim's eyes stuck out as much as those of the Sawhorse, and he stared at the creature with his ears erect and his long head drawn back until it rested against his arched neck.
  • Ozma sprinkled me with a magic powder, and I just had to live.
  • The wooden animal gave a start, and then examined the other intently.
  • Your chief fault, my friend, is in being made of wood, and that I suppose you cannot help.
  • Real horses, like myself, are made of flesh and blood and bones.
  • "I can see the bones all right," replied the Sawhorse, "and they are admirable and distinct.
  • Once in a while I get broken up some, but I am easily repaired and put in good order again.
  • And I never feel a break or a splinter in the least.
  • "Princess Ozma did that," was the reply; "and it saves my legs from wearing out.
  • We've had a good many adventures together, Ozma and I, and she likes me.
  • The cab-horse was about to reply when suddenly he gave a start and a neigh of terror and stood trembling like a leaf.
  • These are friends, and will do you no harm.
  • One was an enormous Lion with clear, intelligent eyes, a tawney mane bushy and well kept, and a body like yellow plush.
  • And this is the Hungry Tiger, the terror of the jungle, who longs to devour fat babies but is prevented by his conscience from doing so.
  • These royal beasts are both warm friends of little Dorothy and have come to the Emerald City this morning to welcome her to our fairyland.
  • In the forest he would be thought ungainly, because his face is stretched out and his neck is uselessly long.
  • His joints, I notice, are swollen and overgrown, and he lacks flesh and is old in years.
  • "And dreadfully tough," added the Hungry Tiger, in a sad voice.
  • "I'm glad of that," said Jim; "for I, also, have a conscience, and it tells me not to crush in your skull with a blow of my powerful hoof."
  • So let us cease this talk of skull crushing and converse upon more pleasant subjects.
  • If I could eat grass I would not need a conscience, for nothing could then tempt me to devour babies and lambs.
  • Just then Dorothy, who had risen early and heard the voices of the animals, ran out to greet her old friends.
  • "What brought you back?" was the next question, and Dorothy's eye rested on an antlered head hanging on the wall just over the fireplace, and caught its lips in the act of moving.
  • I was then for a time the Head of the finest Flying Machine that was ever known to exist, and we did many wonderful things.
  • "That I have forgotten," replied the Gump's Head, "and I do not think it is of much importance.
  • Just then the girlish Ruler of Oz opened the door and greeted Dorothy with a good-morning kiss.
  • The little Princess seemed fresh and rosy and in good spirits.
  • "Breakfast is served, dear," she said, "and I am hungry.
  • In the afternoon there were to be games and races.
  • First came the Imperial Cornet Band of Oz, dressed in emerald velvet uniforms with slashes of pea-green satin and buttons of immense cut emeralds.
  • They played the National air called "The Oz Spangled Banner," and behind them were the standard bearers with the Royal flag.
  • In the center was a large emerald-green star, and all over the four quarters were sewn spangles that glittered beautifully in the sunshine.
  • The colors represented the four countries of Oz, and the green star the Emerald City.
  • Just behind the royal standard-bearers came the Princess Ozma in her royal chariot, which was of gold encrusted with emeralds and diamonds set in exquisite designs.
  • The chariot was drawn on this occasion by the Cowardly Lion and the Hungry Tiger, who were decorated with immense pink and blue bows.
  • Tik-tok moved by clockwork, and was made all of burnished copper.
  • They wore white uniforms with real diamond buttons and played "What is Oz without Ozma" very sweetly.
  • The boys wore long hair and striped sweaters and yelled their college yell every other step they took, to the great satisfaction of the populace, which was glad to have this evidence that their lungs were in good condition.
  • Jim and the buggy followed, the old cab-horse being driven by Zeb while the Wizard stood up on the seat and bowed his bald head right and left in answer to the cheers of the people, who crowded thick about him.
  • The first thing the little humbug did was to produce a tiny white piglet from underneath his hat and pretend to pull it apart, making two.
  • This act he repeated until all of the nine tiny piglets were visible, and they were so glad to get out of his pocket that they ran around in a very lively manner.
  • When he had made them all disappear again Ozma declared she was sorry they were gone, for she wanted one of them to pet and play with.
  • There was enough material there to enable him to prepare several new tricks which he had learned from some of the jugglers in the circus, and he had passed part of the night in getting them ready.
  • They applauded all his tricks and at the end of the performance begged him earnestly not to go away again and leave them.
  • There was a beautiful canopy for Ozma and her guests to sit under and watch the people run races and jump and wrestle.
  • But although the Munchkin was hardly tall enough to come to Zeb's shoulder he was so strong and clever that he laid the boy three times on his back with apparent ease.
  • This made Zeb laugh, in turn, and the boy felt comforted to find that Ozma laughed as merrily at her weeping subject as she had at him.
  • "It isn't that," said the Sawhorse, modestly; "but I never tire, and you do."
  • "Once, when I was young," said Jim, "I was a race horse, and defeated all who dared run against me.
  • I was born in Kentucky, you know, where all the best and most aristocratic horses come from.
  • So they unharnessed Jim and took the saddle off the Sawhorse, and the two queerly matched animals were stood side by side for the start.
  • Then circle 'round them and come back again.
  • "Go!" cried Zeb; and at the word the two horses leaped forward and the race was begun.
  • Its wooden legs moved so fast that their twinkling could scarcely be seen, and although so much smaller than the cab-horse it covered the ground much faster.
  • An instant later the Tiger crouched and launched its huge body through the air swift and resistless as a ball from a cannon.
  • I was wrong to kick the Sawhorse, and I am sorry I became angry at him.
  • He has won the race, and won it fairly; but what can a horse of flesh do against a tireless beast of wood?
  • Hearing this apology the Tiger and the Lion stopped lashing their tails and retreated with dignified steps to the side of the Princess.
  • There was more applause at this, and then Ozma had the jewelled saddle replaced upon the Sawhorse and herself rode the victor back to the city at the head of the grand procession.
  • "It's lucky we got here, though," said the boy; and Jim thought of the dark cave, and agreed with him.
  • Several days of festivity and merry-making followed, for such old friends did not often meet and there was much to be told and talked over between them, and many amusements to be enjoyed in this delightful country.
  • Please go to my boudoir, Jellia, and get the white piglet I left on the dressing-table.
  • Jellia at once departed on the errand, and she was gone so long that they had almost forgotten her mission when the green robed maiden returned with a troubled face.
  • Hearing this, Dorothy and the Wizard exchanged startled glances, for they remembered how often Eureka had longed to eat a piglet.
  • So the two went to the dressing-room of the Princess and searched carefully in every corner and among the vases and baskets and ornaments that stood about the pretty boudoir.
  • Dorothy was nearly weeping, by this time, while Ozma was angry and indignant.
  • Go and get my kitten, please, Jellia, and we'll hear what she has to say about it.
  • The green maiden hastened away, but presently returned and said:
  • So Dorothy ran to her room and found the kitten under the bed.
  • Dorothy carried her in her arms back to where the others sat in grieved and thoughtful silence.
  • The piglet is gone, and you ran out of the room when Jellia opened the door.
  • So, if you are innocent, Eureka, you must tell the Princess how you came to be in her room, and what has become of the piglet.
  • The fact is that I left my little pet in my dressing-room lying asleep upon the table; and you must have stolen in without my knowing it.
  • When next the door was opened you ran out and hid yourself--and the piglet was gone.
  • Carry this cat away to prison, and keep her in safe confinement until she is tried by law for the crime of murder.
  • So the Captain-General took Eureka from the arms of the now weeping Dorothy and in spite of the kitten's snarls and scratches carried it away to prison.
  • And the Woggle-Bug shall be the Public Accuser, because he is so learned that no one can deceive him.
  • Sending for the Tin Woodman the Wizard took him into a corner and whispered:
  • He drew from his inside pocket one of the eight tiny piglets that were remaining and continued:
  • At three o'clock the Throne Room was crowded with citizens, men, women and children being eager to witness the great trial.
  • Princess Ozma, dressed in her most splendid robes of state, sat in the magnificent emerald throne, with her jewelled sceptre in her hand and her sparkling coronet upon her fair brow.
  • Behind her throne stood the twenty-eight officers of her army and many officials of the royal household.
  • At her right sat the queerly assorted Jury--animals, animated dummies and people--all gravely prepared to listen to what was said.
  • And now, at a signal from Ozma, the Woggle-Bug arose and addressed the jury.
  • And now, at a signal from Ozma, the Woggle-Bug arose and addressed the jury.
  • "Your Royal Highness and Fellow Citizens," he began; "the small cat you see a prisoner before you is accused of the crime of first murdering and then eating our esteemed Ruler's fat piglet--or else first eating and then murdering it.
  • "Let the Public Accuser continue," called Ozma from her throne, "and I pray you do not interrupt him."
  • And finally she made a wicked plan to satisfy her depraved appetite for pork.
  • And we know the thing is true, because since the time of that interview there is no piglet to be found anywhere.
  • Then the Tin Woodman arose and said:
  • Respected Jury and dearly beloved Ozma, I pray you not to judge this feline prisoner unfeelingly.
  • (Here Eureka bared her sharp claws and scratched at the bars of the cage.)
  • But don't try to make out I'm too innocent to eat a fat piglet if I could do it and not be found out.
  • As for the jury, the members whispered to each other for a few minutes before they appointed their spokesperson.
  • The huge beast slowly arose and said:
  • Ozma was delighted and exclaimed, eagerly:
  • As the Princess held the white piglet in her arms and stroked its soft hair she said: Let Eureka out of the cage, for she is no longer a prisoner, but our good friend.
  • "But justice prevailed at the last," said Ozma, "for here is my pet, and Eureka is once more free."
  • At this everyone in the Throne Room suddenly became quiet, and the kitten continued, in a calm, mocking tone of voice:
  • I will confess that I intended to eat the little pig for my breakfast; so I crept into the room where it was kept while the Princess was dressing and hid myself under a chair.
  • When Ozma went away she closed the door and left her pet on the table.
  • The vase had a very small neck, and spread out at the top like a bowl.
  • At first the piglet stuck in the neck of the vase and I thought I should get him, after all, but he wriggled himself through and fell down into the deep bottom part--and I suppose he's there yet.
  • When he returned the Princess looked down the narrow neck of the big ornament and discovered her lost piglet, just as Eureka had said she would.
  • There was no way to get the creature out without breaking the vase, so the Tin Woodman smashed it with his axe and set the little prisoner free.
  • Then the crowd cheered lustily and Dorothy hugged the kitten in her arms and told her how delighted she was to know that she was innocent.
  • And now, the trial being over, the good citizens of the Emerald City scattered to their homes, well content with the day's amusement.
  • The next evening after the trial the little girl begged Ozma to allow her to look in the enchanted picture, and the Princess readily consented.
  • Zeb also wanted to see his home, and although he did not find anyone morning for him, the sight of Hugson's Ranch in the picture made him long to get back there.
  • "This is a fine country, and I like all the people that live in it," he told Dorothy.
  • Tomorrow morning I'll go to Kansas and you can go to Californy.
  • Then Dorothy wound up Tik-tok and he danced a jig to amuse the company, after which the Yellow Hen related some of her adventures with the Nome King in the Land of Ev.
  • The Princess served delicious refreshments to those who were in the habit of eating, and when Dorothy's bed time arrived the company separated after exchanging many friendly sentiments.
  • Next morning they all assembled for the final parting, and many of the officials and courtiers came to look upon the impressive ceremonies.
  • Dorothy held Eureka in her arms and bade her friends a fond good-bye.
  • "But Uncle Henry and Aunt Em need me to help them," she added, "so I can't ever be very long away from the farm in Kansas."
  • "Greeting her uncle and aunt in Kansas, by this time," returned Ozma, with a smile.
  • Then Zeb brought out Jim, all harnessed to the buggy, and took his seat.
  • I think this is the loveliest country in the world; but not being fairies Jim and I feel we ought to be where we belong--and that's at the ranch.
  • He gave a start and rubbed his eyes.
  • Jim was trotting along the well-known road, shaking his ears and whisking his tail with a contented motion.
  • Just ahead of them were the gates of Hugson's Ranch, and Uncle Hugson now came out and stood with uplifted arms and wide open mouth, staring in amazement.
  • It's Zeb--and Jim, too! he exclaimed.
  • The four lawyers rode along, one behind another; for the pathway was narrow, and the mud on each side of it was deep.
  • All cuddled down together and were very happy.
  • He prayeth best, who loveth best All things both great and small; For the dear God who loveth us, He made and loveth all.
  • The boy was only four years old, and the girl was not yet six.
  • With one hand the little boy clung to his sister's arm, and with the other he held his primer.
  • This primer was his only book, and he loved it.
  • And in it were some odd little pictures, which he never grew tired of looking at.
  • Edward could spell nearly all the words in his primer, and he could read quite well.
  • The school was more than a mile from their home, and the children trotted along as fast as their short legs could carry them.
  • He was dressed in black, and had a very pleasant face.
  • They stopped by the side of the road and made their manners.
  • Edward bowed very gracefully, and his sister curtsied.
  • "Good morning, children!" said the minister; and he kindly shook hands with both.
  • Edward took the paper and thanked the kind minister.
  • "Do so, my child," said the Minister; "and I hope that when you grow up you will become a wise man and a great orator."
  • The speech was not hard to learn, and Edward soon knew every word of it.
  • When the time came for him to speak, his mother and the minister were both there to hear him.
  • And now, my friends, please to excuse My lisping and my stammers; I, for this once, have done my best, And so--I'll make my manners.
  • And now, my friends, please to excuse My lisping and my stammers; I, for this once, have done my best, And so--I'll make my manners.
  • He grew up to become a famous man and one of our greatest orators.
  • Then, on Friday those who have done the best may stand up and read their compositions to the school.
  • Some of the children were pleased, and some were not.
  • "Well, then," said the teacher, "you may take your slate and go out behind the schoolhouse for half an hour.
  • Then try to tell what it is, what it is like, what it is good for, and what is done with it.
  • Henry took his slate and went out.
  • And in the garden, Henry saw a turnip.
  • "Well, I know what that is," he said to himself; and he wrote the word _turnip_ on his slate.
  • Then he tried to tell what it was like, what it was good for, and what was done with it.
  • He then went into the house, and waited while the teacher read it.
  • The teacher was surprised and pleased.
  • Today you may stand up before the school and read what you have written about the turnip.
  • As soon as it was read to the school, he rubbed it off the slate, and it was forgotten.
  • Mr. Finney had a turnip, And it grew, and it grew; It grew behind the barn, And the turnip did no harm.
  • Mr. Finney had a turnip, And it grew, and it grew; It grew behind the barn, And the turnip did no harm.
  • She boiled it, and boiled it, As long as she was able; Then Mrs. Finney took it, And put it on the table.
  • She boiled it, and boiled it, As long as she was able; Then Mrs. Finney took it, And put it on the table.
  • Mr. Finney and his wife Both sat down to sup; And they ate, and they ate, They ate the turnip up.
  • Mr. Finney and his wife Both sat down to sup; And they ate, and they ate, They ate the turnip up.
  • He wrote "The Village Blacksmith," "The Children's Hour," and many other beautiful pieces which you will like to read and remember.
  • He looked at the bright, yellow pieces and said, "What shall I do with these coppers, mother?"
  • "And then will you give me more?" he asked.
  • His mother shook her head and said: No, Benjamin.
  • But there were fourteen boys and girls older than he, and two little sisters who were younger.
  • And the father was a poor man.
  • The big boy looked at him and blew it again.
  • He held them in his hand, and showed them to the boy.
  • "Well, it's a bargain," said the boy; and he gave the whistle to Benjamin, and took the pennies.
  • It's only a penny whistle, and a poor one at that.
  • He threw it upon the floor and began to cry.
  • You are only a very little boy, and you will learn a great deal as you grow bigger.
  • He was a great thinker and a great doer, and with Washington he helped to make our country free.
  • His father and grandfather and great-grandfather had all been shepherds.
  • He drove these to the pastures on the hills and watched them day after day while they fed on the short green grass.
  • There was thunder and lightning; the wind blew hard; the rain poured.
  • The shepherd and his dog could not keep them together.
  • Some of them ran towards the east, some towards the west, and some towards the south.
  • With his lighted lantern in his hand, he went up and down the rough hills calling for his lambs.
  • Morning came and still they sought.
  • At last James Hogg said, "It's of no use; all we can do is to go home and tell the master that we have lost his whole flock."
  • They had walked a mile or two towards home, when they came to the edge of a narrow and deep ravine.
  • They looked down, and at the bottom they saw some lambs huddled together among the rocks.
  • The men hurried down and soon saw that the flock was a large one.
  • They counted them and were surprised to find that not one lamb of the great flock of seven hundred was missing.
  • By some means, however, he learned to read; and after that he loved nothing so much as a good book.
  • There were no libraries near him, and it was hard for him to get books.
  • He loved poetry and soon began to write poems of his own.
  • These poems were read and admired by many people.
  • Many of his poems are still read and loved by children as well as by grown up men and women.
  • Where the pools are bright and deep, Where the gray trout lies asleep, Up the river and o'er the lea, That's the way for Billy and me.
  • Where the mowers mow the cleanest, Where the hay lies thick and greenest, There to trace the homeward bee, That's the way for Billy and me.
  • Where the hazel bank is steepest, Where the shadow falls the deepest, Where the clustering nuts fall free, That's the way for Billy and me.
  • Why the boys should drive away, Little maidens from their play, Or love to banter and fight so well, That's the thing I never could tell.
  • But this I know, I love to play In the meadow, among the hay-- Up the water, and o'er the lea, That's the way for Billy and me.
  • Al Mansur loved poetry and was fond of hearing poets repeat their own verses.
  • One day a poet whose name was Thalibi [Footnote: Thal i'bi.] came to the caliph and recited a long poem.
  • When he had finished, he bowed, and waited, hoping that he would be rewarded.
  • "Worse and worse!" groaned the poor poet.
  • "Wait, and I will tell you," said the caliph; and he smiled again.
  • Keep the third piece of wisdom for your own use, and let me have the gold.
  • The caliph laughed outright, and so did every one that heard him.
  • He was the builder of a famous and beautiful city called Bagdad.
  • In it were many great cities; and from one end of it to the other there were broad fields of grain and fine pastures for sheep and cattle.
  • The people of Egypt were very proud; for they believed that they were the first and oldest of all nations.
  • "It was in our country that the first men and women lived," they said.
  • He tried first one plan and then another; but none of them proved anything at all.
  • Then he called his wisest men together and asked them, "Is it really true that the first people in the world were Egyptians?"
  • He sent out among the poor people of the city and found two little babies who had never heard a word spoken.
  • He gave these to a shepherd and ordered him to bring them up among his sheep, far from the homes of men.
  • There he cared for them with love and kindness; but no word did he speak in their hearing.
  • They grew up healthy and strong.
  • They played with the lambs in the field and saw no human being but the shepherd.
  • The shepherd led them gently back to the hut and gave them their usual supper of bread and milk.
  • Some time later, the shepherd went to the city and told the king that the children had learned to speak one word, but how or from whom, he did not know.
  • Then the king called one of the wisest scholars in Egypt and asked him what the word meant.
  • The walls and ceiling glittered with gold and precious gems.
  • The table was decorated with rare and beautiful plants and flowers.
  • All the noblest men of Persia [Footnote: Per'sia.] and Arabia [Footnote: A ra'bi a.] were there.
  • Many wise men and poets and musicians had also been invited.
  • Describe in verse this glad and glorious feast.
  • He covered his face and wept.
  • The caliph wished you to amuse him with pleasant thoughts, and you have filled his mind with melancholy.
  • He has seen me in my blindness, and is trying to open my eyes.
  • Listen, my children, and you shall hear Of the midnight ride of Paul Revere.
  • He makes us pay taxes and gives us nothing in return.
  • Brave men left their homes and hurried toward Boston.
  • From the hills of Charlestown they could watch and see what the king's soldiers were doing.
  • For this reason they had bought some powder and stored it at Concord,[Footnote: Concord (_pro_. kong'krd).] nearly twenty miles away.
  • When the king's soldiers heard about this powder, they made up their minds to go out and get it for themselves.
  • He came very quietly and secretly, to escape the soldiers.
  • I will stir up all the farmers between here and Concord, and those fellows will have a hot time of it.
  • Watch, and as soon as the soldiers are ready to start, hang a lantern in the tower of the old North Church.
  • As soon as I see the light, I will mount my horse and ride out to give the alarm.
  • And so it was done.
  • Hour after hour he stood and watched.
  • The town seemed very still; but now and then he could hear the beating of a drum or the shouting of some soldier.
  • The moon rose, and by its light he could see the dim form of the church tower, far away.
  • He waited and watched.
  • He walked up and down the river bank, leading his horse behind him; but he kept his eyes turned always toward the dim, dark spot which he knew was the old North Church.
  • Then another light flashed clear and bright by the side of the first one.
  • Away they went through the village street and out upon the country road.
  • Up! up! and defend yourselves!
  • The cry awoke the farmers; they sprang from their beds and looked out.
  • They could not see the speeding horse, but they heard the clatter of its hoofs far down the road, and they understood the cry, "Up! up! and defend yourselves!"
  • Then they took their guns, their axes, anything they could find, and hurried out.
  • At every farmhouse and every village he repeated his call.
  • And they did not feel themselves safe until they were once more in Boston.
  • Gilbert de Lafayette's father and grandfather and great-grandfather had all been brave and noble men.
  • He was very proud to think of this, and he wished that he might grow up to be like them.
  • I am with you, and I will not let anything hurt you.
  • Men said that it was a very large wolf and that it had killed some of the farmers' sheep.
  • The mother sat down in the shade of a tree and began to read in a new book which she had bought the day before.
  • Gilbert looked up from his play and saw that his mother was very deeply interested in her book.
  • He looked eagerly around, but saw only a squirrel frisking among the trees and a rabbit hopping across the road.
  • There the bushes were very close together and the pathway came to an end.
  • He pushed the bushes aside and went a little farther.
  • He could see a green open space just beyond; and then the woods seemed to be thicker and darker.
  • Then I will jump out and throw my arms around its neck and choke it to death.
  • He stood very still and waited.
  • Then I will drag it out of the bushes and call mamma to come and see it.
  • He planted his feet firmly and made ready to spring.
  • He saw its shaggy head and big round eyes.
  • He leaped from his hiding place and clasped it round its neck.
  • But it jumped quickly forward and threw Gilbert upon the ground.
  • He looked at the beast, and--what do you think it was?
  • He hurried back to the pathway, and then ran to his mother.
  • His lips quivered and he began to cry.
  • You were very brave, and it is lucky that the wolf was not there.
  • You faced what you thought was a great danger, and you were not afraid.
  • His name is remembered in our country as that of a brave and noble man.
  • One carried a gun, one had a pitchfork, and the third had an ax.
  • He says she was a monster; and she was running straight toward the hills with a little lamb in her mouth.
  • They say she has a family of young wolves up there; and that is why she kills so many lambs.
  • The four men followed them for some distance, and then lost them on the hillside.
  • "Let us call the neighbors together and have a grand wolf hunt to- morrow," said Putnam.
  • All the other men agreed to this, and they parted.
  • The next day twenty men and boys came together for the grand wolf hunt.
  • They shouted and threw stones into the cave.
  • She lay hidden among some rocks, and nothing could make her stir.
  • Putnam stooped down and looked in.
  • It was very dark there, and he could not see anything.
  • Then he tied a rope around his waist and said to his friends, Take hold of the other end, boys.
  • He got down on his hands and knees and crawled into the cave.
  • He crawled very slowly and carefully.
  • The wolf gave a low growl and made ready to meet him.
  • Putnam gave the rope a quick jerk and his friends pulled him out in great haste.
  • She growled so loudly that the men and boys outside were frightened.
  • He raised his gun and fired at the great beast.
  • When his friends heard the gun they pulled the rope quickly and drew him out.
  • Men and boys pulled with all their might; and Putnam and the wolf were drawn out together.
  • He became famous as one of the bravest and best of the generals who fought to make our country free.
  • "Most certainly, and very soon, too," answered the man.
  • The king's enemies are even now advancing, and all are ready for the fight.
  • These he hammered and shaped and fitted to the horse's feet.
  • "I have only six nails," he said, "and it will take a little time to hammer out ten more."
  • So he quickly finished the shoeing, and the groom hurried to lead the horse to the king.
  • King Richard rode hither and thither, cheering his men and fighting his foes.
  • The horse stumbled, and his rider was thrown heavily to the ground.
  • The king looked, and saw that his soldiers were beaten, and that the battle was everywhere going against him.
  • For the want of a nail the shoe was lost; For the want of a shoe the horse was lost; For the want of a horse the battle was lost; For the failure of battle the kingdom was lost;-- And all for the want of a horseshoe nail.
  • Henry, the Duke of Richmond, made war upon him and defeated him in a great battle.
  • The roads were crooked and muddy and rough.
  • Instead of sitting at his ease in a parlor car, he went jolting along through mud and mire, exposed to wind and weather.
  • He was riding very slowly, and both he and his horse were bespattered with mud.
  • He's one of those country fellows who can sleep in the haymow and eat with the horses.
  • He was dressed plainly, and, with his reddish-brown hair and mud-bespattered face, looked like a hard- working countryman just in from the backwoods.
  • Now the landlord prided himself upon keeping a first-class hotel, and he feared that his guests would not like the rough-looking traveler.
  • "Well, then," answered the stranger, "I will see what they can do for me at the Planters' Tavern, round the corner;" and he rode away.
  • About an hour later, a well-dressed gentleman came into the hotel and said, "I wish to see Mr. Jefferson."
  • I met him as he rode into town, and he said that he intended to stop at this hotel.
  • Did he have reddish-brown hair, and did he ride a gray horse?
  • Yes, and he was quite tall.
  • He shall have all the rooms in the house, and the ladies' parlor, too, I'll go right round to the Planters' and fetch him back.
  • A farmer is as good as any other man; and where there's no room for a farmer, there can be no room for me.
  • Then, without another word, he turned and walked away.
  • He was a great admirer of Dean Swift, and took pleasure in sending him presents of game.
  • "Here's something else for the Dean," he said roughly, and tossed it into the servant's arms.
  • "The next time he comes," said the Dean, "let me know, and I will go to the door."
  • Just step inside and make believe that you are Dean Swift.
  • I will go out and make believe that I am bringing him a present.
  • "I'll agree to that," said the man; and he stepped inside.
  • The Dean took the rabbit and went out of the house.
  • Then he came back and knocked gently at the door.
  • And here is something for your trouble.
  • And the Dean also took the hint; for he always remembered to give the man a "tip" for his trouble.
  • Then I could go to many strange lands and see many wonderful things.
  • And, by and by, I might become the captain of a ship.
  • And, by and by, I might become the captain of a ship.
  • He would soon become a captain and then perhaps a great admiral.
  • And so the matter was at last settled.
  • He agreed to take the boy with him and teach him how to be a good sailor.
  • He was headstrong and determined.
  • He stood on the doorstep and looked back into the house.
  • Then he turned quickly and said, Mother, I have changed my mind.
  • I will stay at home and do as you wish.
  • Near the top of a hill he saw a little shepherd boy who was lying on the ground while a flock of sheep and lambs were grazing around him.
  • The stranger bent over him and looked at the picture he had made on the rock.
  • It was the picture of a sheep, and it was drawn so well that the stranger was filled with astonishment.
  • He jumped to his feet and looked up at the kind gentleman.
  • And whose sheep are these?
  • My father works in the field, and I take care of the sheep.
  • I would teach you how to draw pictures of sheep and horses, and even of men, said the stranger.
  • "Let us go and ask him," said the stranger.
  • His pictures were known and admired in every city of Italy.
  • Bondone was surprised when Cimabue offered to take his little boy to Florence and teach him to be a great painter.
  • Little Giotto came out from a corner, trembling and ashamed.
  • It was a good place for a fly, and I never thought of spoiling your picture.
  • At one time he painted the picture of some fruit which was so real that the birds flew down and pecked at it.
  • Then he invited Zeuxis to come and see it.
  • "Draw the curtain aside and show us the picture," he said.
  • Parrhasius laughed and answered, "The curtain is the picture."
  • When he hung this painting outside of his door, some birds flew down and tried to carry the cherries away.
  • One day King Solomon was sitting on his throne, and his great men were standing around him.
  • Suddenly the door was thrown open and the Queen of Sheba came in.
  • The other is made of artificial flowers, shaped and colored by a skillful artist.
  • "I have heard that you are the wisest man in the world," she said, "and surely this simple thing ought not to puzzle you."
  • His officers and great men shook their heads.
  • "Look at the flowers carefully," said the queen, "and let us have your answer."
  • He remembered that he had seen many bees flying among these flowers and gathering honey from them.
  • And the queen said, You are wise, King Solomon.
  • His father and mother were Quakers, and they did not think it was right to spend money for such things.
  • So she told Benjamin to stay in the house and take care of his baby sister till she came back.
  • The baby was asleep in her cradle, and he must not make a noise and waken her.
  • A fly lighted on the baby's cheek, and he brushed it away.
  • Then he thought what a pretty picture might be made of his sister's sweet face and little hands.
  • Here were her eyes, and here her dainty ears.
  • He did not hear her soft breathing as she stood over him and watched him finish the wonderful drawing.
  • The good woman was so overjoyed that she caught him in her arms and kissed him.
  • He turned the picture this way and that, and looked at it from every side.
  • Then he handed it back to his wife and said:--
  • And they asked what they should do about it.
  • He put his hands on the lad's head and said:--
  • And the words of the old minister came true.
  • He was eight years old when he heard about the ride of Paul Revere and the famous fight at Lexington.
  • There was much fighting; and several great battles took place between the British and the Americans.
  • Then, without another word, he mounted his brother's little farm horse and rode away.
  • He was not old enough to be a soldier, but he could be a scout--and a good scout he was.
  • He was strong and ready for every duty.
  • They quickly surrounded him and made him their prisoner.
  • "Come with us," they said, "and we will teach you that the king's soldiers are not to be trifled with."
  • Well, Andy Jackson, get down here and clean the mud from my boots.
  • Andrew's gray eyes blazed as he stood up straight and proud before the haughty captain.
  • Down with you, and clean those boots at once.
  • Andrew threw out his hand and received an ugly gash across the knuckles.
  • The British soldiers soon returned to Charleston, and he was allowed to go home.
  • He was elected to Congress, he was chosen judge of the supreme court of Tennessee, he was appointed general in the army, and lastly he was for eight years the president of the United States.
  • He was not strong enough to work on the farm like his brothers; but he loved books and study.
  • The schoolhouse was two or three miles from home, but he did not mind the long walk through the woods and over the hills.
  • He soon learned all that his teacher could teach; for he was bright and quick, and had a good memory.
  • His father hoped that Daniel would grow up to be a wise and famous man.
  • There were no railroads at that time, and Exeter was nearly fifty miles away.
  • Daniel and his father would ride there on horseback.
  • He does me a favor by allowing you to ride on the animal, and I do him a favor by taking care of it.
  • And so they set out on their journey to Exeter.
  • Mr. Webster rode in front, and Daniel, on the old gray nag, followed behind.
  • The roads were muddy, and they went slowly.
  • The people whom they met gazed at them and wondered who they could be.
  • They scarcely noticed the sidesaddle; they noticed only the boy's dark eyes and his strong, noble face.
  • Yet there was something in his manner and voice that caused everybody to admire him.
  • Daniel Webster lived to become a famous orator and a great statesman.
  • He was honored at home and abroad.
  • But still they would whisper, and he could not prevent it.
  • The afternoon was half gone, and the trouble was growing.
  • The next one that whispers must come out and stand in the middle of the floor.
  • And so we will keep the game going till it is time for school to be dismissed.
  • First, Tommy Jones whispered to Billy Brown and was at once called out to stand on the floor.
  • Within less than two minutes, Billy saw Mary Green whispering, and she had to take his place.
  • Mary looked around and saw Samuel Miller asking his neighbor for a pencil, and Samuel was called.
  • And so the fun went on until the clock showed that it lacked only ten minutes till school would be dismissed.
  • Then all became very good and very careful, for no one wished to be standing at the time of dismissal.
  • The clock ticked loudly, and Tommy Jones, who was standing up for the fourth time, began to feel very uneasy.
  • He stood on one leg and then on the other, and watched very closely; but nobody whispered.
  • Suddenly, to his great joy he saw little Lucy Martin lean over her desk and whisper to the girl in front of her.
  • Everybody loved her, and this was the first time she had whispered that day.
  • He wished to escape the punishment, and so he called out, "Lucy Martin!" and went proudly to his seat.
  • There was something which she wished very much to know before going home, and so, without thinking, she had leaned over and whispered just three little words.
  • With tears in her eyes she went out and stood in the whisperer's place.
  • She was very much ashamed and hurt, for it was the first time that she had ever been in disgrace at school.
  • The boys looked at her and wondered if the master would really be as good as his word.
  • Then, suddenly, an awkward half-grown boy who sat right in front of the master's desk turned squarely around and whispered to Tommy Jones, three desks away.
  • Everybody was astonished, for that boy was the best scholar in the school, and he had never been known to break a rule.
  • At the same moment the bell struck and school was dismissed.
  • He worked many years as a blacksmith and studied books whenever he had a spare moment.
  • He learned many languages and became known all over the world as "The Learned Blacksmith."
  • A thousand years ago boys and girls did not learn to read.
  • Books were very scarce and very precious, and only a few men could read them.
  • The pictures were painted by hand, and some of them were very beautiful.
  • They thought more of hunting and fighting than of learning.
  • There was one such king who had four sons, Ethelbald, Ethelbert, Ethelred, and Alfred. The three older boys were sturdy, half-grown lads; the youngest, Alfred, was a slender, fair-haired child.
  • She turned the leaves and showed them the strange letters.
  • She showed them the beautiful pictures, and told them how they had been drawn and painted.
  • If you could only read, you might learn that story and enjoy it.
  • "And I would rather have a young hawk that has been trained to hunt" said Ethelbert.
  • But I am a prince, and it is foolish for princes to waste their time with such things.
  • His mother unlocked her cabinet and took the precious volume from its place of safe keeping.
  • Then he began with the first word on the first page and read the first story aloud without making one mistake.
  • And every day since you showed me the book, he has given me a lesson.
  • It was no easy thing to learn these letters and how they are put together to make words.
  • But his mother kissed him and gave him the beautiful book.
  • And Alfred did grow up to become the wisest and noblest king that England ever had.
  • And Alfred did grow up to become the wisest and noblest king that England ever had.
  • Read, and you will know, my child.
  • Yes, mother, I will read and then I will know.
  • "Read, and you will know," said his mother.
  • Read about things that are beautiful and good.
  • And so William Jones went on reading and learning.
  • And so William Jones went on reading and learning.
  • It is said that he could speak and write forty languages.
  • He was not petted and spoiled like many other princes.
  • He learned to endure hunger and cold.
  • Cyrus was so tall and strong and handsome that his grandfather was very proud of him.
  • He therefore gave him many beautiful gifts and everything that could please a prince.
  • There was to be music and dancing; and Cyrus was to invite as many guests as he chose.
  • The musicians and dancers were in their places.
  • And the rest he divided among the young women who took care of his mother.
  • He is proud and overbearing.
  • "And so he does," said the king.
  • He saw that Cyrus had a will of his own, and this pleased him very much.
  • He was dressed in the rich uniform of the cupbearer, and he came forward with much dignity and grace.
  • He carried a white napkin upon his arm, and held the cup of wine very daintily with three of his fingers.
  • It is the rule and custom of the cupbearer to pour out a little of the wine and taste it before handing the cup to me.
  • After the guests had drunk quite a little of it, they began to talk foolishly and sing loudly; and some of them went to sleep.
  • And you, grandfather, were as bad as the rest.
  • You tried to dance and fell upon the floor.
  • He drinks to quench his thirst, and that is all.
  • He was a very wise and powerful ruler, and he made his country the greatest of any that was then known.
  • There was a caliph of Persia whose name was Al Mamoun. He had two sons whom he wished to become honest and noble men.
  • The two boys saw him and ran to fetch his shoes.
  • The two boys ran for the teacher's shoes, and each claimed the honor of carrying them to him.
  • When the caliph heard of this he sent for Al Farra and asked him, "Who is the most honored of men?"
  • It is the man who rose to go out, and two young princes contended for the honor of giving him his shoes but at last agreed that each should offer him one.
  • Al Farra bowed low, but said nothing; and the caliph went on.
  • This was one of their first lessons at home and at school.
  • It would be a long journey and a dangerous one.
  • Be always brave and truthful, said his father.
  • They went but slowly, for the sun was hot and the way was rough.
  • They could do nothing but give up all their goods and money.
  • You can't make me believe that, said the robber; and he hurried away to rob one of the rich merchants.
  • Soon another came up and said, "My boy, do you happen to have any gold about you?"
  • "You are a brave lad to be joking with robbers" said the man; and he also hurried on to a more promising field.
  • At length the chief of the band called to Otanes and said, "Young fellow, have you anything worth taking?"
  • The chief tore out the lining and found the gold hidden beneath it.
  • "If I had answered your questions differently, I should have told a lie," said Otanes; "and none but cowards tell lies"
  • Mount your horse, and my own men will ride with you and see that you reach the end of your journey in safety.
  • He was the advisor and friend of two of the kings who succeeded Cyrus.
  • The people there knew nothing about war and conquest.
  • Although they were rich, they lived simply and were at peace with all the world.
  • The shah, or ruler of these people, went out to meet Alexander and welcome him to their country.
  • He led the great king to his palace and begged that he would dine with him.
  • "Very well, then," said the shah, "stay with me a little while and observe what you can."
  • While the shah and the king were talking, two countrymen came in.
  • "Well, it is this way," answered the man: "I bought a piece of ground from this neighbor of mine, and paid him a fair price for it.
  • Yesterday, when I was digging in it, I found a box full of gold and jewels.
  • The second man then spoke up and said, It is true that I sold him the ground, but I did not reserve anything he might find in it.
  • Let the son marry the daughter, if both agree, and give them the treasure as a wedding portion.
  • Well, we should have thrown both men into prison, and the treasure would have been given to the king.
  • "And is that what you call justice?" asked the shah.
  • In war, they were savage and cruel; for war always makes men so.
  • He had given them a great deal of trouble, and they wished to destroy him.
  • It was very deep, and there was no way to climb out of it.
  • So a party of soldiers led him up into the mountain and placed him on the edge of the yawning hole in the rocks.
  • And they threw him in.
  • Some of the Greeks said that an eagle caught him in her beak and carried him unharmed to the bottom.
  • I think that he must have fallen upon some bushes and vines that grew in some parts of the chasm.
  • He grew weak from hunger and thirst.
  • He watched quietly, and soon saw a large fox coming towards him.
  • Then he sprang up quickly and seized it by the tail.
  • The frightened fox scampered away as fast as it could; and Aristomenes followed, clinging to its tail.
  • It ran into a narrow cleft which he had not seen before, and then through a long, dark passage which was barely large enough for a man's body.
  • He let go of the fox, and it ran out.
  • Here the rocks were smaller, and he soon loosened them enough to allow him to squeeze through.
  • In a short time he was free and in the open air.
  • He lived two hundred years ago, and was famous for his courage in defending his country.
  • He called to one of his officers and bade him sit down and write a short order for him.
  • The officer began to write, but just as he finished the first word, a bomb came through the roof of the house and struck the floor close by him.
  • He dropped the pen and sprang to his feet.
  • Sit down, and take your pen.
  • The summer had been very dry and the corn crop had failed.
  • Let those who wish any corn bring money and buy it.
  • They did not kill him, but they drove him out of the city and bade him never return.
  • The people of Antium were enemies of the Romans and had often been at war with them.
  • So they welcomed Coriolanus very kindly and made him the general of their army.
  • They burned the villages and farmhouses.
  • Do this, or I will burn Rome and destroy all its people.
  • Give us a few days to learn what sort of laws you will make for us, and then we will say whether we can submit to them or not.
  • These rulers were old men, with wise faces and long white beards.
  • They went out bareheaded and very humble.
  • The next day, all the priests and learned men went out to beg for mercy.
  • It was ready to march upon the city and destroy it.
  • His mother and his wife are still there.
  • They are noble women, and they love Rome.
  • His heart will be hard indeed if he can refuse his mother and his wife.
  • When he saw his mother and his wife and his children, he was filled with joy.
  • His little children clung to his knees and spoke loving words to him.
  • Rome was saved; but Coriolanus could never return to his home, his mother, his wife and children.
  • One summer he went over the sea to Italy; for his name was well known there, and many people wished to hear him sing.
  • He visited several cities, and in each place he was well paid for his music.
  • There was a ship just ready to sail for Corinth, and the captain agreed to take him as a passenger.
  • The sailors were rude and unruly.
  • Allow me to sing to you my latest and best song.
  • He touched his lyre and began to play the accompaniment.
  • And now they would have spared him; but he was true to his promise,-- as soon as the song was finished, he threw himself headlong into the sea.
  • The sailors divided his money among themselves; and the ship sailed on.
  • In a short time they reached Corinth in safety, and the king sent an officer to bring the captain and his men to the palace.
  • "He was well and happy when we left Italy," they answered.
  • Hardly had they spoken these words when the door opened and Arion himself stood before them.
  • They were so astonished that they fell upon their knees before the king and confessed their crime.
  • Old story-tellers say that he alighted on the back of a large fish, called a dolphin, which had been charmed by his music and was swimming near the ship.
  • "Wait," said he, "till the ship arrives, and then we shall know the truth."
  • They say that Arion, being a good swimmer, kept himself afloat until this ship happened to pass by and rescued him from the waves.
  • His name was Francis, and because of his goodness, all men now call him St. Francis.
  • Very kind and loving was St. Francis--kind and loving not only to men but to all living things.
  • He spoke of the birds as his little brothers of the air, and he could never bear to see them harmed.
  • At Christmas time he scattered crumbs of bread under the trees, so that the tiny creatures could feast and be happy.
  • Once when a boy gave him a pair of doves which he had snared, St. Francis had a nest made for them, and the mother bird laid her eggs in it.
  • By and by, the eggs hatched, and a nestful of young doves grew up.
  • They were so tame that they sat on the shoulders of St. Francis and ate from his hand.
  • And many other stories are told of this man's great love and pity for the timid creatures which lived in the fields and woods.
  • And many other stories are told of this man's great love and pity for the timid creatures which lived in the fields and woods.
  • One day as he was walking among the trees the birds saw him and flew down to greet him.
  • Then, when they saw that he was about to speak, they nestled softly in the grass and listened.
  • Let me tell you something, my little brothers, my little sisters: You ought always to love God and praise Him.
  • He has given you clothing both warm and beautiful.
  • He has given you the air in which to move and have homes.
  • He gives you the rivers and the brooks from which to drink.
  • You toil not, neither do you spin, yet God takes care of you and your little ones.
  • So, do not be ungrateful, but sing His praises and thank Him for his goodness toward you.
  • Then the saint stopped speaking and looked around him.
  • They spread their wings and opened their mouths to show that they understood his words.
  • And when he had blessed them, all began to sing; and the whole forest was filled with sweetness and joy because of their wonderful melodies.
  • And when he had blessed them, all began to sing; and the whole forest was filled with sweetness and joy because of their wonderful melodies.
  • A long time ago there lived a poor slave whose name was Aesop. He was a small man with a large head and long arms.
  • His large eyes were bright and snappy.
  • When Aesop was about twenty years old his master lost a great deal of money and was obliged to sell his slaves.
  • The city was far away, and the slaves must walk the whole distance.
  • Some of these bundles contained the things they would need on the road; some contained clothing; and some contained goods which the master would sell in the city.
  • The other slaves laughed and said he was foolish.
  • But he threw it upon his shoulders and seemed well satisfied.
  • And before the end of the journey Aesop had nothing to carry, while the other slaves were groaning under their heavy loads.
  • "And what can you do, Aesop?" asked Xanthus.
  • This answer pleased the rich man so well that he bought Aesop at once, and took him to his home on the island of Samos.
  • In Samos the little slave soon became known for his wisdom and courage.
  • They saw that all these fables taught some great truth, and they wondered how Aesop could have thought of them.
  • Many great men were glad to call him their friend, and even kings asked his advice and were amused by his fables.
  • "Good! good!" said all the other Mice; and one ran to get the bell.
  • And they scampered away to their holes.
  • Listen, and I will tell you of the famous dark day in Connecticut.
  • The sun rose bright and fair, and the morning was without a cloud.
  • The cows came home from the pasture and stood mooing at the gate.
  • The women wept, and some of the men prayed.
  • "The end of the world has come!" cried some; and they ran about in the darkness.
  • "This is the last great day!" cried others; and they knelt down and waited.
  • They were men who made the laws, and much depended upon their wisdom.
  • His voice was clear and strong, and all knew that he, at least, was not afraid.
  • And as he spoke, the other lawmakers listened in silence till the darkness began to fade and the sky grew bright again.
  • And as he spoke, the other lawmakers listened in silence till the darkness began to fade and the sky grew bright again.
  • The people of Connecticut still remember Abraham Davenport, because he was a wise judge and a brave lawmaker.
  • The road was strange to him, and he traveled very slowly.
  • When night came on he stopped at a pleasant roadside inn and asked for lodging.
  • A fine supper was prepared, and the innkeeper himself waited upon his guest.
  • In the morning a good breakfast was served, and then Mr. Randolph made ready to start on his journey.
  • He called for his bill and paid it.
  • His horse was led to the door, and a servant helped him to mount it.
  • He turned his horse and rode away.
  • He looked back and saw the innkeeper still standing by the door.
  • "Mr. Randolph," answered the innkeeper, "you have paid your bill and don't owe me a cent.
  • He went far out of his way and lost much time, all on account of his surliness.
  • He was famous as a lawyer and statesman.
  • He was a member of Congress for many years, and was noted for his odd manners and strong self- will.
  • He was quarrelsome and unruly.
  • For this reason many people were glad when he ran away from home and went to sea.
  • He was big and strong and soon became a fine sailor.
  • But he was still headstrong and ill-tempered; and he was often in trouble with the other sailors.
  • He quarreled with the other sailors, and even with the captain.
  • There were groves of trees near the shore, and high hills beyond them.
  • Set me on shore and leave me there.
  • Give me a few common tools and some food, and I will do well enough, said the sailor.
  • So they filled a small boat with the things that he would need the most--an ax, a hoe, a kettle, and some other things.
  • They also put in some bread and meat and other food, enough for several weeks.
  • Then four of the sailors rowed him to the shore and left him there.
  • He called loudly to the sailors and to the captain.
  • Take me back, and I will give you no more trouble.
  • The ship sailed away and was soon lost to sight.
  • He built him a little hut for shelter at night and in stormy weather.
  • There were pigs and goats on the island, and plenty of fish could be caught from the shore.
  • He tried to make signals to them; he called as loudly as he could; but he was neither seen nor heard, and the ships came no nearer.
  • "If I ever have the good fortune to escape from this island," he said, "I will be kind and obliging to every one.
  • For four years and four months he lived alone on the island.
  • Then, to his great joy, a ship came near and anchored in the little harbor.
  • He made himself known, and the captain willingly agreed to carry him back to his own country.
  • When he reached Scotland everybody was eager to hear him tell of his adventures, and he soon found himself famous.
  • So he sat down and wrote a wonderful story, which he called "The Adventures of Robinson Crusoe."
  • Many boys and indeed many girls have read his story.
  • When only a child he liked to stand by the river and see the ships sailing past.
  • He wondered where they had come from and where they were going.
  • He thought how grand it would be to sail and sail on the wide blue sea.
  • He thought how pleasant it would be to visit strange countries and see strange peoples.
  • Many ships are wrecked and the sailors are drowned.
  • I am going to be a sailor and nothing else.
  • So, when he was eighteen years old, he ran away from his pleasant home and went to sea.
  • Robinson Crusoe sailed first on one ship and then on another.
  • He visited many lands and saw many wonderful things.
  • It was a small island, and there was no one living on it.
  • But there were birds in the woods and some wild goats on the hills.
  • He had only a dog and some cats to keep him company.
  • Then he tamed a parrot and some goats.
  • He built a house of some sticks and vines.
  • He sowed grain and baked bread.
  • At last a ship happened to pass that way and Robinson was taken on board.
  • He was glad to go back to England to see his home and his friends once more.
  • Like other kings, he lived in a beautiful palace and had many officers and servants to wait upon him.
  • It was Carl's duty to sit outside of the king's bedroom and be ready to serve him at any time.
  • One night the king sat up very late, writing letters and sending messages; and the little page was kept busy running on errands until past midnight.
  • "I wonder what can have happened to the boy," he said; and he opened the door and looked out.
  • He picked it up and read it.
  • _Dearest Carl; You are a good boy to send me all your wages, for now I can pay the rent and buy some warm clothing for your little sister.
  • I thank you for it, and pray that God will bless you.
  • Be faithful to the king and do your duty._
  • He took ten gold pieces from his table and wrapped them in the little letter.
  • Then he went out again, very quietly, and slipped them all into the boy's pocket.
  • Carl awoke with a start, and came quickly to answer the call.
  • The boy stammered and did not know what to say.
  • He was frightened and ready to cry.
  • He put his hand in his pocket, and was surprised to find the gold pieces wrapped in his mother's letter.
  • Then his eyes overflowed with tears, and he fell on his knees before the king.
  • And people say that fortune comes to us in our sleep.
  • You may send the gold pieces to your mother with my compliments; and tell her that the king will take care of both her and you.
  • What boy or girl has not heard the story of King Robert Brace and the spider?
  • I will tell you another story of the same brave and famous king.
  • His little army had been beaten and scattered.
  • For many days he wandered through rough and dangerous places.
  • He waded rivers and climbed mountains.
  • "May a poor traveler find rest and shelter here for the night?" he asked.
  • The woman answered, "All travelers are welcome for the sake of one; and you are welcome"
  • Are you the Bruce, and are you all alone?
  • "My men have been scattered," said the king, "and therefore, no one is with me."
  • They shall go with you and serve you.
  • They were tall and strong young men, and they gladly promised to go with the king and help him.
  • The king sat down by the fire, and the woman hurried to get things ready for supper.
  • The two young men got down their bows and arrows, and all were busy making plans for the next day.
  • They heard the tramping of horses and the voices of a number of men.
  • "Be brave, and defend your king with your lives," said their mother.
  • The door was thrown open and he saw a hundred brave men, all ready to give him aid.
  • They are resting there for the night and have no fear of danger from us.
  • "Then let us mount and ride," said the king.
  • They routed the king's enemies and scattered them.
  • And Robert the Bruce was never again obliged to hide in the woods or to run from savage hounds.
  • Soon he became the real king and ruler of all Scotland,
  • So he raised a great army and made war against other countries.
  • He conquered many kings and burned many cities.
  • But at last his army was beaten; his men were scattered; and Tamerlane fled alone from the field of battle.
  • He looked more closely and saw that it was an ant.
  • As Tamerlane looked, he saw that there was a hole in the tree only a little way above, and that this was the home of the ant.
  • Just as he spoke, the ant lost its footing and fell to the ground.
  • A second time it tried to carry its load up the rough trunk of the tree, and a second time it failed.
  • Slowly, one little step at a time, it crept up across the rough place where it had slipped and fallen so often.
  • And this he did.
  • He was dressed plainly, his coat was worn, and his hat was dingy.
  • The market man showed him a fat turkey, plump and white and ready for roasting.
  • He asked the price and paid for it.
  • The market man wrapped a paper round it and put it in the basket.
  • He was dressed in fine style and carried a small cane.
  • "Yes, here is your money," answered the young gentleman; "and send it to my house at once."
  • My errand boy is sick to- day, and there is no one else to send.
  • Fancy me carrying a turkey along the street! said the young gentleman; and he began to grow very angry.
  • "I live at Number 39, Blank Street," answered the young gentleman; "and my name is Johnson."
  • I happen to be going that way, and I will carry your turkey, if you will allow me.
  • When they reached Mr. Johnson's house, the old man politely handed him the turkey and turned to go.
  • It was no trouble to me, and you are welcome.
  • He bowed and went on.
  • Young Mr. Johnson looked after him and wondered.
  • He turned and walked briskly back to the market.
  • The young gentleman was surprised and ashamed.
  • "Oh, no!" said another man who had seen and heard it all.
  • Judge Marshall carried the turkey simply because he wished to be kind and obliging.
  • They sat in a heavy flat-bottomed boat, each holding a long, crooked rod in his hands and eagerly waiting for "a bite."
  • "Yes, Christopher; and it is hard work, too," answered Robert.
  • "Yes, there is a better way, and that is by rowing," said Christopher.
  • "Well, I can make some oars," said Robert; "but I think there ought to be still another and a better way.
  • The next day Robert's aunt heard a great pounding and sawing in her woodshed.
  • The two boys were there, busily working with hammer and saw.
  • His aunt laughed and said, "Well, I hope that you will succeed."
  • After a great deal of tinkering and trying, they did succeed in making two paddle wheels.
  • They were very rough and crude, but strong and serviceable.
  • He took something like an oarlock from his pocket and fastened it to the stern of the boat; then with a paddle which worked in this oarlock one of the boys could guide the boat while the other turned the paddle wheels.
  • "Bob Fulton planned the whole thing," he said, "and I helped him make the paddles and put them on the boat."
  • He kept on, planning and thinking and working, until at last he succeeded in making a boat with paddle wheels that could be run by steam.
  • He is now remembered and honored as the inventor of the steamboat.
  • One day a strange merchant came to him with some diamonds and pearls which he had brought from beyond the sea.
  • The caliph was so well pleased with these jewels that he bought them and paid the merchant a large sum of money.
  • It was midsummer, and the day was very hot.
  • As the merchant was walking along, he came to a river that flowed gently between green and shady banks.
  • He was hot and covered with dust.
  • He put the bag of money on top of them and then leaped into the water.
  • How cool and delicious it was!
  • He turned quickly and saw an eagle rising into the air with his moneybag in its claws.
  • He jumped out of the water and shouted again.
  • The great bird was high in the air and flying towards the far-off mountains with all his money.
  • The poor man could do nothing but dress himself and go sorrowing on his way.
  • A year passed by and then the merchant appeared once more before Al Mansour.
  • I pray that you will look at them and take them at your own price.
  • Al Mansour noticed that the merchant was very sad and downcast.
  • Find all the old men that live on the mountains or in the flat country around, and command them to appear before me one week from to-day.
  • Do you know of any person who was once poor but who has lately and suddenly become well-to-do?
  • Both he and his family dressed well; they had plenty to eat; he had even bought a horse to help him carry his produce to market.
  • The gardener put his hand under his cloak and drew out the very bag that the merchant had lost.
  • At sight of his lost treasure, the merchant began to dance and shout for joy.
  • I ran to pick it up and was surprised to find that it was a bag full of bright gold pieces.
  • "It was this way," said the gardener: "I looked at the gold pieces, and then thought of my own great necessities.
  • My wife and children were suffering from the want of food and clothing.
  • With much hard labor and careful management I have saved only five little silver pieces.
  • He took the bag of money and handed it to the merchant.
  • "Take the bag and count the money that is in it," he said.
  • "There is nothing lacking," he said, "but the ten pieces he has told you about; and I will give him these as a reward."
  • It was a place where good people, and timid, helpless people could find shelter in time of war.
  • There they might live in peace and safety while all the country round was overrun by rude and barbarous men.
  • They were sitting around the fire and trying to keep themselves warm.
  • The men heard it as it whistled through the trees and rattled the doors of the abbey.
  • They drew up closer to the fire and felt thankful that they were safe from the raging storm.
  • And the cook shall begin.
  • The woodman stirred the fire until the flames leaped high and the sparks flew out of the roof hole.
  • He sang of war, and of bold rough deeds, and of love and sorrow.
  • After him the other men were called, one by one; and each in turn sang his favorite song.
  • The woodman sang of the wild forest; the plowman sang of the fields; the shepherd sang of his sheep; and those who listened forgot about the storm and the cold weather.
  • My voice is harsh and I cannot sing.
  • So he sat there trembling and afraid; for he was a timid, bashful man and did not like to be noticed.
  • At last, just as the blacksmith was in the midst of a stirring song, he rose quietly and went out into the darkness.
  • He soon found a warm corner, and there he lay down, covering himself with the straw.
  • Inside of the great kitchen, beside the fire, the men were shouting and laughing; for the blacksmith had finished his song, and it was very pleasing.
  • He was afraid and has slipped away from us.
  • All around him were the cows of the abbey, some chewing their cuds, and others like their master quietly sleeping.
  • The singing in the kitchen was ended, the fire had burned low, and each man had gone to his place.
  • I do not know any song; and my voice is harsh and unpleasant.
  • It was for this reason that I left my fellows in the abbey kitchen and came here to be alone.
  • Then Caedmon, with only the cows as his hearers, opened his mouth and began to sing.
  • All through the night he sat among the abbey cows, and sang his wonderful song.
  • At length, others of the servants heard him, and were entranced by his wonderful song.
  • And one ran quickly and told the good abbess, or mistress of the abbey, what strange thing had happened.
  • And one ran quickly and told the good abbess, or mistress of the abbey, what strange thing had happened.
  • And all of the sweet-faced sisters and other women of the place listened while he sang again the wonderful song of the creation.
  • And all of the sweet-faced sisters and other women of the place listened while he sang again the wonderful song of the creation.
  • It must be written down so that people in other places and in other times may hear it read and sung.
  • So she called her clerk, who was a scholar, and bade him write the song, word for word, as it came from Caedmon's lips.
  • And this he did.
  • And Caedmon, the poor cowherd of the abbey, was the first great poet of England.
  • It was the wish of his father and mother that every day of his life should be a day of perfect happiness.
  • So this prince grew up to be a young man, tall and fair and graceful.
  • He knew only of those things that give joy and health and peace.
  • It must be a beautiful and happy place; and I wish to know all about it.
  • In it there are numberless trees and flowers and rivers and waterfalls, and other things to make the heart glad.
  • "Then to-morrow I will go out and see some of those things," he said.
  • His parents and friends begged him not to go.
  • The next morning, Gautama sat in his carriage and rode out from the palace into one of the streets of the city.
  • "Who is that man?" asked Gautama, "and why is his face so pinched and his hair so white?
  • He seems weak, and his eyes are dull.
  • All who reach old age must lose their strength and become like him, feeble and gray.
  • They passed out into the open country and saw the cottages of the poor people.
  • By the door of one of these a sick man was lying upon a couch, helpless and pale.
  • His face is white, and he seems very weak.
  • The coachman explained as well as he was able; and they rode onward.
  • Their faces were browned by the sun; their hands were hard and gnarly; their backs were bent by much heavy lifting; their clothing was in tatters.
  • "Who are those men, and why do their faces look so joyless?" asked the prince.
  • "They are poor men, and they are working to improve the king's highway," was the answer.
  • "And is this the great, beautiful, happy world that I have been told about?" cried the prince.
  • Turn the carriage quickly, coachman, and drive home.
  • I will spend all my life, and give all that I have, to lessen the distress and sorrow with which this world seems filled.
  • One night he left the beautiful palace which his father had given to him and went out into the world to do good and to help his fellow men.
  • And to this day, millions of people remember and honor the name of Gautama, as that of the great lover of men.
  • And to this day, millions of people remember and honor the name of Gautama, as that of the great lover of men.
  • And in the middle was a rough table with benches around it instead of chairs.
  • The table was spread and supper was ready.
  • The children were hungry and could hardly wait for their father to come.
  • There will be music and dancing, and many fine people will be there.
  • The next minute they heard his voice at the door: Be quick, boys, and stir the fire.
  • Throw on some chips and make a blaze.
  • They did so, and as the flames lighted up the room, they saw their father enter with a child in his arms.
  • Then she saw that the child's face was very pale and that he neither opened his eyes nor moved.
  • But first get a blanket and warm it, quick.
  • The two boys, Charlot and Blondel, with wondering eyes watched their father and mother undress the little stranger.
  • His beautiful clothes were soaked with water, and his fine white collar and ruffles were soiled and dripping.
  • Soon the little stranger was clad in the warm clothes; the dry soft blanket was wrapped around him; and he was laid on the children's bed.
  • He opened his eyes and looked around at the small, plain room and at the poor people standing near him.
  • He looked at the fire on the hearth.
  • You have stolen my clothes and have given me these ugly things.
  • Wait till he rests a while, and then he'll be in a better humor.
  • His eyes closed and he was soon fast asleep.
  • The two boys stood at his knees, and his wife sat at his side.
  • I had carried some charcoal to the queen's kitchen and was just starting home.
  • I looked and saw this little fellow struggling in the water.
  • I ran and pulled him out.
  • I thought of the big fire in the queen's kitchen, and knew that the cook would never allow a half-drowned child to be carried into that fine place.
  • Then I thought of our own warm little house, and how snug we could make him until he came to his senses again.
  • So I took him in my arms and ran home as fast as I could.
  • "He shall be our little brother," said Blondel; and both the boys clapped their hands very softly.
  • He seemed to feel quite well and strong.
  • He sat up in the bed and looked around.
  • Tell us who she is, and we will carry you to her.
  • She has other things to do, and no time to attend to me.
  • Your own mother, and no time to attend to her child?
  • They let you fall into the water, and you would have been drowned, if it hadn't been for me.
  • The mother gave each a tin plate and a wooden spoon, and then helped them all to boiled beans.
  • The little stranger came and sat with them.
  • "Mine gives me fine clothes and plenty of money to spend," said the stranger.
  • Mine makes the servants wait on me and do as I tell them.
  • The charcoal man and his wife listened to this little dispute, and said nothing.
  • Then he slipped quickly under the table and hid himself.
  • They were all dressed very finely, and some of them carried swords.
  • But really, I fell into the pool at the fountain, and this kind man brought me here to get me dry.
  • Oh, yes, I know she is anxious, and I will go.
  • You shall have money to buy a larger house and to send your boys to school.
  • Then he turned to the cardinal and said, Now, I am ready.
  • As the little king went out, he turned at the door and called to Charlot.
  • "Come to the palace to-morrow," he said, "and you shall have your clothes.
  • They say he is hunting in the woods, and perhaps will ride out this way.
  • The boy got up at once, and sat behind the king.
  • The horse cantered briskly along, and king and boy were soon quite well acquainted.
  • All the men seemed amused when they saw the boy, and as they rode up, they greeted the king by taking off their hats.
  • The fishermen talked in low tones with one another for a little while, and then one said, It's a bargain.
  • You were to have all the fish that happened to be in the net and nothing else.
  • They talked and wrangled a long time and could not agree.
  • Then one of the fishermen said, "Let us ask the governor about it and do as he shall bid us."
  • So they carried the tripod to the governor, and each told his story.
  • People from all parts of the world sent to it, to tell it their troubles and get its advice.
  • The merchant and the fishermen waited impatiently till the answer came.
  • And this is what the oracle said:--
  • Men come from every country to see him and learn from him.
  • He knocked at the door and the wise man himself opened it.
  • And so I have brought the prize to you, friend Thales.
  • So the governor called two of his trusted officers and told them to carry the tripod to Priene and offer it to Bias.
  • Tell the wise man why you bring it, and repeat to him the words of the oracle.
  • He was a poor man and had no wish to be rich.
  • They told him about their errand and showed him the beautiful prize.
  • He was a brave soldier and a wise teacher.
  • The messengers found him in his house talking to his friends and teaching them wisdom.
  • "It is well," said he, "that neither a merchant nor a fisherman shall have it; for such men think only of their business and care really nothing for beauty."
  • "We agree with you," said the messengers; "and we present the prize to you because you are the wisest of the wise."
  • He is the handsomest and strongest of men, and I believe he is the wisest also.
  • There everybody was talking about King Cleobulus and his wonderful wisdom.
  • "Educate the children," he said; and for that reason his name is remembered to this day.
  • He lives in Corinth, [Footnote: Cor'inth.] and his name is Periander. [Footnote: Per i an'der.] Carry the precious gift to him.
  • Some had heard of his great learning, and others had heard of his selfishness and cruelty.
  • "I have heard all about that tripod," he said, "and I know why you are carrying it from one place to another.
  • They learned that Chilon was a very quiet man, that he never spoke about himself, and that he spent all his time in trying to make his country great and strong and happy.
  • At last they were allowed to go before him and state their business.
  • The oracle at Delphi has ordered that it shall be given to the wisest of wise men, and for that reason we have brought it to you.
  • He is my worst enemy, and yet, I admire him as the wisest man in the world.
  • "We have offered the prize to each one of them," said the messengers, "and each one has refused it."
  • Carry it to Delphi and leave it there in the Temple of Apollo; for Apollo is the fountain of wisdom, the wisest of the wise.
  • And this the messengers did.
  • They lived more than two thousand years ago, and each one helped to make his country famous.
  • And you may even—reasonably, optimistically—think it to be quite likely.
  • You may come to America and be poor, but if you work hard, your children will have a better life and a better opportunity.
  • Through some perfect storm of wars, downturns, and disasters, the once-sunny outlook turned dark.
  • Mass extinction, deforestation, dead zones in oceans, and on and on and on.
  • But what about a reasoned belief based on a balanced look at both history and current reality that leads you to be optimistic?
  • And as I look to the past and the present, I see two phenomena that especially drive my optimism.
  • And as I look to the past and the present, I see two phenomena that especially drive my optimism.
  • I see how human ingenuity and new technologies have eliminated previously insoluble problems once we stand back and let free markets do what they do best: direct the allocation of capital to find a solution.
  • When whale oil got scarce and went up in price, the market made cheap kerosene for lighting.
  • When the light bulb was cheaper and better, we ditched kerosene.
  • And you would have been right.
  • The years passed and almost nothing changed.
  • And you would have been right.
  • And you would be right.
  • This book is about that future and what it is going to look like—how it will be a place glorious and spectacular beyond our wildest hopes.
  • And while it may not be perfect, life will be profoundly better for everyone on the planet.
  • And not just a path, but a well-lit, eight-lane highway.
  • To be perfectly clear, I am not saying the Internet and technology will solve every human ill.
  • In the end, our fundamental challenge is to become better individuals, and technology offers little help on that front; it is up to each one of us to solve that for ourselves.
  • But the five phenomena I chose to tackle in this book are among the great blights on humanity that I believe the Internet and technology will help solve.
  • I am also a historian with a full understanding of how poverty, disease, ignorance, famine, and war have dominated life on this planet.
  • And because of this, we would therefore lose the inevitable relationships that naturally formed?
  • That this democratization of information and opinion would lead to vigorous debate and encourage a young monk to question the church?
  • And that that same technology would allow his questions to be spread across Europe, thereby igniting the Protestant Reformation?
  • Bigger than TV and cars and anything that has come before it.
  • So isn't it just possible that it could end ignorance, disease, poverty, hunger, and war?
  • And wouldn't that be something?
  • First, in the magnitude of what it claims, and second, in the degree to which it differs from what pessimists predict.
  • I make them because I believe I can back them up with convincing proofs and arguments.
  • The first error is to assert that history unfolds in a basically linear fashion, that there is a fundamental continuity between the past, present, and future.
  • A third way to predict the future that I believe is reliable rejects both the slavish following of the straight line and the purely speculative approach.
  • And yet, that happened.
  • And because human nature changes either not at all or very slowly, people make the same choices over and over again.
  • And because human nature changes either not at all or very slowly, people make the same choices over and over again.
  • It shows us at our best and at our cruelest.
  • Noble, wretched, magnanimous, heartless, petty, generous, self-sacrificing, and selfish.
  • The 1920s to 1950s renderings of what people thought the future would look like are full of things like personal jetpacks and flying cars.
  • And I think that helps explain why no one quite foresaw the rise of the Internet: because it doesn't have an offline corollary of its own.
  • And when we say, "The Internet is an electronic store," this is true.
  • But it is the biggest, best store ever, where you can buy anything from anywhere, based on reviews by other buyers, at a discount, and have it gift wrapped, engraved, altered, drop-shipped, and probably delivered by tomorrow.
  • When you hear about a new company and your response is, "Why in the world would anyone want to do that?" it will be because there is no offline corollary.
  • And that leads us to a critical question: Who decides what we will make the Internet do?
  • When it comes to starting a new business, nothing that previously existed can rival the Internet in terms of both ease of entry and breadth of potential.
  • What if the basic unit was a couple, a relationship, and what if that relationship had an identity?
  • We post pictures, the progress of our relationship, and people can follow our "us" page.
  • She hires a contract programmer in Russia for $3000 to code it and advertises on Craig's List for a designer who will work for some stock.
  • She researches credit card processors and decides to go with PayPal for now.
  • She creates premium services on her site that cost just $9.95 a year that include a number of additional features and virtual goods.
  • Linda thinks about this and decides she wants to keep it ad-free for now.
  • Linda gets the idea to call Facebook and see if she can advertise to people who change their status to "In a relationship."
  • Today, success still requires good execution, but the larger question is: "Can you discover and fulfill a hitherto-unknown, latent desire in people that the Internet enables?"
  • The abstraction keeps moving forward, and the technology races to keep up.
  • In just eighteen months from now, we will have duplicated that again and effectively doubled our computation power.
  • And after they become possible, they will become very inexpensive.
  • But I do think we will see an end to any effective constraints relating to computers' ability to process data and transfer information.
  • Filmmakers such as James Cameron and George Lucas used to talk about putting off film projects to wait for the computer technology to catch up to their visions.
  • But at a certain point, you don't need any more, and the technology is mature.
  • We often see other technologies race toward a point and then stop growing along that axis.
  • Early cars tried to be faster and faster, to break the 60 mph barrier.
  • But once cars improved enough, for all intents and purposes we stopped increasing their top speed.
  • And what seems clear is that, sooner or later, we will get there.
  • Our ability to process data, move information, and make things small will progress to a point where they will not be gating factors ever again.
  • From this period came some of humanity's greatest masterpieces, including St. Peter's Basilica, Da Vinci's Last Supper, Michelangelo's Pieta, and hundreds of other instantly recognizable artistic treasures.
  • It is thought to have had its apex in Italy—in Venice, Florence, and Rome.
  • When the conquest of the city seemed inevitable, a great "brain drain" of scholars, artists, teachers, theologians, and the wealthy emigrated to Western Europe, especially to Italy.
  • The arrival of these texts—as well as Byzantium's own architecture, science, and art—triggered a sensory and intellectual explosion, which became the cultural movement we now call the Renaissance.
  • In the Italian Renaissance, only a thin veneer of society's elites participated in the creation or ownership of the frescos, music, statues, and paintings; most were only passive observers.
  • As I write this, something like fifty million blogs and billions of blog posts are online.
  • Uncounted millions more post questions in forums, and millions of answers are posted in response.
  • The Internet has made distributing music easy and has unleashed an astonishing amount of new material.
  • Calvin and Hobbes is art.
  • Actually, I could make guesses, but they might well be spectacularly wrong and a guy doesn't want that haunting him ten years from now.
  • We look at antique furniture today and say, "Man, they sure don't make stuff as good as they used to."
  • But the truth is that almost all furniture back in the day was cheaply made junk and only a very few high-quality pieces survived.
  • And in our Internet Renaissance, aren't we seeing an explosion of these same things at a spectacularly more massive scale?
  • We are suitably impressed that Da Vinci sketched a design for a submarine and a flying machine.
  • Today, that is vastly more true and widespread.
  • The Internet has allowed for the creation of thousands of new ways to give, both time and money.
  • People have always had the drive and the ability to build, create, discover, and explore.
  • We have a natural desire to make beautiful things and a bone-deep need to understand the world we live in and our place in it.
  • Before technology and prosperity, virtually everyone spent long hard days scraping together enough calories for themselves and their family to survive.
  • Now a billion or more can achieve that dream, and I foresee a time not far off when everyone on the planet can.
  • The Renaissance artists and thinkers had very few tools: pen and paper, paint and canvas, marble and chisel, and a few more.
  • Today we have the Internet and all its associated technologies, vastly more versatile, almost infinite in possibility.
  • Where every Da Vinci can paint his Mona Lisa and every Dante can write his Inferno.
  • It will be a glorious time to be alive, and I believe my children will see it happen.
  • On the morning of June 28, 1914, Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria and his wife Sophie, Duchess of Hohenberg, were shot dead in Sarajevo by nineteen-year-old assassin Gavrilo Princip.
  • Once again, war raged in Europe and around the world and left sixty million people dead.
  • Its end led directly to the Cold War, which consumed inconceivable amounts of money and almost pushed the world to the brink of nuclear devastation.
  • He turned onto Franz Josef Street, where he was not supposed to have been, and drove right in front of a surprised Princip.
  • When Loyka realized his mistake and slammed on the brakes, the archduke and his wife were sitting ducks.
  • Princip seized the opportunity and fired into the open car at a range of five feet, killing them both.
  • War, poverty, misery, and nearly one hundred million people dead came from what essentially was a single wrong turn.
  • If my reasoning stopped there, you would probably start fishing around for the receipt for this book and read up on your bookseller's return policy.
  • It was like the Olympic torch in antiquity: All it took was one guy carrying the torch to slip in the mud and the entire chain was broken.
  • In fact, the book could survive for centuries, as could new perfect copies of the book, and thus the ideas could be distributed.
  • Via books, ideas became mobile—or as we would say today, went viral—spreading to other villages and other countries and to multiple places around the world simultaneously.
  • So he commissioned seven emissaries to go out to seven certain oracles around the world and on a predetermined day, let's say July 12, at a predetermined time, say 3:00 p.m.
  • She said, "At this very moment King Croesus is making turtle and goat soup."
  • And Croesus was so amazed that he endowed the Oracle at Delphi with all kinds of gifts and planned to run all-important questions by this oracle.
  • And Croesus was so amazed that he endowed the Oracle at Delphi with all kinds of gifts and planned to run all-important questions by this oracle.
  • Croesus attacked, was defeated, and was killed.
  • I tell this story to make a comparison between modern times and the past.
  • Wise machines are dramatically more valuable than machines that just store and retrieve information.
  • We will finally be able to build an oracle, and we will use that tool, that collection of life experiences, to optimize our own lives.
  • When I go to far-flung places, I often know little of local customs and, through ignorance, I have committed more than one faux pas.
  • But even if I had a robot that knew everything, I couldn't really say, "Tell me every custom they have here" and be fully informed.
  • You can know everything in the world and still make bad decisions.
  • And wisdom probably concludes, "I should not apply for this credit card."
  • And I think that is what the Internet will deliver.
  • More and more of your everyday life leaves such an echo.
  • Your credit card statement captures an accurate, albeit extremely abbreviated, record of your comings and goings.
  • Imagine that every word you said was recorded by your personal recorder and automatically transcribed.
  • Not just that you went to a certain address but that the address was a movie theater and—based on where you sat and that you ordered tickets online—you saw Episode VII of Star Wars.
  • Every song you download and how many times you play it.
  • I can't really remember what won, though at the time, I thought it all very forward looking and exciting.
  • My car, refrigerator, lawnmower, sprinkler system, smoke alarms, locks, and even my clothes.
  • That said, if I had to pick one function I think the Internet will turn out to "be," it is this: The Internet will become a repository and a set of applications for storing the sum total of all life experiences of all people on earth.
  • It will be the collective memory and experience of the planet.
  • Well, that tells us something new about ourselves—in fact, a lot of things: the kinds of information we want to share, the kinds of information we want to consume, and the immediacy with which we want it all to occur.
  • We are building the Internet to connect with each other better, to share information, to collaborate, to offer mutual support, and so on.
  • The Internet is full of sites that offer good to humanity and yield no profit for the people working on them.
  • Of course, Wikipedia is another textbook example where people toil for no payment, and anonymously as well.
  • But as I watch how we are building and using the Internet, the one-on-one encounters impress me most.
  • The open source movement and Creative Commons licensing are examples of people willing to share their intellectual labor to help others.
  • I think to the extent the data is not identifiable to a person and is only used to make suggestions to others, people will participate.
  • You probably have a device, such as a smart phone, that has an Internet connection and a GPS.
  • And they will see how this information will be used to better the lives of other people in very real ways.
  • Or early climatologists who made their own daily observations of precipitation and barometric pressure, interpreting as well as collecting readings.
  • These are all knowable things, and yet there is not universal agreement on them.
  • More precisely, we will probably teach machines to teach themselves how to process it for us and surface findings to us.
  • We will be completely insulated from the collecting and researching of data so that we can focus entirely on turning data into knowledge.
  • You could ask it, "What is the number of presidents of the United States born on Friday who have older sisters, multiplied by the number of wars lost by Bolivia?" and it could instantly give you an answer.
  • It is a safe bet that no one has ever asked that question before, and yet this system is designed to answer it.
  • Up until now, we have thought of the Internet as a place to store information, and we have depended upon search engines to help us find it.
  • In the past, a scientist began with a surmise or hunch and began gathering data to prove or disprove it.
  • What if the capability to see connections and even to have them detected was all there for us?
  • The ability of science and technology to improve human life is known to us.
  • Simple measures of GNP and prosperity vastly underreport this.
  • And yet, by the coarse measures we use, in a sense we have the same level of prosperity because we both have cars.
  • GNP and "standard of living" measurements don't capture this.
  • On the same page, Amazon says "Frequently Bought Together" and then lists a few other products.
  • Over time, Amazon has achieved such scale and thus has collected so much data that their suggestions are really useful.
  • And every day, their product gets better because it is being fed more data.
  • It's wool and is a bit scratchy.
  • So the salesperson says, "If you like that suit, then come over here and try this one from Ralph Lauren."
  • Of the twenty thousand sales he has made in his career, he probably remembers a few hundred distinctly and a few thousand vaguely.
  • It took him most of his life to do this, and the value was engraved on his tombstone.
  • Ten years later, in 1959, Francois Genuys used an IBM 704 and calculated pi to more than fifteen thousand digits in just four hours.
  • By 1973 it was calculated to more than a million digits, in 1983 more than ten million digits, in 1987 more than one hundred million digits, in 1989 more than one billion digits, and in 1997 more than fifty billion digits.
  • So now that the task of remembering past purchases and using that information to suggest future purchases is completely transitioned to machines, it operates on a whole different scale.
  • Self-teaching algorithms will get better and better at making suggestions.
  • For instance, they will learn subtleties such as suggesting beach gear if a person buys a cooler in July and tailgating gear if the same purchase is made in October.
  • The machine will figure this out as it collects more data and incorporates more variables, and then experiments on people to see which combinations of factors work the best.
  • More and more data about each customer will be available.
  • Because of Moore's Law, computers will get faster and storage will be cheaper.
  • Once we get the problem off our "to-do list" and stick it onto the computer's, we largely will be done.
  • We will just sit back and let the machines sort it all out.
  • Once that is achieved, the sort of event that will happen is: You will be online to order, say, a replacement water filter, and the suggestion engine will propose that along with the filter, you might like to buy ... a pogo stick.
  • A person could dedicate his life to understanding just one suggestion and never even get close.
  • No human could ever do this, for in these purely computational matters, machines are vastly superior to us, and always will be.
  • Humans should not feel threatened in any way by this, and yet it still makes some people defensive and uncomfortable.
  • They might balk at getting on an airline flight flown by a computer and prefer having a pilot on board to take over if he "feels in his gut" that something is wrong (even if that feeling is the airport burrito he had for lunch).
  • And that is why, if we are to use the Internet and technology to end ignorance, we still need people like Jim Haynes.
  • And that is why, if we are to use the Internet and technology to end ignorance, we still need people like Jim Haynes.
  • And Jim never has met any of his dinner guests beforehand.
  • They are people who heard of his gatherings, contacted him, and said, "I want to come to your dinner party."
  • And he said, "Okay."
  • Once Jim extends the invitation, he memorizes all the individuals' names, where they are from, what they do for a living, information about their families, and so forth.
  • So when I knocked on the door of Jim's atelier and said, "Hey, I'm Byron Reese," he said, "Oh, Byron, come over here, I want you to meet this guy.
  • He is also from Austin, and he's in Internet publishing, too.
  • I like this goal, and I would like to do it as well, but in bits, not bites.
  • Remember your Digital Echo file, that record of everything you do and say?
  • And if each of those billion people in turn shared a million of their life experiences, and you recorded them, you'd have an aggregate number of life experiences so large I had to look it up online.
  • And if each of those billion people in turn shared a million of their life experiences, and you recorded them, you'd have an aggregate number of life experiences so large I had to look it up online.
  • And from every experience they have had in their lives, we would be able to infer what was successful and what was not successful.
  • And from every experience they have had in their lives, we would be able to infer what was successful and what was not successful.
  • You could learn from their success and you could learn from their failure.
  • A recording of every cause and effect.
  • No longer would we learn and forget, learn and forget, learn and forget, again and again, as a species.
  • We could learn and remember.
  • You are not from there, and you want to go out for Italian food for dinner.
  • You had no real knowledge and therefore no way to make a wise decision.
  • Then along came the web, and you had data plus knowledge.
  • You could see which restaurants were rated the highest on Yelp, which ones certain reviewers liked, and so on.
  • First, it will consider all your friends, people with whom you have actual intimate relationships, and it will look at where they go for Italian food.
  • The system will also look for anything they've written publicly about this place (Yelp, Facebook, personal blog) and which superlatives they used to describe it.
  • And not just where do they go, but where is it that people drive the farthest to get to?
  • The system has data from all their GPS records and infers that to drive across town several times for a place is a stronger vote than eating at the corner restaurant.
  • And so we are interested in the Italian restaurants people drive across town repeatedly to frequent.
  • It will look at all other people who like the same restaurants and see where they repeatedly go for Italian food in San Francisco.
  • The system will weigh heavily the choices of people with Italian last names, and people who own restaurants—all these different factors, millions and millions of factors, all from the passively recorded life experiences of a billion people.
  • This system will look at all the Italian restaurants around the country that you already like and look at all the ingredients they order online and look for restaurants in San Francisco using the same set of ingredients.
  • It will build a table of all the words used by people like you who have reviewed those restaurants and will look for San Francisco restaurants described with the same words.
  • It will look at all this and a million other factors that would seem to be unrelated.
  • And my system will come back with a single answer, something like, You should go to Tommaso's on Kearny Street.
  • What's more, the algorithms used to make that recommendation are self-learning and will improve their suggestions over time.
  • And you may say, "Meh."
  • If it gets enough "meh" responses, the system knows it has to re-juggle all the stats and do it differently.
  • How many people similar to you went to that college and are now on antidepressants?
  • How many met their spouses at college and stayed married?
  • It will look at where they went to college and what the outcome was.
  • That brings us back to the need to share data—and to our online example with Amazon, and our offline example with our salesperson.
  • When the salesperson rings up your purchase, no one tells him he had better forget what shoes he sold you with that suit and not to use that information to advise any future clients.
  • And no one is concerned or even notices much, because your association with that data is so removed from you.
  • What will change is the amount of data that will be recorded, the speed of the processors, and the cost of storage and computation.
  • In some twentieth-century science fiction visions of the future, humans created friendly robot sidekicks with data storage capacity and computational speed the human brain lacked.
  • The idea was that it would be great to make machines that behaved like us and, through that, we could harness their abilities.
  • We never will have the opportunity to learn from the details of their lives and the trillions upon trillions of trial-and-error learning that humankind has repeated again and again.
  • All the things they tried and failed, or achieved, we have to redo.
  • But as we do them yet again and capture them, we finally can begin to develop a planet-wide memory system.
  • And then everyone can benefit, equally and perpetually, from everyone else's knowledge.
  • And then everyone can benefit, equally and perpetually, from everyone else's knowledge.
  • All the decisions and outcomes.
  • They learn from trial and error.
  • Obviously, knowing the wise course is one thing, and following it is another.
  • The quest to end ignorance and the quest to end disease have two important similarities.
  • And as with ignorance, we may already have much of the data we need to find solutions.
  • To that definition, I would respectfully offer this qualification: I would say that disease has a well-defined center and very fuzzy edges.
  • But at times in history, left-handedness was thought to be a malady in need of curing (and in some parts of the world still is).
  • He computed the answer in his head and recited the thirty-nine-digit answer in pounds.
  • We know for certain that these feats, and hundreds more like them, are true.
  • After the infectious diseases come the non-infectious ones such as cancer, Alzheimer's, and heart disease.
  • As we move out from that defined center, we come to disorders and disabilities—impairments of bodily systems that are brought about by injury, disease, or genetics.
  • And what do we say of aging itself?
  • And what about mortality?
  • Regarding disorders and disabilities: We should be able to repair, heal, or replace any part of the body not functioning at the level the person with the disability reasonably wishes it to.
  • And then there is aging.
  • I do not know and certainly don't want to try to prove to you that the future will be like that.
  • Infected children were removed to hospitals and the rest of the family was quarantined until they became noninfectious.
  • During his campaign and his time in office, the extent of the effect of his polio was kept from the public, but the fact he had the disease was commonly known.
  • Interestingly, political cartoons of the era, both for and against FDR, showed him unaffected by the disease.
  • And near the end of 1937, Roosevelt created the National Foundation for Infant Paralysis to join in the fight.
  • The name and idea caught on, and by mid-January the biggest names of the day were promoting it on their shows: Jack Benny, Bing Crosby, and Rudy Vallee, to name but a few.
  • It often left them partially paralyzed, in wheelchairs or iron lungs (a term that's now all but forgotten and will likely send younger readers to Wikipedia).
  • Parents kept their children at home, especially in the summer, and certainly away from public swimming areas.
  • This goal is within our grasp—and with the vaccine presently priced at about thirty cents a child, shame on us for not ending polio once and for all.
  • As I was writing these words, my ten-year-old son came in and asked, "What are you doing?"
  • I replied, "Writing about polio," and he asked, "What is polio?"
  • That is the dreadful history of the final, and deadliest, century of smallpox.
  • Aside from two laboratory samples, one in the United States and one in Russia, it does not exist on the planet.
  • In the eradication of smallpox, as in the near-elimination of polio, I find both fascinating lessons of history and enormous reason for hope.
  • It was mentioned by the Hindus more than three thousand years ago (and some suggest they even inoculated against it).
  • A practitioner took a scab from someone with a mild case, made an incision in the skin of a healthy person, and infected that person with the scab.
  • Sometimes they became infected with other illnesses, and variolation seemed to start entirely new epidemics.
  • James caught the cowpox, recovered, and then Jenner variolated him.
  • Thanks to Jenner, Nelmes, Blossom, and Phipps (which sounds like a rather odd law firm), today we have the word "vaccine."
  • And Jenner had created this vaccine for smallpox without even understanding the basics of germ theory!
  • In areas where Jenner's techniques were available, infections fell, and when inoculation became mandatory, they plummeted.
  • A stable vaccine was developed, our understanding of the disease expanded, and technology moved forward.
  • We can draw lessons and encouragement from the histories of polio and smallpox, on several counts.
  • Smallpox affected the rich and the poor and it changed the course of history: It killed Queen Mary II of England in 1694, King Louis I of Spain in 1724, Emperor Peter II of Russia in 1730, and King Louis XV of France in 1774, and changed the succession to the thrones of nations a dozen more times.
  • We are most horrified by that which strikes closest to us and reminds us of our own mortality.
  • I think that is the case with polio and smallpox, which means they weren't eliminated because they were easy, but because they were awful.
  • Every day, we seem to be getting better at distributing medical resources and information.
  • Every day, the world has fewer unreachable corners and a more interconnected population.
  • If the smallpox and polio successes were achieved in a low-tech world, think how much more we can accomplish with vastly improved tools, infrastructure, and communication.
  • And as population rises, education rises, health rises, and wealth rises, more and more people will be working on these problems.
  • And as population rises, education rises, health rises, and wealth rises, more and more people will be working on these problems.
  • The factors that enable us to solve for and eliminate disease are getting better all the time, like wind at our back, pushing us forward.
  • Read on to see how that momentum has built over time, and continues to build.
  • And then we come to Greece, the home of Hippocrates, the "Father of Modern Medicine," who left us not just the oath that bears his name but also a corpus of roughly sixty medical texts based on his teaching.
  • He created many of the medical terms we use today, such as acute, chronic, endemic, epidemic, paroxysm, and relapse.
  • He laid out how doctors should conduct themselves professionally, how to record patient records, and even suggested matters of personal hygiene for physicians, right down to their fingernails.
  • Certainly some of the medical practices of the ancient world, such as bloodletting and the use of leeches, seem to us at least misguided and at worst, barbaric.
  • And today's primary method for treating cancer is, in a way, very tenth century: Essentially, chemotherapy is a medical way of saying, Let's fill you so full of poison either you or the cancer dies.
  • In 1543, Andreas Vesalius published On the Fabric of the Human Body, which corrected errors from antiquity and advanced the medical sciences.
  • Louis Pasteur came along around this same time and proffered the germ theory of disease and a vaccine for rabies.
  • At the same time in Germany, Robert Koch identified the bacteria that caused tuberculosis and the one that caused cholera.
  • In the early 1900s, we learned about blood types, vitamins, and Alzheimer's disease, and invented the electrocardiograph.
  • In the 1920s, we got a vaccine for diphtheria, pertussis, tuberculosis, and tetanus.
  • The 1960s brought us hip replacement, the artificial heart, a liver transplant, and a lung transplant.
  • In the 1970s, we got MRIs, laser eye surgery, CT scans, and antiviral drugs.
  • The 1990s brought us a hepatitis A vaccine and artificial muscles.
  • If the magnitude and increasing complexity of these creations fails to impress you, the sheer quantity should suffice.
  • The number of medical patents issued in 2010 was more than fifty thousand, an all-time record—and it almost certainly will be broken next year, then the next, and again the next.
  • The number of pharmaceutical patents issued in 2010 was also more than fifty thousand—also an all-time record, and also likely to be broken again and again in the years to come.
  • The pace of innovation and accomplishment is already fast but will grow even faster.
  • So they repackaged the drug under the name Zyban, and it is now prescribed to smokers wanting to shake the habit.
  • With skin cancer, like all diseases, over time some people get better and some people get worse, and often we really don't know why.
  • Imagine a computer culling through this massive amount of data, inconceivably large, and pulling out patterns.
  • The data shows pockets where radish efficacy is substantially higher and others where it is nonexistent.
  • And not just certain farms, but farms that used a certain pesticide.
  • Today, we discover things like "Wellbutrin helps people stop smoking" through chance and dumb luck.
  • It is not to our discredit that machines can perform calculations so wondrously fast; rather it is to our credit that we conceived of and built such machines.
  • You can then divide the world into redheads and non-redheads and compare their accident records.
  • The computer reveals that redheads go to the ER more often and break bones more often.
  • And of the redheads themselves, are there factors among the clumsy ones that are different than the coordinated ones?
  • Is it actually that blue-eyed redheads have the same number of accidents as non-redheads, but brown-eyed redheads are even more clumsy, accident prone, and traffic hazards?
  • Or is it something about them that predates their Oscar triumph and helped them win?
  • I can, of course, see everything in it, or if I prefer, set the system to "minimum supplements" or "maximum supplements" and let the system decide.
  • What is it about them and their lives that made them live so long or so well?
  • In the future, we'll not only know if that is so, but why: Perhaps mental agility is a result of their extensive exposure to a chemical in pencil lead and newsprint that they got by doing all those puzzles.
  • Or maybe smart old people just direct that energy to crosswords and it is not the crosswords doing the job at all ...
  • We will know how to live our lives to best maximize any and all factors.
  • We may not choose to—we may choose eating cheesecake and bacon over living an estimated extra 2.4 months longer.
  • But the choice will be ours and will be made based on facts.
  • More and more data will be passively collected.
  • Successes will come, encouraging more data collection and more people to participate.
  • Once this ball gets rolling, it will speed up and, because of it, we will all wake up each morning with a little extra spring in our step and sparkle in our eye.
  • It should know what the food on my fork weighs, run a chemical analysis of every bite I take, and log it in my Digital Echo file for my future reference.
  • It would know all my food sensitivities and alert me if a single bite had these substances in it.
  • Then that person might choose to publish those results and others could verify them.
  • Essentially, we will be able to run as many controlled experiments as we can imagine instantly and for no cost—and that will revolutionize medicine.
  • You could say, "When I eat corn dogs, I get a headache" and start studying that.
  • You won't have to go eat the other foods; the system will remember every meal you have had and will log your headaches.
  • When the cost of recording all the data is zero, the cost of processing it is zero, and the cost of accessing it zero, then the many sciences, especially human health, will be democratized.
  • Why do some houses get broken into and others don't?
  • In 1665, physicist Robert Hooke pointed a microscope at a piece of cork and noticed many small compartments he called "cells."
  • He had discovered, and seen, chromosomes.
  • Code breakers and linguists were consulted, chemists and biologists patched up their differences and worked together, and scientific groups were formed to share information and theories.
  • In 1953, James Watson and Francis Crick announced to the scientific world that they had solved the puzzle.
  • They accurately described the construction of DNA as a double helix and showed how its structure made replication both possible and reliable.
  • In every cell of your body except your red blood cells exists a copy of your DNA.
  • Stop and consider that for a moment.
  • That three-billion-letter recipe for making you is what was sequenced—deciphered and written down—in the human genome project.
  • Of course, if you wanted to print it out and read it, the stack of paper would be many miles high.
  • If you and I both had our DNA sequenced and compared the output, the information would be virtually identical.
  • After all, we both have ten fingers, two lungs, and a tongue located in our mouth.
  • But every now and then there would be a little difference.
  • That difference gives me brown eyes and you blue eyes.
  • They are essentially instructions on how to make proteins, which are what build and regulate your body.
  • Every second, millions of cells die in your body and millions are born.
  • By looking at how the genome varies between people with a genetic condition and people without it, we can identify the troublemaking gene.
  • Then, people could start reporting all their medical issues—headaches, halitosis, heart disease—and we will begin to see commonalities between genes and conditions we do not generally regard as genetic.
  • By doing this, we will come to understand those conditions better and perhaps prevent them.
  • Due to genetic factors we will certainly learn about in the future, some drugs and treatments do not work on certain people.
  • What we call "heart disease" will become hundreds of individual conditions each with its own cause and, hopefully, cure.
  • Fifth: We will understand correlations between lifestyle factors, quality of life, and genome.
  • For instance, have you ever seen one of those people on TV who is turning one hundred and says he ate bacon every day of his life?
  • But my guess is that we will be able to do this and even make existing "good" genes perform better.
  • And as we have seen, understanding how we are made is certainly a huge advantage in our battle with disease.
  • They have sequenced the cacao tree, the mosquito, coral, the Tasmanian devil, the bald eagle, the leafcutter ant, a germ that attacks wheat plants, and the extinct woolly mammoth.
  • Even smallpox has been sequenced and is available for download.
  • And if we know how they are made, we can destroy them.
  • Imagine being Jenner and not even knowing you were dealing with microbes.
  • Additionally, we will at some point in the not-too-distant future have enough biological understanding of the genome and enough computer horsepower to model complex interactions in the body.
  • However, new and improved cows are now able to make milk with more of these enzymes.
  • We will discuss the molecular machines called nanites—tiny, molecular-sized robots that will swim around in your body fighting disease, repairing damage, and alerting you to problems (and will likely dramatically increase the human lifespan).
  • We will discuss the molecular machines called nanites—tiny, molecular-sized robots that will swim around in your body fighting disease, repairing damage, and alerting you to problems (and will likely dramatically increase the human lifespan).
  • Now let's look at how the Internet will help end disease in a more traditional, suit-and-tie kind of way.
  • If you had access to a library, its stock of medical books and journals was very small.
  • And yet, in that world, scientific breakthroughs happened.
  • You had a lab and science symposiums.
  • Difficulty of communication was still a barrier, and technology was still highly limited.
  • If you were a scientist in Salk's time, you did calculations by hand and wrote observations in notebooks.
  • This is powerful; it allows the best and brightest to collaborate easily.
  • Today, an astonishing 77 percent of the people in the world have mobile devices and thus access to all kinds of better care via telemedicine.
  • As access becomes cheaper and better, and the whole world has mobile phones, more information can be delivered to people in remote parts of the world.
  • Third, pretty much everything we know is published on the Internet and can be found in moments, if not seconds.
  • Cloud computing and software frameworks such as Hadoop give unimagined computing power to the scientist on the most modest budget.
  • Computer software is constantly being created to allow scientists to model, visualize, prototype, and diagram.
  • Computers can connect to and control highly specialized scientific instruments, and equipment can be accessed remotely.
  • Highly specialized experts are a few keystrokes away and can be hired for just a few minutes or hours at a time.
  • With Skype and similar products, you can even see the person you are working with.
  • You can share your desktop and have whiteboard sessions on your computer.
  • And when more and more people have their medical history tracked over time, we will learn even more about how our bodies get sick and how they heal.
  • And when more and more people have their medical history tracked over time, we will learn even more about how our bodies get sick and how they heal.
  • When medical records leave the paper folders of the doctor's office and become highly standardized, more analysis can be done.
  • The power of the Internet and associated technologies we have so far described, combined with our new understanding of the genome, dooms disease to eventual extinction.
  • The additional possibility of access to all humans' Digital Echoes, to be studied for a million unnoticed causal correlations, will hasten the demise of disease as well and will increase quality of life and longevity.
  • Some suspect we can be made to be healthy and energetic to the age of one hundred thirty and that's it.
  • Others contend, and feel they have science to support, that humans can live beyond five hundred.
  • The first mechanism is the creation of things, an old and familiar approach.
  • If you take low-worth items or raw materials and apply labor to them to make something that has value, you have created wealth.
  • By taking a block of marble and carving a statue, or taking a handful of seed and growing a cornfield, you have combined your labor and know-how with something of little value and have created something of more value.
  • The second way to create wealth is through the division of labor and trade.
  • And it really is composed of two separate components that need to be understood in their own right.
  • Jill hates the licorice ones and eats all her jelly beans except the licorice ones.
  • You might remember the story of Kyle MacDonald who famously traded up from one red paperclip to a house, one small exchange at a time between July 2005 and July 2006.
  • With each trade he got something he valued more than what he traded away; and presumably all the people he traded with along the way also increased their value with each trade.
  • If you are in a desert dying of thirst, you value the first glass of water very highly, the second glass a bit less, and the 802nd not at all.
  • So when people have excess goods, they are able to trade those goods away for things they want and suffer less of a decrease in utility than the amount they are increasing in their trading partners.
  • It means I can trade you a good or service for an intermediate store of value known as money, and then trade that money to the person who actually has the goods I want.
  • Governments (and thieves, for that matter) reallocate wealth—but they do it by increasing the wealth of one party at the expense of another party.
  • One wins and one loses.
  • It already has increased both substantially and will do so dramatically more in the coming years.
  • PayPal, Square, and the online use of credit cards.
  • The ability to instantly and, for a very low cost, reliably transfer money to anyone on the planet is a key ingredient in increasing the amount of trade that occurs online.
  • We have seen this happen already, and it will get substantially better in the near future.
  • I am fascinated by credit cards and the fact that the entire free enterprise system relies on the honesty of almost all people.
  • Credit cards are able to work and charge low fees because almost all transactions are honest.
  • If I get my credit card bill and call up and dispute a charge, the benefit of the doubt is given to me, that I am telling the truth.
  • And yet they do, because fraud is a small part of the overall picture.
  • Amazon and large online stores.
  • They provide information such as reviews and user ratings.
  • Etsy and small online stores.
  • Etsy allows people to trade their crafts, items they have made with their own hands and materials.
  • Most of these people have other jobs and obligations, so without something like Etsy, they might not be able to enter into these trades.
  • Additionally, online stores powered by Yahoo and Google and Amazon exist where small vendors can set up storefronts and sell to the world, as a hobby or a livelihood.
  • This has no offline corollary and is economically empowering to so many people. 5. eBay and reallocating existing goods. eBay is actually a little like direct trade.
  • I take things from my attic and my garage and sell them to people who value them more than I do.
  • Freecycle, Craigslist, and a thousand message boards achieve the same outcome.
  • Yelp, online product reviews, and trust.
  • This is unprecedented in the history of commerce and could not be done without the Internet. 9.
  • No matter where you live, if you have access to an Internet connection, you can host an online store and sell to the entire world.
  • With the rapid flow of information about businesses and their products, along with the ease of "checking up" on a vendor, good businesses will get more business and push out the bad ones.
  • This makes business a meritocracy and encourages business owners to focus on quality, service, and reputation since these are so easy for customers to check.
  • Google Adwords and the PPC business.
  • For instance, I could hand carve bird calls and then advertise them only to people who are looking at online content about hand-carved bird calls or who search the Internet for information about hand-carved bird calls.
  • And yet, our lives are nothing like that.
  • By "make a car," I mean really make a car: dig iron ore out of the ground, smelt it to steel, wildcat for oil, find oil and refine it into gasoline, and so on.
  • And yet pencils get made, more than a billion of them a year, and they are essentially given away.
  • And yet pencils get made, more than a billion of them a year, and they are essentially given away.
  • It requires the labor of thousands to make a pencil, and yet they are so inexpensive as to be almost free.
  • When a person learns to do one job and specializes in that one job, she gets really good at it.
  • And in this efficiency that is generated by specialization, wealth is created.
  • And it doesn't matter that the person who paints the pencils doesn't know how the paint is made, for his job is to paint them.
  • The second is through the division of labor and free trade.
  • And the third way wealth is created is through technological advance.
  • Given perfect information, frictionless markets, and other theoretical impossibilities, a finite amount of utility can be achieved in that way.
  • And the mechanisms that will bring that about are also the ones that will end poverty forever.
  • Most things come in a limited supply, so some people have a thing and others do not.
  • As my professors told me the first day I started studying economics in college (and never tired of repeating), scarcity is the central underlying assumption of all economic theory.
  • There is a finite number of baseballs, beanbags, and balloons.
  • You'd better scramble and get a chair even if it means elbowing little Timmy out of the way.
  • The notion of scarcity is so ingrained in us and so permeates the world today, it is difficult to imagine a world without it.
  • And yet we do have some experience with situations where scarcity is nonexistent.
  • Humans require relatively little oxygen, and plants are constantly transforming the carbon dioxide we exhale back into useful oxygen.
  • A problem arises because of the strong correlation between standard of living and energy consumption.
  • If you are able to consume more energy, you can do more work and therefore create more.
  • If you are a farmer and work alone, you can only plant as much land as you can personally plow. You can do just a couple of thousand calories of work a day, consuming only the energy produced by the food you ate.
  • I won't base my reasoning for how the Internet and technology will end poverty on this idea alone.
  • But think about how it could play out: If energy truly were free and unlimited, you could, for instance, power tractors everywhere in the world.
  • The labor to build it is now robotic and powered by free energy.
  • The cost derives from the application of huge amounts of energy, intelligence, and technology to obtain and process the raw materials: digging and smelting to create high-grade steel, harvesting and refining and molding to make rubber parts, and so on.
  • The point is that the cost of making almost everything is mostly energy and intellect, not raw materials.
  • As my economics professors insisted, cost is determined by scarcity and demand.
  • Think about this: Nearly four million exajoules of energy is absorbed by the earth's atmosphere, oceans, and land each year.
  • So four million come to the earth and we only need to capture five hundred.
  • Every day the earth heats and cools as night turns into day and back into night.
  • And then technology opens up completely new ideas and methods for us.
  • And then technology opens up completely new ideas and methods for us.
  • An energy crop could be a permanent forest of trees that convert sunlight to liquid fuel and deliver the fuel directly through their roots to a network of underground pipelines.
  • If these two advances could be combined, we would have a supply of solar energy that was cheap, abundant, and environmentally benign.
  • A genetically engineered tree that converts sunlight into fuel and then pumps the fuel through its roots to where it is needed.
  • But these are questions of technology, not of scarcity, and technology is about to rocket forward.
  • That was indeed the hope for atomic energy in that era, and it did not pan out.
  • I don't mean that in a motivational poster kind of way but in a literal sense: Failures (and what we learn from them) will help build the energy solutions for our future.
  • And in that future, I believe the world can have—in fact, will have—plentiful, free, clean energy that will result in dramatically lower costs for everything, everywhere.
  • But technology and human innovation know no scarcity.
  • And like our example with energy, technology and human innovation could make other things that are now scarce—or that we think of now as scarce—not so at all.
  • And like our example with energy, technology and human innovation could make other things that are now scarce—or that we think of now as scarce—not so at all.
  • And beyond that, billions more ounces of gold may be buried beneath the ocean floor.
  • We compute the maximum amount of food the world can produce by beginning with total acres of land considered arable, but that is based on assumptions about the future of technology and agriculture.
  • He explained to me that with a lawnmower, one person would be able to do the job and eleven men would be unemployed.
  • (I answered, "They should get jobs at the factory that would make the lawnmowers; it would pay better.") Personal computers and the Internet have come under criticism in this regard.
  • I knew typesetters who said computers would never duplicate their quality; travel agents who said the Internet would never replace them, and whose stockbrokers reassured them this was true.
  • As we envision a world where machines do more and more work that people used to do, our minds naturally turn to those who would be displaced by technological advance.
  • We'll look at their lives, and the social aspects of this change, in a coming chapter called "Left Behind."
  • Technological advances that displace human workers are similar in effect to two other concepts with which we are very familiar in the modern age: outsourcing and free trade.
  • Both of these have political implications, and so it is with some hesitation I bring them up.
  • My purpose in this chapter will not be to persuade the reader of any political doctrine of trade; please apply your own political and social values as you see fit.
  • My purpose is to explain the net effect of free trade, technological advance, and outsourcing on the overall economic system of the planet.
  • But in spite of the relative economic displacement they all cause, free trade, outsourcing, and technological displacement all have a positive net effect on the economics of the planet.
  • A textbook example of this is Eli Whitney and the cotton gin.
  • One person with a horse and a cotton gin could process as much as fifty people without the gin.
  • Even though this allowed cotton prices to plummet and demand for cotton to increase, some of those fifty people got laid off, no doubt shaking their fists at the infernal gin as they stormed off the property.
  • Then, make them all soak their fingers in ice water so they are numb and work even slower, creating another thirty jobs for cold-fingered, blindfolded cotton seed removers.
  • A competing company decides to make an up-front investment and build a new factory in a distant land, high in the mountains where residents who choose to live there have less economic opportunity.
  • Lowering the cost of something is an increase in efficiency and an increase in the wealth of the overall system.
  • He works from home and has a night job remotely monitoring real-time security cameras after hours at an office building.
  • He still has his labor to sell and can go get a new job.
  • The employer gained $9 an hour, Chang got a job, and no one is worse off.
  • You might argue that since there is now a surplus of labor in Chad's neighborhood, the price of labor is lowered and Chad will only find work paying $9.75 an hour.
  • Sometimes they are negative and sometimes they are positive.
  • You and your spouse both like Oreos.
  • You, personally, are pretty happy with the generic knockoff, which saves you a dollar and tastes the same to you.
  • You would tend to buy the store brand and pocket the dollar.
  • If you did not internalize the externalities, you would buy the generic brand and save a dollar.
  • You are leaving town for a week and a day and will completely avoid your spouse's meltdown.
  • And say the net cost to society of having a gallon of polluted water dumped into the river—the cleanup cost, or the economic impact of the gallon of dirty water—is $10.
  • When businesses and people are made to consider the overall effects of their choices as opposed to only their individual effects, efficient outcomes occur.
  • Calculating the actual, societal costs of fatty foods, alcohol, cars, pet ownership, mercury thermometers, air conditioning, solar panels, razor blades, jogging shoes, and ten thousand other things, and incorporating those costs in the prices as taxes would lead to a vastly more efficient allocation of resources.
  • You could finance the entire government and its (hopefully) noble agenda, by this method alone.
  • And you could feel good about it; after all, you would be increasing efficiency, not merely acting as a leech to the system.
  • To some extent, we have this in the form of high taxes on cigarettes, which are seen to have negative externalities, and a home interest deduction on income taxes, as home ownership is viewed as having positive social good.
  • The business looks at this new country and decides to move there because, from their standpoint, they can save costs and be more efficient.
  • We have established that outsourcing, free trade, and technological advance all have the same effect on the system: They lower prices and increase net wealth.
  • The minimum is either set by a minimum wage law or determined by the demand and supply of that labor.
  • The maximum wage you can earn, though, is defined by supply and demand for labor, and by your negotiating ability, but it also has a cap.
  • If you take something worth a dollar, spend an hour working on it, and your employer sells it for three dollars, no way in the world can you ever make more than two dollars an hour.
  • They form a union and get laws passed that no burgers can be flipped except by a union member.
  • This action makes the price of a burger go up by $1,000 and drops demand to zero.
  • Machines multiply our labor and increase our ability to do work.
  • Your car, a ball-point pen, your computer, a dolly, and so on.
  • And if your productivity fell, then your salary would fall as well.
  • Any task that could be done a machine is, by definition, dehumanizing to a human being.
  • I am not saying if you enjoy manual labor and being exhausted at the end of the day, you shouldn't do it.
  • And that brings me to my final italicized point: The most underutilized resource in the universe is human potential.
  • Machines cannot and never will do these things.
  • And he will find he is capable of adding far more value than as a set of eyes watching a screen.
  • And the sooner we get machines to do the things they can do, freeing up people to do what they can do, the happier and wealthier we all will be.
  • And the sooner we get machines to do the things they can do, freeing up people to do what they can do, the happier and wealthier we all will be.
  • It is a profound thought and, I believe, an irrefutable one.
  • Those things were never necessary for prosperity and even less so in the Internet age.
  • Everyone has to believe there are rules and that they apply to everyone.
  • If there can be a USA, a Germany, and a Japan, then every country can be rich.
  • However, there are limits to how much prosperity and efficiency the division of labor can create.
  • We are about to enter a world where robots do more and more of our work for us.
  • The word is broad in its meaning and I use it in its broadest sense, as a mechanical device built to independently perform a task.
  • And when I say robots, I don't mean androids, which are people-shaped machines doing the work of people.
  • Depending on function, robots can come in all shapes and sizes, and I see no compelling reason to make them like humans.
  • We have fallen into the habit of anthropomorphizing computers and robots for a simple reason: The more we program them to do things that we presently do, the more we think of them as being like us.
  • But what if dogs didn't exist and your only experience with them was watching Scooby-Doo?
  • But that's because I would be sharing the experience with another human being, and human beings form connections with other human beings.
  • Machines are not persons and so cannot have personalities.
  • Recently, my ten-year-old son and I visited the factory in Denmark where Lego building blocks are made.
  • Because nanites are so small, they require little in the way of raw materials, just a few molecules here and there.
  • And the principle at work in this technology could lead to a cure for other autoimmune diseases such as multiple sclerosis and rheumatoid arthritis.
  • And the principle at work in this technology could lead to a cure for other autoimmune diseases such as multiple sclerosis and rheumatoid arthritis.
  • Clearly, what nanites will do inside our bodies in the future is almost limitless and will change medicine forever.
  • In the future, we will paint surfaces with substances full of nanites that will absorb sunlight and turn it into electricity, transforming any object we paint into a clean energy creator.
  • Nanotechnology will give us metals that don't bend, or bend and yet remember their original shape.
  • Windows that can't be broken and can switch from opaque to clear.
  • Or how about nanites that process each piece of trash in our garbage and turn it into something useful?
  • Or nanites that clean up any toxic chemicals they find and turn them into harmless agents?
  • I branched off into this discussion of robots and nanites to give an idea of the kinds of massive gains in efficiency with declining costs.
  • If we obtained this ten-thousand-fold increase simply by allowing specialization and dividing work up among people, then what astronomical gains will we achieve by outsourcing that work to robots capable of working with unimaginable precision at unimaginable speed?
  • Let that sink in: By dividing work up among people so they could specialize, we went from bows and arrows to Apollo moon missions.
  • People specialized, technology advanced, and as a result, men walked on the moon.
  • And that was almost half a century ago!
  • Robots can manipulate matter smaller than we can even see, and robots can effortlessly manipulate objects that weigh many tons.
  • Now we can have something completely different: Division of labor between machines and people.
  • Bob will make paint, and a "Nailmaker 2000" will make nails.
  • Oh, and they are smart nails.
  • Oh, and they change color if they detect structural weakness in the material to which they are affixed.
  • And they are so cheap as to nearly be free.
  • The pace of advancement in the field of robotics and nanotechnology roughly doubles every couple of years.
  • Everything we have talked about relating to the Internet and technology is coming to bear on robotics and nanotechnology.
  • These fields are about to explode with innovation and advancement.
  • Please bear with me and keep your mind open for a minute longer.
  • It had 4K of memory and cost my parents about $200.
  • I remember that in 1993 I needed a big hard drive at work and got a 1GB drive.
  • So a thousandfold increase in capacity at one-fortieth the cost is like the $50,000 Mercedes dropping to a buck and a quarter.
  • If the labor to build the Mercedes becomes completely robotic and computerized, then why won't we see that same increase in efficiency?
  • In the past two centuries with very little technology, we've come from whale oil and wood to solar and nuclear.
  • Again, the materials to build the car are abundant; their cost is high because of technology deficiencies around retrieving and refining them, not an underlying rarity.
  • Technical breakthroughs in the future will come very rapidly, each one used to increase quality and lower costs in order to compete in an ever more competitive marketplace.
  • Innovating will become table stakes just to stay in business, and innovation will be used to lower prices, not to increase them.
  • And remember, it can be obtained both by a plummeting cost and an increasing value of the thing to you.
  • And remember, it can be obtained both by a plummeting cost and an increasing value of the thing to you.
  • When computers are in your clothes, medicine, eyeglasses, wallet, tires, walls, makeup, jewelry, cookware, tennis shoes, binoculars, and everything else you own, those things will do more than you can imagine—the stuff of science fiction.
  • Each of these wonders is coming, and a million more.
  • And each of these items will fall in price.
  • (Of course, I can't go buy a thousand cans for $2,000 and have them worth $10,000 to me.
  • Let's say you paid $30 for it and you love it.
  • It will analyze and record the nutritional content of your meal.
  • It alerts you when the food is about to start burning and needs stirring.
  • And the people whose houses or lives it saves?
  • So, let's say on average the pan is worth $2,000 to everyone who uses it—all the way from the people who just think it is "cool" to the people who it saves from food poisoning to the people whose lives and houses it saves.
  • So whether you are rich or poor in the future, you will own this pan and get this benefit.
  • Houses will be built by robots using materials not yet invented that are cheaper and more energy efficient.
  • Labor will fall, material costs will fall, materials will be better, stronger, greener, prettier, lighter, more malleable, and just altogether better.
  • It will know everyone who is supposed to be in the house and alert you when someone else is in the house (replacing the family dog of old in whom we never fully placed our trust).
  • It will have windows that cannot be broken and doors that cannot be forced.
  • Your home will be your castle, and in your castle you will be secure.
  • The house will need scheduled maintenance but will remember when and will ask you for permission.
  • This house will be cheaper to build than a house today and worth vastly more to you for all the cool things it does.
  • I would love to write more and more about this topic, about how things will get better and cheaper in the future.
  • Not 20 percent better and 20 percent cheaper, but a thousand times better.
  • About clothes, and how robots will weave garments that never wear out from materials not yet invented that will cost very little.
  • How those clothes will monitor my health, my hydration levels, and even my body odor.
  • Are you finding it hard to fathom by now how almost everything can get cheaper and better?
  • And not just chairs, but bread and muskets and plows.
  • And not just chairs, but bread and muskets and plows.
  • Think of the shape of that curve and project it into the future.
  • It is only a whisper of the wonders we will build and the prosperity we will create.
  • But I expect that technology and free enterprise will take us across a threshold where things formerly regarded as scarce will not be so any more.
  • That can best be understood by studying wealth and poverty in history.
  • Let's address that by looking at two phenomena: the changing definitions of poverty over time, and the effect of a large gap between the incomes of the rich and poor.
  • This per-person threshold actually exceeds the average income of three-quarters of the countries on the planet, including Mexico, Russia, and Brazil, and is about 20 percent higher than the average income of the entire planet.
  • This speaks to the fabulous wealth of this country and how our expectation of material possessions has risen so fast that we have redefined poverty to include what once were deemed luxury items.
  • Tensions between the rich and poor grow higher under the following five circumstances:
  • In one understanding of economic history, the rich get ahead, and the gap between them and the poor widens.
  • When that happens, refusal to accept the currency is swiftly outlawed and punished harshly.
  • It wrecks economies and never, ever works.
  • The United Kingdom famously did this after World War II by raising marginal tax rates on earned income to more than 99 percent and, for some other kinds of income, to more than 100 percent.
  • Families who owned great houses were able to keep them if they opened them to the public, acted as guides, and only lived in a small part of them.
  • The rich, of course, got very clever about where they earned and reported income.
  • A third radical method of redistribution is called land reform, which is actually a polite term for taking land from one person and giving it to another.
  • This approach has a long and mostly negative history.
  • Expropriation is an act that simultaneously violates two of the three ingredients for prosperity that I have enumerated: private property and rule of law.
  • Nationalization and expropriation are wealth-extraction methods that typically only work once.
  • In no case did these methods and efforts secure a long-term solution to poverty.
  • Here I'll make a point which I believe to be a historic constant and to which we will be returning: If property rights of the rich are respected and tax rates, while high, still allow for indefinite gain, then the rich will keep producing.
  • They will simply complain about the tax rates and keep on working.
  • One way that society keeps a lid on the powder keg of tension between the rich and poor is through the welfare state.
  • Although the poor may not believe that wealth is attainable for them, they do not want to rock the boat and risk disrupting the system that guarantees them at least some income.
  • So far we have looked at poverty and how it is redefined as societies grow richer.
  • We have surmised the future widening of the gap between the rich and poor, and looked at how that has played out in history.
  • We have looked at factors that increase animosity between the rich and poor and situations in which they can live harmoniously.
  • Now let's look at the role of government, both philosophically and historically, which also changes over time.
  • If governments are created to protect the life, liberty, and property of their citizenry, what all does that entail?
  • When nations are young and when they are poor, they usually focus on two things: the military and civil order.
  • Preventing violent crimes and crimes against the weak usually take precedent over fraud and economic crimes.
  • Wise nations then work on making a stable and valuable money supply.
  • They coin money in honest and accurate measures and allow this money to trade freely on open markets.
  • This might be the adoption of commercial standards as well as the creation and operation of a civil court system and laws.
  • They develop methods for the accurate measuring and recording of boundaries of land as well as the sale thereof.
  • They institute legal protection for copyrights, patents, and trademarks.
  • They codify laws regarding libel and slander.
  • Some believe this is the beginning and end of the role of government.
  • Others more broadly interpret the concept of securing life, liberty, and property.
  • The more it grows, the more heavy-handed it becomes and the more it tramples the very rights it purports to protect.
  • He distrusted government and said 'that government governs best which governs least.'
  • In a heated moment the phrase "jack-booted thug" slips out, and it is all downhill from there.
  • Instead, forget which is "right" for the moment and simply consider the flow of history, for better or worse.
  • As national income increases in a given country, the size of government as a portion of gross national product (GNP) rises and the range of services people expect the government to offer rises.
  • Direct payments are made to an increasing number of citizens and the size of those payments rise.
  • In other words, the government taxes and spends about $300 per person per year.
  • It seems that as national income rises, people choose to create larger governments that offer more entitlements and have more expansive powers.
  • Historically, and one can certainly make the case in the present time, this ultimately bankrupts societies.
  • After the death of Gracchus, a conservative government under Sulla withdrew the subsidy, but shortly afterward, in a period of great unrest, restored it, and two hundred thousand persons stood in line.
  • He worked to apply a means test, pared the rolls back, then died; the rolls swelled again, and his successor again tried to bring them in line, but it was hard.
  • We've seen this: If you are running for president of the United States, merely using the words "freeze" and "Social Security" in the same sentence has the retirees of the nation heating up pots of tar and emptying their down pillows.
  • Three centuries later, it became a hereditary right and came with a daily ration of two pounds of bread ("Hey, you don't expect us to cook the free grain, do you?") and occasionally included meat, olive oil, and salt.
  • All is well and good until things turn down for a nation.
  • Now, suppose I am right and incomes effectively rise dramatically.
  • So today, you make $33,000 and pay 40 percent tax.
  • Tomorrow, you get a thirtyfold raise and are now making a million dollars a year.
  • But think of it this way: Before, you made $33,000 and paid 40 percent in taxes, so you were left with $20,000 in take-home pay.
  • After your raise, you made $1 million, paid $600,000 in taxes, and were left with $400,000—twenty times more after-tax income.
  • We understand that you can, in theory, save and save and save and then live off the interest of your savings forever.
  • In fact, your children, their children, and their children forever could live off that interest.
  • So let's say your parents bought Coca Cola stock their entire life, left it all to you, and you are able to live off the dividend payments of the stock.
  • It was theirs to do with as they pleased and they chose to give it to you.
  • They aren't responsible for the oil being in Alaska and do nothing to extract the oil from the earth.
  • I describe these three situations because each, in its own way, illustrates how I think the future will play out regarding income and wealth.
  • Because human ability is distributed unevenly and technology multiplies ability of the talented, the spread between the rich and poor will rise more and more.
  • Once technology allowed for the recording and sale of records, their income shot way up—they could use technology to magnify their ability.
  • So the poor will get richer, and the rich will get vastly richer.
  • It will be regarded as interest payments on the accumulated riches of one thousand years of technical and material progress.
  • Somebody else—actually, a lot of somebody elses—worked really hard for a long time to build the United States and its freedoms.
  • I enjoy those freedoms much like an interest payment or dividend, and I call it "my right" to free speech.
  • As civilization and technology advance, people begin to create more than they consume.
  • In a world without scarcity, or that has scarcity at such a trivial level it is hardly noticeable, all the conventional theories and dogmas lose their meaning.
  • We will know it is coming when we see more and more jobs once filled by humans being filled by machines.
  • When I talk about this future, a future in which machines will do more and more of the work people do now, I always get some variant of the same question: What about the people who lose their jobs to machines and don't have any other skills?
  • We see with our eyes many people doing mind-numbingly boring jobs and assume that is all they are capable of doing.
  • Pretend there is a spectrum of jobs from the best in the world down to the worst and everyone agrees on the order.
  • Further, assume the best job pays the most and is the most fun, and the worst job pays the least and is the least fun.
  • To the extent this world is a meritocracy, the most talented will be the movie star and the least talented will be hauling manure.
  • First, it would be tempting to assume the person hauling manure can only do that, and if that job disappeared he would have no useful skills.
  • Now, what if the bottom half of jobs disappeared and were replaced by robots who did them for almost free?
  • Well, wealth would expand dramatically, and the people who had those jobs before could get new and better jobs, such as managing the army of manure-toting robots.
  • If you were male and born on a farm, you were almost certainly going to be a farmer.
  • And so at an early age, you took a wife, started having children, and supported yourself by farming.
  • And so at an early age, you took a wife, started having children, and supported yourself by farming.
  • By the time your sons were fifteen, they, too, knew everything they needed to know to be a farmer, and it all continued.
  • Then along came the Industrial Revolution, and I am sure it all seemed very foreign.
  • The farmers had to learn what it meant to be paid by the hour and to take instructions from supervisors; how to do a task and then the next day, learn a completely new task and do it instead.
  • And yet, we know of no cases of mass "left behind-ness," of people unable to learn how to function in this environment.
  • People are highly versatile, great at learning new things, naturally curious, and naturally enjoy new things.
  • So these former farmers got jobs in factories, learned to repair equipment, solved problems, became line managers, suggested improvements to processes, and got paid for their effort.
  • It may seem intuitive at first glance, this idea that somehow there are only so many jobs and if you replace people with machines, people have fewer jobs.
  • Thousands and thousands of women were switchboard operators before direct dial phones were in use.
  • Jobs are created when someone starts a business that takes a thing, adds labor and technology to it, and makes a new thing.
  • They will take advantage of the freedom from financial want that the modern age gives them and will focus on improving themselves and the world they live in.
  • In this world, humans have grown fat, stopped walking, and fill their days with non-stop entertainment and food.
  • When those are the paths people choose between in the future—a Star Trek path or a WALL·E path—some will choose one and some will choose the other.
  • Freed from worry about losing a job they do not enjoy, encouraged to follow their dreams and passions, I believe most will want to do just that.
  • Now they could find what really satisfies them and do that.
  • In a few years, the money is gone and they are worse off than before.
  • People in these jobs know two states: working, which they do not enjoy, and relaxation, which is far better.
  • So yeah, if you told them to choose between working and not working, many would choose to relax.
  • As children, we had all these things we liked to do that interested and excited us.
  • And that meant, for too many of us, ditching what we loved to do and doing the work of a machine.
  • And that meant, for too many of us, ditching what we loved to do and doing the work of a machine.
  • They have something they love and want to do, but if market forces are not such that they can support themselves doing that, they have to do something else.
  • I don't think so, and I'll explain why with another thought experiment.
  • Imagine you live in a large trailer park and you have four young children.
  • Everyone you know lives in the trailer park and they all have about the same level of income.
  • One day, a tornado comes, lifts up your trailer with everyone in it, flies it around the world to the poorest nation on earth, and drops it in the middle of the village.
  • Everyone wants to come in and enjoy your AC and play on your Wii.
  • Your children actually might grow up feeling privileged, better, and even a bit snooty.
  • And yet their wealth hasn't changed.
  • We control the temperature of our surroundings, eat food from around the world, and own possessions no king could have imagined.
  • Plus, we have powers formerly attributed to the ancient gods; we can fly, talk to people in other places, and see what is happening elsewhere.
  • In my experience, people who challenge themselves and strive for goals are happier and healthier than those who don't.
  • People who live their lives following their passions seem more full of life and energy than anyone else.
  • It is contagious and would be even in a uniformly wealthy world.
  • And in that world, no one is left behind.
  • Citizens in these countries are grateful for any job that pays anything at all, and their primary concern is simply survival.
  • Trade and the division of labor have given us vast amounts of wealth.
  • We live in a place and time where we own thousands of things we could not have made.
  • And we got them all, more or less, by trade and the wealth generated by our work doing some function for which we are trained.
  • And we got them all, more or less, by trade and the wealth generated by our work doing some function for which we are trained.
  • There is no such period and never will be.
  • Social structures will change, and the purpose of education will be to learn to reason and find one's passion.
  • The free enterprise system—the greatest creator of wealth the world has known—will continue to produce the material gains we enjoy today and to reward most those who serve their fellow humans best.
  • These jobs can be market jobs that have the potential to make a person vastly richer, creating more and more wealth on the planet.
  • Or these jobs can be divorced from economic realities, as the struggling painter or actor decides simply to do what he loves and live off the minimum income afforded by this planet-wide prosperity.
  • As technology enters its explosive period of growth, with the Internet and associated technologies flourishing in a Moore's-Law-like manner, it will create immense amounts of wealth.
  • And if history is an accurate guide, that wealth will be partially redistributed to the poor—even the poorest of the poor, the bottom billion.
  • Taxes will rise, and social programs will grow.
  • Poverty will be redefined upward until, for all intents and purposes, poverty as we know it today no longer will exist.
  • They are not distinct buckets but rather broad characterizations: actual famine, weaponized famine, and structural famine.
  • In the modern age of communication and cheap transportation, food can be moved around the planet relatively easily.
  • But before the twentieth century, this was not the case and actual famines were much more common.
  • This kind of hunger is common and generally is what has triggered food riots, now and in the past.
  • After touring the United States for more than nine months in the 1830s, Alexis de Tocqueville returned to his native France and penned the two-volume Democracy in America.
  • He writes how in Europe when there is a problem, people turn to the government to solve it, but in America, they form what he calls "voluntary associations"—what we might term charities and nonprofits.
  • No government is involved in these organizations, which are instead driven by a combination of religious and civic motives.
  • Much change was due to the efforts of William Jennings Bryan, who received the Democratic Party nomination for president three times, in 1896, 1900, and 1908.
  • And he used his decades of dominance on the national scene, as well as his fantastic oratorical ability, to advance that belief and essentially invent the Democratic Party we know today.
  • And he used his decades of dominance on the national scene, as well as his fantastic oratorical ability, to advance that belief and essentially invent the Democratic Party we know today.
  • Then came World War I, which utilized these institutions and greatly expanded the size of the federal government.
  • After this came the Great Depression, which so overwhelmed the social support structures that Americans turned to the government for help and have never turned back.
  • Penalty for vagrancy rose over the years from time served in stocks, to whipping, to branding, and then to death.
  • Around 1600, the Elizabethan Poor Law came into effect and lasted more than two centuries.
  • Workhouses both lodged the poor and gave them work.
  • The system was revised in the 1830s because it was viewed as discouraging work by interfering with the laws of supply and demand relating to labor.
  • This involved making the poor wear prison uniforms and only providing enough food to avoid starvation.
  • That notwithstanding, de Tocqueville's "voluntary associations" are still alive and well in the United States.
  • And that doesn't even count the many other charitable organizations that have not filed for this tax-exempt status with the federal government.
  • In the modern era, what we have seen around the world is a general increase in social services and the welfare state over time.
  • Governments create entitlements due to public demand for them, and public demand exists where the need is not filled.
  • And one person's solution may be another person's problem.
  • This is the case on genetically modified crops and many other issues where passions run high.
  • Why is civility so lacking in discussions about food, nutrition, and food policy?
  • If this chapter angers the Right and Left, the Greens and Browns, the capitalists and socialists, the nutritionists and farmers, I apologize to all in advance.
  • There is undoubtedly a cause and effect between what we eat and our health, but I believe it is still poorly understood.
  • I am not only what I eat but am also what I do, what I drink, what I think about, and more.
  • In addition, how food affects us unquestionably has a lot to do with genetic factors, and because everyone has a different genetic makeup, different foods affect each of us differently.
  • Add to that how food itself is changing, our food choices change, our lifestyles change, and all along the way we are aging.
  • And finally, consider how nutrition affects other relative and subjective factors in our lives such as energy level and mood.
  • And finally, consider how nutrition affects other relative and subjective factors in our lives such as energy level and mood.
  • Given so many different nutritional theories and viewpoints, most people base their own nutritional philosophies on a combination of two factors: personal experience and social/political worldview.
  • This makes a great deal of sense: If nutrition isn't governed by universal laws (as physics is) and instead affects different people differently, then the way you will know certain things is by learning through trial and error, through your own experience.
  • And second, people are really bad at connecting cause and effect in their lives when it comes to things like this.
  • And second, people are really bad at connecting cause and effect in their lives when it comes to things like this.
  • In other words, you might not notice the time you ate the MSG and didn't get the headache.
  • Or, we gravitate toward anecdotes like, "I take my vitamin C every day and haven't had a cold in year."
  • And that can be hard to hear.
  • The second way people choose a nutritional theory is to develop it from their overall social and political understanding of the world.
  • For instance, if you think large corporation are greedy and evil, then when you read about how large corporations produce low-nutrition food or are putting family farms out of business, you will believe it.
  • If you think "Western Medicine" is a business whose goal is to keep you sick to sell you medicines, you will tend to move away from genetically modified foods and favor organic.
  • If you love "Western medicine" and think all acupuncturists are "quacks," then you are not likely to heed (or even appreciate) your friend's well-meaning efforts to get you to drink your own urine for its health benefits.
  • So our ability to find cause and effect in that—and to really discern fact from fallacy, what's good from what's bad for us—is highly suspect.
  • This will produce extremely specific nutritional information for just you, will add years to your life, and will increase its quality as well.
  • Some methods and technologies that show promise to end famine are controversial.
  • But in the future when we have more and better information, if it turns out that some of these methods are not net gains, we will know that and look elsewhere for solutions.
  • Nations with high percentages of hungry citizens are not universally food exporters, and we will explore this more later.
  • The United Nations has estimated that earth's population will pass nine billion by 2050, and ten billion by 2100.
  • And that fact is driven home by its generally low price in most locations.
  • I can go to Sam's Club and buy a twenty-pound bag of rice for $10 and a twenty-pound bag of pinto beans for $13.
  • And that is paying full retail prices in an air-conditioned Western supermarket; by the ton, this food costs much less.
  • And the American farmer produces key crops, such as wheat, very inexpensively.
  • But hunger has numerous and complicated causes and can only be eliminated by addressing the chief ones.
  • Crop yields are highly volatile and unpredictably so.
  • This leads to the proverbial "lean years" and "fat years."
  • In the lean years, harvests are small and farmers sometimes don't even produce enough to have surplus to sell.
  • In the fat years, agricultural prices are pushed downward by the abundance, often below the cost of harvesting and transporting the crops.
  • Farmers need to have supplies of seed, fertilizer, tractors, and fuel.
  • To harvest their crops, they need equipment and suitable storage facilities.
  • They need trucks to transport their goods and roads to drive the trucks on.
  • They need markets to sell goods in and stable currencies.
  • You can be a subsistence farmer and perhaps produce some excess, but given the prior observation about the fundamental volatility of farming, you will always be at risk of not producing enough.
  • Those who argue they should not say there is no way for poor countries to compete with mechanized Western farming and the extremely high yields it produces.
  • Instead, the poorest nations should simply resign themselves to importing their food from abroad and instead get jobs working in cities in factories.
  • Others say poor nations need to develop free markets in agriculture and strongly discourage government intervention.
  • Still others argue for a system of government price supports, incentives, and subsidies, as is found in the United States and Europe.
  • Going back and forth between these strategies is problematic, to say the least.
  • If poor nations decide to pursue what I will call the Japan strategy, importing all their food and developing other industry, then they become huge fans of farm subsidies in other countries.
  • Heck, even Japan only recently allowed imports of rice and taxes the imports at 500 percent in order to protect their rice farmers.
  • Food security is a real issue, and nations that do not at least produce some kinds of food are at risk.
  • Say the poor decide they cannot compete with a modern farm, so they move to the city and get a job at a factory.
  • The cost of their imported food doubles, and I guarantee you the foreign-owned factory won't double wages as a result.
  • During the Great Depression in the United States, many unemployed Americans simply left the city and went back to farm life, sometimes living with relatives.
  • Land ownership and urban populations.
  • When few people own land and most people live in cities, it is quite common to have high degrees of hunger in a nation that is exporting food.
  • So let's say the large corn farms all have a great year and a bountiful crop comes forth.
  • But the problem, of course, was that food prices went up, the people went hungry, and riots ensued.
  • It has a large number of landlocked nations without ports to access the international markets, both for imports and exports.
  • Indigenous animals are not well-suited to be domesticated and assist in farming.
  • And yet, I remain very optimistic.
  • I push the seed in the ground, water it, and wonder why nothing grew.
  • When so many people farm and so much depends on it, innovation will happen.
  • A couple of centuries pass and improved harnesses come along.
  • The cotton gin, steel ploughs, tractors, combines, and a thousand other inventions would forever change the farm.
  • By the early twentieth century, most manufacturing of fertilizer had switched to the synthetic production of ammonium sulfate and ammonium phosphate.
  • Since then, the changes have become more about intellectual property and technique.
  • Over the CCC's nine-year life, its workers planted nearly three billion trees, built eight hundred parks, and constructed roads in remote areas.
  • While in college, Borlaug heard a lecture by Elvin Stakman about plant disease in wheat, barley, and oak crops.
  • Throughout this time, Borlaug constantly battled wheat's arch-nemesis: rust, a fungus that feeds on wheat, oats, and barley.
  • In 1962, some of them were grown in India, and based on the results, Borlaug was invited to India.
  • Although there was cultural opposition in India to Borlaug's methods and seeds, the famine was so bad by 1965 that the government stepped in and urged the project forward.
  • Although Borlaug and company encountered many obstacles, they pressed on, planting seed at night illuminated by flashes of artillery fire.
  • By the time Norman Borlaug passed away in 2009 at the age of ninety-five, he had become one of only six people to have won the Nobel Peace Prize, the Presidential Medal of Freedom, and the Congressional Gold Medal.
  • He had no way to collaborate with scientists in other places, no Internet, and no library.
  • He basically followed old agriculture; he planted a lot of seed and hoped for rain.
  • And do you know how he crossed the grains?
  • From our point of view, the job of the plant is to convert sunlight into energy and store that energy in a tasty way; then when we eat the plant, we get that energy.
  • And solar cells presently being developed in laboratories are doing several times better than the plants.
  • From our standpoint, the plant wastes all the rest of its energy on riotous living: growing roots and leaves, soaking up water, separating carbon molecules from oxygen ones.
  • We stick a bunch of seeds in the ground and then treat a thousand acres of corn pretty much as a single unit.
  • What if the farmer could give every stalk of corn individual attention and water and fertilize each one exactly when it was needed?
  • And then, the seeds we are using aren't anything to write home about, either.
  • A fascinating character and an extremely patient experimenter, Mendel was a German friar and scientist who figured out that plants (and presumably animals) had inheritable characteristics.
  • Between 1856 and 1863, he bred 29,000 pea plants.
  • The same worked for ever smaller and smaller pea plants.
  • That range between the smallest pea plant and the largest is the full spectrum of what that plant can be.
  • We apply inefficient agricultural techniques to grow and harvest them, and then we inefficiently distribute them.
  • One guy from Iowa came along with some garbage bags and saved a billion lives.
  • How much more should we be able to with the Internet, computers, and other technology?
  • Food issues are complex and deeply emotional.
  • And yet the future I envision is no more like what we have today than a state-of-the-art Volvo factory is like a nineteenth-century London sweatshop.
  • Remember the Warren Bennis quote I used earlier about the factory of the future having only one man and one dog?
  • Sensors can constantly monitor moisture levels in the soil, the size and color of the plants, air quality, nutrient levels in the soil, amount of sunlight, and hundreds of other variables.
  • Computers can determine when to plant seed and even what to plant.
  • The farm of the future will rotate crops automatically and decide which fields to leave fallow.
  • If the farm of the future plugs into the national grid, it will become part of the national food strategy and can be optimized for financial yield for the owners.
  • The system will see that just the right amounts of black-eyed peas, potatoes, and corn are grown.
  • And then how much longer until they are completely automatic?
  • By 1860, it was down to 60 percent; by 1920, 40 percent; by 1940, 20 percent; and by 1960, 6 percent.
  • Mechanization and automation—both of which are about to get a lot better.
  • It sounds mechanical, sterile, and just a little bit un-American.
  • But the food would not only be produced with maximum efficiency; it would be extremely fresh and very healthy.
  • Second, some people will still want their food grown the old-fashioned way, just like how I buy heritage meats and heirloom seeds.
  • You can't do something that long and not have some strong opinions on the matter.
  • Until I was ten years old, my family lived in rural east Texas.
  • Every morning before I went to school I had chores to do, which began with mixing up the formula and feeding the calves.
  • We did our own canning, especially pickles, and I picked berries every summer so my mom could make jelly.
  • We like these varieties and their tie to history.
  • This dairyman also makes some of the milk into cheese and we use a lot of that as well.
  • I buy my pecans from someone who picks and shells them himself.
  • And I go to any farmers market I happen across.
  • If you are not familiar with this whole issue, look into it; it is fascinating and, I think, important.
  • Third, the day will come when the farm of the future will make a healthier, less expensive, more ecologically friendly, fresher, and better-tasting product.
  • At present, they win hands down on "less expensive" and put in a decent showing on a couple more factors.
  • Then Henry Ford came along, followed by a host of others, and cars got better and better while getting less and less expensive.
  • It would cost a million dollars and not even be as good as a Chevy.
  • Plus, raising plants and animals takes a long time and is a lot of work to boot.
  • And it facilitates social interaction and connection.
  • And it facilitates social interaction and connection.
  • Both of these are hugely important parts of life, and I know of no one who would trade them away for a pill they swallow in the morning that gives them all their nutrition for the day.
  • And greener (in the environmental way, not the color way).
  • At times, it may be best to just enjoy the meal and not ask too many questions.
  • If I am ultimately proven wrong and the world rejects GM foods, we will still end hunger.
  • First, the technology can be abused and used irresponsibly, like pretty much every other technology in the world.
  • Food can be optimized according to three factors, broadly speaking: taste, price, and nutrition.
  • Fast food chains optimize for two of them: taste and price, at the expense of nutrition.
  • Other businesses in the food industry—say those pricey health foods you see at fancy grocery stores—optimize for taste and nutrition at the expense of price.
  • And we all know about those that optimize for cost and nutrition but the resulting food tastes awful; I have consumed enough wheatgrass to attest to this.
  • And we all know about those that optimize for cost and nutrition but the resulting food tastes awful; I have consumed enough wheatgrass to attest to this.
  • Similarly, seed makers are judged by the crops the seeds grow into—specifically, the yield and how long it takes to get it.
  • Bonus points are given for resiliency, low water requirements, and appearance.
  • Presently, labeling of GMO content isn't a requirement—and since labeling is a complex and controversial issue that has no bearing on my thesis, I will pass it by.
  • Susie had kittens, and two of them had folded ears as well.
  • A neighboring farmer and cat-lover, William Ross, perhaps hearing a distinct "ka-ching" in his head, got one of the kittens and teamed up with a geneticist and began a careful breeding program.
  • Over the next three years, forty-two folded-ear cats were born, and with them a new breed.
  • Although the original mutation was not caused by human activity, human activity preserved and perpetuated it.
  • All manner of breeds of dogs, cats, cows, and horses are bred in similar ways.
  • Soon everyone was zapping seeds and planting them and, lo and behold, it actually worked!
  • But sometimes it was like lightning in a bottle, and magic happened.
  • Half the rice grown in California is a descendant of Calrose 76, created when gamma rays mutated some regular rice and the resulting mutant produced more grain and less spoilage.
  • This change could have occurred in nature; given enough monkeys and typewriters, it would eventually occur in nature.
  • It affects more than one hundred million people in a hundred countries, kills more than a million people a year, and blinds another half million for good measure.
  • VAD occurs mostly in Africa and South East Asia where rice is the staple food.
  • In much of Europe, because of deep fear and suspicion of GMO crops, their importation is forbidden.
  • GMO could make this a crop that Africa could easily use to feed itself, gain food independence, and maybe even export.
  • To sequence corn's genome took four years and cost US$30 million.
  • Having the entire genome means we can begin making super corn, better, stronger, and faster growing.
  • In any case, it seems better to me than irradiating corn, planting it, and hoping to hit a jackpot.
  • By taking this "Absolutely no GMOs" stance they completely remove themselves from the debate and as such have no voice in the discussion about what direction to take GM: what are safe testing practices, what factors will we optimize for, and the whole host of questions that face us on this, the eve of a momentous leap forward.
  • Weigh that against the certainty that nearly a billion people are hungry right now and I don't know why we would decline to acquire this knowledge.
  • Bacteria can process toxic wastes and oil spills into harmless biodegradable materials.
  • The Internet will greatly speed the research and, hopefully, the safety of GM foods.
  • Collaboration, communication, access to information, and the other advantages that the Internet brings will all come to bear here.
  • We can't remember all that we hear, so we make pens and paper.
  • So I am not saying objections and caution are not warranted.
  • As we have reasoned, when the Internet and related technologies help bring an end to poverty, the end of poverty will largely solve the problem of hunger.
  • The ultimate goal, I submit, is not to optimize just meter by meter but what I call "grape by grape," down to each individual piece of flora and fauna.
  • And advances in drip irrigation, which itself isn't exactly new but is becoming far more widespread and ever more efficient, allows crops to be grown with massively less water.
  • And advances in drip irrigation, which itself isn't exactly new but is becoming far more widespread and ever more efficient, allows crops to be grown with massively less water.
  • Sunscreens for plants protects them from ultraviolet and infrared radiation.
  • In the not too distant future, tiny robots will detect pests on produce and emit a signal to shoo them away.
  • And fascinating new ways to transport foods will keep them significantly fresher.
  • When a promising new finding emerges, that information will be shared with other farms and those techniques will be tested there.
  • Cheap sensors, cloud computing, self-teaching algorithms with feedback loops and sufficient cycles to test a large number of techniques.
  • The speed and quality of those algorithms will get ever better.
  • I know it sounds all futuristic and expensive now, but what if this technology falls to just a few dollars per acre?
  • This has been a common situation throughout areas with high degrees of poverty and is certainly the case in Ethiopia.
  • Their produce is checked in to the warehouse and each farmer is issued a certificate corresponding to the amount of produce he brought.
  • It can sell produce abroad for better rates, give farmers predictability in pricing and flexibility on when to sell, and act as a storehouse against lean times in the future.
  • This is made possible by technology and the Internet, which is used to connect buyers and sellers worldwide and bring information (world commodity prices) to the far reaches of the globe.
  • The access to information that mobile phones are bringing virtually everywhere on the planet is helping people raise their standard of living and will do so even more dramatically in the years to come.
  • You can install Boinc software on your computer, choose a project you want your computer to work on when you are away from it, and maybe do your bit to change the world.
  • If politicians are demonstrably good at one thing, it is getting elected, and people who are starving don't normally re-elect their representatives.
  • Dictatorships are toppling, and the Internet is helping that along.
  • One of these is micro-lending, which directly connects the lender with the borrower and which the Internet has made appealingly easy and personal.
  • With the help of local agencies around the world that have experience in micro-loans, a would-be borrower—say, a fish seller in the Philippines—uploads a picture and an explanation of what she wants the loan for.
  • Once the amount the fish seller requested is reached, the loan is funded and funds are transferred to her.
  • At some point, the loan is repaid to the local agency and your money comes back to you.
  • Since its founding in 2005, Kiva has loaned out nearly a quarter of a billion dollars and is repaid almost 99 percent of the time.
  • All that we have explored in this section—rising incomes, advances in nutrition and genomics, innovations in agricultural technologies—will eventually end hunger.
  • Rights do not mean much, he reasoned, to those with an "empty stomach, shirtless back, roofless dwellings ... unemployment and poverty, no education or medical attention."
  • What would we say to Borlaug if we met him in a cornfield and ended up discussing the world's problems over a beer somewhere?
  • I am going to take some of what you have and give it to someone else.
  • During the period 1958 to 1961, an initiative called "The Great Leap Forward" was intended to increase the production of grain and other agricultural products.
  • And the great tragedy is: During these three years, China exported more than twelve million tons of grain along with a literal cornucopia of other agricultural products.
  • And if that were not enough, he killed by starvation in the name of a program called—I kid you not—"The Super Great Leap Forward."
  • Inspired by the Chinese effort, he, too, tried to increase the agricultural production of his country by emptying the cities and sending everyone to work on the farms under brutal conditions.
  • I don't recall ever being in a department store, drinking from the water fountain, and having the staff look at me disapprovingly because I was running up the water bill.
  • Roosevelt went on to outline what he believed would be in this Second Bill of Rights: food, medicine, shelter, and so on.
  • But this is a misreading of both Roosevelt and history.
  • While Jefferson's "all men are created equal" statement was not meant by him to include slaves, we have broadened the application of the principle and should continue to do so.
  • But what if everyone in the nation, rich and poor, were to be mailed a $2,000 food card annually, redeemable at the grocery store for any of several hundred nutritious foods?
  • In the United States, de Tocqueville's voluntary associations still do the job and anyone willing to make her way to a church or food pantry and say she is hungry will not leave empty handed.
  • Is our nation so poor or so weak that we must resort to the ultimate in pragmatism and befriend nations in the name of commerce or prosperity or military security while turning a blind eye to the suffering of their people?
  • What would we have the centuries to come to say about us: That we were so eager to maximize our position of power and wealth that we turned a blind eye to injustice?
  • But over time, as incomes around the world rise, people will migrate more and more to products associated with social practices that match their own ideals.
  • It will come about through sensors, genetic engineering, better information, better communication, and precision farming.
  • We will learn to grow more crops in more places, and make great breakthroughs relating to our seeds and our systems.
  • As technology improves, all these processes and systems will improve and also fall in price.
  • The cost of food will fall to nearly zero as the number of farmers in the world falls to zero and food becomes as cheap as clean water.
  • Deciding to end hunger today saves the lives of millions, and we have the technology to do it.
  • But in making the case that war can and will be ended, I have my work cut out for me.
  • The chapter on civilization describes humanity's progress through the years and the importance of it.
  • The following chapter catalogs the difficulties inherent in trying to end war, which in the past brought misery and destruction and in the future could bring annihilation.
  • All right then, not the cavalry, but a marshaling of arguments and observations that will show how the end of war is inevitable, or nearly so.
  • He pulls up next to a farmer and asks the farmer how to get to a certain place.
  • The Bulgarian king Samuel was so stricken by the sight of his mighty army staggering back home that he suffered a stroke and died two days later.
  • Eventually Spartacus and many of his followers were killed and six thousand of his fellow rebelling slaves were crucified, a slow and agonizing form of death.
  • This is how people lived their lives in the past and if asked about it, they would have defended it.
  • Although slavery still exists and the low price of slaves speaks to the low value of a human life, the legal institution of slavery is gone.
  • No longer can a person own another person and have the power of the state backing him up.
  • We have stigmatized racism; and while it unquestionably still exists between many races, racism is becoming less and less relevant.
  • Monarchy is not inherently bad, and there have been fine kings and queens in history.
  • In many parts of the world, we have even outlawed the use of animals fighting as entertainment, such as cockfighting and dogfighting.
  • There was a period when intellectuals believed and spoke openly of the idea that the "breeding" of the "unfit" should be limited.
  • And they frequently did.
  • And that advance continues, as the group of rights so acknowledged keeps expanding.
  • It is no longer legal for people to be secretly arrested, not charged, and left to rot in jail.
  • Trials are expected to be open and public.
  • Rules of evidence are widely known and honored.
  • A formal appeals process and trial by jury are commonplace.
  • Courts of law are now the norm in the world, with laws being democratically established and widely published.
  • The Netherlands and Belgium fell from forty-seven in 1300s to about one today.
  • Scandinavia was at forty-six in the 1400s and has fallen to one today.
  • Germany and Switzerland fell from thirty-seven in the 1300s to about one today.
  • More and more, those wishing to change the status quo adopt this as their primary tactic.
  • As Scottish historian Thomas Carlyle once observed, "Man seldom, or rather never for a length of time and deliberately, rebels against anything that does not deserve rebelling against."
  • We have eliminated debtors prisons, developed the idea of "women and children first," stigmatized child labor, made accommodations for conscientious objectors, widely adopted freedom of speech and the press and freedom of assembly, and a hundred more.
  • The civilizing process is not flawless, and we may disagree on the ways it has manifested itself.
  • Ask people in what way they hope the world will become better and you will certainly get replies about reducing poverty, disease, and hunger.
  • We have created documents that enshrine our values as a method of articulating and preserving them.
  • No matter your view of history and cosmology, civilization is very young.
  • They made civilization in times of adversity and want, not in the relative luxury and stability we enjoy today.
  • Then war can become obsolete, as foreign to us as slavery and public hangings.
  • After all, we have had war almost constantly throughout history and yet have still managed to progress.
  • I do believe some ideals are worth fighting for and, by logical extension, worth killing for—but not many.
  • I feel we have set the bar way too low and in doing so have fundamentally cheapened life, everyone's life.
  • By declaring a pretty broad range of things worth killing and dying for, we say that each of those is more precious to us than human life.
  • Of course, the people making that judgment call and the people doing the actual dying usually are not one and the same, and therein lies the problem.
  • President Dwight Eisenhower, lifelong military man and five-star general, had much to say on the waging of war.
  • Early in his presidency, in a 1953 address that would become known as his "Cross of Iron" speech, he declared, "Every gun that is made, every warship launched, every rocket fired, signifies in the final sense a theft from those who hunger and are not fed, those who are cold and are not clothed.
  • After speaking about the economic costs of war, the burden it places on the economy, and the toll this takes on the people, Eisenhower closed by describing the peace proposals he was offering Russia and China.
  • Their aim, he said, was nothing less than "the lifting, from the backs and from the hearts of men, of their burden of arms and of fears, so that they may find before them a golden age of freedom and of peace."
  • So did de Tocqueville, touring nineteenth-century America, when he wrote that "All those who seek to destroy the liberties of a democratic nation ought to know that war is the surest and shortest means to accomplish it."
  • Journalist Brooks Atkinson, said: "After each war, there is a little less democracy left to save."
  • That's a bold statement, coming from a sitting president and former general.
  • Albert Einstein reflected this when he famously said, "I know not with what weapons World War III will be fought, but World War IV will be fought with sticks and stones."
  • It has led us up those last few steps to the mountain pass; and beyond there is a different country.
  • In the past, humanity has been able to sustain both wars and progress.
  • Then there can be a week, a month, a year, a decade, and a century without war.
  • It is an acknowledgement that war is completely a choice and our choice can be "no."
  • It was a rhetorical question and, to those posing it, simply a wish—just another way to say, "Why can't we all just get along?"
  • The word kumbaya appears in this book only once, and you just saw it.
  • My aim is to show you how war will end and convince you that the end of war is inevitable.
  • But I am making a case I believe I can defend and will begin by defining my terms.
  • In our individual countries, sets of laws are created by the citizenry and are designed to protect life, liberty, and property.
  • We have a police force and a court system to apply the laws equally to all.
  • No such system of laws controls relations among nations, no significant world police force exists, and the world court system is very weak.
  • Why do I say world government is not a good idea and nation-states are?
  • This promotes freedom and self-rule.
  • People in a small town in Alabama, a small city in Algeria, and a large city in Argentina all desire different forms of governments with different services.
  • For these reasons and a hundred more, government should be the smallest unit that is economically and politically viable.
  • Through the adoption of standardized treaties, they can enter into economic agreements, adopt the same weights and measures, and agree to honor the intellectual property of the others.
  • They can standardize in a thousand more ways to a world economy, while maintaining their values, traditions, and distinctions.
  • Everything we understood about the world and politics changed.
  • And that debate ended overnight.
  • And life went on for a decade.
  • So, when I tell you we will see the end of war, if you are over thirty-five years of age, you have every reason to roll your eyes and tell me you have seen this movie before and aren't up for the sequel.
  • As long as these states were to share a currency, a military, provide for interstate trade, and have a single foreign policy, they could retain the economic advantages of being a large nation while maximizing individual liberty and self-determination.
  • Anyone who has a child knows the love and concern parents feel for their offspring.
  • To raise a child to adulthood requires your heart, energy, time, and wealth.
  • Then someone else decides to send that child, at eighteen, to another land to kill people and to die?
  • Someone else decides to empty the cities and send all the young people to go fight in the war?
  • That is exactly what happens, again and again, with unspeakable results: dead bodies by the millions, each someone's child, and millions more mutilated.
  • And not a moment too soon.
  • In the 1968 book The Lessons of History, Will and Ariel Durant calculated that, "In the last 3,421 years of recorded history only 268 have seen no war."
  • History has disappointingly few examples of weapons made by governments and never used.
  • But this politics of war have in fact worked this way repeated, across place and time.
  • Corporations are run by "officers," comprised of multiple "divisions," and set revenue "targets."
  • We live in a chillingly martial world.
  • In this chapter, I offer forty-three developments, dynamics, and new realities I believe will work together to bring about an end to war.
  • Technically speaking, I have included a few that are not dependent on the Internet per se, but in which the Internet and technology plays some role.
  • As recently as the early twentieth century, relatively few careers existed in which young men of drive and ambition could distinguish themselves and leave a mark on the world.
  • Now the "war stories" are about how Mark Zuckerberg was nineteen when he started Facebook, Bill Gates was nineteen when he started Microsoft, and Larry Page and Sergey Brin were in their early twenties when they started Google.
  • In the past, impetuous young men would drop out of college and run off to join the army.
  • Now they drop out of college and run off to start corporations.
  • Young boys compete with other boys in sports and races and tug-of-wars and, well, in everything, because that is simply how they are wired.
  • Military heroes of the last several centuries, such as the aforementioned Lafayette and Hamilton and Travis, were not bloodthirsty.
  • They didn't enter war to satisfy a desire to kill and maim but to be victorious in the way their society rewarded.
  • The rising prosperity of wealthy nations and the emergence of more wealthy nations.
  • The wealthier a nation gets, the more it stands to lose in war, and the less marginal utility it gains in conquest.
  • If you have no food and are starving, you might invade your neighbor and take his food.
  • If you have everything you have ever wanted, you have less to gain and more to lose by invading your neighbor.
  • It is not just that the price of weapons falls and that their destructive ability increases.
  • The reasoning behind MAD was that if we can annihilate the Soviets or the Chinese and they in turn can annihilate us, then none of us will start a war.
  • I find MAD a disturbing strategy and see problems with it.
  • It was the basis for the movie War Games in which the military's computer finally figures out it can't win in a nuclear launch scenario and says of such a war, Strange game.
  • In the past, war could increase your financial position, both as a nation (through spoils) and a soldier (through plunder).
  • As the poorest nations become wealthier, they too will grow less and less inclined toward war.
  • While the previous two points focused at the macro level and the overall costs of war, I speak here of consumers' perspective on war.
  • They like their iPods, their laptops, their cars, their tennis shoes, and so on.
  • We are used to non-rationed goods, unlimited food in grocery stores, and the overall widespread availability of inexpensive quality products.
  • War disrupts this, and people will have little patience for it if there is not an extremely compelling reason for it.
  • More and more of the things we have, we "can't live without."
  • That makes us all de facto millionaires, and very committed to remaining so.
  • Civilization and the division of labor have gotten ever better at creating and adding value, thereby making things we love.
  • Since war historically has interrupted the flow of consumer goods, and would do so even more in our present interconnected world, preserving our hard-earned possessions provides an additional disincentive to war.
  • This is not to say that if another Pearl Harbor or another 9/11 occurred, people in any country wouldn't rise to the occasion and make great sacrifices if needed.
  • American makers of plowshares could, with time and as required, make swords as well.
  • If you did not, you could retool and make something the military could buy.
  • By the time Eisenhower left office, this had changed, and a dedicated military industry existed.
  • I assume that virtually everyone working in defense industries believes they are serving their country and protecting freedom.
  • But let's adopt the cynic's view for a moment and assume people in these corporations are chiefly concerned about their financial benefit, not about human suffering, when it comes to war.
  • Even if you don't accept this, try to accept that war is financially disadvantageous to 99 percent of the business owners in the country and that this is new and meaningful.
  • This promotes peace and deters war.
  • Anything that creates a more intertwined world without compromising autonomy, self-rule, and self-determination is good for peace.
  • In the modern age, money is once again represented by bits, but a different kind altogether: Money went from gold to paper and is now digital.
  • Huge numbers of foreigners own American stocks and debt instruments.
  • It used to be that if you conquered another nation, your soldiers became looters and the military got to haul off everything of value in the country.
  • If you visit Rome and make your way to the Forum, nearby you will see the Arch of Titus.
  • Now, however, more and more wealth is tied up in intangibles such as intellectual property, patents, brands, media, and contracts.
  • Is the value of the city just the value of the buildings, cars, furniture, and other physical items in the city?
  • In the affairs of nations, large and powerful ones long have imposed their wills on the small and weak ones.
  • We will avoid war because it is unprofitable; and while that is not a moral reason, any reason that brings peace is fine by me.
  • As true as that was in Jefferson's time, our age has amplified all of it: both the miseries war can produce and the blessings peace can produce.
  • They view individual liberty as a threat, new political ideas as subversion, and political opposition as treason.
  • In World War II, the United States went to war with Germany, Italy, and Japan, a trio of undemocratic countries.
  • It is unprecedented for so many nations to change their form of government so quickly and peacefully.
  • The decline of military alliances and the rise of economic ones.
  • Germany viewed the Russian mobilization as an act of war and therefore declared war on Russia.
  • Between Austria-Hungary declaring war on Serbia and all the treaty partners entering the fray, how many days passed?
  • With Britain in the war, its colonies and dominions joined in as well.
  • This included Canada, Australia, New Zealand, and South Africa.
  • If NATO is responsible for the bulk of the world's military spending and NATO no longer has the stomach for full-on war with modern states, then large-scale war seems less likely.
  • We could go on here and talk about other military powers and alliances, but the simple fact is that large countries are less willing to risk war in defense of small ones.
  • This has come about as we have left a polarized world behind us and the importance of military alliances has fallen.
  • These countries, particularly in the Balkans, were often small and tended toward war.
  • And yet over the last century, we also have seen colonies gain their independence and become nations, and nations peaceably divide.
  • And yet over the last century, we also have seen colonies gain their independence and become nations, and nations peaceably divide.
  • Fifteen new nations formed as the Soviet Union dissolved; Czechoslovakia split into the Czech Republic and Slovakia, and Sudan into North Sudan and South Sudan.
  • People can come together and choose a form of government suitable to them.
  • The fact that small nations can adopt standard treaties, laws, currencies, and international practices of larger countries means that a small economic unit can be viable.
  • It has one of the highest per-capita incomes in the world, almost no crime, and no public or foreign debt.
  • It has no military and is strictly neutral.
  • It is a completely viable state, with a ski museum and a McDonald's.
  • I am saying that for small nations to be economically and politically viable is good news for peace.
  • Formalized agreements on conventions, measurements, borders, and international conduct.
  • In the treaty, language describing the border between the United States and Canada, still part of Great Britain, included this:
  • There are no mountains between the Atlantic Ocean and the St. Lawrence river.
  • What about extradition, if a citizen of one country visits another and breaks the local law?
  • These and literally thousands more issues are worked out in treaties and agreements between nations.
  • It is a willing agreement to a set of values and procedures, and a standard of conduct.
  • By making expectations explicit and public, these agreements reduce the number of sparks that can set off the powder keg of war.
  • With these powers should come enormous checks and balances on their use.
  • The weak group could fight and lose, or comply with whatever the strong group demanded.
  • Cigarettes were advertised on TV and in magazines and their packages carried no warnings.
  • Movie stars smoked and it was so cool!
  • Now, in most places you can smoke in your car, in your home, and in remote places away from civilized people.
  • Yet laws and culture changed dramatically.
  • In a fine Alfred Hitchcock movie called Notorious, the troubled character played by Ingrid Bergman gets very drunk at a party and asks Cary Grant to come for a drive.
  • And drive she does!
  • She swerves off the road and narrowly averts collisions.
  • However, if it were stigmatized, and public opinion dramatically and pervasively changed, that would force policy change.
  • Thanks to the burgeoning of technology and social media, public opinion is the most powerful political force in the world today.
  • It can be a jumble of voices: politicians and corporations, celebrities, religious figures, and opinion leaders, a million conversations in a single room.
  • Some might argue this is not in and of itself a force for peace.
  • Well, here we are, not quite halfway through our list of ways the Internet, technology, and civilization will come together to end war.
  • Having covered the financial and political factors, let's look at thirteen ways communication and information will help bring about war's demise.
  • Two examples: the Battle of New Orleans, fought after the treaty ending the War of 1812 was signed; and the Battle of Palmito Ranch, fought a month after the Civil War ended.
  • When everyone, and every nation, and every organization, and every movement all have a presence on the web, they can be understood in terms of it.
  • It gives everyone a chance to make her case and be heard.
  • Public opinion is a powerful force, and if it is generally a force for peace, then the web magnifies it.
  • The web is a force for truth, connectedness, understanding, and communication—all things whose absence can trigger war.
  • Despite being the most efficient method ever, it is still highly inefficient, and this inefficiency inspires hope.
  • It is inefficient because I must know to follow people in order to receive their updates, and that knowing spreads haphazardly.
  • Twitter is profound, and it unquestionably furthers peace because it promotes the interests of the many against the interests of the few.
  • After all, it has connected hundreds of millions of people and shows no sign of stopping until everyone is connected.
  • Everyone will be on Facebook, as will be every business, every idea, every brand, and all the people who were once members but have since passed away.
  • Our "strong ties"—family, close friends and the like—we can always count on, but they are relatively few.
  • More precisely, it catalogues and tracks them and then allows you to communicate with them easily.
  • Most Facebook users have people of other ethnicities and national origin as Facebook friends.
  • We tend to regard information that comes to us through our friend network as more authentic and reliable than information we receive from traditional media.
  • And through this, peace is promoted.
  • This is not a particularly new idea, similar to the phenomenon of getting to know and care about "pen pals" in far-flung places by exchanging postal-mail letters.
  • Organizations have encouraged "pen pals for peace" exchanges—but such efforts tend to be limited in scale, and if there is one thing Facebook has, it is scale.
  • I mention FactCheck and Snopes as two examples of the many enterprises on the Internet that subject every government utterance to scrutiny in something approximating real time.
  • Publishing was expensive, and by the time news of the lie came out, days or weeks had passed.
  • The system we have is not perfect, but it is highly distributed and bottom up.
  • And truth is a force for peace.
  • It is necessary to protect life, liberty, and property.
  • Frequently, this includes individual liberty and freedom of expression.
  • Thus, governments are very sensitive to criticism and to challenges to their authority.
  • News and information that undermine their credibility or authority aren't so welcome either.
  • They need the Internet, mobile phones, computers, and the other accoutrements of the modern age for the wealth they bring.
  • But along with wealth, these technologies bring information and thereby sow the seeds of their undoing.
  • Dictators may think they can control information access and technology.
  • And this is a force for peace.
  • Fast-forward a couple of decades, and the Internet has done vastly more than O'Neill could have imagined to promote open information about government.
  • In O'Neill's day, getting a copy of the federal budget meant writing away and buying a hefty paper copy.
  • You still can buy it from the government's bookstore; a recent one ran about two thousand pages and cost about $200.
  • But a sizable number are attempting this, and the direction the world is heading is obvious.
  • Free and peaceful societies function best when government is transparent and open.
  • According to Portio Research7.8 trillion SMS messages were sent in 2011, and it is expected that 2012's number will come in at ten trillion.
  • Their revolution was not made up of a bunch of hotheads with torches and pitchforks.
  • This was the strategy in Tehran, Tunisia, Cairo, Syria, Jordan, Morocco, Oman, Lebanon, and Kuwait.
  • We have seen it most recently and most profoundly in the Arab Spring, where the motto we see again and again is Ash-sha'b yurid isqat an-nizam, or "The people want to bring down the regime."
  • Autocrats can hold power indefinitely if they control the media, the military, business, the money, and information.
  • Those rights lead to prosperity and security, and wars serve no use.
  • Around the world, more than a billion mobile devices that both take and send photographs are currently in use, spread even to the poorest parts of the globe.
  • We saw the results of this in the 2009 Iranian protests, when these devices captured and relayed powerful, real-time images of events.
  • In point #29, we described how peace is served when mobile devices allow people to organize and communicate in a widely distributed fashion.
  • All of this means examples of atrocities by the government or by the mob are increasingly likely to be documented and publicized.
  • "Internet in a suitcase" and the "shadow Internet."
  • Enabling people to communicate in a method with which their governments cannot interfere is a force for freedom and peace.
  • I know this is a controversial forecast, and to many people a very depressing one, but I think it is both inevitable and good.
  • Imagine if today everyone spoke one language and I said that in the future we will speak hundreds of different languages and not be able to understand each other.
  • Everyone in the future will learn English because it will be the language of the Internet and thus the language of the world and commerce.
  • To be successful in the world, for a while both English and one's native tongue will be requirements.
  • And if everyone you know speaks English and it is the language of the world, commerce, the Internet, and success, what will be the primary language you teach your children?
  • And if everyone you know speaks English and it is the language of the world, commerce, the Internet, and success, what will be the primary language you teach your children?
  • French became the language of diplomacy and international affairs.
  • These nations will play a substantial role in shaping this new English, as they bring grammatical structure, idioms, and nuanced words from their native tongue.
  • I don't think local customs and national characteristics will go away.
  • Nations will maintain their own traditions, holidays, music, idioms, diets, and a thousand things that make them different from other nations.
  • In Montana, where 10 percent of residents spoke German and another 10 percent were of German descent, ministers weren't allowed to preach in German to congregants who understood no English, and one town publicly burned German textbooks, the Bozeman Daily Chronicle reported.
  • Computers will be able to reproduce them at will and hobbyists will still study them.
  • It seems fitting to end this part of the list—ways that information and communication will help end war—by noting that every day, every moment, more and more people have access to the Internet.
  • In Central and South America in 2000 were eighteen million Internet users; today, more than two hundred million.
  • Every other metric is still climbing: data throughput, mobile phone usage, messages sent, websites created, amount of information online, data transfer speed, and CPU speed.
  • Oddly, it could, however, join the military and go fight in a war overseas.
  • In Russia, Joseph Stalin had thousands of writers, intellectuals, and scientists arrested and put into concentration camps.
  • And of course the Nazis were ardent book burners themselves.
  • In 1966, Mao Zedong closed the universities in China and sent their students and professors to the country to farm.
  • As education rises, a thousand other things rise with it: income, health, political engagement, and an overall concern for world affairs.
  • Because young people generally understand and utilize technology better than older people, we will see a shift in power and influence toward the young.
  • We see this process democratized and popularized in the world today.
  • This is a force for peace, as more and more people have family members in more than one culture and share the interests of more than one nationality.
  • If your father is American and your mother Chinese, you will have a different understanding of differences between those countries, and, on balance, will be less amenable to war between those nations.
  • In 2010, almost 700,000 international students were studying in America's colleges and universities.
  • According to Allan Goodman, president and CEO of the Institute of International Education, The United States continues to host more international students than any other country in the world.
  • And with every passing year, more people have visited more places.
  • That is a huge change and a force for peace.
  • More than 70 percent of the British have passports, as do 50 percent of Canadians and 25 percent of Japanese.
  • More people using passports to travel internationally will increase understanding and help reduce touch points that could lead to war.
  • Half a century ago, the United States had three channels on TV and everyone watched them.
  • The United States contributes much to this, including its movies, products such as iPhones, and websites such as Google, YouTube, Twitter, Amazon, and eBay.
  • American English is taught in schools and American slang is practiced in bars everywhere.
  • And, of course, American fast food is the food the world loves to say it hates.
  • British music is known and loved around the world, as is its comedy and royalty.
  • French wines and luxury brands are appreciated by connoisseurs (another French concept) everywhere.
  • In an era when cameras were cumbersome and the number of channels on TV could be counted on one hand with enough fingers left over to snap, very little video of any kind was seen.
  • Now video is everywhere—on my phone, in my cab in New York, and in the elevator as I zoom to the fourteenth floor.
  • Instead of reading words on a page and trying to imagine a concept, we can see it, as the old expression goes, in Technicolor.
  • Now, instead of just intellectually engaging with the news, we feel the government brutality, we experience the war, we are electrified by the demonstrations, and we are horrified at the suffering.
  • And if an image can end a war, a video can change the world.
  • A single video a moment long can increase empathy and understanding.
  • Let's talk a moment about patriotism and nationalism, words frequently used but seldom clearly defined.
  • You love your country's ideals, goals, values, and aspirations.
  • As civilization advances, we are becoming better people, and unquestionably more empathic.
  • Nowadays, the social reformer is cool and hip.
  • In World War I, in the Battle of the Somme, were over a million casualties, and the action advanced the Allied line just seven miles, or about two deaths for every inch of ground.
  • Every dead soldier has a face, a story, and a bereaved family.
  • Their stories circulate around the web and their families make blog posts.
  • There are pros and cons to this, to be sure, but overall, this has increased our empathy.
  • It has increased our desire for peace and our unwillingness to wage war.
  • The world is happiest when this process is one of persuasion, goodwill, reason, logic, and negotiation.
  • This is how our Founding Fathers intended our nation to behave: To try to achieve our foreign policy aims through negotiation and, if that failed, through economic sanctions.
  • Whether it is the notion of manufacturing meat or having the computer tell you what you should order at the restaurant, you may have cringed and thought, "Man, that's kind of creepy."
  • We value our humanity, and insofar as life in the future seems different from our life today, it somehow seems less human.
  • I mean, we know how we live and thus, how humans live.
  • Anything different doesn't seem as human to us and we instinctively recoil from it.
  • Shakespeare was undoubtedly the greatest master the English language has ever known and, quite probably, will ever know.
  • Nearly four hundred years after his death, Shakespeare's works are read and studied around the globe.
  • His plays run in every major city in the English-speaking world, and Hollywood makes movies of them—good movies!
  • Baz Luhrmann's hip version of Romeo + Juliet with Leonardo DiCaprio and Claire Danes.
  • Kenneth Branagh's Much Ado about Nothing and Julie Taymor's The Tempest with Helen Mirren.
  • All kinds of artists have come and gone in the last four centuries, popular in their time but forgotten now.
  • Shakespeare remains so popular because he wrote about timeless human experiences: love and fear and envy, anger and revenge and jealousy, ambition and regret and guilt.
  • All these things are the same today as they were in Shakespeare's time, and because of that, his stories are still very relevant to us.
  • Macbeth is the story of a ruthless wife, Lady Macbeth, who persuades her husband to murder the king and take his throne.
  • It is a tale of ambition and then of guilt.
  • King Lear is about a father who has three daughters—two who flatter him, but a third who speaks honestly and bluntly to him because she loves him.
  • Infuriated, the king disowns the honest daughter and gives the kingdom to the two deceptive daughters.
  • When the final work included extensive praise for the twin gods Castor and Pollux, Scopas complained.
  • He told Simonides he was only going to pay him half the fee and if he wanted the other half, he should collect it from Castor and Pollux.
  • While Simonides was outside, the roof of the house caved in and killed everyone.
  • The implication was that Castor and Pollux, knowing of the imminent collapse of the roof, had come calling with the purpose of saving Simonides's life as their payment for the poem.
  • That's what interests me about this story (which may or may not be purely true): What Simonides did—recalling the names and locations of everyone at a large banquet—is described as entirely possible and an enviable, practical skill.
  • My memory is a big part of who I am and I have no desire to trade any of it away.
  • After staring for two or three minutes, Ambrose turned a page and continued staring.
  • Ambrose replied that he was looking at the words and reading them that way.
  • In the second case, the technique of reading without vocalizing allowed for faster reading and a new, visual way to process verbal information—again, a net gain.
  • So in the present and future, when a technology comes along that represents such a change—that saves details of our activities with which to advise us later, or has us speaking to machines as if they were creatures—it will simply be more of the same.
  • And it will come at no cost to our humanity.
  • He taught me everything I know about old cars and why they are cool.
  • So it was natural that to earn extra money, Jason and I would buy cool, old cars we found in junkyards for a few hundred dollars apiece.
  • It turns out that, even when doing what you love, both passion and profit matter—but that particular piece of wisdom came later with age.
  • Jason concurred and rode along.
  • At that point, the iffy parts of human history are behind us and it is blue skies and clean sailing ahead.
  • My grandmother used to say, "There is many a slip between cup and lip."
  • So let's take a moment and conduct a three-step evaluation.
  • Technology brings about economic wealth through improved production, facilitation of trade, and promoting the division of labor.
  • So technology supports quality of life (from vaccines to Volvos) and generates wealth.
  • Wealth and society encourage civilization, which is advantageous to everyone.
  • The availability and propagation of cheap sensors, cheap storage, and cheap computational cycles will allow humanity to develop a collective memory of the activities and outcomes of everyone on the planet.
  • A world without hunger, disease, ignorance, poverty, and war is not a perfect world.
  • They all flow naturally from our daily and historical experience.
  • Thousands of people research alternative energy because a breakthrough will change the world and make fortunes.
  • I can list a few that might eliminate it and a few more that might delay it.
  • The ability of a few people to do a massive amount of damage rises as civilization becomes more complex and destructive power increases.
  • We all saw what happened on 9/11, and it is likely similar acts will occur in the future.
  • Prosperity requires civil liberties, prosperity thrives under lower taxes, and prosperity shrivels as wars disrupt the free flow of labor and capital.
  • So while such an attack and its aftermath would not derail our eventual arrival at the next golden age, it quite possibly would delay it.
  • In the United States, where we have mostly Democrats and Republicans, life is largely the same no matter who is in charge.
  • It can take growth for granted and thus overtax.
  • It can overspend and rack up public debt and destroy the currency.
  • And most damaging, it can wage war and thereby siphon off wealth, technology, and the lives of its citizens.
  • And most damaging, it can wage war and thereby siphon off wealth, technology, and the lives of its citizens.
  • Our republic has prospered because it fiercely protected life, liberty, and property, and must continue to do so.
  • "Big Candle" is not still around and never was.
  • The benefits of civilization—from wealth to individual liberty and self-determination, from better health to safety and peace—all outweigh what its proponents can offer.
  • Four of the problems I address in this book—ignorance, disease, famine, and poverty—are purely technical problems.
  • And war is a by-product of several technical problems.
  • But a world without want and without disease, a world with opportunity for all, is a world where getting along—even when we don't see eye to eye—is going to be a good bit easier.
  • If we have the will and if we do the work, we can make the world greater than we have ever imagined.
  • We live at a defining moment for humanity, as the compounding effects of technology and civilization reach an inflection point.
  • And it's about time.
  • Atmospheres will form, then plants will be seeded, and then the colonists will arrive.
  • So, far from reaching that point the pessimists foretold—where we have exhausted the meager resources of earth and find ourselves dwindling away—something entirely different is happening.
  • It is consistent with all we know of the past, which is progress and prosperity.
  • But we will see it begin to take shape and will know that we were there the moment the world changed.
  • And because it changed for the better, wondrously better, we can proudly claim our part in its forming.
  • I lived, up to the time of the illness that deprived me of my sight and hearing, in a tiny house consisting of a large square room and a small one, in which the servant slept.
  • Even in the days before my teacher came, I used to feel along the square stiff boxwood hedges, and, guided by the sense of smell would find the first violets and lilies.
  • There, too, after a fit of temper, I went to find comfort and to hide my hot face in the cool leaves and grass.
  • They used to hang in long festoons from our porch, filling the whole air with their fragrance, untainted by any earthy smell; and in the early morning, washed in the dew, they felt so soft, so pure, I could not help wondering if they did not resemble the asphodels of God's garden.
  • The beginning of my life was simple and much like every other little life.
  • At six months I could pipe out "How d'ye," and one day I attracted every one's attention by saying "Tea, tea, tea" quite plainly.
  • It was the word "water," and I continued to make some sound for that word after all other speech was lost.
  • I slipped from my mother's lap and almost ran toward them.
  • The impulse gone, I fell down and cried for her to take me up in her arms.
  • One brief spring, musical with the song of robin and mocking-bird, one summer rich in fruit and roses, one autumn of gold and crimson sped by and left their gifts at the feet of an eager, delighted child.
  • They called it acute congestion of the stomach and brain.
  • Early one morning, however, the fever left me as suddenly and mysteriously as it had come.
  • But during the first nineteen months of my life I had caught glimpses of broad, green fields, a luminous sky, trees and flowers which the darkness that followed could not wholly blot out.
  • If we have once seen, "the day is ours, and what the day has shown."
  • My hands felt every object and observed every motion, and in this way I learned to know many things.
  • Soon I felt the need of some communication with others and began to make crude signs.
  • A shake of the head meant "No" and a nod, "Yes," a pull meant "Come" and a push, "Go."
  • Then I would imitate the acts of cutting the slices and buttering them.
  • If I wanted my mother to make ice-cream for dinner I made the sign for working the freezer and shivered, indicating cold.
  • I always knew when she wished me to bring her something, and I would run upstairs or anywhere else she indicated.
  • Indeed, I owe to her loving wisdom all that was bright and good in my long night.
  • I knew by the way my mother and aunt dressed when they were going out, and I invariably begged to go with them.
  • One day some gentlemen called on my mother, and I felt the shutting of the front door and other sounds that indicated their arrival.
  • Standing before the mirror, as I had seen others do, I anointed mine head with oil and covered my face thickly with powder.
  • I had noticed that my mother and my friends did not use signs as I did when they wanted anything done, but talked with their mouths.
  • Sometimes I stood between two persons who were conversing and touched their lips.
  • I could not understand, and was vexed.
  • I moved my lips and gesticulated frantically without result.
  • This made me so angry at times that I kicked and screamed until I was exhausted.
  • Martha Washington understood my signs, and I seldom had any difficulty in making her do just as I wished.
  • I knew my own mind well enough and always had my own way, even if I had to fight tooth and nail for it.
  • Many of them were so tame that they would eat from my hand and let me feel them.
  • One big gobbler snatched a tomato from me one day and ran away with it.
  • Inspired, perhaps, by Master Gobbler's success, we carried off to the woodpile a cake which the cook had just frosted, and ate every bit of it.
  • I was quite ill afterward, and I wonder if retribution also overtook the turkey.
  • The guinea-fowl likes to hide her nest in out-of-the-way places, and it was one of my greatest delights to hunt for the eggs in the long grass.
  • When we were fortunate enough to find a nest I never allowed her to carry the eggs home, making her understand by emphatic signs that she might fall and break them.
  • The sheds where the corn was stored, the stable where the horses were kept, and the yard where the cows were milked morning and evening were unfailing sources of interest to Martha and me.
  • The milkers would let me keep my hands on the cows while they milked, and I often got well switched by the cow for my curiosity.
  • Of course I did not know what it was all about, but I enjoyed the pleasant odours that filled the house and the tidbits that were given to Martha Washington and me to keep us quiet.
  • They allowed us to grind the spices, pick over the raisins and lick the stirring spoons.
  • The younger child was blind--that was I--and the other was Martha Washington.
  • We were busy cutting out paper dolls; but we soon wearied of this amusement, and after cutting up our shoestrings and clipping all the leaves off the honeysuckle that were within reach, I turned my attention to Martha's corkscrews.
  • Thinking that turn and turn about is fair play, she seized the scissors and cut off one of my curls, and would have cut them all off but for my mother's timely interference.
  • Belle, our dog, my other companion, was old and lazy and liked to sleep by the open fire rather than to romp with me.
  • I tried hard to teach her my sign language, but she was dull and inattentive.
  • This vexed me and the lesson always ended in a one-sided boxing match.
  • Many incidents of those early years are fixed in my memory, isolated, but clear and distinct, making the sense of that silent, aimless, dayless life all the more intense.
  • One day I happened to spill water on my apron, and I spread it out to dry before the fire which was flickering on the sitting-room hearth.
  • The apron did not dry quickly enough to suit me, so I drew nearer and threw it right over the hot ashes.
  • Except for my hands and hair I was not badly burned.
  • My father was obliged to get a ladder and take Miss Sullivan out through the window--much to my delight.
  • The family consisted of my father and mother, two older half-brothers, and, afterward, a little sister, Mildred.
  • My earliest distinct recollection of my father is making my way through great drifts of newspapers to his side and finding him alone, holding a sheet of paper before his face.
  • Then I learned what those papers were, and that my father edited one of them.
  • My father was most loving and indulgent, devoted to his home, seldom leaving us, except in the hunting season.
  • He was a great hunter, I have been told, and a celebrated shot.
  • Next to his family he loved his dogs and gun.
  • His hospitality was great, almost to a fault, and he seldom came home without bringing a guest.
  • His special pride was the big garden where, it was said, he raised the finest watermelons and strawberries in the county; and to me he brought the first ripe grapes and the choicest berries.
  • I remember his caressing touch as he led me from tree to tree, from vine to vine, and his eager delight in whatever pleased me.
  • I knew that I had ceased to be my mother's only darling, and the thought filled me with jealousy.
  • She sat in my mother's lap constantly, where I used to sit, and seemed to take up all her care and time.
  • She was, alas, the helpless victim of my outbursts of temper and of affection, so that she became much the worse for wear.
  • She had a cradle, and I often spent an hour or more rocking her.
  • I guarded both doll and cradle with the most jealous care; but once I discovered my little sister sleeping peacefully in the cradle.
  • The few signs I used became less and less adequate, and my failures to make myself understood were invariably followed by outbursts of passion.
  • My parents were deeply grieved and perplexed.
  • We lived a long way from any school for the blind or the deaf, and it seemed unlikely that any one would come to such an out-of-the-way place as Tuscumbia to teach a child who was both deaf and blind.
  • Indeed, my friends and relatives sometimes doubted whether I could be taught.
  • His methods had probably died with him; and if they had not, how was a little girl in a far-off town in Alabama to receive the benefit of them?
  • My father made holes in these so that I could string them, and for a long time they kept me happy and contented.
  • Often when he went his rounds I clung to his coat tails while he collected and punched the tickets.
  • A bright idea, however, shot into my mind, and the problem was solved.
  • I tumbled off the seat and searched under it until I found my aunt's cape, which was trimmed with large beads.
  • I pulled two beads off and indicated to her that I wanted her to sew them on my doll.
  • She raised my hand to her eyes in a questioning way, and I nodded energetically.
  • The beads were sewed in the right place and I could not contain myself for joy; but immediately I lost all interest in the doll.
  • During the whole trip I did not have one fit of temper, there were so many things to keep my mind and fingers busy.
  • Child as I was, I at once felt the tenderness and sympathy which endeared Dr. Bell to so many hearts, as his wonderful achievements enlist their admiration.
  • He held me on his knee while I examined his watch, and he made it strike for me.
  • He understood my signs, and I knew it and loved him at once.
  • I guessed vaguely from my mother's signs and from the hurrying to and fro in the house that something unusual was about to happen, so I went to the door and waited on the steps.
  • The afternoon sun penetrated the mass of honeysuckle that covered the porch, and fell on my upturned face.
  • My fingers lingered almost unconsciously on the familiar leaves and blossoms which had just come forth to greet the sweet southern spring.
  • Anger and bitterness had preyed upon me continually for weeks and a deep languor had succeeded this passionate struggle.
  • I was like that ship before my education began, only I was without compass or sounding-line, and had no way of knowing how near the harbour was.
  • "Light! give me light!" was the wordless cry of my soul, and the light of love shone on me in that very hour.
  • The morning after my teacher came she led me into her room and gave me a doll.
  • The little blind children at the Perkins Institution had sent it and Laura Bridgman had dressed it; but I did not know this until afterward.
  • Running downstairs to my mother I held up my hand and made the letters for doll.
  • In the days that followed I learned to spell in this uncomprehending way a great many words, among them pin, hat, cup and a few verbs like sit, stand and walk.
  • I became impatient at her repeated attempts and, seizing the new doll, I dashed it upon the floor.
  • I felt my teacher sweep the fragments to one side of the hearth, and I had a sense of satisfaction that the cause of my discomfort was removed.
  • She brought me my hat, and I knew I was going out into the warm sunshine.
  • This thought, if a wordless sensation may be called a thought, made me hop and skip with pleasure.
  • Some one was drawing water and my teacher placed my hand under the spout.
  • Everything had a name, and each name gave birth to a new thought.
  • I felt my way to the hearth and picked up the pieces.
  • Then my eyes filled with tears; for I realized what I had done, and for the first time I felt repentance and sorrow.
  • I did nothing but explore with my hands and learn the name of every object that I touched; and the more I handled things and learned their names and uses, the more joyous and confident grew my sense of kinship with the rest of the world.
  • I learned how the sun and the rain make to grow out of the ground every tree that is pleasant to the sight and good for food, how birds build their nests and live and thrive from land to land, how the squirrel, the deer, the lion and every other creature finds food and shelter.
  • As my knowledge of things grew I felt more and more the delight of the world I was in.
  • Long before I learned to do a sum in arithmetic or describe the shape of the earth, Miss Sullivan had taught me to find beauty in the fragrant woods, in every blade of grass, and in the curves and dimples of my baby sister's hand.
  • She linked my earliest thoughts with nature, and made me feel that "birds and flowers and I were happy peers."
  • One day my teacher and I were returning from a long ramble.
  • The morning had been fine, but it was growing warm and sultry when at last we turned our faces homeward.
  • The shade was grateful, and the tree was so easy to climb that with my teacher's assistance I was able to scramble to a seat in the branches.
  • I knew it, it was the odour that always precedes a thunderstorm, and a nameless fear clutched at my heart.
  • I felt absolutely alone, cut off from my friends and the firm earth.
  • I remained still and expectant; a chilling terror crept over me.
  • A shiver ran through the tree, and the wind sent forth a blast that would have knocked me off had I not clung to the branch with might and main.
  • The tree swayed and strained.
  • The small twigs snapped and fell about me in showers.
  • I had learned a new lesson--that nature "wages open war against her children, and under softest touch hides treacherous claws."
  • I started up and instinctively stretched out my hands.
  • I asked, and the next minute I recognized the odour of the mimosa blossoms.
  • I had some difficulty in holding on, for the branches were very large and the bark hurt my hands.
  • After that I spent many happy hours in my tree of paradise, thinking fair thoughts and dreaming bright dreams.
  • I had now the key to all language, and I was eager to learn to use it.
  • I had found a few early violets in the garden and brought them to my teacher.
  • I smelt the violets in her hand and asked, half in words, half in signs, a question which meant, "Is love the sweetness of flowers?"
  • But Miss Sullivan shook her head, and I was greatly puzzled and disappointed.
  • A day or two afterward I was stringing beads of different sizes in symmetrical groups--two large beads, three small ones, and so on.
  • I had made many mistakes, and Miss Sullivan had pointed them out again and again with gentle patience.
  • Finally I noticed a very obvious error in the sequence and for an instant I concentrated my attention on the lesson and tried to think how I should have arranged the beads.
  • The sun had been under a cloud all day, and there had been brief showers; but suddenly the sun broke forth in all its southern splendour.
  • The beautiful truth burst upon my mind--I felt that there were invisible lines stretched between my spirit and the spirits of others.
  • If I did not know the words and idioms necessary to express my thoughts she supplied them, even suggesting conversation when I was unable to keep up my end of the dialogue.
  • The conversation he hears in his home stimulates his mind and suggests topics and calls forth the spontaneous expression of his own thoughts.
  • This she did by repeating to me as far as possible, verbatim, what she heard, and by showing me how I could take part in the conversation.
  • But it was a long time before I ventured to take the initiative, and still longer before I could find something appropriate to say at the right time.
  • The deaf and the blind find it very difficult to acquire the amenities of conversation.
  • How much more this difficulty must be augmented in the case of those who are both deaf and blind!
  • One day, Miss Sullivan tells me, I pinned the word girl on my pinafore and stood in the wardrobe.
  • My teacher and I played it for hours at a time.
  • I took my "Reader for Beginners" and hunted for the words I knew; when I found them my joy was like that of a game of hide-and-seek.
  • What many children think of with dread, as a painful plodding through grammar, hard sums and harder definitions, is to-day one of my most precious memories.
  • I cannot explain the peculiar sympathy Miss Sullivan had with my pleasures and desires.
  • She went quickly over uninteresting details, and never nagged me with questions to see if I remembered the day-before-yesterday's lesson.
  • We read and studied out of doors, preferring the sunlit woods to the house.
  • Sometimes I rose at dawn and stole into the garden while the heavy dew lay on the grass and flowers.
  • The large, downy peaches would reach themselves into my hand, and as the joyous breezes flew about the trees the apples tumbled at my feet.
  • Oh, the delight with which I gathered up the fruit in my pinafore, pressed my face against the smooth cheeks of the apples, still warm from the sun, and skipped back to the house!
  • There we spent many happy hours and played at learning geography.
  • I built dams of pebbles, made islands and lakes, and dug river-beds, all for fun, and never dreamed that I was learning a lesson.
  • She made raised maps in clay, so that I could feel the mountain ridges and valleys, and follow with my fingers the devious course of rivers.
  • I liked this, too; but the division of the earth into zones and poles confused and teased my mind.
  • The illustrative strings and the orange stick representing the poles seemed so real that even to this day the mere mention of temperate zone suggests a series of twine circles; and I believe that if any one should set about it he could convince me that white bears actually climb the North Pole.
  • Miss Sullivan tried to teach me to count by stringing beads in groups, and by arranging kintergarten straws I learned to add and subtract.
  • In this same leisurely manner I studied zoology and botany.
  • After I had learned a great many interesting things about the life and habits of the children of the sea--how in the midst of dashing waves the little polyps build the beautiful coral isles of the Pacific, and the foraminifera have made the chalk-hills of many a land--my teacher read me "The Chambered Nautilus," and showed me that the shell-building process of the mollusks is symbolical of the development of the mind.
  • We bought a lily and set it in a sunny window.
  • It was great fun to plunge my hand into the bowl and feel the tadpoles frisk about, and to let them slip and slide between my fingers.
  • He had made his leap, he had seen the great world, and was content to stay in his pretty glass house under the big fuchsia tree until he attained the dignity of froghood.
  • It was my teacher who unfolded and developed them.
  • When she came, everything about me breathed of love and joy and was full of meaning.
  • It was because she seized the right moment to impart knowledge that made it so pleasant and acceptable to me.
  • How much of my delight in all beautiful things is innate, and how much is due to her influence, I can never tell.
  • I feel that her being is inseparable from my own, and that the footsteps of my life are in hers.
  • Every one in the family prepared surprises for me, but what pleased me most, Miss Sullivan and I prepared surprises for everybody else.
  • My friends did all they could to excite my curiosity by hints and half-spelled sentences which they pretended to break off in the nick of time.
  • Miss Sullivan and I kept up a game of guessing which taught me more about the use of language than any set lessons could have done.
  • I danced and capered round the tree in an ecstasy.
  • When I learned that there was a gift for each child, I was delighted, and the kind people who had prepared the tree permitted me to hand the presents to the children.
  • I was persuaded, however, to content myself with the gifts from the tree and leave the others until morning.
  • That night, after I had hung my stocking, I lay awake a long time, pretending to be asleep and keeping alert to see what Santa Claus would do when he came.
  • At last I fell asleep with a new doll and a white bear in my arms.
  • Little Tim was so tame that he would hop on my finger and eat candied cherries out of my hand.
  • Every morning after breakfast I prepared his bath, made his cage clean and sweet, filled his cups with fresh seed and water from the well-house, and hung a spray of chickweed in his swing.
  • As if it were yesterday I remember the preparations, the departure with my teacher and my mother, the journey, and finally the arrival in Boston.
  • On the seat opposite me sat my big rag doll, Nancy, in a new gingham dress and a beruffled sunbonnet, looking at me out of two bead eyes.
  • I knew I could not see; but it did not seem possible that all the eager, loving children who gathered round me and joined heartily in my frolics were also blind.
  • I remember the surprise and the pain I felt as I noticed that they placed their hands over mine when I talked to them and that they read books with their fingers.
  • But they were so happy and contented that I lost all sense of pain in the pleasure of their companionship.
  • One day spent with the blind children made me feel thoroughly at home in my new environment, and I looked eagerly from one pleasant experience to another as the days flew swiftly by.
  • I could not quite convince myself that there was much world left, for I regarded Boston as the beginning and the end of creation.
  • While we were in Boston we visited Bunker Hill, and there I had my first lesson in history.
  • This was my first trip on the ocean and my first voyage in a steamboat.
  • How full of life and motion it was!
  • But the rumble of the machinery made me think it was thundering, and I began to cry, because I feared if it rained we should not be able to have our picnic out of doors.
  • I could touch it, and perhaps that made the coming of the Pilgrims and their toils and great deeds seem more real to me.
  • I have often held in my hand a little model of the Plymouth Rock which a kind gentleman gave me at Pilgrim Hall, and I have fingered its curves, the split in the centre and the embossed figures "1620," and turned over in my mind all that I knew about the wonderful story of the Pilgrims.
  • I idealized them as the bravest and most generous men that ever sought a home in a strange land.
  • I was keenly surprised and disappointed years later to learn of their acts of persecution that make us tingle with shame, even while we glory in the courage and energy that gave us our "Country Beautiful."
  • Among the many friends I made in Boston were Mr. William Endicott and his daughter.
  • It was hard, smooth sand, very different from the loose, sharp sand, mingled with kelp and shells, at Brewster.
  • I saw him many times after that, and he was always a good friend to me; indeed, I was thinking of him when I called Boston "the City of Kind Hearts."
  • Just before the Perkins Institution closed for the summer, it was arranged that my teacher and I should spend our vacation at Brewster, on Cape Cod, with our dear friend, Mrs. Hopkins.
  • I was delighted, for my mind was full of the prospective joys and of the wonderful stories I had heard about the sea.
  • I felt the great billows rock and sink.
  • Suddenly my ecstasy gave place to terror; for my foot struck against a rock and the next instant there was a rush of water over my head.
  • I thrust out my hands to grasp some support, I clutched at the water and at the seaweed which the waves tossed in my face.
  • The waves seemed to be playing a game with me, and tossed me from one to another in their wild frolic.
  • At last, however, the sea, as if weary of its new toy, threw me back on the shore, and in another instant I was clasped in my teacher's arms.
  • After I had recovered from my first experience in the water, I thought it great fun to sit on a big rock in my bathing-suit and feel wave after wave dash against the rock, sending up a shower of spray which quite covered me.
  • The breakers would swoop back to gather themselves for a mightier leap, and I clung to the rock, tense, fascinated, as I felt the dash and roar of the rushing sea!
  • The tang of the untainted, fresh and free sea air was like a cool, quieting thought, and the shells and pebbles and the seaweed with tiny living creatures attached to it never lost their fascination for me.
  • I felt of him and thought it very strange that he should carry his house on his back.
  • It suddenly occurred to me that he might make a delightful pet; so I seized him by the tail with both hands and carried him home.
  • This feat pleased me highly, as his body was very heavy, and it took all my strength to drag him half a mile.
  • But next morning I went to the trough, and lo, he had disappeared!
  • The treasures of a new, beautiful world were laid at my feet, and I took in pleasure and information at every turn.
  • Three frolicsome little streams ran through it from springs in the rocks above, leaping here and tumbling there in laughing cascades wherever the rocks tried to bar their way.
  • The opening was filled with ferns which completely covered the beds of limestone and in places hid the streams.
  • Here were great oaks and splendid evergreens with trunks like mossy pillars, from the branches of which hung garlands of ivy and mistletoe, and persimmon trees, the odour of which pervaded every nook and corner of the wood--an illusive, fragrant something that made the heart glad.
  • In places the wild muscadine and scuppernong vines stretched from tree to tree, making arbours which were always full of butterflies and buzzing insects.
  • It was delightful to lose ourselves in the green hollows of that tangled wood in the late afternoon, and to smell the cool, delicious odours that came up from the earth at the close of day.
  • Our cottage was a sort of rough camp, beautifully situated on the top of the mountain among oaks and pines.
  • We lived on the piazza most of the time--there we worked, ate and played.
  • In the evening, by the campfire, the men played cards and whiled away the hours in talk and sport.
  • The men slept in the hall outside our door, and I could feel the deep breathing of the dogs and the hunters as they lay on their improvised beds.
  • At dawn I was awakened by the smell of coffee, the rattling of guns, and the heavy footsteps of the men as they strode about, promising themselves the greatest luck of the season.
  • I could also feel the stamping of the horses, which they had ridden out from town and hitched under the trees, where they stood all night, neighing loudly, impatient to be off.
  • At last the men mounted, and, as they say in the old songs, away went the steeds with bridles ringing and whips cracking and hounds racing ahead, and away went the champion hunters "with hark and whoop and wild halloo!"
  • A fire was kindled at the bottom of a deep hole in the ground, big sticks were laid crosswise at the top, and meat was hung from them and turned on spits.
  • I called him Black Beauty, as I had just read the book, and he resembled his namesake in every way, from his glossy black coat to the white star on his forehead.
  • We always returned to the cottage with armfuls of laurel, goldenrod, ferns and gorgeous swamp-flowers such as grow only in the South.
  • Sometimes I would go with Mildred and my little cousins to gather persimmons.
  • I did not eat them; but I loved their fragrance and enjoyed hunting for them in the leaves and grass.
  • We also went nutting, and I helped them open the chestnut burrs and break the shells of hickory-nuts and walnuts--the big, sweet walnuts!
  • At the foot of the mountain there was a railroad, and the children watched the trains whiz by.
  • It was very difficult to walk over, the ties were wide apart and so narrow that one felt as if one were walking on knives.
  • I had never crossed it until one day Mildred, Miss Sullivan and I were lost in the woods, and wandered for hours without finding a path.
  • Suddenly Mildred pointed with her little hand and exclaimed, "There's the trestle!"
  • We would have taken any way rather than this; but it was late and growing dark, and the trestle was a short cut home.
  • I had to feel for the rails with my toe; but I was not afraid, and got on very well, until all at once there came a faint "puff, puff" from the distance.
  • I felt the hot breath from the engine on my face, and the smoke and ashes almost choked us.
  • As the train rumbled by, the trestle shook and swayed until I thought we should be dashed to the chasm below.
  • Long after dark we reached home and found the cottage empty; the family were all out hunting for us.
  • Once I went on a visit to a New England village with its frozen lakes and vast snow fields.
  • I recall my surprise on discovering that a mysterious hand had stripped the trees and bushes, leaving only here and there a wrinkled leaf.
  • The birds had flown, and their empty nests in the bare trees were filled with snow.
  • Winter was on hill and field.
  • The earth seemed benumbed by his icy touch, and the very spirits of the trees had withdrawn to their roots, and there, curled up in the dark, lay fast asleep.
  • All life seemed to have ebbed away, and even when the sun shone the day was
  • Shrunk and cold, As if her veins were sapless and old, And she rose up decrepitly For a last dim look at earth and sea.
  • Shrunk and cold, As if her veins were sapless and old, And she rose up decrepitly For a last dim look at earth and sea.
  • The withered grass and the bushes were transformed into a forest of icicles.
  • Hour by hour the flakes dropped silently, softly from their airy height to the earth, and the country became more and more level.
  • A snowy night closed upon the world, and in the morning one could scarcely recognize a feature of the landscape.
  • In the evening a wind from the northeast sprang up, and the flakes rushed hither and thither in furious melee.
  • The rafters creaked and strained, and the branches of the trees surrounding the house rattled and beat against the windows, as the winds rioted up and down the country.
  • High mounds, pyramids heaped in fantastic shapes, and impenetrable drifts lay scattered in every direction.
  • I put on my cloak and hood and went out.
  • The trees stood motionless and white like figures in a marble frieze.
  • The rays of the sun fell upon the trees, so that the twigs sparkled like diamonds and dropped in showers when we touched them.
  • At intervals the trees lost their icy covering, and the bulrushes and underbrush were bare; but the lake lay frozen and hard beneath the sun.
  • We would get on our toboggan, a boy would give us a shove, and off we went!
  • For one wild, glad moment we snapped the chain that binds us to earth, and joining hands with the winds we felt ourselves divine!
  • I was pleased with anything that made a noise and liked to feel the cat purr and the dog bark.
  • I used to sit in my mother's lap all day long and keep my hands on her face because it amused me to feel the motions of her lips; and I moved my lips, too, although I had forgotten what talking was.
  • Even this became less and less intelligible until the time when Miss Sullivan began to teach me.
  • My thoughts would often rise and beat up like birds against the wind, and I persisted in using my lips and voice.
  • But I persisted, and an accident soon occurred which resulted in the breaking down of this great barrier--I heard the story of Ragnhild Kaata.
  • This lovely, sweet-natured lady offered to teach me herself, and we began the twenty-sixth of March, 1890.
  • Miss Fuller's method was this: she passed my hand lightly over her face, and let me feel the position of her tongue and lips when she made a sound.
  • I shall never forget the surprise and delight I felt when I uttered my first connected sentence, "It is warm."
  • True, they were broken and stammering syllables; but they were human speech.
  • Only such a one can appreciate the eagerness with which I talked to my toys, to stones, trees, birds and dumb animals, or the delight I felt when at my call Mildred ran to me or my dogs obeyed my commands.
  • Miss Fuller and Miss Sullivan could understand me, but most people would not have understood one word in a hundred.
  • All teachers of the deaf know what this means, and only they can at all appreciate the peculiar difficulties with which I had to contend.
  • In reading my teacher's lips I was wholly dependent on my fingers: I had to use the sense of touch in catching the vibrations of the throat, the movements of the mouth and the expression of the face; and often this sense was at fault.
  • Discouragement and weariness cast me down frequently; but the next moment the thought that I should soon be at home and show my loved ones what I had accomplished, spurred me on, and I eagerly looked forward to their pleasure in my achievement.
  • I could not be despondent while I anticipated the delight of talking to my mother and reading her responses from her lips.
  • It astonished me to find how much easier it is to talk than to spell with the fingers, and I discarded the manual alphabet as a medium of communication on my part; but Miss Sullivan and a few friends still use it in speaking to me, for it is more convenient and more rapid than lip-reading.
  • Constant practice makes the fingers very flexible, and some of my friends spell rapidly--about as fast as an expert writes on a typewriter.
  • Almost before I knew it, the train stopped at the Tuscumbia station, and there on the platform stood the whole family.
  • My eyes fill with tears now as I think how my mother pressed me close to her, speechless and trembling with delight, taking in every syllable that I spoke, while little Mildred seized my free hand and kissed it and danced, and my father expressed his pride and affection in a big silence.
  • Joy deserted my heart, and for a long, long time I lived in doubt, anxiety and fear.
  • A little story called "The Frost King," which I wrote and sent to Mr. Anagnos, of the Perkins Institution for the Blind, was at the root of the trouble.
  • I thought then that I was "making up a story," as children say, and I eagerly sat down to write it before the ideas should slip from me.
  • Words and images came tripping to my finger ends, and as I thought out sentence after sentence, I wrote them on my braille slate.
  • Now, if words and images come to me without effort, it is a pretty sure sign that they are not the offspring of my own mind, but stray waifs that I regretfully dismiss.
  • At that time I eagerly absorbed everything I read without a thought of authorship, and even now I cannot be quite sure of the boundary line between my ideas and those I find in books.
  • I suppose that is because so many of my impressions come to me through the medium of others' eyes and ears.
  • I spoke up and said, "Oh, no, it is my story, and I have written it for Mr. Anagnos."
  • Accordingly I copied the story and sent it to him for his birthday.
  • Mr. Anagnos was delighted with "The Frost King," and published it in one of the Perkins Institution reports.
  • It was difficult to make me understand this; but when I did understand I was astonished and grieved.
  • He was unusually tender and kind to me, and for a brief space the shadow lifted.
  • How well I remember the graceful draperies that enfolded me, the bright autumn leaves that wreathed my head, and the fruit and grain at my feet and in my hands, and beneath all the piety of the masque the oppressive sense of coming ill that made my heart heavy.
  • Something I said made her think she detected in my words a confession that I did remember Miss Canby's story of "The Frost Fairies," and she laid her conclusions before Mr. Anagnos, although I had told her most emphatically that she was mistaken.
  • He believed, or at least suspected, that Miss Sullivan and I had deliberately stolen the bright thoughts of another and imposed them on him to win his admiration.
  • I was brought before a court of investigation composed of the teachers and officers of the Institution, and Miss Sullivan was asked to leave me.
  • I felt so cold, I imagined I should die before morning, and the thought comforted me.
  • But the angel of forgetfulness has gathered up and carried away much of the misery and all the bitterness of those sad days.
  • But the fact remains that Miss Canby's story was read to me once, and that long after I had forgotten it, it came back to me so naturally that I never suspected that it was the child of another mind.
  • Miss Canby herself wrote kindly, "Some day you will write a great story out of your own head, that will be a comfort and help to many."
  • For a long time, when I wrote a letter, even to my mother, I was seized with a sudden feeling of terror, and I would spell the sentences over and over, to make sure that I had not read them in a book.
  • I find in one of them, a letter to Mr. Anagnos, dated September 29, 1891, words and sentiments exactly like those of the book.
  • At the time I was writing "The Frost King," and this letter, like many others, contains phrases which show that my mind was saturated with the story.
  • This habit of assimilating what pleased me and giving it out again as my own appears in much of my early correspondence and my first attempts at writing.
  • In a composition which I wrote about the old cities of Greece and Italy, I borrowed my glowing descriptions, with variations, from sources I have forgotten.
  • But I do not understand how he ever thought a blind and deaf child of eleven could have invented them.
  • It shows me that I could express my appreciation of beautiful and poetic ideas in clear and animated language.
  • Everything I found in books that pleased me I retained in my memory, consciously or unconsciously, and adapted it.
  • The young writer, as Stevenson has said, instinctively tries to copy whatever seems most admirable, and he shifts his admiration with astonishing versatility.
  • It is certain that I cannot always distinguish my own thoughts from those I read, because what I read becomes the very substance and texture of my mind.
  • Likewise my compositions are made up of crude notions of my own, inlaid with the brighter thoughts and riper opinions of the authors I have read.
  • "There is no way to become original, except to be born so," says Stevenson, and although I may not be original, I hope sometime to outgrow my artificial, periwigged compositions.
  • Then, perhaps, my own thoughts and experiences will come to the surface.
  • So this sad experience may have done me good and set me thinking on some of the problems of composition.
  • For two years he seems to have held the belief that Miss Sullivan and I were innocent.
  • The summer and winter following the "Frost King" incident I spent with my family in Alabama.
  • Everything had budded and blossomed.
  • And even now I sometimes feel the same uneasiness and disquietude.
  • And even now I sometimes feel the same uneasiness and disquietude.
  • I wrote timidly, fearfully, but resolutely, urged on by my teacher, who knew that if I persevered, I should find my mental foothold again and get a grip on my faculties.
  • Up to the time of the "Frost King" episode, I had lived the unconscious life of a little child; now my thoughts were turned inward, and I beheld things invisible.
  • The chief events of the year 1893 were my trip to Washington during the inauguration of President Cleveland, and visits to Niagara and the World's Fair.
  • It is difficult to describe my emotions when I stood on the point which overhangs the American Falls and felt the air vibrate and the earth tremble.
  • It seems strange to many people that I should be impressed by the wonders and beauties of Niagara.
  • Every day in imagination I made a trip round the world, and I saw many wonders from the uttermost parts of the earth--marvels of invention, treasuries of industry and skill and all the activities of human life actually passed under my finger tips.
  • It seemed like the "Arabian Nights," it was crammed so full of novelty and interest.
  • The captain showed me Columbus's cabin and the desk with an hour-glass on it.
  • Mr. Higinbotham, President of the World's Fair, kindly gave me permission to touch the exhibits, and with an eagerness as insatiable as that with which Pizarro seized the treasures of Peru, I took in the glories of the Fair with my fingers.
  • Whenever it was possible, I touched the machinery while it was in motion, so as to get a clearer idea how the stones were weighed, cut, and polished.
  • I searched in the washings for a diamond and found it myself--the only true diamond, they said, that was ever found in the United States.
  • Dr. Bell went everywhere with us and in his own delightful way described to me the objects of greatest interest.
  • In the electrical building we examined the telephones, autophones, phonographs, and other inventions, and he made me understand how it is possible to send a message on wires that mock space and outrun time, and, like Prometheus, to draw fire from the sky.
  • I read the histories of Greece, Rome and the United States.
  • I had a French grammar in raised print, and as I already knew some French, I often amused myself by composing in my head short exercises, using the new words as I came across them, and ignoring rules and other technicalities as much as possible.
  • I even tried, without aid, to master the French pronunciation, as I found all the letters and sounds described in the book.
  • Miss Sullivan and I were at that time in Hulton, Pennsylvania, visiting the family of Mr. William Wade.
  • I remember him as a man of rare, sweet nature and of wide experience.
  • I often amused myself by reading Latin passages, picking up words I understood and trying to make sense.
  • Miss Sullivan sat beside me at my lessons, spelling into my hand whatever Mr. Irons said, and looking up new words for me.
  • I studied it with Madame Olivier, a French lady who did not know the manual alphabet, and who was obliged to give her instruction orally.
  • My progress in lip-reading and speech was not what my teachers and I had hoped and expected it would be.
  • I hung about the dangerous frontier of "guess," avoiding with infinite trouble to myself and others the broad valley of reason.
  • When I was not guessing, I was jumping at conclusions, and this fault, in addition to my dullness, aggravated my difficulties more than was right or necessary.
  • The two years in New York were happy ones, and I look back to them with genuine pleasure.
  • We sailed on the Hudson River and wandered about on its green banks, of which Bryant loved to sing.
  • The teachers at the Wright-Humason School were always planning how they might give the pupils every advantage that those who hear enjoy--how they might make much of few tendencies and passive memories in the cases of the little ones--and lead them out of the cramping circumstances in which their lives were set.
  • Only those who knew and loved him best can understand what his friendship meant to me.
  • He, who made every one happy in a beautiful, unobtrusive way, was most kind and tender to Miss Sullivan and me.
  • So long as we felt his loving presence and knew that he took a watchful interest in our work, fraught with so many difficulties, we could not be discouraged.
  • The thought of going to college took root in my heart and became an earnest desire, which impelled me to enter into competition for a degree with seeing and hearing girls, in the face of the strong opposition of many true and wise friends.
  • When I left New York the idea had become a fixed purpose; and it was decided that I should go to Cambridge.
  • This was the nearest approach I could get to Harvard and to the fulfillment of my childish declaration.
  • Of course my instructors had had no experience in teaching any but normal pupils, and my only means of conversing with them was reading their lips.
  • My studies for the first year were English history, English literature, German, Latin, arithmetic, Latin composition and occasional themes.
  • I had had, moreover, a good start in French, and received six months' instruction in Latin; but German was the subject with which I was most familiar.
  • I could not make notes in class or write exercises; but I wrote all my compositions and translations at home on my typewriter.
  • Each day Miss Sullivan went to the classes with me and spelled into my hand with infinite patience all that the teachers said.
  • In study hours she had to look up new words for me and read and reread notes and books I did not have in raised print.
  • No one realized more fully than dear Frau Grote how slow and inadequate her spelling was.
  • But, though everybody was kind and ready to help us, there was only one hand that could turn drudgery into pleasure.
  • I took the greatest delight in these German books, especially Schiller's wonderful lyrics, the history of Frederick the Great's magnificent achievements and the account of Goethe's life.
  • We read together, "As You Like It," Burke's "Speech on Conciliation with America," and Macaulay's "Life of Samuel Johnson."
  • My mind stirred with the stirring times, and the characters round which the life of two contending nations centred seemed to move right before me.
  • I wondered more and more, while Burke's masterly speech rolled on in mighty surges of eloquence, how it was that King George and his ministers could have turned a deaf ear to his warning prophecy of our victory and their humiliation.
  • I thought how strange it was that such precious seeds of truth and wisdom should have fallen among the tares of ignorance and corruption.
  • I rejoiced over all his successes, I shut my eyes to his faults, and wondered, not that he had them, but that they had not crushed or dwarfed his soul.
  • At the Cambridge school, for the first time in my life, I enjoyed the companionship of seeing and hearing girls of my own age.
  • I lived with several others in one of the pleasant houses connected with the school, the house where Mr. Howells used to live, and we all had the advantage of home life.
  • So Mildred stayed with me in Cambridge, and for six happy months we were hardly ever apart.
  • It makes me most happy to remember the hours we spent helping each other in study and sharing our recreation together.
  • The subjects I offered were Elementary and Advanced German, French, Latin, English, and Greek and Roman history, making nine hours in all.
  • I passed in everything, and received "honours" in German and English.
  • The examination papers were given out at nine o'clock at Harvard and brought to Radcliffe by a special messenger.
  • Mr. Gilman sat beside me and read the paper through first, then sentence by sentence, while I repeated the words aloud, to make sure that I understood him perfectly.
  • The papers were difficult, and I felt very anxious as I wrote out my answers on the typewriter.
  • Mr. Gilman spelled to me what I had written, and I made such changes as I thought necessary, and he inserted them.
  • At Radcliffe no one reads the papers to me after they are written, and I have no opportunity to correct errors unless I finish before the time is up.
  • In that case I correct only such mistakes as I can recall in the few minutes allowed, and make notes of these corrections at the end of my paper.
  • In the finals, no one read my work over to me, and in the preliminaries I offered subjects with some of which I was in a measure familiar before my work in the Cambridge school; for at the beginning of the year I had passed examinations in English, History, French and German, which Mr. Gilman gave me from previous Harvard papers.
  • I remember that the day the Latin paper was brought to us, Professor Schilling came in and informed me I had passed satisfactorily in German.
  • This encouraged me greatly, and I sped on to the end of the ordeal with a light heart and a steady hand.
  • The classes I was in were very large, and it was impossible for the teachers to give me special instruction.
  • I could not follow with my eyes the geometrical figures drawn on the blackboard, and my only means of getting a clear idea of them was to make them on a cushion with straight and curved wires, which had bent and pointed ends.
  • The embossed books and other apparatus arrived, and I threw myself into the work with renewed confidence.
  • Algebra and geometry were the only studies that continued to defy my efforts to comprehend them.
  • Just before the books came, Mr. Gilman had begun to remonstrate with Miss Sullivan on the ground that I was working too hard, and in spite of my earnest protestations, he reduced the number of my recitations.
  • Mr. Gilman at first agreed to this; but when my tasks had become somewhat perplexing, he insisted that I was overworked, and that I should remain at his school three years longer.
  • On the seventeenth of November I was not very well, and did not go to school.
  • In the end the difference of opinion between Mr. Gilman and Miss Sullivan resulted in my mother's withdrawing my sister Mildred and me from the Cambridge school.
  • Miss Sullivan and I spent the rest of the winter with our friends, the Chamberlins in Wrentham, twenty-five miles from Boston.
  • From February to July, 1898, Mr. Keith came out to Wrentham twice a week, and taught me algebra, geometry, Greek and Latin.
  • He explained each time what I did not understand in the previous lesson, assigned new work, and took home with him the Greek exercises which I had written during the week on my typewriter, corrected them fully, and returned them to me.
  • I found it much easier and pleasanter to be taught by myself than to receive instruction in class.
  • My tutor had plenty of time to explain what I did not understand, so I got on faster and did better work than I ever did in school.
  • He kept my mind alert and eager, and trained it to reason clearly, and to seek conclusions calmly and logically, instead of jumping wildly into space and arriving nowhere.
  • He was always gentle and forbearing, no matter how dull I might be, and believe me, my stupidity would often have exhausted the patience of Job.
  • The first day I had Elementary Greek and Advanced Latin, and the second day Geometry, Algebra and Advanced Greek.
  • Mr. Vining was a stranger to me, and could not communicate with me, except by writing braille.
  • The proctor was also a stranger, and did not attempt to communicate with me in any way.
  • The braille worked well enough in the languages, but when it came to geometry and algebra, difficulties arose.
  • I was sorely perplexed, and felt discouraged wasting much precious time, especially in algebra.
  • It is true that I was familiar with all literary braille in common use in this country--English, American, and New York Point; but the various signs and symbols in geometry and algebra in the three systems are very different, and I had used only the English braille in my algebra.
  • I sat down immediately and wrote to Mr. Vining, asking him to explain the signs.
  • I received another paper and a table of signs by return mail, and I set to work to learn the notation.
  • But on the night before the algebra examination, while I was struggling over some very complicated examples, I could not tell the combinations of bracket, brace and radical.
  • Both Mr. Keith and I were distressed and full of forebodings for the morrow; but we went over to the college a little before the examination began, and had Mr. Vining explain more fully the American symbols.
  • The signs, which I had so lately learned, and which I thought I knew, perplexed me.
  • The struggle for admission to college was ended, and I could now enter Radcliffe whenever I pleased.
  • Before me I saw a new world opening in beauty and light, and I felt within me the capacity to know all things.
  • The lecture-halls seemed filled with the spirit of the great and the wise, and I thought the professors were the embodiment of wisdom.
  • Many of the dreams that had delighted my young inexperience became beautifully less and "faded into the light of common day."
  • The one I felt and still feel most is lack of time.
  • When one enters the portals of learning, one leaves the dearest pleasures--solitude, books and imagination--outside with the whispering pines.
  • My studies the first year were French, German, history, English composition and English literature.
  • In the French course I read some of the works of Corneille, Moliere, Racine, Alfred de Musset and Sainte-Beuve, and in the German those of Goethe and Schiller.
  • The lectures are spelled into my hand as rapidly as possible, and much of the individuality of the lecturer is lost to me in the effort to keep in the race.
  • I have tried many machines, and I find the Hammond is the best adapted to the peculiar needs of my work.
  • With this machine movable type shuttles can be used, and one can have several shuttles, each with a different set of characters--Greek, French, or mathematical, according to the kind of writing one wishes to do on the typewriter.
  • The manual part takes longer, and I have perplexities which they have not.
  • One more effort and I reach the luminous cloud, the blue depths of the sky, the uplands of my desire.
  • Last year, my second year at Radcliffe, I studied English composition, the Bible as English composition, the governments of America and Europe, the Odes of Horace, and Latin comedy.
  • There one does not meet the great and the wise face to face; one does not even feel their living touch.
  • Again and again I ask impatiently, "Why concern myself with these explanations and hypotheses?"
  • They fly hither and thither in my thought like blind birds beating the air with ineffectual wings.
  • It is impossible, I think, to read in one day four or five different books in different languages and treating of widely different subjects, and not lose sight of the very ends for which one reads.
  • It is most perplexing and exasperating that just at the moment when you need your memory and a nice sense of discrimination, these faculties take to themselves wings and fly away.
  • Give a brief account of Huss and his work.
  • Who was he and what did he do?
  • In desperation you seize the budget and dump everything out, and there in a corner is your man, serenely brooding on his own private thought, unconscious of the catastrophe which he has brought upon you.
  • Ah, here they are--the mixed metaphors mocking and strutting about before me, pointing to the bull in the china shop assailed by hailstones and the bugbears with pale looks, an unanalyzed species!
  • I read my first connected story in May, 1887, when I was seven years old, and from that day to this I have devoured everything in the shape of a printed page that has come within the reach of my hungry finger tips.
  • At first I had only a few books in raised print--"readers" for beginners, a collection of stories for children, and a book about the earth called "Our World."
  • I think that was all; but I read them over and over, until the words were so worn and pressed I could scarcely make them out.
  • I was permitted to spend a part of each day in the Institution library, and to wander from bookcase to bookcase, and take down whatever book my fingers lighted upon.
  • And read I did, whether I understood one word in ten or two words on a page.
  • I remember she asked me if I liked little Pearl, and explained some of the words that had puzzled me.
  • The name of the story was "Little Lord Fauntleroy," and she promised to read it to me the following summer.
  • But we did not begin the story until August; the first few weeks of my stay at the seashore were so full of discoveries and excitement that I forgot the very existence of books.
  • As we hastened through the long grass toward the hammock, the grasshoppers swarmed about us and fastened themselves on our clothes, and I remember that my teacher insisted upon picking them all off before we sat down, which seemed to me an unnecessary waste of time.
  • The warm sun shone on the pine trees and drew out all their fragrance.
  • Before we began the story Miss Sullivan explained to me the things that she knew I should not understand, and as we read on she explained the unfamiliar words.
  • I took the book in my hands and tried to feel the letters with an intensity of longing that I can never forget.
  • During the next two years I read many books at my home and on my visits to Boston.
  • I read them in the intervals between study and play with an ever-deepening sense of pleasure.
  • They laid their treasures at my feet, and I accepted them as we accept the sunshine and the love of our friends.
  • I loved "Little Women" because it gave me a sense of kinship with girls and boys who could see and hear.
  • I read La Fontaine's "Fables" first in an English translation, and enjoyed them only after a half-hearted fashion.
  • Later I read the book again in French, and I found that, in spite of the vivid word-pictures, and the wonderful mastery of language, I liked it no better.
  • I do not know why it is, but stories in which animals are made to talk and act like human beings have never appealed to me very strongly.
  • The highest chords he strikes are those of reason and self-love.
  • But I love "The Jungle Book" and "Wild Animals I Have Known."
  • I feel a genuine interest in the animals themselves, because they are real animals and not caricatures of men.
  • One sympathizes with their loves and hatreds, laughs over their comedies, and weeps over their tragedies.
  • My mind opened naturally and joyously to a conception of antiquity.
  • In my fancy the pagan gods and goddesses still walked on earth and talked face to face with men, and in my heart I secretly built shrines to those I loved best.
  • And the mystery is still unsolved.
  • I was familiar with the story of Troy before I read it in the original, and consequently I had little difficulty in making the Greek words surrender their treasures after I had passed the borderland of grammar.
  • It is not necessary that one should be able to define every word and give it its principal parts and its grammatical position in the sentence in order to understand and appreciate a fine poem.
  • My physical limitations are forgotten--my world lies upward, the length and the breadth and the sweep of the heavens are mine!
  • I read it as much as possible without the help of notes or dictionary, and I always like to translate the episodes that please me especially.
  • Virgil is serene and lovely like a marble Apollo in the moonlight; Homer is a beautiful, animated youth in the full sunlight with the wind in his hair.
  • One could have traveled round the word many times while I trudged my weary way through the labyrinthine mazes of grammars and dictionaries, or fell into those dreadful pitfalls called examinations, set by schools and colleges for the confusion of those who seek after knowledge.
  • Although she did not think I should understand, she began to spell into my hand the story of Joseph and his brothers.
  • The unusual language and repetition made the story seem unreal.
  • I do not think that the knowledge which I have gained of its history and sources compensates me for the unpleasant details it has forced upon my attention.
  • There is something impressive, awful, in the simplicity and terrible directness of the book of Esther.
  • Ruth is so loyal and gentle-hearted, we cannot help loving her, as she stands with the reapers amid the waving corn.
  • Her beautiful, unselfish spirit shines out like a bright star in the night of a dark and cruel age.
  • The Bible gives me a deep, comforting sense that "things seen are temporal, and things unseen are eternal."
  • I cannot tell exactly when I began Lamb's "Tales from Shakespeare"; but I know that I read them at first with a child's understanding and a child's wonder.
  • For a long time the ghosts and witches pursued me even into Dreamland.
  • I could see, absolutely see, the dagger and Lady Macbeth's little white hand--the dreadful stain was as real to me as to the grief-stricken queen.
  • Anger seized me, my fingers refused to move, I sat rigid for one long moment, the blood throbbing in my temples, and all the hatred that a child can feel concentrated in my heart.
  • The bright, gentle, fanciful plays--the ones I like best now--appear not to have impressed me at first, perhaps because they reflected the habitual sunshine and gaiety of a child's life.
  • I have since read Shakespeare's plays many times and know parts of them by heart, but I cannot tell which of them I like best.
  • The little songs and the sonnets have a meaning for me as fresh and wonderful as the dramas.
  • But, with all my love for Shakespeare, it is often weary work to read all the meanings into his lines which critics and commentators have given them.
  • In my college reading I have become somewhat familiar with French and German literature.
  • This thought pervades all German literature and is mystically expressed in Goethe's "Faust":
  • The Woman Soul leads us upward and on!
  • Of all the French writers that I have read, I like Moliere and Racine best.
  • I like Scott for his freshness, dash and large honesty.
  • I trust that my readers have not concluded from the preceding chapter on books that reading is my only pleasure; my pleasures and amusements are many and varied.
  • More than once in the course of my story I have referred to my love of the country and out-of-door sports.
  • It is fun to try to steer by the scent of watergrasses and lilies, and of bushes that grow on the shore.
  • I like to contend with wind and wave.
  • Sometimes a daring little fish slips between my fingers, and often a pond-lily presses shyly against my hand.
  • I have felt it on cold, stormy days and at night.
  • In the summer of 1901 I visited Nova Scotia, and had opportunities such as I had not enjoyed before to make the acquaintance of the ocean.
  • What glorious sails we had to Bedford Basin, to McNabb's Island, to York Redoubt, and to the Northwest Arm!
  • And at night what soothing, wondrous hours we spent in the shadow of the great, silent men-of-war.
  • Hundreds of little sail-boats swung to and fro close by, and the sea was calm.
  • Our little boat confronted the gale fearlessly; with sails spread and ropes taut, she seemed to sit upon the wind.
  • Tacking and jibbing, we wrestled with opposing winds that drove us from side to side with impetuous fury.
  • Our hearts beat fast, and our hands trembled with excitement, not fear, for we had the hearts of vikings, and we knew that our skipper was master of the situation.
  • He had steered through many a storm with firm hand and sea-wise eye.
  • As they passed us, the large craft and the gunboats in the harbour saluted and the seamen shouted applause for the master of the only little sail-boat that ventured out into the storm.
  • At last, cold, hungry and weary, we reached our pier.
  • Wrentham, Massachusetts, is associated with nearly all of my joys and sorrows.
  • I remember with deepest gratitude the kindness of these dear friends and the happy days I spent with them.
  • I joined in all their sports and rambles through the woods and frolics in the water.
  • The prattle of the little ones and their pleasure in the stories I told them of elf and gnome, of hero and wily bear, are pleasant things to remember.
  • Mr. Chamberlin initiated me into the mysteries of tree and wild-flower, until with the little ear of love I heard the flow of sap in the oak, and saw the sun glint from leaf to leaf.
  • Thus it is that Even as the roots, shut in the darksome earth, Share in the tree-top's joyance, and conceive Of sunshine and wide air and winged things, By sympathy of nature, so do I gave evidence of things unseen.
  • There is a tradition that under this tree King Philip, the heroic Indian chief, gazed his last on earth and sky.
  • I had another tree friend, gentle and more approachable than the great oak--a linden that grew in the dooryard at Red Farm.
  • We went out to see the hero that had withstood so many tempests, and it wrung my heart to see him prostrate who had mightily striven and was now mightily fallen.
  • As soon as my examinations were over, Miss Sullivan and I hastened to this green nook, where we have a little cottage on one of the three lakes for which Wrentham is famous.
  • Here the long, sunny days were mine, and all thoughts of work and college and the noisy city were thrust into the background.
  • We heard of the cruel, unnecessary fighting in the far-away Pacific, and learned of the struggles going on between capital and labour.
  • These things would pass away; here were lakes and woods and broad daisy-starred fields and sweet-breathed meadows, and they shall endure forever.
  • In the country one sees only Nature's fair works, and one's soul is not saddened by the cruel struggle for mere existence that goes on in the crowded city.
  • The children who crowd these grimy alleys, half-clad and underfed, shrink away from your outstretched hand as if from a blow.
  • Their life seems an immense disparity between effort and opportunity.
  • The sun and the air are God's free gifts to all we say, but are they so?
  • In yonder city's dingy alleys the sun shines not, and the air is foul.
  • Oh, man, how dost thou forget and obstruct thy brother man, and say, "Give us this day our daily bread," when he has none!
  • Oh, would that men would leave the city, its splendour and its tumult and its gold, and return to wood and field and simple, honest living!
  • Then would their children grow stately as noble trees, and their thoughts sweet and pure as wayside flowers.
  • It is splendid to feel the wind blowing in my face and the springy motion of my iron steed.
  • I have had many dog friends--huge mastiffs, soft-eyed spaniels, wood-wise setters and honest, homely bull terriers.
  • He has a long pedigree, a crooked tail and the drollest "phiz" in dogdom.
  • My dog friends seem to understand my limitations, and always keep close beside me when I am alone.
  • I love their affectionate ways and the eloquent wag of their tails.
  • The black checkers are flat and the white ones curved on top.
  • If I happen to be all alone and in an idle mood, I play a game of solitaire, of which I am very fond.
  • I find even the smallest child excellent company, and I am glad to say that children usually like me.
  • They lead me about and show me the things they are interested in.
  • Sometimes I make a mistake and do the wrong thing.
  • A burst of childish laughter greets my blunder, and the pantomime begins all over again.
  • I often tell them stories or teach them a game, and the winged hours depart and leave us good and happy.
  • Museums and art stores are also sources of pleasure and inspiration.
  • As my finger tips trace line and curve, they discover the thought and emotion which the artist has portrayed.
  • I feel in Diana's posture the grace and freedom of the forest and the spirit that tames the mountain lion and subdues the fiercest passions.
  • My soul delights in the repose and gracious curves of the Venus; and in Barre's bronzes the secrets of the jungle are revealed to me.
  • A medallion of Homer hangs on the wall of my study, conveniently low, so that I can easily reach it and touch the beautiful, sad face with loving reverence.
  • It was a wonderful, glorious song, and it won the blind poet an immortal crown, the admiration of all ages.
  • I should think the wonderful rhythmical flow of lines and curves could be more subtly felt than seen.
  • Be this as it may, I know that I can feel the heart-throbs of the ancient Greeks in their marble gods and goddesses.
  • In the king's face, which he wore as a mask, there was a remoteness and inaccessibility of grief which I shall never forget.
  • After the play Miss Sullivan took me to see him behind the scenes, and I felt of his curious garb and his flowing hair and beard.
  • Mr. Jefferson let me touch his face so that I could imagine how he looked on waking from that strange sleep of twenty years, and he showed me how poor old Rip staggered to his feet.
  • Then they rose to fight the duel, and I followed the swift thrusts and parries of the swords and the waverings of poor Bob as his courage oozed out at his finger ends.
  • Then the great actor gave his coat a hitch and his mouth a twitch, and in an instant I was in the village of Falling Water and felt Schneider's shaggy head against my knee.
  • He asked me to indicate as far as I could the gestures and action that should go with the lines.
  • Of course, I have no sense whatever of dramatic action, and could make only random guesses; but with masterful art he suited the action to the word.
  • Elsie Leslie, the little actress, was in Boston, and Miss Sullivan took me to see her in "The Prince and the Pauper."
  • I shall never forget the ripple of alternating joy and woe that ran through that beautiful little play, or the wonderful child who acted it.
  • After the play I was permitted to go behind the scenes and meet her in her royal costume.
  • I was only just learning to speak, and had previously repeated her name until I could say it perfectly.
  • Everything has its wonders, even darkness and silence, and I learn, whatever state I may be in, therein to be content.
  • Sometimes, it is true, a sense of isolation enfolds me like a cold mist as I sit alone and wait at life's shut gate.
  • Beyond there is light, and music, and sweet companionship; but I may not enter.
  • Some of them would be found written in our literature and dear to the hearts of many, while others would be wholly unknown to most of my readers.
  • Those are red-letter days in our lives when we meet people who thrill us like a fine poem, people whose handshake is brimful of unspoken sympathy, and whose sweet, rich natures impart to our eager, impatient spirits a wonderful restfulness which, in its essence, is divine.
  • The perplexities, irritations and worries that have absorbed us pass like unpleasant dreams, and we wake to see with new eyes and hear with new ears the beauty and harmony of God's real world.
  • I suppose the calls of the stupid and curious, especially of newspaper reporters, are always inopportune.
  • I count it one of the sweetest privileges of my life to have known and conversed with many men of genius.
  • As a child I loved to sit on his knee and clasp his great hand with one of mine, while Miss Sullivan spelled into the other his beautiful words about God and the spiritual world.
  • I heard him with a child's wonder and delight.
  • My spirit could not reach up to his, but he gave me a real sense of joy in life, and I never left him without carrying away a fine thought that grew in beauty and depth of meaning as I grew.
  • Love your Heavenly Father with your whole heart and soul, love every child of God as much as ever you can, and remember that the possibilities of good are greater than the possibilities of evil; and you have the key to Heaven.
  • God in all that liberates and lifts, In all that humbles, sweetens and consoles.
  • Bishop Brooks taught me no special creed or dogma; but he impressed upon my mind two great ideas--the fatherhood of God and the brotherhood of man, and made me feel that these truths underlie all creeds and forms of worship.
  • In spite of the lapse of years, they seem so close to me that I should not think it strange if at any moment they should clasp my hand and speak words of endearment as they used to before they went away.
  • Since Bishop Brooks died I have read the Bible through; also some philosophical works on religion, among them Swedenborg's "Heaven and Hell" and Drummond's "Ascent of Man," and I have found no creed or system more soul-satisfying than Bishop Brooks's creed of love.
  • I knew Mr. Henry Drummond, and the memory of his strong, warm hand-clasp is like a benediction.
  • He knew so much and was so genial that it was impossible to feel dull in his presence.
  • He had invited Miss Sullivan and me to call on him one Sunday afternoon.
  • "And listening to the murmur of the River Charles," I suggested.
  • There was an odour of print and leather in the room which told me that it was full of books, and I stretched out my hand instinctively to find them.
  • My fingers lighted upon a beautiful volume of Tennyson's poems, and when Miss Sullivan told me what it was I began to recite:
  • I had made my beloved poet weep, and I was greatly distressed.
  • He made me sit in his armchair, while he brought different interesting things for me to examine, and at his request I recited "The Chambered Nautilus," which was then my favorite poem.
  • After that I saw Dr. Holmes many times and learned to love the man as well as the poet.
  • One beautiful summer day, not long after my meeting with Dr. Holmes, Miss Sullivan and I visited Whittier in his quiet home on the Merrimac.
  • His gentle courtesy and quaint speech won my heart.
  • He was delighted that I could pronounce the words so well, and said that he had no difficulty in understanding me.
  • Then I asked many questions about the poem, and read his answers by placing my fingers on his lips.
  • He said he was the little boy in the poem, and that the girl's name was Sally, and more which I have forgotten.
  • I also recited "Laus Deo," and as I spoke the concluding verses, he placed in my hands a statue of a slave from whose crouching figure the fetters were falling, even as they fell from Peter's limbs when the angel led him forth out of prison.
  • Then he led me to the gate and kissed me tenderly on my forehead.
  • I have known him since I was eight, and my love for him has increased with my years.
  • He has filled the old skins of dogma with the new wine of love, and shown men what it is to believe, live and be free.
  • What he has taught we have seen beautifully expressed in his own life--love of country, kindness to the least of his brethren, and a sincere desire to live upward and onward.
  • Here in Dr. Bell's laboratory, or in the fields on the shore of the great Bras d'Or, I have spent many delightful hours listening to what he had to tell me about his experiments, and helping him fly kites by means of which he expects to discover the laws that shall govern the future air-ship.
  • Dr. Bell is proficient in many fields of science, and has the art of making every subject he touches interesting, even the most abstruse theories.
  • He has a humorous and poetic side, too.
  • Mrs. Hutton is a true and tried friend.
  • She has oftenest advised and helped me in my progress through college.
  • When I find my work particularly difficult and discouraging, she writes me letters that make me feel glad and brave; for she is one of those from whom we learn that one painful duty fulfilled makes the next plainer and easier.
  • Mr. Hutton introduced me to many of his literary friends, greatest of whom are Mr. William Dean Howells and Mark Twain.
  • I also met Mr. Richard Watson Gilder and Mr. Edmund Clarence Stedman.
  • I also knew Mr. Charles Dudley Warner, the most delightful of story-tellers and the most beloved friend, whose sympathy was so broad that it may be truly said of him, he loved all living things and his neighbour as himself.
  • They were all gentle and sympathetic and I felt the charm of their manner as much as I had felt the brilliancy of their essays and poems.
  • I could not keep pace with all these literary folk as they glanced from subject to subject and entered into deep dispute, or made conversation sparkle with epigrams and happy witticisms.
  • He has his own way of thinking, saying and doing everything.
  • I received from them gifts that have the gentle concurrence of the heart, books containing their own thoughts, soul-illumined letters, and photographs that I love to have described again and again.
  • She is always doing something to make some one happy, and her generosity and wise counsel have never failed my teacher and me in all the years we have known her.
  • Kind to every one, he goes about doing good, silent and unseen.
  • Helen Keller's letters are important, not only as a supplementary story of her life, but as a demonstration of her growth in thought and expression--the growth which in itself has made her distinguished.
  • The best passages are those in which she talks about herself, and gives her world in terms of her experience of it.
  • To them and to a few friends with whom she is in closest sympathy she writes with intimate frankness whatever she is thinking about.
  • So these selections from Miss Keller's correspondence are made with two purposes--to show her development and to preserve the most entertaining and significant passages from several hundred letters.
  • From the letters after the year 1892 I have culled in the spirit of one making an anthology, choosing the passages best in style and most important from the point of view of biography.
  • I have done nothing but select and cut.
  • Three months and a half after the first word was spelled into her hand, she wrote in pencil this letter
  • Two words are almost illegible, and the angular print slants in every direction.
  • By the following September Helen shows improvement in fulness of construction and more extended relations of thought.
  • A few weeks later her style is more nearly correct and freer in movement.
  • I and teacher did go to church sunday mr. lane did read in book and talk Lady did play organ.
  • I will hug and kiss little blind girls mr. anagnos will come to see me.
  • I did read in my book about fox and box. fox can sit in the box.
  • I and Father and aunt did go to see you in Washington.
  • My sister can walk and run.
  • I will go to Boston in June and I will buy father gloves, and James nice collar, and Simpson cuffs.
  • I saw Miss Betty and her scholars.
  • They had a pretty Christmas-tree, and there were many pretty presents on it for little children.
  • I had a mug, and little bird and candy.
  • Aunt gave me a trunk for Nancy and clothes.
  • We did dance and play and eat nuts and candy and cakes and oranges and I did have fun with little boys and girls.
  • Mrs. Hopkins did send me lovely ring, I do love her and little blind girls.
  • Men and boys do make carpets in mills.
  • Men do cut sheep's wool off with large shears, and send it to the mill.
  • Men and women do make wool cloth in mills.
  • Men and boys and girls and women do pick cotton.
  • We do make thread and cotton dresses of cotton.
  • Cotton has pretty white and red flowers on it.
  • Mother will buy me lovely new aprons and dress to take to Boston.
  • I went to Knoxville with father and aunt.
  • Bessie is weak and little.
  • When she felt the maps and blackboards she asked, "Do men go to school?"
  • Teacher told me about kind gentleman I shall be glad to read pretty story I do read stories in my book about tigers and lions and sheep.
  • I am coming to Boston in June to see little blind girls and I will come to see you.
  • I went to Memphis to see grandmother and Aunt Nannie.
  • Teacher bought me lovely new dress and cap and aprons.
  • Little Natalie is a very weak and small baby.
  • This morning Lucien Thompson sent me a beautiful bouquet of violets and crocuses and jonquils.
  • She can shut her eyes and bend her arms and sit down and stand up straight.
  • She is Nancy's sister and I am their mother.
  • Teacher and I went to Memphis to see aunt Nannie and grandmother.
  • Teacher bought me a lovely new dress and gloves and stockings and collars and grandmother made me warm flannels, and aunt Nannie made me aprons.
  • I went to see Robert and Mr. Graves and Mrs. Graves and little Natalie, and Mr. Farris and Mr. Mayo and Mary and everyone.
  • I do love Robert and teacher.
  • Father will plant melons and peas and beans.
  • Mother will make ice-cream for dinner, we will have ice-cream and cake for dinner.
  • Teacher and I went to walk in the yard, and I learned about how flowers and trees grow.
  • Sun rises in the east and sets in the west.
  • Sheffield is north and Tuscumbia is south.
  • "Uncle Morrie" of the next letter is Mr. Morrison Heady, of Normandy, Kentucky, who lost his sight and hearing when he was a boy.
  • I do love to run and hop and skip with Robert in bright warm sun.
  • I do read stories in my book about lions and tigers and bears.
  • I love to play with little sister, she is weak and small baby.
  • Robert will come to see me Sunday when sun shines and I will have fun with him.
  • I will come to Memphis again to see Mr. Farris and Mrs. Graves and Mr. Mayo and Mr. Graves.
  • With much love and a kiss HELEN A. KELLER.
  • I was very happy to receive pretty book and nice candy and two letters from you.
  • Friday teacher and I went to a picnic with little children.
  • We played games and ate dinner under the trees, and we found ferns and wild flowers.
  • There are poplar and cedar and pine and oak and ash and hickory and maple trees.
  • They make a pleasant shade and the little birds love to swing to and fro and sing sweetly up in the trees.
  • Geraniums and roses jasamines and japonicas are cultivated flowers.
  • I help mother and teacher water them every night before supper.
  • Adeline is well and she can go to Cincinnati Monday with me.
  • I am tired now and I do want to go down stairs.
  • I send many kisses and hugs with letter.
  • Toward the end of May Mrs. Keller, Helen, and Miss Sullivan started for Boston.
  • On May 26th they arrived in Boston and went to the Perkins Institution; here Helen met the little blind girls with whom she had corresponded the year before.
  • Early in July she went to Brewster, Massachusetts, and spent the rest of the summer.
  • She likes to sit in my little rocking-chair and put her kitty to sleep.
  • Her eyes are very big and blue, and her cheeks are soft and round and rosy and her hair is very bright and golden.
  • She is very good and sweet when she does not cry loud.
  • Next summer Mildred will go out in the garden with me and pick the big sweet strawberries and then she will be very happy.
  • Sometime will you please come to Alabama and visit me?
  • When I visit many strange countries my brother and Mildred will stay with grandmother because they will be too small to see a great many people and I think they would cry loud on the great rough ocean.
  • Then I shall see lions and tigers and monkeys.
  • I will get a baby lion and a white monkey and a mild bear to bring home.
  • I went in bathing almost every day and Carrie and Frank and little Helen and I had fun.
  • We splashed and jumped and waded in the deep water.
  • Can Harry float and swim?
  • We came to Boston last Thursday, and Mr. Anagnos was delighted to see me, and he hugged and kissed me.
  • When you come to Tuscumbia to see me I hope my father will have many sweet apples and juicy peaches and fine pears and delicious grapes and large water melons.
  • I hope you think about me and love me because I am a good little child.
  • With much love and two kisses From your little friend HELEN A. KELLER.
  • Teacher and I had a lovely time with many kind friends.
  • West Newton is not far from Boston and we went there in the steam cars very quickly.
  • Mrs. Freeman and Carrie and Ethel and Frank and Helen came to station to meet us in a huge carriage.
  • I was delighted to see my dear little friends and I hugged and kissed them.
  • Many very handsome houses and large soft green lawns around them and trees and bright flowers and fountains.
  • The horse's name was Prince and he was gentle and liked to trot very fast.
  • When we went home we saw eight rabbits and two fat puppies, and a nice little white pony, and two wee kittens and a pretty curly dog named Don.
  • Pony's name was Mollie and I had a nice ride on her back; I was not afraid, I hope my uncle will get me a dear little pony and a little cart very soon.
  • I played with many little girls and we had fun.
  • I rode on Carrie's tricicle and picked flowers and ate fruit and hopped and skipped and danced and went to ride.
  • Many ladies and gentlemen came to see us.
  • Lucy and Dora and Charles were born in China.
  • I was born in America, and Mr. Anagnos was born in Greece.
  • We came home in horse cars because it was Sunday and steam cars do not go often on Sunday.
  • Conductors and engineers do get very tired and go home to rest.
  • I saw little Willie Swan in the car and he gave me a juicy pear.
  • I am very sorry that Eva and Bessie are sick.
  • With much love and thousand kisses.
  • I am very happy to write to you because I think of you and love you.
  • I read pretty stories in the book you sent me, about Charles and his boat, and Arthur and his dream, and Rosa and the sheep.
  • Mother and teacher and Mrs. Hopkins and Mr. Anagnos and Mr. Rodocanachi and many other friends went to Plymouth to see many old things.
  • Many years ago there lived in England many good people, but the king and his friends were not kind and gentle and patient with good people, because the king did not like to have the people disobey him.
  • When they went to Holland they did not know anyone; and they could not know what the people were talking about because they did not know Dutch.
  • But soon they learned some Dutch words; but they loved their own language and they did not want little boys and girls to forget it and learn to talk funny Dutch.
  • So they said, We must go to a new country far away and build schools and houses and churches and make new cities.
  • One day there was a great shout on the ship for the people saw the land and they were full of joy because they had reached a new country safely.
  • Little girls and boys jumped and clapped their hands.
  • I did see the rock in Plymouth and a little ship like the Mayflower and the cradle that dear little Peregrine slept in and many old things that came in the Mayflower.
  • Now I am very tired and I will rest.
  • With much love and many kisses, from your little friend.
  • She assimilated words and practised with them, sometimes using them intelligently, sometimes repeating them in a parrot-like fashion.
  • It was in this way that she learned to use correctly words of sound and vision which express ideas outside of her experience.
  • There are twenty seven little children here and they are all blind.
  • Poor Edith is blind and deaf and dumb.
  • Are you very sad for Edith and me?
  • Soon I shall go home to see my mother and my father and my dear good and sweet little sister.
  • I hope you will come to Alabama to visit me and I will take you to ride in my little cart and I think you will like to see me on my dear little pony's back.
  • I shall wear my lovely cap and my new riding dress.
  • If the sun shines brightly I will take you to see Leila and Eva and Bessie.
  • When I am thirteen years old I am going to travel in many strange and beautiful countries.
  • I shall climb very high mountains in Norway and see much ice and snow.
  • Will you please come to see me soon and take me to the theater?
  • I am studying French and German and Latin and Greek.
  • Se agapo is Greek, and it means I love thee.
  • J'ai une bonne petite soeur is French, and it means I have a good little sister.
  • Puer is boy in Latin, and Mutter is mother in German.
  • My puppy has had his supper and gone to bed.
  • My rabbits are sleeping, too; and very soon I shall go to bed.
  • Mother and father and their friends have gone to see a huge furnace.
  • Then it is all ready to be manufactured into engines, stoves, kettles and many other things.
  • Many years ago, before people came to live on the earth, great trees and tall grasses and huge ferns and all the beautiful flowers cover the earth.
  • When the leaves and the trees fell, the water and the soil covered them; and then more trees grew and fell also, and were buried under water and soil.
  • Are you very lonely and sad now?
  • I hope you will come to see me soon, and stay a long time.
  • Astronomer comes from the Latin word astra, which means stars; and astronomers are men who study the stars, and tell us about them.
  • Do you like to look out of your window, and see little stars?
  • Teacher says she can see Venus from our window, and it is a large and beautiful star.
  • The stars are called the earth's brothers and sisters.
  • Some bells are musical and others are unmusical.
  • Some are very tiny and some are very large.
  • They tell us when breakfast is ready, when to go to school, when it is time for church, and when there is a fire.
  • They tell people when to go to work, and when to go home and rest.
  • The engine-bell tells the passengers that they are coming to a station, and it tells the people to keep out of the way.
  • Sometimes very terrible accidents happen, and many people are burned and drowned and injured.
  • The other day I broke my doll's head off; but that was not a dreadful accident, because dolls do not live and feel, like people.
  • My little pigeons are well, and so is my little bird.
  • With much love, and many kisses, HELEN A. KELLER.
  • It made me feel very sad to leave Boston and I missed all of my friends greatly, but of course I was glad to get back to my lovely home once more.
  • When she is older I will teach her many things if she is patient and obedient.
  • My teacher says, if children learn to be patient and gentle while they are little, that when they grow to be young ladies and gentlemen they will not forget to be kind and loving and brave.
  • We played games, and ate ice-cream and cake and fruit.
  • The sun is shining brightly to-day and I hope we shall go to ride if the roads are dry.
  • I am very glad because I love the warm sunshine and the fragrant flowers.
  • He has big brown eyes and long golden hair and pretty round cheeks.
  • She has on a dainty lace dress and satin slippers.
  • Poor old Nancy is growing old and very feeble.
  • I have two tame pigeons and a tiny canary bird.
  • Jumbo is very strong and faithful.
  • I go to school every day I am studying reading, writing, arithmetic, geography and language.
  • My Mother and teacher send you and Mrs. Hale their kind greetings and Mildred sends you a kiss.
  • With much love and kisses, from your Affectionate cousin HELEN A. KELLER.
  • She uses words precisely and makes easy, fluent sentences.
  • He had climbed the high mountains in Switzerland and visited beautiful churches in Italy and France, and he saw a great many ancient castles.
  • I thank you very much for the beautiful story about Lord Fauntleroy, and so does teacher.
  • Give Howard my love, and tell him to answer my letter.
  • It was very pleasant out in the shady woods, and we all enjoyed the picnic very much.
  • Mildred is out in the yard playing, and mother is picking the delicious strawberries.
  • Father and Uncle Frank are down town.
  • Mildred and I had our pictures taken while we were in Huntsville.
  • Please give the little boys and girls my love.
  • I think of them every day and I love them dearly in my heart.
  • When you come home from Europe I hope you will be all well and very happy to get home again.
  • Do not forget to give my love to Miss Calliope Kehayia and Mr. Francis Demetrios Kalopothakes.
  • I will tell you what he did, and I think you will feel very sorry for the little child.
  • Oh, it was a lovely and delicate doll! but the little girl's brother, a tall lad, had taken the doll, and set it up in a high tree in the garden, and had run away.
  • The doll cried, too, and stretched out its arms from among the green branches, and looked distressed.
  • Already she began to see quite plainly the little elves in their tall pointed hats, dancing down the dusky alleys, and peeping from between the bushes, and they seemed to come nearer and nearer; and she stretched her hands up towards the tree in which the doll sat and they laughed, and pointed their fingers at her.
  • It hobbled, and that made me laugh; but it is wrong to laugh at the poor animals!
  • Little sister and I would take you out into the garden, and pick the delicious raspberries and a few strawberries for you.
  • In the evening, when it is cool and pleasant, we would walk in the yard, and catch the grasshoppers and butterflies.
  • We would talk about the birds and flowers and grass and Jumbo and Pearl.
  • If you liked, we would run and jump and hop and dance, and be very happy.
  • One sits on the twig of a tree, just beneath our window, and he fills the air with his glad songs.
  • But I am afraid you cannot come to Tuscumbia; so I will write to you, and send you a sweet kiss and my love.
  • My little children are all well except Nancy, and she is quite feeble.
  • My grandmother and aunt Corinne are here.
  • Give my love to all the little girls, and tell them that Helen loves them very, very much.
  • With much love and many kisses, from your affectionate little friend, HELEN ADAMS KELLER.
  • During the summer Miss Sullivan was away from Helen for three months and a half, the first separation of teacher and pupil.
  • I am sitting on the piazza, and my little white pigeon is perched on the back of my chair, watching me write.
  • Fauntleroy is asleep upstairs, and Nancy is putting Lucy to bed.
  • The air is sweet with the perfume of jasmines, heliotropes and roses.
  • I will write and tell you all the pleasant things we do.
  • I am so glad that Lester and Henry are good little infants.
  • Then I will take his soft chubby hand in mine, and go out in the bright sunshine with him.
  • He will pull the largest roses, and chase the gayest butterflies.
  • I will take very good care of him, and not let him fall and hurt himself.
  • Father and some other gentlemen went hunting yesterday.
  • We had some of them for supper, and they were very nice.
  • The crane is a large and strong bird.
  • His wings are as long as my arm, and his bill is as long as my foot.
  • He eats little fishes, and other small animals.
  • Mildred is the dearest and sweetest little maiden in the world.
  • Sometimes, when mother does not know it, she goes out into the vineyard, and gets her apron full of delicious grapes.
  • I think she would like to put her two soft arms around your neck and hug you.
  • There was a boat floating on the water, and the fragrant lilies were growing all around the boat.
  • There were eight pigeons on the roof of the house, and a great dog on the step.
  • She has eight puppies, and she thinks there never were such fine puppies as hers.
  • I send you five thousand kisses, and more love than I can tell.
  • The dress is blue like your eyes, and candy is sweet just like your dear little self.
  • I think mother will be glad to make the dress for you, and when you wear it you will look as pretty as a rose.
  • The picture-book will tell you all about many strange and wild animals.
  • I go to school every day, and I learn many new things.
  • At nine I go to the gymnasium with the little girls and we have great fun.
  • I wish you could be here to play three little squirrels, and two gentle doves, and to make a pretty nest for a dear little robin.
  • At eleven I talk with teacher and at twelve I study zoology.
  • Give father and mother a great deal of love and many hugs and kisses for me.
  • I hope she is not lonely and unhappy.
  • I hope she will be very faithful, and brave, too.
  • I learn a great many new and wonderful things.
  • I study about the earth, and the animals, and I like arithmetic exceedingly.
  • I think she will laugh when I tell her she is a vertebrate, a mammal, a quadruped; and I shall be very sorry to tell her that she belongs to the order Carnivora.
  • This letter is indorsed in Whittier's hand, "Helen A. Keller--deaf dumb and blind--aged nine years."
  • Yesterday I read "In School Days" and "My Playmate," and I enjoyed them greatly.
  • I was very sorry that the poor little girl with the browns and the "tangled golden curls" died.
  • I love you very dearly, because you have taught me so many lovely things about flowers, and birds, and people.
  • Her little girls are named Violet and May.
  • Lady Meath said she would like to see your flowers, and hear the mocking-birds sing.
  • When I visit England they want me to come to see them, and stay a few weeks.
  • Mr. Wade wants teacher and me to come and see him next spring.
  • They came while we were eating breakfast, and my friends enjoyed them with me.
  • We had a very nice dinner on Thanksgiving day,--turkey and plum-pudding.
  • I saw a great many statues, and the gentleman gave me an angel.
  • There were four hundred and sixty sailors.
  • They wore blue uniforms and queer little caps.
  • Many stores were burned, and four men were killed.
  • Tell her to shake him, and then he will blow his trumpet.
  • I am going to have a Christmas tree in the parlor and teacher will hang all of my gifts upon it.
  • Teacher and I are the only babies left for Mrs. Hopkins to care for.
  • Her throat was very sore and the doctor thought she would have to go away to the hospital, but she is better now.
  • Mr. and Miss Endicott came to see me, and I went to ride in the carriage.
  • He is very soft and delicate yet.
  • I hope I have written my letter nicely, but it is very difficult to write on this paper and teacher is not here to give me better.
  • Give many kisses to little sister and much love to all.
  • I shall always keep them, and it will make me very happy to think that you found them, on that far away island, from which Columbus sailed to discover our dear country.
  • The flowers were wilted, but the kind thought which came with them was as sweet and as fresh as newly pulled violets.
  • With loving greeting to the little cousins, and Mrs. Hale and a sweet kiss for yourself, From your little friend, HELEN A. KELLER.
  • I am sorry that you have no little children to play with you sometimes; but I think you are very happy with your books, and your many, many friends.
  • Jakey was the sweetest little fellow you can imagine, but he was poor and blind.
  • I am studying about insects in zoology, and I have learned many things about butterflies.
  • They do not make honey for us, like the bees, but many of them are as beautiful as the flowers they light upon, and they always delight the hearts of little children.
  • She is a lovely baby, and I am sure you will love her.
  • Last evening I went out in the yard and spoke to the moon.
  • I can hardly wait for June to come I am so eager to speak to her and to my precious little sister.
  • I think you are very kind and patient, and I love you very dearly.
  • When I was a very little child I used to sit in my mother's lap all the time, because I was very timid, and did not like to be left by myself.
  • And I would keep my little hand on her face all the while, because it amused me to feel her face and lips move when she talked with people.
  • And I would keep my little hand on her face all the while, because it amused me to feel her face and lips move when she talked with people.
  • This good and happy news delighted me exceedingly, for then I was sure that I should learn also.
  • Now I am as happy as the little birds, because I can speak and perhaps I shall sing too.
  • All of my friends will be so surprised and glad.
  • When the Perkins Institution closed for the summer, Helen and Miss Sullivan went to Tuscumbia.
  • Mildred has grown much taller and stronger than she was when I went to Boston, and she is the sweetest and dearest little child in the world.
  • My parents were delighted to hear me speak, and I was overjoyed to give them such a happy surprise.
  • I am always happy and so was Little Lord Fauntleroy, but dear Little Jakey's life was full of sadness.
  • It makes me happy to know much about my loving Father, who is good and wise.
  • Teacher sends you her kind remembrances, and father and mother also send their regards.
  • It has followed me across the ocean and found me in this magnificent great city which I should like to tell you all about if I could take time for it and make my letter long enough.
  • Some time when you come and see me in my study in Boston I shall be glad to talk to you about it all if you care to hear.
  • But now I want to tell you how glad I am that you are so happy and enjoying your home so very much.
  • I can almost think I see you with your father and mother and little sister, with all the brightness of the beautiful country about you, and it makes me very glad to know how glad you are.
  • We like to think that the sunshine and the winds and the trees are able to love in some way of their own, for it would make us know that they were happy if we knew that they could love.
  • And so God who is the greatest and happiest of all beings is the most loving too.
  • And so God who is the greatest and happiest of all beings is the most loving too.
  • And the more we love the more near we are to God and His Love.
  • And the more we love the more near we are to God and His Love.
  • So are your Father and your Mother and your Teacher and all your friends.
  • And He is happier than any of us because He is greater than any of us, and also because He not merely SEES your happiness as we do, but He also MADE it.
  • And He is happier than any of us because He is greater than any of us, and also because He not merely SEES your happiness as we do, but He also MADE it.
  • He gives it to you as the sun gives light and color to the rose.
  • And we are always most glad of what we not merely see our friends enjoy, but of what we give them to enjoy.
  • And Jesus, who is His Son, but is nearer to Him than all of us His other Children, came into the world on purpose to tell us all about our Father's Love.
  • And so He loved men Himself and though they were very cruel to Him and at last killed Him, He was willing to die for them because He loved them so.
  • And so He loved men Himself and though they were very cruel to Him and at last killed Him, He was willing to die for them because He loved them so.
  • And, Helen, He loves men still, and He loves us, and He tells us that we may love Him.
  • And, Helen, He loves men still, and He loves us, and He tells us that we may love Him.
  • And so love is everything.
  • And if anybody asks you, or if you ask yourself what God is, answer, "God is Love."
  • All this is what you are to think of and to understand more and more as you grow older.
  • Think of it now, and let it make every blessing brighter because your dear Father sends it to you.
  • I shall want you to tell me all about everything, and not forget the Donkey.
  • I send my kind remembrance to your father and mother, and to your teacher.
  • Your letter is charming, and I am greatly pleased with it.
  • I rejoice to know that you are well and happy.
  • The tongue is so serviceable a member (taking all sorts of shapes, just as is wanted),--the teeth, the lips, the roof of the mouth, all ready to help, and so heap up the sound of the voice into the solid bits which we call consonants, and make room for the curiously shaped breathings which we call vowels!
  • It almost makes me think the world would get along as well without seeing and hearing as with them.
  • Just think of an army of blind people, with guns and cannon!
  • Of what use would they and their drumsticks be?
  • You are spared the pain of many sights and sounds, which you are only too happy in escaping.
  • Everybody will feel an interest in dear little Helen; everybody will want to do something for her; and, if she becomes an ancient, gray-haired woman, she is still sure of being thoughtfully cared for.
  • Your parents and friends must take great satisfaction in your progress.
  • It does great credit, not only to you, but to your instructors, who have so broken down the walls that seemed to shut you in that now your outlook seems more bright and cheerful than that of many seeing and hearing children.
  • It makes me very happy to know that I have kind and loving friends in the far-away State of Maine.
  • I did not imagine, when I studied about the forests of Maine, that a strong and beautiful ship would go sailing all over the world, carrying wood from those rich forests, to build pleasant homes and schools and churches in distant countries.
  • I hope the great ocean will love the new Helen, and let her sail over its blue waves peacefully.
  • I hope I shall see you and my beautiful namesake some time.
  • Helen and Miss Sullivan returned to the Perkins Institution early in November.
  • How I wish I could see you this lovely morning, and tell you all that has happened since I left home!
  • And my darling little sister, how I wish I could give her a hundred kisses!
  • And my dear father, how he would like to hear about our journey!
  • But I cannot see you and talk to you, so I will write and tell you all that I can think of.
  • We found the boat and the transfer carriage with much less difficulty than teacher expected.
  • We went to bed and slept until morning.
  • We surprised our dear friends, however, for they did not expect us Saturday; but when the bell rung Miss Marrett guessed who was at the door, and Mrs. Hopkins jumped up from the breakfast table and ran to the door to meet us; she was indeed much astonished to see us.
  • I was overjoyed to see my dearest and kindest friend once more.
  • Jack Frost had dressed them in gold and crimson.
  • The grass was as green as though it was springtime, and the golden ears of corn gathered together in heaps in the great fields looked very pretty.
  • How I wish I could see my own donkey and my dear Lioness!
  • Our room is pleasant and comfortable.
  • The case was broken and the keys are nearly all out.
  • It is a very pretty story, and I will tell it to you some time.
  • With much love to father, Mildred, you and all the dear friends, lovingly your little daughter, HELEN A. KELLER.
  • This evening they are going to entertain their friends with readings from your poems and music.
  • At first I was very sorry when I found that the sun had hidden his shining face behind dull clouds, but afterwards I thought why he did it, and then I was happy.
  • The sun knows that you like to see the world covered with beautiful white snow and so he kept back all his brightness, and let the little crystals form in the sky.
  • Then the sun will appear in all his radiance and fill the world with light.
  • I received the letter which you wrote to me last summer, and I thank you for it.
  • Teacher is well and sends her kind remembrance to you.
  • I hope your Christmas Day will be a very happy one and that the New Year will be full of brightness and joy for you and every one.
  • I had two or three hundred others and thine was one of the most welcome of all.
  • Of course the sun did not shine, but we had great open wood fires in the rooms, which were all very sweet with roses and other flowers, which were sent to me from distant friends; and fruits of all kinds from California and other places.
  • Some relatives and dear old friends were with me through the day.
  • I thank thee for all thy good wishes, and wish thee as many.
  • Tommy Stringer, who appears in several of the following letters, became blind and deaf when he was four years old.
  • His mother was dead and his father was too poor to take care of him.
  • She wanted him brought to Boston, and when she was told that money would be needed to get him a teacher, she answered, "We will raise it."
  • She began to solicit contributions from her friends, and saved her pennies.
  • Helen asked that the contributions, which people were sending from all over America and England, be devoted to Tommy's education.
  • Turned to this new use, the fund grew fast, and Tommy was provided for.
  • My Dear Friend, Mr. Krehl:--I have just heard, through Mr. Wade, of your kind offer to buy me a gentle dog, and I want to thank you for the kind thought.
  • It makes me think that all people are good and loving.
  • I have read that the English and Americans are cousins; but I am sure it would be much truer to say that we are brothers and sisters.
  • My friends have told me about your great and magnificent city, and I have read a great deal that wise Englishmen have written.
  • I have begun to read "Enoch Arden," and I know several of the great poet's poems by heart.
  • I am eager to cross the ocean, for I want to see my English friends and their good and wise queen.
  • Once the Earl of Meath came to see me, and he told me that the queen was much beloved by her people, because of her gentleness and wisdom.
  • And now I want to tell you what the dog lovers in America are going to do.
  • They are going to send me some money for a poor little deaf and dumb and blind child.
  • His name is Tommy, and he is five years old.
  • His parents are too poor to pay to have the little fellow sent to school; so, instead of giving me a dog, the gentlemen are going to help make Tommy's life as bright and joyous as mine.
  • Education will bring light and music into Tommy's soul, and then he cannot help being happy.
  • I love every word of "Spring" and "Spring Has Come."
  • I am not blind any longer, for I see with your eyes and hear with your ears.
  • I want you to see baby Tom, the little blind and deaf and dumb child who has just come to our pretty garden.
  • He is poor and helpless and lonely now, but before another April education will have brought light and gladness into Tommy's life.
  • I can hardly wait patiently for the time to come when I shall see my dear English friends, and their beautiful island home.
  • You will be glad to hear that Tommy has a kind lady to teach him, and that he is a pretty, active little fellow.
  • He cannot imagine how very, very happy he will be when he can tell us his thoughts, and we can tell him how we have loved him so long.
  • Tomorrow April will hide her tears and blushes beneath the flowers of lovely May.
  • It is very beautiful to think that you can tell so many people of the heavenly Father's tender love for all His children even when they are not gentle and noble as He wishes them to be.
  • I hope the glad news which you will tell them will make their hearts beat fast with joy and love.
  • I hope too, that Bishop Brooks' whole life will be as rich in happiness as the month of May is full of blossoms and singing birds.
  • Before a teacher was found for Tommy and while he was still in the care of Helen and Miss Sullivan, a reception was held for him at the kindergarten.
  • All of these she answered herself, and she made public acknowledgment in letters to the newspapers.
  • He is very happy indeed at the kindergarten, and is learning something every day.
  • He has found out that doors have locks, and that little sticks and bits of paper can be got into the key-hole quite easily; but he does not seem very eager to get them out after they are in.
  • He loves to climb the bed-posts and unscrew the steam valves much better than to spell, but that is because he does not understand that words would help him to make new and interesting discoveries.
  • I hope that good people will continue to work for Tommy until his fund is completed, and education has brought light and music into his little life.
  • I tried to imagine my gentle poet when he was a school-boy, and I wondered if it was in Andover he learned the songs of the birds and the secrets of the shy little woodland children.
  • I am sure his heart was always full of music, and in God's beautiful world he must have heard love's sweet replying.
  • We shall all be proud and happy to welcome our poet friend.
  • I hope our kind friend Dr. Ellis will come too, and take Tom in his arms.
  • With much love and a kiss, from your little friend, HELEN A. KELLER.
  • Yesterday I thought for the first time what a beautiful thing motion was, and it seemed to me that everything was trying to get near to God, does it seem that way to you?
  • It is Sunday morning, and while I sit here in the library writing this letter you are teaching hundreds of people some of the grand and beautiful things about their heavenly Father.
  • Teacher sends her kind remembrances, and I send you with my picture my dear love.
  • When the Perkins Institution closed in June, Helen and her teacher went south to Tuscumbia, where they remained until December.
  • There is a hiatus of several months in the letters, caused by the depressing effect on Helen and Miss Sullivan of the "Frost King" episode.
  • At the time this trouble seemed very grave and brought them much unhappiness.
  • An analysis of the case has been made elsewhere, and Miss Keller has written her account of it.
  • I enjoyed every word of it and wished that it was longer.
  • Perhaps the Old Sea God as he lay asleep upon the shore, heard the soft music of growing things--the stir of life in the earth's bosom, and his stormy heart was angry, because he knew that his and Winter's reign was almost at an end.
  • But lo! the lovely maiden only smiles more sweetly, and breathes upon the icy battlements of her enemies, and in a moment they vanish, and the glad Earth gives her a royal welcome.
  • The small letters are all made in the grooves, while the long ones extend above and below them.
  • We guide the pencil with the right hand, and feel carefully with the forefinger of the left hand to see that we shape and space the letters correctly.
  • I will see you to-morrow and then we can make the rest of our plans.
  • Please give your dear aunt teacher's and my love and tell her that we enjoyed our little visit very much indeed.
  • You remember teacher and I told you Sunday that I wanted to have a little tea in aid of the kindergarten.
  • Teacher said yesterday, that perhaps Mrs. Spaulding would be willing to let us have her beautiful house, and [I] thought I would ask you about it.
  • Please let me know what you think about the house, and try to forgive me for troubling you so much.
  • The preparations for my tea are nearly completed, and I am looking forward joyfully to the event.
  • Kind people will not disappoint me, when they know that I plead for helpless little children who live in darkness and ignorance.
  • This wonderful world with all its sunlight and beauty was hidden from me, and I had never dreamed of its loveliness.
  • But teacher came to me and taught my little fingers to use the beautiful key that has unlocked the door of my dark prison and set my spirit free.
  • At the end of June Miss Sullivan and Helen went home to Tuscumbia.
  • Nevertheless, I must tell you that we are alive,--that we reached home safely, and that we speak of you daily, and enjoy your interesting letters very much.
  • Everything was fresh and spring-like, and we stayed out of doors all day.
  • Sometimes we sat in the hammock, and teacher read to me.
  • I rode horseback nearly every evening and once I rode five miles at a fast gallop.
  • I have a very pretty little cart now, and if it ever stops raining teacher and I are going to drive every evening.
  • My little brother, Phillips, is not well, and we think the clear mountain air will benefit him.
  • Mildred is a sweet little sister and I am sure you would love her.
  • Please give my love to Miss Derby and tell her that I hope she gave my sweetest love to Baby Ruth.
  • I received several, and I do not know which was from you.
  • And every stitch, he writes, represents a kind wish for my health and happiness.
  • And every stitch, he writes, represents a kind wish for my health and happiness.
  • Please kiss your dear little baby for me, and tell her I have a little brother nearly sixteen months old.
  • I send you with this letter a pretty book which my teacher thinks will interest you, and my picture.
  • Please accept them with the love and good wishes of your friend, HELEN KELLER.
  • You must have wondered why your letter has not had an answer, and perhaps you have thought Teacher and me very naughty indeed.
  • Teacher's eyes have been hurting her so that she could not write to any one, and I have been trying to fulfil a promise which I made last summer.
  • I had intended to write the sketch during my vacation: but I was not well, and I did not feel able to write even to my friends.
  • But when the bright, pleasant autumn days came, and I felt strong again I began to think about the sketch.
  • We received the Silent Worker which you sent, and I wrote right away to the editor to tell him that it was a mistake.
  • Teacher and I are always delighted to hear from you.
  • I want to write to Mr. Bell and send him my picture.
  • Then I shall see you, and dear Mr. Bell, and Elsie and Daisy again!
  • I have a beautiful pony, and a large dog.
  • I would like to feel a parrot talk, it would be so much fun! but I would be pleased with, and love any little creature you send me.
  • Put your whole heart in the good work, my child, and it cannot fail.
  • In March Helen and Miss Sullivan went North, and spent the next few months traveling and visiting friends.
  • In reading this letter about Niagara one should remember that Miss Keller knows distance and shape, and that the size of Niagara is within her experience after she has explored it, crossed the bridge and gone down in the elevator.
  • TO MRS. KATE ADAMS KELLER South Boston, April 13, 1893. ...Teacher, Mrs. Pratt and I very unexpectedly decided to take a journey with dear Dr. Bell Mr. Westervelt, a gentleman whom father met in Washington, has a school for the deaf in Rochester.
  • A lady seemed surprised that I loved flowers when I could not see their beautiful colors, and when I assured her I did love them, she said, "no doubt you feel the colors with your fingers."
  • But after a minute I answered that beauty was a form of goodness--and he went away.
  • When the reception was over we went back to the hotel and teacher slept quite unconscious of the surprise which was in store for her.
  • Mr. Bell and I planned it together, and Mr. Bell made all the arrangements before we told teacher anything about it.
  • The next morning the sun rose bright and warm, and we got up quickly for our hearts were full of pleasant expectation....
  • I had the same feeling once before when I first stood by the great ocean and felt its waves beating against the shore.
  • We went down a hundred and twenty feet in an elevator that we might see the violent eddies and whirlpools in the deep gorge below the Falls.
  • It is thrown across the gorge at a height of two hundred and fifty-eight feet above the water and is supported on each bank by towers of solid rock, which are eight hundred feet apart.
  • I was only doing as the Canadians do, while I was in their country, and besides I honor England's good queen.
  • Oh, I do so hope and pray that I shall speak well some day!...
  • You see, none of my friends describe things to me so vividly and so beautifully as he does....
  • Her visit to the World's Fair she described in a letter to Mr. John P. Spaulding, which was published in St. Nicholas, and is much like the following letter.
  • TO THE CHIEFS OF THE DEPARTMENTS AND OFFICERS IN CHARGE OF BUILDINGS AND EXHIBITS
  • Please favour her with every facility to examine the exhibits in the several Departments, and extend to her such other courtesies as may be possible.
  • Nearly all of the exhibitors seemed perfectly willing to let me touch the most delicate things, and they were very nice about explaining everything to me.
  • I believe they gave me more pleasure than anything else at the Fair: they were so lifelike and wonderful to my touch.
  • Dr. Bell went with us himself to the electrical building, and showed us some of the historical telephones.
  • I sat in King Ludwig's armchair and felt like a queen when Dr. Gillett remarked that I had many loyal subjects.
  • At the Woman's building we met the Princess Maria Schaovskoy of Russia, and a beautiful Syrian lady.
  • The queer-looking Japanese musical instruments, and their beautiful works of art were interesting.
  • Prof. Morse knows a great deal about Japan, and is very kind and wise.
  • Once, while we were out on the water, the sun went down over the rim of the earth, and threw a soft, rosy light over the White City, making it look more than ever like Dreamland....
  • It was a bewildering and fascinating place.
  • I went into the streets of Cairo, and rode on the camel.
  • We also rode in the Ferris wheel, and on the ice-railway, and had a sail in the Whale-back....
  • I wrote to my friends about the work and enlisted their sympathy.
  • Several hundred books, including many fine ones, were sent to me in a short time, as well as money and encouragement.
  • Our quiet mountain home was especially attractive and restful after the excitement and fatigue of our visit to the World's Fair.
  • We enjoyed the beauty and solitude of the hills more than ever.
  • My mother and several of my friends said they would help me with the establishment of a public library.
  • They have now about 100 books and about $55 in money, and a kind gentleman has given us land on which to erect a library building.
  • But in the meantime the club has rented a little room in a central part of the town, and the books which we already have are free to all. 3.
  • It is a very interesting souvenir of Columbus, and of the Fair White City; but I cannot imagine what discoveries I have made,--I mean new discoveries.
  • In February Helen and Miss Sullivan returned to Tuscumbia.
  • They spent the rest of the spring reading and studying.
  • In the fall Helen and Miss Sullivan entered the Wright-Humason School in New York, which makes a special of lip-reading and voice-culture.
  • Oct. 23, 1894. ...The school is very pleasant, and bless you! it is quite fashionable....
  • I should be willing to work night and day if it could only be accomplished.
  • I have lately read "Wilhelm Tell" by Schiller, and "The Lost Vestal."...
  • ...You know our kind teachers take us to see everything which they think will interest us, and we learn a great deal in that delightful way.
  • They permitted themselves startling liberties when any one caressed them, crowding themselves almost into one's arms and helping themselves without ceremony to kisses, apparently unconscious of the impropriety of their conduct.
  • But they are so good natured and friendly, one cannot help liking them.
  • Dr. Humason, Teacher, and I left the others at the Dog Show and went to a reception given by the "Metropolitan Club."...
  • TO MRS. KATE ADAMS KELLER New York, March 31, 1895. ...Teacher and I spent the afternoon at Mr. Hutton's, and had a most delightful time!...
  • We met Mr. Clemens and Mr. Howells there!
  • I had known about them for a long time; but I had never thought that I should see them, and talk to them; and I can scarcely realize now that this great pleasure has been mine!
  • The two distinguished authors were very gentle and kind, and I could not tell which of them I loved best.
  • Mr. Clemens told us many entertaining stories, and made us laugh till we cried.
  • I only wish you could have seen and heard him!
  • I might have seen Mrs. Wiggin, the sweet author of "Birds' Christmas Carol," but she had a dangerous cough and could not come.
  • When the Wright-Humason School closed for the summer, Miss Sullivan and Helen went South.
  • We left Hulton Friday night and arrived here Saturday morning.
  • He said no, it would not be called for about fifteen minutes; so we sat down to wait; but in a moment the man came back and asked Teacher if we would like to go to the train at once.
  • She said we would, and he took us way out on the track and put us on board our train.
  • Mr. Wade is just as dear and good as ever!
  • He has lately had several books printed in England for me, "Old Mortality," "The Castle of Otranto" and "King of No-land."...
  • We also met Mr. and Mrs. Terry, Miss Terry's brother and his wife.
  • I thought her beauty angellic, and oh, what a clear, beautiful voice she had!
  • How noble and kingly the King was, especially in his misfortunes!
  • The play seemed so real, we almost forgot where we were, and believed we were watching the genuine scenes as they were acted so long ago.
  • The last act affected us most deeply, and we all wept, wondering how the executioner could have the heart to tear the King from his loving wife's arms.
  • Sweet Rebecca, with her strong, brave spirit, and her pure, generous nature, was the only character which thoroughly won my admiration.
  • It was so hard to lose him, he was the best and kindest of friends, and I do not know what we shall do without him....
  • We went to a poultry-show... and the man there kindly permitted us to feel of the birds.
  • I saw great big turkeys, geese, guineas, ducks and many others.
  • Almost two weeks ago we called at Mr. Hutton's and had a delightful time.
  • We met Mr. Warner, the writer, Mr. Mabie, the editor of the Outlook and other pleasant people.
  • I am sure you would like to know Mr. and Mrs. Hutton, they are so kind and interesting.
  • Mr. Warner and Mr. Burroughs, the great lover of nature, came to see us a few days after, and we had a delightful talk with them.
  • Mr. Burroughs told me about his home near the Hudson, and what a happy place it must be!
  • Teacher has read me his lively stories about his boyhood, and I enjoyed them greatly.
  • I know it, and it makes me feel so happy, it has such sweet thoughts.
  • I read her lips almost exclusively, (she does not know the manual alphabet) and we get on quite well.
  • I have read "Le Medecin Malgre Lui," a very good French comedy by Moliere, with pleasure; and they say I speak French pretty well now, and German also.
  • As I sit by the window writing to you, it is so lovely to have the soft, cool breezes fan my cheek and to feel that the hard work of last year is over!
  • Teacher and Mrs. Hopkins both say you must come as soon as you can!
  • Teacher and I spent nine days at Philadelphia.
  • We had looked forward to seeing you there, and so we were greatly disappointed that you did not come.
  • We think of you so, so often! and our hearts go out to you in tenderest sympathy; and you know better than this poor letter can tell you how happy we always are to have you with us!
  • Every one said I spoke very well and intelligibly.
  • We left the city last Thursday night, and arrived in Brewster Friday afternoon.
  • We missed the Cape Cod train Friday morning, and so we came down to Provincetown in the steamer Longfellow.
  • We spent about three weeks in Boston, after leaving New York, and I need not tell you we had a most delightful time.
  • We visited our good friends, Mr. and Mrs. Chamberlin, at Wrentham, out in the country, where they have a lovely home.
  • Their house stands near a charming lake where we went boating and canoeing, which was great fun.
  • Mr. and Mrs. Chamberlin celebrated the 17th of June by giving a picnic to their literary friends.
  • There were about forty persons present, all of whom were writers and publishers.
  • Our friend, Mr. Alden, the editor of Harper's was there, and of course we enjoyed his society very much....
  • Perhaps our guardian angel gathers them up as we drop them, and will give them back to us in the beautiful sometime when we have grown wiser, and learned how to use them rightly.
  • He died last Saturday at my home in Tuscumbia, and I was not there.
  • I do wish you could come and see for yourself what a beautiful school it is!
  • There are about a hundred girls, and they are all so bright and happy; it is a joy to be with them.
  • This year is going to be a very busy one for Teacher and myself.
  • But it is harder for Teacher than it is for me because the strain on her poor eyes is so great, and I cannot help worrying about them.
  • It is such a delight to be with the other girls, and do everything that they do.
  • But Johnson, and "The Plague" and everything else must wait a few minutes this afternoon, while I say, thank you, my dear Mrs. Hutton....
  • July 9, 1897. ...Teacher and I are going to spend the summer at Wrentham, Mass. with our friends, the Chamberlins.
  • The subjects I offered were elementary and advanced German, French, Latin, English, and Greek and Roman History.
  • All the time I was preparing for the great ordeal, I could not suppress an inward fear and trembling lest I should fail, and now it is an unspeakable relief to know that I have passed the examinations with credit.
  • But what I consider my crown of success is the happiness and pleasure that my victory has brought dear Teacher.
  • Then the interference of Mr. Gilman resulted in Mrs. Keller's withdrawing Miss Helen and her sister, Miss Mildred, from the school.
  • It is so fresh, and peaceful and free!
  • What an inexpressible joy it will be to read about Achilles, and Ulysses, and Andromache and Athene, and the rest of my old friends in their own glorious language!
  • Every morning, before lesson-time, we all go out to the steep hill on the northern shore of the lake near the house, and coast for an hour or so.
  • Some one balances the toboggan on the very crest of the hill, while we get on, and when we are ready, off we dash down the side of the hill in a headlong rush, and, leaping a projection, plunge into a snow-drift and go swimming far across the pond at a tremendous rate!...
  • I find I get on faster, and do better work with Mr. Keith than I did in the classes at the Cambridge School, and I think it was well that I gave up that kind of work.
  • My teacher and other friends think I could ride a Columbia tandem in the country with perfect safety.
  • I ride with a divided skirt, and so does my teacher; but it would be easier for her to mount a man's wheel than for me; so, if it could be arranged to have the ladies' seat behind, I think it would be better....
  • I rode on a rough road, and fell off three or four times, and am now awfully lame!
  • But the weather and the scenery were so beautiful, and it was such fun to go scooting over the smoother part of the road, I didn't mind the mishaps in the least.
  • I have really learned to swim and dive--after a fashion!
  • So you can well imagine how strong and brown I am....
  • Poor Teacher has had her hands full, attending to movers, and express-men, and all sorts of people.
  • The "Iliad" is beautiful with all the truth, and grace and simplicity of a wonderfully childlike people while the "Aeneid" is more stately and reserved.
  • By and by we shall take a little walk in the Public Gardens.
  • But alas! they are not, and I shall have to content myself with a stroll in the Gardens.
  • Somehow, after the great fields and pastures and lofty pine-groves of the country, they seem shut-in and conventional.
  • Even the trees seem citified and self-conscious.
  • They are like the people whom they see every day, who prefer the crowded, noisy city to the quiet and freedom of the country.
  • Oh my! if they only realized their limitations, they would flee for their lives to the woods and fields.
  • You will think I'm pining away for my beloved Wrentham, which is true in one sense and not in another.
  • I do miss Red Farm and the dear ones there dreadfully; but I am not unhappy.
  • My teacher and I had a good laugh over the girls' frolic.
  • How quickly I should lock up all these mighty warriors, and hoary sages, and impossible heroes, who are now almost my only companions; and dance and sing and frolic like other girls!
  • But I must not waste my time wishing idle wishes; and after all my ancient friends are very wise and interesting, and I usually enjoy their society very much indeed.
  • Why, I can do long, complicated quadratic equations in my head quite easily, and it is great fun!
  • I think Mr. Keith is a wonderful teacher, and I feel very grateful to him for having made me see the beauty of Mathematics.
  • Next to my own dear teacher, he has done more than any one else to enrich and broaden my mind.
  • It is a very strong poem and set me dreaming too.
  • Would a college at Havana not be the noblest and most enduring monument that could be raised to the brave men of the "Maine," as well as a source of infinite good to all concerned?
  • On the other hand, it would be a pledge to the world that we intend to stand by our declaration of war, and give Cuba to the Cubans, as soon as we have fitted them to assume the duties and responsibilities of a self-governing people....
  • She had previously obtained permission from General Loring, Supt. of the Museum, for me to touch the statues, especially those which represented my old friends in the "Iliad" and "Aeneid."
  • She looked as if she had just risen from the foam of the sea, and her loveliness was like a strain of heavenly music.
  • I almost cried, it was all so real and tragic.
  • General Loring kindly showed me a copy of one of the wonderful bronze doors of the Baptistry of Florence, and I felt of the graceful pillars, resting on the backs of fierce lions.
  • Why, bless you, I thought I wrote to you the day after the "Eclogues" arrived, and told you how glad I was to have them!
  • I already have the seventh and eighth books of the "Aeneid" and one book of the "Iliad," all of which is most fortunate, as I have come almost to the end of my embossed text-books.
  • Why, only a little while ago people thought it quite impossible to teach the deaf-blind anything; but no sooner was it proved possible than hundreds of kind, sympathetic hearts were fired with the desire to help them, and now we see how many of those poor, unfortunate persons are being taught to see the beauty and reality of life.
  • Love always finds its way to an imprisoned soul, and leads it out into the world of freedom and intelligence!
  • As to the two-handed alphabet, I think it is much easier for those who have sight than the manual alphabet; for most of the letters look like the large capitals in books; but I think when it comes to teaching a deaf-blind person to spell, the manual alphabet is much more convenient, and less conspicuous....
  • There is but one cloud in my sky at present; but that is one which casts a dark shadow over my life, and makes me very anxious at times.
  • My teacher's eyes are no better: indeed, I think they grow more troublesome, though she is very brave and patient, and will not give up.
  • I have just had some pictures taken, and if they are good, I would like to send one to Mr. Rogers, if you think he would like to have it.
  • I would like so much to show him in some way how deeply I appreciate all that he is doing for me, and I cannot think of anything better to do.
  • We are all so glad and thankful that Mr. Kipling did not die!
  • I have his "Jungle-Book" in raised print, and what a splendid, refreshing book it is!
  • The "Iliad" tells of almost nothing but war, and one sometimes wearies of the clash of spears and the din of battle; but the "Odyssey" tells of nobler courage--the courage of a soul sore tried, but steadfast to the end.
  • You will be glad to hear that my mother, and little sister and brother are coming north to spend this summer with me.
  • She has not had a vacation for twelve years, think of it, and all that time she has been the sunshine of my life.
  • Now her eyes are troubling her a great deal, and we all think she ought to be relieved, for a while, of every care and responsibility.
  • I really believe he knows more Latin and Greek Grammar than Cicero or Homer ever dreamed of!
  • It seemed to show spontaneity and great sweetness of character.
  • Well, I must confess, I do not like the sign-language, and I do not think it would be of much use to the deaf-blind.
  • On the whole, if they cannot be taught articulation, the manual alphabet seems the best and most convenient means of communication.
  • The other day, I met a deaf Norwegian gentleman, who knows Ragnhild Kaata and her teacher very well, and we had a very interesting conversation about her.
  • He said she was very industrious and happy.
  • She spins, and does a great deal of fancy work, and reads, and leads a pleasant, useful life.
  • She reads the lips well, and if she cannot understand a phrase, her friends write it in her hand, and in this way she converses with strangers.
  • TO MRS. LAURENCE HUTTON Wrentham, July 29, 1899. ...I passed in all the subjects I offered, and with credit in advanced Latin....
  • Consequently, I did not do so well as I should have done, if Teacher had been allowed to read the Algebra and Geometry to me.
  • Of course they did not realize how difficult and perplexing they were making the examinations for me.
  • How could they--they can see and hear, and I suppose they could not understand matters from my point of view....
  • My mother, and sister and little brother have been here five weeks, and our happiness knows no bounds.
  • Her arguments seemed so wise and practical, that I could not but yield.
  • Miss Irwin seemed to have no objection to this proposal, and kindly offered to see the professors and find out if they would give me lessons.
  • On the 29th and 30th of June, 1899, I took my examinations for Radcliffe College.
  • The first day I had Elementary Greek and Advanced Latin, and the second day Geometry, Algebra and Advanced Greek.
  • Mr. Vining was a perfect stranger to me, and could not communicate with me except by writing in braille.
  • The Proctor also was a stranger, and did not attempt to communicate with me in any way; and, as they were both unfamiliar with my speech, they could not readily understand what I said to them.
  • However, the braille worked well enough in the languages; but when it came to Geometry and Algebra, it was different.
  • I was sorely perplexed, and felt quite discouraged, and wasted much precious time, especially in Algebra.
  • I had used it all through my school work, and never any other system.
  • The signs, which I had learned the day before, and which I thought I knew perfectly, confused me.
  • Miss Sullivan always sat beside me, and told me what the teachers said.
  • Dear Frau Grote learned the manual alphabet, and used to teach me herself; but this was in private lessons, which were paid for by my friends.
  • TO MISS MILDRED KELLER 138 Brattle Street, Cambridge, November 26, 1899. ...At last we are settled for the winter, and our work is going smoothly.
  • Mr. Keith comes every afternoon at four o'clock, and gives me a "friendly lift" over the rough stretches of road, over which every student must go.
  • Now we have a swell winter outfit--coats, hats, gowns, flannels and all.
  • The other is woollen, and of a very pretty green.
  • The waist is trimmed with pink and green brocaded velvet, and white lace, I think, and has double reefers on the front, tucked and trimmed with velvet, and also a row of tiny white buttons.
  • The skirt is black, while the waist is mostly yellow, trimmed with delicate lavender chiffon, and black velvet bows and lace.
  • Her other dress is purple, trimmed with purple velvet, and the waist has a collar of cream lace.
  • We could hear the yells of the boys and the cheers of the lookers-on as plainly in our room as if we had been on the field.
  • Colonel Roosevelt was there, on Harvard's side; but bless you, he wore a white sweater, and no crimson that we know of!
  • There were about twenty-five thousand people at the game, and, when we went out, the noise was so terrific, we nearly jumped out of our skins, thinking it was the din of war, and not of a football game that we heard.
  • But, in spite of all their wild efforts, neither side was scored, and we all laughed and said, "Oh, well now the pot can't call the kettle black!"...
  • We have seen many of our old friends, and made some new ones.
  • We dined with the Rogers last Friday, and oh, they were so kind to us!
  • The thought of their gentle courtesy and genuine kindness brings a warm glow of joy and gratitude to my heart.
  • We went to St. Bartholomew's Sunday, and I have not felt so much at home in a church since dear Bishop Brooks died.
  • I stood in the middle of the church, where the vibrations from the great organ were strongest, and I felt the mighty waves of sound beat against me, as the great billows beat against a little ship at sea.
  • Among them are "Henry Esmond," "Bacon's Essays" and extracts from "English Literature."
  • Perhaps next week I shall have some more books, "The Tempest," "A Midsummer Night's Dream" and possibly some selections from Green's history of England.
  • You know a student's life is of necessity somewhat circumscribed and narrow and crowds out almost everything that is not in books....
  • In college she, or possibly in some subjects some one else, would of necessity be with me in the lecture-room and at recitations.
  • TO MR. JOHN HITZ 14 Coolidge Ave., Cambridge, Nov. 26, 1900. ...--has already communicated with you in regard to her and my plan of establishing an institution for deaf and blind children.
  • Still I could not shut my eyes to the force and weight of their arguments, and I saw plainly that I must abandon--'s scheme as impracticable.
  • I considered this suggestion carefully, then I told Mr. Rhoades that I should be proud and glad to have wise friends to whom I could always turn for advice in all important matters.
  • Mrs. Hutton had already written to mother, asking her to telegraph if she was willing for me to have other advisers besides herself and Teacher.
  • Funds were to be raised for the teachers' lodgings and also for their salaries.
  • At the same time Dr. Bell added that I could rest content and fight my way through Radcliffe in competition with seeing and hearing girls, while the great desire of my heart was being fulfilled.
  • We clapped our hands and shouted;--went away beaming with pleasure, and Teacher and I felt more light of heart than we had for sometime.
  • If you doubt it, you'd better come and see for yourself.
  • I passed off my English and advanced French before I entered college, and I choose the courses I like best.
  • I don't however intend to give up Latin and Greek entirely.
  • Perhaps I shall take up these studies later; but I've said goodbye to Mathematics forever, and I assure you, I was delighted to see the last of those horrid goblins!
  • There's no great hurry, and I want to get as much as possible out of my studies.
  • Her name is Ruby Rice, and she is thirteen years old, I think.
  • She has never been taught; but they say she can sew and likes to help others in this sort of work.
  • Why, when she enters a store, she will go straight to the showcases, and she can also distinguish her own things.
  • Her name is Maud Scott, and she is six years old.
  • She said that Maud was born deaf and lost her sight when she was only three months old, and that when she went to the Institution a few weeks ago, she was quite helpless.
  • She could not even walk and had very little use of her hands.
  • The dear, sweet little girl, it makes my heart ache to think how utterly she is cut off from all that is good and desirable in life.
  • I was in New York not long ago and I saw Miss Rhoades, who told me that she had seen Katie McGirr.
  • She said the poor young girl talked and acted exactly like a little child.
  • Katie played with Miss Rhoades's rings and took them away, saying with a merry laugh, "You shall not have them again!"
  • He is a great, strong boy now, and he will soon need a man to take care of him; he is really too big for a lady to manage.
  • I have always accepted other peoples experiences and observations as a matter of course.
  • It never occurred to me that it might be worth while to make my own observations and describe the experiences peculiarly my own.
  • I had a splendid time; the toasts and speeches were great fun.
  • Did I tell you in my last letter that I had a new dress, a real party dress with low neck and short sleeves and quite a train?
  • A gentleman in Philadelphia has just written to my teacher about a deaf and blind child in Paris, whose parents are Poles.
  • The mother is a physician and a brilliant woman, he says.
  • This little boy could speak two or three languages before he lost his hearing through sickness, and he is now only about five years old.
  • To be able to read for one's self what is being willed, thought and done in the world--the world in whose joys and sorrows, failures and successes one feels the keenest interest--that would indeed be a happiness too deep for words.
  • I trust that the effort of The Great Round World to bring light to those who sit in darkness will receive the encouragement and support it so richly deserves.
  • Surely there are hearts and hands ever ready to make it possible for generous intentions to be wrought into noble deeds.
  • Day after day the Harbor, the warships, and the park kept us busy thinking and feeling and enjoying....
  • When the Indiana visited Halifax, we were invited to go on board, and she sent her own launch for us.
  • The Indiana was the largest and finest ship in the Harbor, and we felt very proud of her.
  • He had just constructed a boat that could be propelled by a kite with the wind in its favor, and one day he tried experiments to see if he could steer the kite against the wind.
  • I was there and really helped him fly the kites.
  • On one of them I noticed that the strings were of wire, and having had some experience in bead work, I said I thought they would break.
  • Dr. Bell said "No!" with great confidence, and the kite was sent up.
  • It began to pull and tug, and lo, the wires broke, and off went the great red dragon, and poor Dr. Bell stood looking forlornly after it.
  • After that he asked me if the strings were all right and changed them at once when I answered in the negative.
  • If he had not taken upon himself the responsibility of Laura Bridgman's education and led her out of the pit of Acheron back to her human inheritance, should I be a sophomore at Radcliffe College to-day--who can say?
  • Thanks to our friend and helper, our world lies upward; the length and breadth and sweep of the heavens are ours!
  • It was written out of my heart, and perhaps that is why it met a sympathetic response in other hearts.
  • I write all my themes and examinations on it, even Greek.
  • What is remarkable in her career is already accomplished, and whatever she may do in the future will be but a relatively slight addition to the success which distinguishes her now.
  • He quoted the passages in which she explains that college is not the "universal Athens" she had hoped to find, and cited the cases of other remarkable persons whose college life had proved disappointing.
  • But it is to be remembered that Miss Keller has written many things in her autobiography for the fun of writing them, and the disillusion, which the writer of the editorial took seriously, is in great part humorous.
  • I ought to apologize to the reader and to Miss Keller for presuming to say what her subject matter is worth, but one more explanation is necessary.
  • She cannot know in detail how she was taught, and her memory of her childhood is in some cases an idealized memory of what she has learned later from her teacher and others.
  • She saw, too, that her story properly fell into short chapters and redivided it.
  • She sat running her finger over the braille manuscript, stopping now and then to refer to the braille notes on which she had indicated her corrections, all the time reading aloud to verify the manuscript.
  • Miss Sullivan, who is an excellent critic, made suggestions at many points in the course of composition and revision.
  • As a matter of fact, most of the advice she has received and heeded has led to excisions rather than to additions.
  • The book is Miss Keller's and is final proof of her independent power.
  • Mark Twain has said that the two most interesting characters of the nineteenth century are Napoleon and Helen Keller.
  • Miss Keller is tall and strongly built, and has always had good health.
  • When Miss Keller speaks, her face is animated and expresses all the modes of her thought--the expressions that make the features eloquent and give speech half its meaning.
  • Skill in the use of words and her habit of playing with them make her ready with mots and epigrams.
  • "Yes," she replied, "but I like to play also, and I feel sometimes as if I were a music box with all the play shut up inside me."
  • When she met Dr. Furness, the Shakespearean scholar, he warned her not to let the college professors tell her too many assumed facts about the life of Shakespeare; all we know, he said, is that Shakespeare was baptized, married, and died.
  • But she was not satisfied until she had carried out her purpose and entered college.
  • Her life has been a series of attempts to do whatever other people do, and to do it as well.
  • If it happens to be blue, and you tell her so triumphantly, she is likely to answer, Thank you.
  • Her whimsical and adventuresome spirit puts her so much on her mettle that she makes rather a poor subject for the psychological experimenter.
  • Moreover, Miss Sullivan does not see why Miss Keller should be subjected to the investigation of the scientist, and has not herself made many experiments.
  • When a psychologist asked her if Miss Keller spelled on her fingers in her sleep, Miss Sullivan replied that she did not think it worth while to sit up and watch, such matters were of so little consequence.
  • Music probably can mean little to her but beat and pulsation.
  • She cannot sing and she cannot play the piano, although, as some early experiments show, she could learn mechanically to beat out a tune on the keys.
  • When the organ was played for her in St. Bartholomew's, the whole building shook with the great pedal notes, but that does not altogether account for what she felt and enjoyed.
  • Sometimes she puts her hand on a singer's throat to feel the muscular thrill and contraction, and from this she gets genuine pleasure.
  • It is amusing to read in one of the magazines of 1895 that Miss Keller "has a just and intelligent appreciation of different composers from having literally felt their music, Schumann being her favourite."
  • If she knows the difference between Schumann and Beethoven, it is because she has read it, and if she has read it, she remembers it and can tell any one who asks her.
  • Miss Keller's effort to reach out and meet other people on their own intellectual ground has kept her informed of daily affairs.
  • But every one who has met her has given his best ideas to her and she has taken them.
  • She reaches out and touches the leaves, and the world of growing things is hers, as truly as it is ours, to enjoy while she holds the leaves in her fingers and smells the blossoms, and to remember when the walk is done.
  • Miss Sullivan, who knows her pupil's mind, selects from the passing landscape essential elements, which give a certain clearness to Miss Keller's imagined view of an outer world that to our eyes is confused and overloaded with particulars.
  • When she returns from a walk and tells some one about it, her descriptions are accurate and vivid.
  • A comparative experience drawn from written descriptions and from her teacher's words has kept her free from errors in her use of terms of sound and vision.
  • True, her view of life is highly coloured and full of poetic exaggeration; the universe, as she sees it, is no doubt a little better than it really is.
  • Many of the detached incidents and facts of our daily life pass around and over her unobserved; but she has enough detailed acquaintance with the world to keep her view of it from being essentially defective.
  • Laura Bridgman could tell minute shades of difference in the size of thread, and made beautiful lace.
  • Miss Keller used to knit and crochet, but she has had better things to do.
  • She was slower than he expected her to be in identifying them by their relative weight and size.
  • She recognizes the subject and general intention of a statuette six inches high.
  • She suggests herself that she can know them better than we do, because she can get the true dimensions and appreciate more immediately the solid nature of a sculptured figure.
  • When she was at the Museum of Fine Arts in Boston she stood on a step-ladder and let both hands play over the statues.
  • It is, however, in her daily life that one can best measure the delicacy of her senses and her manual skill.
  • He says that she did pretty well and managed to make, after models, some conventional designs of the outlines of leaves and rosettes.
  • She writes with fair speed and absolute sureness.
  • Miss Keller puts her fingers lightly over the hand of one who is talking to her and gets the words as rapidly as they can be spelled.
  • Miss Sullivan and others who live constantly with the deaf can spell very rapidly--fast enough to get a slow lecture, not fast enough to get every word of a rapid speaker.
  • If more people knew this, and the friends and relatives of deaf children learned the manual alphabet at once the deaf all over the world would be happier and better educated.
  • The ordinary embossed book is made with roman letters, both small letters and capitals.
  • The small letters are about three-sixteenths of an inch high, and are raised from the page the thickness of the thumbnail.
  • The time that one of Miss Keller's friends realizes most strongly that she is blind is when he comes on her suddenly in the dark and hears the rustle of her fingers across the page.
  • Miss Keller has a braille writer on which she keeps notes and writes letters to her blind friends.
  • They cost a great deal to publish and they have not a large enough sale to make them profitable to the publisher; but there are several institutions with special funds to pay for embossed books.
  • Miss Keller does not as a rule read very fast, but she reads deliberately, not so much because she feels the words less quickly than we see then, as because it is one of her habits of mind to do things thoroughly and well.
  • Miss Sullivan says that both she and Miss Keller remember "in their fingers" what they have said.
  • For Miss Keller to spell a sentence in the manual alphabet impresses it on her mind just as we learn a thing from having heard it many times and can call back the memory of its sound.
  • The sense of smell has fallen into disrepute, and a deaf person is reluctant to speak of it.
  • This much is certain, she cannot have any sense that other people may not have, and the existence of a special sense is not evident to her or to any one who knows her.
  • Miss Keller is distinctly not a singular proof of occult and mysterious theories, and any attempt to explain her in that way fails to reckon with her normality.
  • She is no more mysterious and complex than any other person.
  • If she had any conception, there is no way of discovering it now; for she cannot remember, and obviously there was no record at the time.
  • It should be said that any double-case watch with the crystal removed serves well enough for a blind person whose touch is sufficiently delicate to feel the position of the hands and not disturb or injure them.
  • What her good friend, Charles Dudley Warner, wrote about her in Harper's Magazine in 1896 was true then, and it remains true now:
  • She is in love with noble things, with noble thoughts, and with the characters of noble men and women.
  • Yesterday I read to her the story of 'Macbeth,' as told by Charles and Mary Lamb.
  • She was very greatly excited by it, and said: 'It is terrible!
  • Of the real world she knows more of the good and less of the evil than most people seem to know.
  • She has a large, generous sympathy and absolute fairness of temper.
  • Then her teacher calls her an incorrigible little sermonizer, and she laughs at herself.
  • Her logic and her sympathy are in excellent balance.
  • Her sympathy is of the swift and ministering sort which, fortunately, she has found so often in other people.
  • And her sympathies go further and shape her opinions on political and national movements.
  • And her sympathies go further and shape her opinions on political and national movements.
  • She was intensely pro-Boer and wrote a strong argument in favour of Boer independence.
  • When she was told of the surrender of the brave little people, her face clouded and she was silent a few minutes.
  • Then she asked clear, penetrating questions about the terms of the surrender, and began to discuss them.
  • Both Mr. Gilman and Mr. Keith, the teachers who prepared her for college, were struck by her power of constructive reasoning; and she was excellent in pure mathematics, though she seems never to have enjoyed it much.
  • She is an optimist and an idealist.
  • In the diary that she kept at the Wright-Humason School in New York she wrote on October 18, 1894, "I find that I have four things to learn in my school life here, and indeed, in life--to think clearly without hurry or confusion, to love everybody sincerely, to act in everything with the highest motives, and to trust in dear God unhesitatingly."
  • The names of Laura Bridgman and Helen Keller will always be linked together, and it is necessary to understand what Dr. Howe did for his pupil before one comes to an account of Miss Sullivan's work.
  • For Dr. Howe is the great pioneer on whose work that of Miss Sullivan and other teachers of the deaf-blind immediately depends.
  • Dr. Samuel Gridley Howe was born in Boston, November 10, 1801, and died in Boston, January 9, 1876.
  • He was a great philanthropist, interested especially in the education of all defectives, the feeble-minded, the blind, and the deaf.
  • As head of the Perkins Institution for the Blind in Boston, he heard of Laura Bridgman and had her brought to the Institution on October 4, 1837.
  • She also lost her sense of smell and taste.
  • Dr. Howe was an experimental scientist and had in him the spirit of New England transcendentalism with its large faith and large charities.
  • Science and faith together led him to try to make his way into the soul which he believed was born in Laura Bridgman as in every other human being.
  • He pasted raised labels on objects and made her fit the labels to the objects and the objects to the labels.
  • She taught it to Laura, and from that time on the manual alphabet was the means of communicating with her.
  • This in itself is a great comment on the difference between Laura Bridgman and Helen Keller.
  • Miss Sullivan knew at the beginning that Helen Keller would be more interesting and successful than Laura Bridgman, and she expresses in one of her letters the need of keeping notes.
  • As soon as a thing was done, a definite goal passed, the teacher did not always look back and describe the way she had come.
  • The explanation of the fact was unimportant compared to the fact itself and the need of hurrying on.
  • When she first wrote from Tuscumbia to Mr. Michael Anagnos, Dr. Howes son-in-law and his successor as Director of the Perkins Institution, about her work with her pupil, the Boston papers began at once to publish exaggerated accounts of Helen Keller.
  • Indeed, I am heartily glad that I don't know all that is being said and written about Helen and myself.
  • The truth is not wonderful enough to suit the newspapers; so they enlarge upon it and invent ridiculous embellishments.
  • Doubtless the work of the past few months does seem like a triumphal march to him; but then people seldom see the halting and painful steps by which the most insignificant success is achieved.
  • The newspapers caught Mr. Anagnos's spirit and exaggerated a hundred-fold.
  • In a year after she first went to Helen Keller, Miss Sullivan found herself and her pupil the centre of a stupendous fiction.
  • Then the educators all over the world said their say and for the most part did not help matters.
  • Teachers of the deaf proved a priori that what Miss Sullivan had done could not be, and some discredit was reflected on her statements, because they were surrounded by the vague eloquence of Mr. Anagnos.
  • For this report Miss Sullivan wrote the fullest and largest account she has ever written; and in this report appeared the "Frost King," which is discussed fully in a later chapter.
  • Although Miss Sullivan is still rather amused than distressed when some one, even one of her friends, makes mistakes in published articles about her and Miss Keller, still she sees that Miss Keller's book should include all the information that the teacher could at present furnish.
  • Some of the details she had forgotten, as she grew more and more to generalize.
  • Very early in her life she became almost totally blind, and she entered the Perkins Institution October 7, 1880, when she was fourteen years old.
  • Mr. Anagnos wrote in the report of the Perkins Institution, dated November 27, 1888: At my urgent request, Helen, accompanied by her mother and her teacher, came to the North in the last week of May, and spent several months with us as our guests....
  • We gladly allowed her to use freely our library of embossed books, our collection of stuffed animals, sea-shells, models of flowers and plants, and the rest of our apparatus for instructing the blind through the sense of touch.
  • I do not doubt that she derived from them much pleasure and not a little profit.
  • But whether Helen stays at home or makes visits in other parts of the country, her education is always under the immediate direction and exclusive control of her teacher.
  • Here follow in order Miss Sullivan's letters and the most important passages from the reports.
  • Some of her opinions Miss Sullivan would like to enlarge and revise.
  • I found Mrs. Keller and Mr. James Keller waiting for me.
  • The drive from the station to the house, a distance of one mile, was very lovely and restful.
  • Captain Keller met us in the yard and gave me a cheery welcome and a hearty handshake.
  • As we approached the house I saw a child standing in the doorway, and Captain Keller said, There she is.
  • She felt my face and dress and my bag, which she took out of my hand and tried to open.
  • It did not open easily, and she felt carefully to see if there was a keyhole.
  • Finding that there was, she turned to me, making the sign of turning a key and pointing to the bag.
  • Her mother interfered at this point and showed Helen by signs that she must not touch the bag.
  • Her face flushed, and when her mother attempted to take the bag from her, she grew very angry.
  • I attracted her attention by showing her my watch and letting her hold it in her hand.
  • Instantly the tempest subsided, and we went upstairs together.
  • Here I opened the bag, and she went through it eagerly, probably expecting to find something to eat.
  • Friends had probably brought her candy in their bags, and she expected to find some in mine.
  • I made her understand, by pointing to a trunk in the hall and to myself and nodding my head, that I had a trunk, and then made the sign that she had used for eating, and nodded again.
  • She understood in a flash and ran downstairs to tell her mother, by means of emphatic signs, that there was some candy in a trunk for her.
  • She returned in a few minutes and helped me put away my things.
  • She is large, strong, and ruddy, and as unrestrained in her movements as a young colt.
  • She has none of those nervous habits that are so noticeable and so distressing in blind children.
  • She has a fine head, and it is set on her shoulders just right.
  • Her mouth is large and finely shaped.
  • One eye is larger than the other, and protrudes noticeably.
  • She is unresponsive and even impatient of caresses from any one except her mother.
  • She is very quick-tempered and wilful, and nobody, except her brother James, has attempted to control her.
  • I shall go rather slowly at first and try to win her love.
  • She is here, there, and everywhere.
  • She helped me unpack my trunk when it came, and was delighted when she found the doll the little girls sent her.
  • Whenever anybody gives her anything, she points to it, then to herself, and nods her head.
  • She looked puzzled and felt my hand, and I repeated the letters.
  • She imitated them very well and pointed to the doll.
  • Then I took the doll, meaning to give it back to her when she had made the letters; but she thought I meant to take it from her, and in an instant she was in a temper, and tried to seize the doll.
  • I shook my head and tried to form the letters with her fingers; but she got more and more angry.
  • I forced her into a chair and held her there until I was nearly exhausted.
  • I went downstairs and got some cake (she is very fond of sweets).
  • Of course she wanted it and tried to take it; but I spelled the word again and patted her hand.
  • She made the letters rapidly, and I gave her the cake, which she ate in a great hurry, thinking, I suppose, that I might take it from her.
  • Then I showed her the doll and spelled the word again, holding the doll toward her as I held the cake.
  • She ran downstairs with it and could not be induced to return to my room all day.
  • I made the first row of vertical lines and let her feel it and notice that there were several rows of little holes.
  • She began to work delightedly and finished the card in a few minutes, and did it very neatly indeed.
  • She made the "c-a," then stopped and thought, and making the sign for eating and pointing downward she pushed me toward the door, meaning that I must go downstairs for some cake.
  • She follows with her hands every motion you make, and she knew that I was looking for the doll.
  • I made the signs that she had used when she wished me to go for the cake, and pushed her toward the door.
  • She had not finished the cake she was eating, and I took it away, indicating that if she brought the doll I would give her back the cake.
  • She kept coming up behind me and putting her hand on the paper and into the ink-bottle.
  • Finally I remembered the kindergarten beads, and set her to work stringing them.
  • She nodded and began at once to fill the string with wooden beads.
  • I shook my head and took them all off and made her feel of the two wooden beads and the one glass bead.
  • She examined them thoughtfully and began again.
  • This time she put on the glass bead first and the two wooden ones next.
  • I took them off and showed her that the two wooden ones must go on first, then the glass bead.
  • She had no further trouble and filled the string quickly, too quickly, in fact.
  • She tied the ends together when she had finished the string, and put the beads round her neck.
  • She amused herself with the beads until dinner-time, bringing the strings to me now and then for my approval.
  • I had a lot to say, and couldn't stop to think how to express things neatly.
  • She puts her hands in our plates and helps herself, and when the dishes are passed, she grabs them and takes out whatever she wants.
  • She persisted, and a contest of wills followed.
  • Naturally the family was much disturbed, and left the room.
  • I locked the dining-room door, and proceeded to eat my breakfast, though the food almost choked me.
  • Helen was lying on the floor, kicking and screaming and trying to pull my chair from under me.
  • She pinched me, and I slapped her every time she did it.
  • Then she went all round the table to see who was there, and finding no one but me, she seemed bewildered.
  • After a few minutes she came back to her place and began to eat her breakfast with her fingers.
  • I forced her out of the chair and made her pick it up.
  • In a few minutes she yielded and finished her breakfast peaceably.
  • When she had finished, she threw it on the floor and ran toward the door.
  • Finding it locked, she began to kick and scream all over again.
  • Then I let her out into the warm sunshine and went up to my room and threw myself on the bed exhausted.
  • I suppose I shall have many such battles with the little woman before she learns the only two essential things I can teach her, obedience and love.
  • Don't worry; I'll do my best and leave the rest to whatever power manages that which we cannot.
  • Since I wrote you, Helen and I have gone to live all by ourselves in a little garden-house about a quarter of a mile from her home, only a short distance from Ivy Green, the Keller homestead.
  • Every thwarted desire was the signal for a passionate outburst, and as she grew older and stronger, these tempests became more violent.
  • To get her to do the simplest thing, such as combing her hair or washing her hands or buttoning her boots, it was necessary to use force, and, of course, a distressing scene followed.
  • Besides, her past experiences and associations were all against me.
  • I had an idea that I could win the love and confidence of my little pupil by the same means that I should use if she could see and hear.
  • She accepted everything I did for her as a matter of course, and refused to be caressed, and there was no way of appealing to her affection or sympathy or childish love of approbation.
  • She would or she wouldn't, and there was an end of it.
  • I had a good, frank talk with Mrs. Keller, and explained to her how difficult it was going to be to do anything with Helen under the existing circumstances.
  • I told her that in my opinion the child ought to be separated from the family for a few weeks at least--that she must learn to depend on and obey me before I could make any headway.
  • After a long time Mrs. Keller said that she would think the matter over and see what Captain Keller thought of sending Helen away with me.
  • I hurried the preparations for our departure as much as possible, and here we are.
  • Our meals are brought from the house, and we usually eat on the piazza.
  • She devoted herself to her dolls the first evening, and when it was bedtime she undressed very quietly, but when she felt me get into bed with her, she jumped out on the other side, and nothing that I could do would induce her to get in again.
  • But I was afraid she would take cold, and I insisted that she must go to bed.
  • I never saw such strength and endurance in a child.
  • But fortunately for us both, I am a little stronger, and quite as obstinate when I set out.
  • I finally succeeded in getting her on the bed and covered her up, and she lay curled up as near the edge of the bed as possible.
  • She kept going to the door, as if she expected some one, and every now and then she would touch her cheek, which is her sign for her mother, and shake her head sadly.
  • She played with her dolls more than usual, and would have nothing to do with me.
  • It is amusing and pathetic to see Helen with her dolls.
  • I don't think she has any special tenderness for them--I have never seen her caress them; but she dresses and undresses them many times during the day and handles them exactly as she has seen her mother and the nurse handle her baby sister.
  • This lasted for several minutes; then this mood passed, and Nancy was thrown ruthlessly on the floor and pushed to one side, while a large, pink-cheeked, fuzzy-haired member of the family received the little mother's undivided attention.
  • As I have said before, she is wonderfully bright and active and as quick as lightning in her movements.
  • She has learned three new words, and when I give her the objects, the names of which she has learned, she spells them unhesitatingly; but she seems glad when the lesson is over.
  • Helen evidently knew where she was as soon as she touched the boxwood hedges, and made many signs which I did not understand.
  • Mr. Wilson, a teacher at Florence, and a friend of the Kellers', studied at Harvard the summer before and went to the Perkins Institution to learn if anything could be done for his friend's child.
  • He saw a gentleman whom he presumed to be the director, and told him about Helen.
  • The light of understanding has shone upon my little pupil's mind, and behold, all things are changed!
  • She is sitting by me as I write, her face serene and happy, crocheting a long red chain of Scotch wool.
  • She learned the stitch this week, and is very proud of the achievement.
  • She lets me kiss her now, and when she is in a particularly gentle mood, she will sit in my lap for a minute or two; but she does not return my caresses.
  • It now remains my pleasant task to direct and mould the beautiful intelligence that is beginning to stir in the child-soul.
  • Her father looks in at us morning and evening as he goes to and from his office, and sees her contentedly stringing her beads or making horizontal lines on her sewing-card, and exclaims, "How quiet she is!"
  • When I came, her movements were so insistent that one always felt there was something unnatural and almost weird about her.
  • When she spells "milk," she points to the mug, and when she spells "mug," she makes the sign for pouring or drinking, which shows that she has confused the words.
  • This pleased her very much and stimulated her ambition to excel Percy.
  • She was delighted if he made a mistake, and made him form the letter over several times.
  • Helen was giving Nancy a bath, and didn't notice the dog at first.
  • She usually feels the softest step and throws out her arms to ascertain if any one is near her.
  • It was evident that she recognized the dog; for she put her arms round her neck and squeezed her.
  • Then Helen sat down by her and began to manipulate her claws.
  • Helen and I came home yesterday.
  • I think "no" and "yes," conveyed by a shake or a nod of my head, have become facts as apparent to her as hot and cold or as the difference between pain and pleasure.
  • And I don't intend that the lesson she has learned at the cost of so much pain and trouble shall be unlearned.
  • And I don't intend that the lesson she has learned at the cost of so much pain and trouble shall be unlearned.
  • I have told Captain and Mrs. Keller that they must not interfere with me in any way.
  • They have promised to let me have a free hand and help me as much as possible.
  • I realize that it hurts to see their afflicted little child punished and made to do things against her will.
  • Only a few hours after my talk with Captain and Mrs. Keller (and they had agreed to everything), Helen took a notion that she wouldn't use her napkin at table.
  • I took her plate away and started to take her out of the room.
  • Her father objected and said that no child of his should be deprived of his food on any account.
  • Helen didn't come up to my room after supper, and I didn't see her again until breakfast-time.
  • She called my attention to the new arrangement, and when I did not object she seemed pleased and patted herself.
  • When she left the dining-room, she took my hand and patted it.
  • I went back to the dining-room and got a napkin.
  • She noticed this at once and made the sign for it.
  • I showed her the napkin and pinned it round her neck, then tore it off and threw it on the floor and shook my head.
  • I think she understood perfectly well; for she slapped her hand two or three times and shook her head.
  • I gave her an object, and she spelled the name (she knows twelve now).
  • After spelling half the words, she stopped suddenly, as if a thought had flashed into her mind, and felt for the napkin.
  • I gave her a larger piece than usual, and she chuckled and patted herself.
  • We almost live in the garden, where everything is growing and blooming and glowing.
  • After breakfast we go out and watch the men at work.
  • Helen loves to dig and play in the dirt like any other child.
  • This morning she planted her doll and showed me that she expected her to grow as tall as I. You must see that she is very bright, but you have no idea how cunning she is.
  • At ten we come in and string beads for a few minutes.
  • She can make a great many combinations now, and often invents new ones herself.
  • She learned to knit very quickly, and is making a wash-cloth for her mother.
  • Last week she made her doll an apron, and it was done as well as any child of her age could do it.
  • Sewing and crocheting are inventions of the devil, I think.
  • Later I join them, and we make the rounds of the outhouses.
  • We visit the horses and mules in their stalls and hunt for eggs and feed the turkeys.
  • Helen's instincts are decidedly social; she likes to have people about her and to visit her friends, partly, I think, because they always have things she likes to eat.
  • After supper we go to my room and do all sorts of things until eight, when I undress the little woman and put her to bed.
  • On March 31st I found that Helen knew eighteen nouns and three verbs.
  • She has learned that EVERYTHING HAS A NAME, AND THAT THE MANUAL ALPHABET IS THE KEY TO EVERYTHING SHE WANTS TO KNOW.
  • In a previous letter I think I wrote you that "mug" and "milk" had given Helen more trouble than all the rest.
  • When she wants to know the name of anything, she points to it and pats my hand.
  • We went out to the pump-house, and I made Helen hold her mug under the spout while I pumped.
  • She dropped the mug and stood as one transfixed.
  • Then she dropped on the ground and asked for its name and pointed to the pump and the trellis, and suddenly turning round she asked for my name.
  • Just then the nurse brought Helen's little sister into the pump-house, and Helen spelled "baby" and pointed to the nurse.
  • All the way back to the house she was highly excited, and learned the name of every object she touched, so that in a few hours she had adDED THIRTY NEW WORDS TO HER VOCABULARY.
  • HERE ARE SOME OF THEM: DOOR, OPEN, SHUT, GIVE, GO, COME, and a great many more.
  • She has flitted from object to object, asking the name of everything and kissing me for very gladness.
  • Last night when I got in bed, she stole into my arms of her own accord and kissed me for the first time, and I thought my heart would burst, so full was it of joy.
  • She is anxious for her friends to spell, and eager to teach the letters to every one she meets.
  • And we notice that her face grows more expressive each day.
  • I sent Helen away and sat down to think.
  • The child comes into the world with the ability to learn, and he learns of himself, provided he is supplied with sufficient outward stimulus.
  • He sees people do things, and he tries to do them.
  • He hears others speak, and he tried to speak.
  • She is about fifteen months old, and already understands a great deal.
  • If I hand her a flower, and say, "Give it to mamma," she takes it to her mother.
  • I shall assume that she has the normal child's capacity of assimilation and imitation.
  • I SHALL USE COMPLETE SENTENCES IN TALKING TO HER, and fill out the meaning with gestures and her descriptive signs when necessity requires it; but I shall not try to keep her mind fixed on any one thing.
  • I shall do all I can to interest and stimulate it, and wait for results.
  • Helen knows the meaning of more than a hundred words now, and learns new ones daily without the slightest suspicion that she is performing a most difficult feat.
  • But when I spell into her hand, "Give me some bread," she hands me the bread, or if I say, "Get your hat and we will go to walk," she obeys instantly.
  • We play a little game which I find most useful in developing the intellect, and which incidentally answers the purpose of a language lesson.
  • I hide something, a ball or a spool, and we hunt for it.
  • Again, when I hid the spool, she looked for it in a little box not more than an inch long; and she very soon gave up the search.
  • Finding no trace of the cracker there, she pointed to my stomach and spelled "eat," meaning, "Did you eat it?"
  • Helen went to the cradle and felt of Mildred's mouth and pointed to her own teeth.
  • Helen shook her head and spelled "Baby teeth--no, baby eat--no," meaning of course, "Baby cannot eat because she has no teeth."
  • I used my little stock of beads, cards and straws at first because I didn't know what else to do; but the need for them is past, for the present at any rate.
  • Whereas, if the child is left to himself, he will think more and better, if less showily.
  • Let him go and come freely, let him touch real things and combine his impressions for himself, instead of sitting indoors at a little round table, while a sweet-voiced teacher suggests that he build a stone wall with his wooden blocks, or make a rainbow out of strips of coloured paper, or plant straw trees in bead flower-pots.
  • Helen is learning adjectives and adverbs as easily as she learned nouns.
  • She had signs for SMALL and LARGE long before I came to her.
  • If she wanted a small object and was given a large one, she would shake her head and take up a tiny bit of the skin of one hand between the thumb and finger of the other.
  • If she wanted to indicate something large, she spread the fingers of both hands as wide as she could, and brought them together, as if to clasp a big ball.
  • The other day I substituted the words SMALL and LARGE for these signs, and she at once adopted the words and discarded the signs.
  • I can now tell her to bring me a large book or a small plate, to go upstairs slowly, to run fast and to walk quickly.
  • This morning she used the conjunction AND for the first time.
  • I told her to shut the door, and she added, "and lock."
  • She kept spelling "dog--baby" and pointing to her five fingers one after another, and sucking them.
  • She led the way to the pump-house, and there in the corner was one of the setters with five dear little pups!
  • I taught her the word "puppy" and drew her hand over them all, while they sucked, and spelled "puppies."
  • She was much interested in the feeding process, and spelled "mother-dog" and "baby" several times.
  • Helen noticed that the puppies' eyes were closed, and she said, "Eyes--shut. Sleep--no," meaning, "The eyes are shut, but the puppies are not asleep."
  • She screamed with glee when the little things squealed and squirmed in their efforts to get back to their mother, and spelled, "Baby--eat large."
  • She pointed to each puppy, one after another, and to her five fingers, and I taught her the word FIVE.
  • Then she held up one finger and said "baby."
  • I knew she was thinking of Mildred, and I spelled, "One baby and five puppies."
  • After she had played with them a little while, the thought occurred to her that the puppies must have special names, like people, and she asked for the name of each pup.
  • I told her to ask her father, and she said, "No--mother."
  • She noticed that one of the puppies was much smaller than the others, and she spelled "small," making the sign at the same time, and I said "very small."
  • Soon after, she began to vary her steps from large to small, and little mincing steps were "very small."
  • It's only fair to the child, anyhow, and it saves you much unnecessary trouble.
  • The weather is fine, and the air is full of the scent of strawberries.
  • We chase butterflies, and sometimes catch one.
  • Then we sit down under a tree, or in the shade of a bush, and talk about it.
  • Keller's Landing was used during the war to land troops, but has long since gone to pieces, and is overgrown with moss and weeds.
  • She has felt dead squirrels and rabbits and other wild animals, and is anxious to see a "walk-squirrel," which interpreted, means, I think, a "live squirrel."
  • We go home about dinner-time usually, and Helen is eager to tell her mother everything she has seen.
  • This gratifies the child's love of approbation and keeps up her interest in things.
  • She makes many mistakes, of course, twists words and phrases, puts the cart before the horse, and gets herself into hopeless tangles of nouns and verbs; but so does the hearing child.
  • I supply a word here and there, sometimes a sentence, and suggest something which she has omitted or forgotten.
  • My work grows more absorbing and interesting every day.
  • Helen is a wonderful child, so spontaneous and eager to learn.
  • It is a rare privilege to watch the birth, growth, and first feeble struggles of a living mind; this privilege is mine; and moreover, it is given me to rouse and guide this bright intelligence.
  • I feel every day more and more inadequate.
  • You see, my mind is undisciplined, full of skips and jumps, and here and there a lot of things huddled together in dark corners.
  • I know that the education of this child will be the distinguishing event of my life, if I have the brains and perseverance to accomplish it.
  • Usually we take one of the little "Readers" up in a big tree near the house and spend an hour or two finding the words Helen already knows.
  • WE MAKE A SORT OF GAME OF IT and try to see who can find the words most quickly, Helen with her fingers, or I with my eyes, and she learns as many new words as I can explain with the help of those she knows.
  • When her fingers light upon words she knows, she fairly screams with pleasure and hugs and kisses me for joy, especially if she thinks she has me beaten.
  • She is always ready for a lesson, and the eagerness with which she absorbs ideas is very delightful.
  • One of Helen's old habits, that is strongest and hardest to correct, is a tendency to break things.
  • The other day a friend brought her a new doll from Memphis, and I thought I would see if I could make Helen understand that she must not break it.
  • I made her go through the motion of knocking the doll's head on the table and spelled to her: No, no, Helen is naughty.
  • Teacher is sad, and let her feel the grieved expression on my face.
  • She went through these motions several times, mimicking every movement, then she stood very still for a moment with a troubled look on her face, which suddenly cleared, and she spelled, "Good Helen," and wreathed her face in a very large, artificial smile.
  • Then she carried the doll upstairs and put it on the top shelf of the wardrobe, and she has not touched it since.
  • Please give my kind regards to Mr. Anagnos and let him see my letter, if you think best.
  • I hear there is a deaf and blind child being educated at the Baltimore Institution.
  • She is very nervous and excitable.
  • She is restless at night and has no appetite.
  • She begins to spell the minute she wakes up in the morning, and continues all day long.
  • If I refuse to talk to her, she spells into her own hand, and apparently carries on the liveliest conversation with herself.
  • I gave her my braille slate to play with, thinking that the mechanical pricking of holes in the paper would amuse her and rest her mind.
  • She has often gone with me to the post-office to mail letters, and I suppose I have repeated to her things I wrote to you.
  • She had evidently been reading, and fallen asleep.
  • When I asked her about it in the morning, she said, "Book--cry," and completed her meaning by shaking and other signs of fear.
  • I taught her the word AFRAID, and she said: Helen is not afraid.
  • I told her that the book wasn't afraid, and must sleep in its case, and that "girl" mustn't read in bed.
  • But "genius" and "originality" are words we should not use lightly.
  • And right here I want to say something which is for your ears alone.
  • I know that she has remarkable powers, and I believe that I shall be able to develop and mould them.
  • I had no idea a short time ago how to go to work; I was feeling about in the dark; but somehow I know now, and I know that I know.
  • She is no ordinary child, and people's interest in her education will be no ordinary interest.
  • Therefore let us be exceedingly careful what we say and write about her.
  • I shall write freely to you and tell you everything, on one condition: It is this: you must promise never to show my letters to any one.
  • The heat makes Helen languid and quiet.
  • Yesterday Helen took off her clothes and sat in her skin all the afternoon.
  • When the sun got round to the window where she was sitting with her book, she got up impatiently and shut the window.
  • She is the dearest, cutest little thing now, and so loving!
  • I let her hold a shell in her hand, and feel the chicken "chip, chip."
  • The hen was very gentle, and made no objection to our investigations.
  • Besides the chickens, we have several other additions to the family--two calves, a colt, and a penful of funny little pigs.
  • You would be amused to see me hold a squealing pig in my arms, while Helen feels it all over, and asks countless questions--questions not easy to answer either.
  • Helen's head measures twenty and one-half inches, and mine measures twenty-one and one-half inches.
  • Helen is about the same--pale and thin; but you mustn't think she is really ill.
  • They tell us that Helen is "overdoing," that her mind is too active (these very people thought she had no mind at all a few months ago!) and suggest many absurd and impossible remedies.
  • It's queer how ready people always are with advice in any real or imaginary emergency, and no matter how many times experience has shown them to be wrong, they continue to set forth their opinions, as if they had received them from the Almighty!
  • It gives her something to do, and keeps her quiet, which I think is desirable while this enervating weather lasts.
  • She has counted everything in the house, and is now busy counting the words in her primer.
  • If she could see and hear, I suppose she would get rid of her superfluous energy in ways which would not, perhaps, tax her brain so much, although I suspect that the ordinary child takes his play pretty seriously.
  • I said, "No, go and play with Nancy."
  • I asked what was the matter, and she said, "Much (many) teeth do make Nancy sick."
  • She was greatly amused, and began at once to find analogies between her movements and those of the plants.
  • We had a glorious thunder-tempest last night, and it's much cooler to-day.
  • She wanted to know if men were shooting in the sky when she felt the thunder, and if the trees and flowers drank all the rain.
  • Her every waking moment is spent in the endeavour to satisfy her innate desire for knowledge, and her mind works so incessantly that we have feared for her health.
  • But her appetite, which left her a few weeks ago, has returned, and her sleep seems more quiet and natural.
  • Above this line the head rises one and one-fourth inches.
  • During our walks she keeps up a continual spelling, and delights to accompany it with actions such as skipping, hopping, jumping, running, walking fast, walking slow, and the like.
  • The same day she had learned, at different times, the words: hOUSE, WEED, DUST, SWING, MOLASSES, FAST, SLOW, MAPLE-SUGAR and COUNTER, and she had not forgotten one of these last.
  • She can count to thirty very quickly, and can write seven of the square-hand letters and the words which can be made with them.
  • She enjoys punching holes in paper with the stiletto, and I supposed it was because she could examine the result of her work; but we watched her one day, and I was much surprised to find that she imagined she was writing a letter.
  • When she had finished the letter she carried it to her mother and spelled, "Frank letter," and gave it to her brother to take to the post-office.
  • She recognizes instantly a person whom she has once met, and spells the name.
  • Unlike Laura Bridgman, she is fond of gentlemen, and we notice that she makes friends with a gentleman sooner than with a lady.
  • She discovered a hole in her boot the other morning, and, after breakfast, she went to her father and spelled, "Helen new boot Simpson (her brother) buggy store man."
  • I heard Helen screaming, and ran down to see what was the matter.
  • At all events, there she was, tearing and scratching and biting Viney like some wild thing.
  • Helen resisted, and Viney tried to force it out of her hand, and I suspect that she slapped the child, or did something which caused this unusual outburst of temper.
  • When I took her hand she was trembling violently, and began to cry.
  • I asked what was the matter, and she spelled: "Viney--bad," and began to slap and kick her with renewed violence.
  • Later Helen came to my room, looking very sad, and wanted to kiss me.
  • I said: You struck Viney and kicked her and hurt her.
  • You were very naughty, and I cannot kiss naughty girl.
  • She stood very still for a moment, and it was evident from her face, which was flushed and troubled, that a struggle was going on in her mind.
  • She knew that I was much troubled, and would have liked to stay near me; but I thought it best for her to sit by herself.
  • At the dinner-table she was greatly disturbed because I didn't eat, and suggested that "Cook make tea for teacher."
  • But I told her that my heart was sad, and I didn't feel like eating.
  • She began to cry and sob and clung to me.
  • Her heart was full of trouble, and she wanted to talk about it.
  • She smiled and answered, "Viney (can) not spell words."
  • Will you go with me and find Viney?
  • She was very willing to go, and let Viney kiss her, though she didn't return the caress.
  • "when?" especially "why?" all day long, and as her intelligence grows her inquiries become more insistent.
  • The "why?" is the DOOR THROUGH WHICH HE ENTERS THE WORLD OF REASON AND REFLECTION.
  • Please give her my love, and tell her Helen sends her a kiss.
  • I read the letter at the supper-table, and Mrs. Keller exclaimed: "My, Miss Annie, Helen writes almost as well as that now!"
  • Everybody there was delighted with Helen, and showered her with gifts and kisses.
  • The next morning we were astonished to find that she remembered all of them, and recognized every one she had met the night before.
  • She taught the young people the alphabet, and several of them learned to talk with her.
  • One of the girls taught her to dance the polka, and a little boy showed her his rabbits and spelled their names for her.
  • She was delighted, and showed her pleasure by hugging and kissing the little fellow, which embarrassed him very much.
  • We had Helen's picture taken with a fuzzy, red-eyed little poodle, who got himself into my lady's good graces by tricks and cunning devices known only to dogs with an instinct for getting what they want.
  • She has talked incessantly since her return about what she did in Huntsville, and we notice a very decided improvement in her ability to use language.
  • She remembers all that I told her about it, and in telling her mother REPEATED THE VERY WORDS AND PHRASES I HAD USED IN DESCRIBING IT TO HER.
  • She remembers all that I told her about it, and in telling her mother REPEATED THE VERY WORDS AND PHRASES I HAD USED IN DESCRIBING IT TO HER.
  • In conclusion she asked her mother if she should like to see "very high mountain and beautiful cloudcaps."
  • You see, I had to use words and images with which she was familiar through the sense of touch.
  • But it hardly seems possible that any mere words should convey to one who has never seen a mountain the faintest idea of its grandeur; and I don't see how any one is ever to know what impression she did receive, or the cause of her pleasure in what was told her about it.
  • All that we do know certainly is that she has a good memory and imagination and the faculty of association.
  • "New puppies," "new calves" and "new babies" keep Helen's interest in the why and wherefore of things at white heat.
  • Where did doctor find Guy and Prince?
  • These questions were sometimes asked under circumstances which rendered them embarrassing, and I made up my mind that something must be done.
  • From the beginning, I HAVE MADE IT A PRACTICE TO ANSWER ALL HELEN'S QUESTIONS TO THE BEST OF MY ABILITY IN A WAY INTELLIGIBLE TO HER, and at the same time truthfully.
  • The only thing for me to do in a perplexity is to go ahead, and learn by making mistakes.
  • I took Helen and my Botany, "How Plants Grow," up in the tree, where we often go to read and study, and I told her in simple words the story of plantlife.
  • I reminded her of the corn, beans and watermelon-seed she had planted in the spring, and told her that the tall corn in the garden, and the beans and watermelon vines had grown from those seeds.
  • The mother bird lays her eggs in a nest and keeps them warm until the birdlings are hatched.
  • I had no difficulty in making it clear to her that if plants and animals didn't produce offspring after their kind, they would cease to exist, and everything in the world would soon die.
  • These experiences are like photographic negatives, until language develops them and brings out the memory-images.
  • The name Hot Springs interested her, and she asked many questions about it.
  • She wanted to know who made fire under the ground, and if it was like the fire in stoves, and if it burned the roots of plants and trees.
  • She was much pleased with the letter, and after she had asked all the questions she could think of, she took it to her mother, who was sewing in the hall, and read it to her.
  • It was amusing to see her hold it before her eyes and spell the sentences out on her fingers, just as I had done.
  • Afterward she tried to read it to Belle (the dog) and Mildred.
  • Mrs. Keller and I watched the nursery comedy from the door.
  • Belle was sleepy, and Mildred inattentive.
  • Finally Belle got up, shook herself, and was about to walk away, when Helen caught her by the neck and forced her to lie down again.
  • In the meantime Mildred had got the letter and crept away with it.
  • Then she got up and stood very still, as if listening with her feet for Mildred's "thump, thump."
  • She snatched the letter and slapped the little hands soundly.
  • Mrs. Keller took the baby in her arms, and when we had succeeded in pacifying her, I asked Helen, "What did you do to baby?"
  • She looked troubled, and hesitated a moment before answering.
  • I said, "Mildred doesn't understand your fingers, and we must be very gentle with her."
  • I kept a record of everything she said last week, and I found that she knows six hundred words.
  • She has the true language-impulse, and shows great fertility of resource in making the words at her command convey her meaning.
  • She found the word "brown" in her primer and wanted to know its meaning.
  • I told her that her hair was brown, and she asked, "Is brown very pretty?"
  • I wonder if she has any vague idea of colour--any reminiscent impression of light and sound.
  • It seems as if a child who could see and hear until her nineteenth month must retain some of her first impressions, though ever so faintly.
  • She asks many questions about the sky, day and night, the ocean and mountains.
  • "What colour is think?" was one of the restful questions she asked, as we swung to and fro in the hammock.
  • I told her that when we are happy our thoughts are bright, and when we are naughty they are sad.
  • My account for the report is finished and sent off.
  • I have two copies, and will send you one; but you mustn't show it to anybody.
  • She asked the other day, "Who made all things and Boston?"
  • Helen wrote another letter to the little girls yesterday, and her father sent it to Mr. Anagnos.
  • She laughed and said, Teacher is wrong.
  • Yesterday's perplexities are strangely simple to-day, and to-day's difficulties become to-morrow's pastime.
  • Now he wants a picture "of darling Helen and her illustrious teacher, to grace the pages of the forthcoming annual report."
  • Her passion for writing letters and putting her thoughts upon paper grows more intense.
  • I told her that I could see things with my eyes, and that she could see them with her fingers.
  • Indeed, she remembers HELIOTROPE and CHRYSANTHEMUM more readily than she does shorter names.
  • Very soon she learned the difference between ON and IN, though it was some time before she could use these words in sentences of her own.
  • In connection with this lesson she learned the names of the members of the family and the word IS.
  • For the first lesson I had two balls, one made of worsted, large and soft, the other a bullet.
  • Then she took the other ball and made her sign for LARGE by spreading both hands over it.
  • I substituted the adjectives LARGE and SMALL for those signs.
  • Then her attention was called to the hardness of the one ball and the softness of the other, and she learned SOFT and HARD.
  • A few minutes afterward she felt of her little sister's head and said to her mother, "Mildred's head is small and hard."
  • Next I tried to teach her the meaning of FAST and SLOW.
  • She helped me wind some worsted one day, first rapidly and afterward slowly.
  • I then said to her with the finger alphabet, "wind fast," or "wind slow," holding her hands and showing her how to do as I wished.
  • The next day, while exercising, she spelled to me, "Helen wind fast," and began to walk rapidly.
  • A slip on which was printed, in raised letters, the word BOX was placed on the object, and the same experiment was tried with a great many articles, but she did not immediately comprehend that the label-name represented the thing.
  • Next I turned to the first page of the primer and made her touch the word CAT, spelling it on my fingers at the same time.
  • Instantly she caught the idea, and asked me to find DOG and many other words.
  • When she touched one with which she was familiar, a peculiarly sweet expression lighted her face, and we saw her countenance growing sweeter and more earnest every day.
  • About this time I sent a list of the words she knew to Mr. Anagnos, and he very kindly had them printed for her.
  • Her mother and I cut up several sheets of printed words so that she could arrange them into sentences.
  • She learned it gladly when she discovered that she could herself read what she had written; and this still affords her constant pleasure.
  • For a whole evening she will sit at the table writing whatever comes into her busy brain; and I seldom find any difficulty in reading what she has written.
  • She can add and subtract with great rapidity up to the sum of one hundred; and she knows the multiplication tables as far as the FIVES.
  • Later I said, "Make fifteen threes and count."
  • I wished her to make the groups of threes and supposed she would then have to count them in order to know what number fifteen threes would make.
  • On being told that she was white and that one of the servants was black, she concluded that all who occupied a similar menial position were of the same hue; and whenever I asked her the colour of a servant she would say "black."
  • When asked the colour of some one whose occupation she did not know she seemed bewildered, and finally said "blue."
  • The flowers did not seem to give her pleasure, and she was very quiet while we stayed there.
  • We took Helen to the circus, and had "the time of our lives"!
  • The circus people were much interested in Helen, and did everything they could to make her first circus a memorable event.
  • She fed the elephants, and was allowed to climb up on the back of the largest, and sit in the lap of the "Oriental Princess," while the elephant marched majestically around the ring.
  • They were as gentle as kittens; but I told her they would get wild and fierce as they grew older.
  • She said to the keeper, "I will take the baby lions home and teach them to be mild."
  • The keeper of the bears made one big black fellow stand on his hind legs and hold out his great paw to us, which Helen shook politely.
  • She was greatly delighted with the monkeys and kept her hand on the star performer while he went through his tricks, and laughed heartily when he took off his hat to the audience.
  • One cute little fellow stole her hair-ribbon, and another tried to snatch the flowers out of her hat.
  • One of the leopards licked her hands, and the man in charge of the giraffes lifted her up in his arms so that she could feel their ears and see how tall they were.
  • She also felt a Greek chariot, and the charioteer would have liked to take her round the ring; but she was afraid of "many swift horses."
  • Some of them cried, and the wild man of Borneo shrank from her sweet little face in terror.
  • Helen has learned to tell the time at last, and her father is going to give her a watch for Christmas.
  • I am teaching her little rhymes and verses, too.
  • TOO MUCH EXPLANATION DIRECTS THE CHILD'S ATTENTION TO WORDS AND SENTENCES, SO THAT HE FAILS TO GET THE THOUGHT AS A WHOLE.
  • I do not think anyone can read, or talk for that matter, until he forgets words and sentences in the technical sense.
  • Helen's dependence on me for almost everything makes me strong and glad.
  • Helen is invited to all the children's entertainments, and I take her to as many as I can.
  • I want her to know children and to be with them as much as possible.
  • Several little girls have learned to spell on their fingers and are very proud of the accomplishment.
  • One little chap, about seven, was persuaded to learn the letters, and he spelled his name for Helen.
  • She was delighted, and showed her joy, by hugging and kissing him, much to his embarrassment.
  • Saturday the school-children had their tree, and I took Helen.
  • It was the first Christmas tree she had ever seen, and she was puzzled, and asked many questions.
  • She objected to its miscellaneous fruits and began to remove them, evidently thinking they were all meant for her.
  • It was not difficult, however, to make her understand that there was a present for each child, and to her great delight she was permitted to hand the gifts to the children.
  • One little girl had fewer presents than the rest, and Helen insisted on sharing her gifts with her.
  • It was very sweet to see the children's eager interest in Helen, and their readiness to give her pleasure.
  • The exercises began at nine, and it was one o'clock before we could leave.
  • My fingers and head ached; but Helen was as fresh and full of spirit as when we left home.
  • After dinner it began to snow, and we had a good frolic and an interesting lesson about the snow.
  • Sunday morning the ground was covered, and Helen and the cook's children and I played snowball.
  • It was the first snow I had seen here, and it made me a little homesick.
  • The Christmas season has furnished many lessons, and added scores of new words to Helen's vocabulary.
  • For weeks we did nothing but talk and read and tell each other stories about Christmas.
  • Constant repetition makes it easier to learn how to spell a word.
  • TALK SHOULD BE NATURAL AND HAVE FOR ITS OBJECT AN EXCHANGE OF IDEAS.
  • I HAVE TRIED FROM THE BEGINNING TO TALK NATURALLY TO HELEN AND TO TEACH HER TO TELL ME ONLY THINGS THAT INTEREST HER AND ASK QUESTIONS ONLY FOR THE SAKE OF FINDING OUT WHAT SHE WANTS TO KNOW.
  • When I see that she is eager to tell me something, but is hampered because she does not know the words, I supply them and the necessary idioms, and we get along finely.
  • The child's eagerness and interest carry her over many obstacles that would be our undoing if we stopped to define and explain everything.
  • It was touching and beautiful to see Helen enjoy her first Christmas.
  • Of course, she hung her stocking--two of them lest Santa Claus should forget one, and she lay awake for a long time and got up two or three times to see if anything had happened.
  • When I told her that Santa Claus would not come until she was asleep, she shut her eyes and said, "He will think girl is asleep."
  • The ring you sent her was in the toe of the stocking, and when I told her you gave it to Santa Claus for her, she said, "I do love Mrs. Hopkins."
  • She had a trunk and clothes for Nancy, and her comment was, "Now Nancy will go to party."
  • When she saw the braille slate and paper, she said, "I will write many letters, and I will thank Santa Claus very much."
  • My heart, too, was full of gratitude and solemn joy.
  • The other day Helen came across the word grandfather in a little story and asked her mother, "Where is grandfather?" meaning her grandfather.
  • Helen asked, and added, "I will eat grandfather for dinner."
  • She knows that her father shoots partridges and deer and other game.
  • This morning she asked me the meaning of "carpenter," and the question furnished the text for the day's lesson.
  • After talking about the various things that carpenters make, she asked me, "Did carpenter make me?" and before I could answer, she spelled quickly, "No, no, photographer made me in Sheffield."
  • Helen felt the heat and asked, "Did the sun fall?"
  • I appreciate the kind things Mr. Anagnos has said about Helen and me; but his extravagant way of saying them rubs me the wrong way.
  • How ridiculous it is to say I had drunk so copiously of the noble spirit of Dr. Howe that I was fired with the desire to rescue from darkness and obscurity the little Alabamian!
  • I explained that Uncle Frank was old, and couldn't learn braille easily.
  • It is irksome because the process is so slow, and they cannot read what they have written or correct their mistakes.
  • Helen is more and more interested in colour.
  • I can't believe that the colour-impressions she received during the year and a half she could see and hear are entirely lost.
  • Everything we have seen and heard is in the mind somewhere.
  • It was nothing but excitement from first to last--drives, luncheons, receptions, and all that they involve when you have an eager, tireless child like Helen on your hands.
  • It is always: "Oh, Miss Sullivan, please come and tell us what Helen means," or "Miss Sullivan, won't you please explain this to Helen?
  • Helen was petted and caressed enough to spoil an angel; but I do not think it is possible to spoil her, she is too unconscious of herself, and too loving.
  • The stores in Memphis are very good, and I managed to spend all the money that I had with me.
  • She had a silver dollar and a dime.
  • We visited the Stock Exchange and a steamboat.
  • Helen was greatly interested in the boat, and insisted on being shown every inch of it from the engine to the flag on the flagstaff.
  • Dr. Hale claims kinship with Helen, and seems very proud of his little cousin.
  • Dr. Bell writes that Helen's progress is without a parallel in the education of the deaf, or something like that and he says many nice things about her teacher.
  • I got up, washed my face and hands, combed my hair, picked three dew violets for Teacher and ate my breakfast.
  • Cross is cry and kick.
  • Fierce is much cross and strong and very hungry.
  • Robert and I will run and jump and hop and dance and swing and talk about birds and flowers and trees and grass and Jumbo and Pearl will go with us.
  • Natalie is a good girl and does not cry.
  • Mr. Mayo went to Duckhill and brought home many sweet flowers.
  • Mr. Mayo and Mr. Farris and Mr. Graves love me and Teacher.
  • I am going to Memphis to see them soon, and they will hug and kiss me.
  • Thornton goes to school and gets his face dirty.
  • She buried me under the pillows and then I grew very slow like tree out of ground.
  • The Sunday-school was in session when we arrived, and I wish you could have seen the sensation Helen's entrance caused.
  • The children were so pleased to see her at Sunday-school, they paid no attention to their teachers, but rushed out of their seats and surrounded us.
  • She kissed them all, boys and girls, willing or unwilling.
  • She seemed to think at first that the children all belonged to the visiting ministers; but soon she recognized some little friends among them, and I told her the ministers didn't bring their children with them.
  • She looked disappointed and said, "I'll send them many kisses."
  • She said, "They read and talk loud to people to be good."
  • She hugged and kissed me, and the quiet-looking divine who sat on the other side of her.
  • When the communion service began, she smelt the wine, and sniffed so loud that every one in the church could hear.
  • I tried to hurry Helen out-of-doors, but she kept her arm extended, and every coat-tail she touched must needs turn round and give an account of the children he left at home, and receive kisses according to their number.
  • Everybody laughed at her antics, and you would have thought they were leaving a place of amusement rather than a church.
  • Finally she got up from the table and went through the motion of picking seaweed and shells, and splashing in the water, holding up her skirts higher than was proper under the circumstances.
  • Then she threw herself on the floor and began to swim so energetically that some of us thought we should be kicked out of our chairs!
  • Her motions are often more expressive than any words, and she is as graceful as a nymph.
  • We talk and plan and dream about nothing but Boston, Boston, Boston.
  • The next word that you receive from me will be in a yellow envelope, and it will tell you when we shall reach Boston.
  • Almost every one on the train was a physician, and Dr. Keller seemed to know them all.
  • All the learned men marveled at her intelligence and gaiety.
  • I think it is her joyous interest in everything and everybody.
  • She was delighted with the orchestra at the hotel, and whenever the music began she danced round the room, hugging and kissing every one she happened to touch.
  • But I haven't time to write all the pleasant things people said--they would make a very large book, and the kind things they did for us would fill another volume.
  • Dr. Keller distributed the extracts from the report that Mr. Anagnos sent me, and he could have disposed of a thousand if he had had them.
  • He took us to drive one afternoon, and wanted to give Helen a doll; but she said: I do not like too many children.
  • Nancy is sick, and Adeline is cross, and Ida is very bad.
  • He had never heard of "talking-gloves"; but I explained that she had seen a glove on which the alphabet was printed, and evidently thought they could be bought.
  • I told him he could buy some gloves if he wished, and that I would have the alphabet stamped on them.
  • We lunched with Mr. Thayer (your former pastor) and his wife.
  • He asked me how I had taught Helen adjectives and the names of abstract ideas like goodness and happiness.
  • If his experiences and observations hadn't led him to the concepts, SMALL, LARGE, GOOD, BAD, SWEET, SOUR, he would have nothing to attach the word-tags to.
  • You label it SOUR, and he adopts your symbol.
  • If you had called these sensations respectively BLACK and WHITE, he would have adopted them as readily; but he would mean by BLACK and WHITE the same things that he means by SWEET and SOUR.
  • We were very kindly received, and Helen enjoyed meeting the children.
  • Two of the teachers knew the manual alphabet, and talked to her without an interpreter.
  • I was incredulous when he first told me the secret.
  • One of them pulled me by the sleeve and said, "Girl is blind."
  • It seemed all so mechanical and difficult, my heart ached for the poor little children.
  • These children were older in years, it is true, than the baby who lisps, "Papa kiss baby--pretty," and fills out her meaning by pointing to her new dress; but their ability to understand and use language was no greater.
  • On entering a greenhouse her countenance becomes radiant, and she will tell the names of the flowers with which she is familiar, by the sense of smell alone.
  • Her sense of touch has sensibly increased during the year, and has gained in acuteness and delicacy.
  • She is able not only to distinguish with great accuracy the different undulations of the air and the vibrations of the floor made by various sounds and motions, and to recognize her friends and acquaintances the instant she touches their hands or clothing, but she also perceives the state of mind of those around her.
  • It is impossible for any one with whom Helen is conversing to be particularly happy or sad, and withhold the knowledge of this fact from her.
  • She responds quickly to the gentle pressure of affection, the pat of approval, the jerk of impatience, the firm motion of command, and to the many other variations of the almost infinite language of the feelings; and she has become so expert in interpreting this unconscious language of the emotions that she is often able to divine our very thoughts.
  • She has learned to connect certain movements of the body with anger, others with joy, and others still with sorrow.
  • One day, while she was out walking with her mother and Mr. Anagnos, a boy threw a torpedo, which startled Mrs. Keller.
  • Helen felt the change in her mother's movements instantly, and asked, "What are we afraid of?"
  • She would turn her head, smile, and act as though she had heard what was said.
  • At my suggestion, one of the gentlemen took her hand, and the tests were repeated.
  • The animal groaned with pain, and Helen, perceiving his groans, was filled with pity.
  • At last it became necessary to kill him, and, when Helen next asked to go and see him, I told her that he was DEAD.
  • While making a visit at Brewster, Massachusetts, she one day accompanied my friend and me through the graveyard.
  • She examined one stone after another, and seemed pleased when she could decipher a name.
  • She smelt of the flowers, but showed no desire to pluck them; and, when I gathered a few for her, she refused to have them pinned on her dress.
  • When her attention was drawn to a marble slab inscribed with the name FLORENCE in relief, she dropped upon the ground as though looking for something, then turned to me with a face full of trouble, and asked, "Were is poor little Florence?"
  • Helen had been given a bed and carriage for her dolls, which she had received and used like any other gift.
  • On her return to the house after her visit to the cemetery, she ran to the closet where these toys were kept, and carried them to my friend, saying, "They are poor little Florence's."
  • I put my little babies to sleep in Florence's little bed, and I take them to ride in her carriage.
  • She was very sick and died.
  • She got in the ground, and she is very dirty, and she is cold.
  • When she was very sick she tossed and moaned in bed.
  • She is fond of fun and frolic, and loves dearly to be with other children.
  • She is never fretful or irritable, and I have never seen her impatient with her playmates because they failed to understand her.
  • Then it is beautiful to observe with what patience, sweetness, and perseverance Helen endeavours to bring the unruly fingers of her little friend into proper position.
  • She is very fond of children younger than herself, and a baby invariably calls forth all the motherly instincts of her nature.
  • It is pleasant, too, to note her thoughtfulness for little children, and her readiness to yield to their whims.
  • She has a very sociable disposition, and delights in the companionship of those who can follow the rapid motions of her fingers; but if left alone she will amuse herself for hours at a time with her knitting or sewing.
  • She bends over her book with a look of intense interest, and as the forefinger of her left hand runs along the line, she spells out the words with the other hand; but often her motions are so rapid as to be unintelligible even to those accustomed to reading the swift and varied movements of her fingers.
  • Her behaviour is easy and natural, and it is charming because of its frankness and evident sincerity.
  • She does not realize that one can be anything but kind-hearted and tender.
  • She is not conscious of any reason why she should be awkward; consequently, her movements are free and graceful.
  • She is very fond of all the living things at home, and she will not have them unkindly treated.
  • Helen expressed a great deal of sympathy, and at every opportunity during the day she would find Pearl and carry the burden from place to place.
  • Her father wrote to her last summer that the birds and bees were eating all his grapes.
  • They like juicy fruit to eat as well as people, and they are hungry.
  • When traveling she drinks in thought and language.
  • Sitting beside her in the car, I describe what I see from the window--hills and valleys and the rivers; cotton-fields and gardens in which strawberries, peaches, pears, melons, and vegetables are growing; herds of cows and horses feeding in broad meadows, and flocks of sheep on the hillside; the cities with their churches and schools, hotels and warehouses, and the occupations of the busy people.
  • In two or three months after I began to teach her she would say: "Helen wants to go to bed," or, "Helen is sleepy, and Helen will go to bed."
  • This morning teacher and I sat by the window and we saw a little boy walking on the sidewalk.
  • It was raining very hard and he had a very large umbrella to keep off the rain-drops.
  • While not confining myself to any special system of instruction, I have tried to add to her general information and intelligence, to enlarge her acquaintance with things around her, and to bring her into easy and natural relations with people.
  • I was glad to hug and kiss him.
  • He takes care of sixty little blind girls and seventy little blind boys.
  • I will make pretty clothes for Nancy and Adeline and Allie.
  • I will go to Cincinnati in May and buy another child.
  • Mr. Wilson and Mr. Mitchell came to see us Sunday.
  • I slept with father, and Mildred slept with teacher.
  • It does mean quiet and happy.
  • The quail lays fifteen or twenty eggs and they are white.
  • The blue-bird makes her nest in a hollow tree and her eggs are blue.
  • The warm winds blow The waters flow And robin dear, Is come to show That Spring is here.
  • Little chickens did get very cold and die.
  • Teacher and I went to ride on Tennessee River, in a boat.
  • I saw Mr. Wilson and James row with oars.
  • Boat did glide swiftly and I put hand in water and felt it flowing.
  • I caught fish with hook and line and pole.
  • We climbed high hill and teacher fell and hurt her head.
  • I did read about cow and calf.
  • The cow loves to eat grass as well as girl does bread and butter and milk.
  • Little calf does run and leap in field.
  • She likes to skip and play, for she is happy when the sun is bright and warm.
  • I am tired, and teacher does not want me to write more.
  • In 1892 appeared the Perkins Institution report for 1891, containing a full account of Helen Keller, including many of her letters, exercises, and compositions.
  • From Miss Sullivan's part of this report I give her most important comments and such biographical matter as does not appear elsewhere in the present volume.
  • These extracts Mr. Anagnos took from Miss Sullivan's notes and memoranda.
  • One day, while her pony and her donkey were standing side by side, Helen went from one to the other, examining them closely.
  • Of course, you cannot help it, and I love you just as well as if you were the most beautiful creature in the world.
  • To show how quickly she perceives and associates ideas, I will give an instance which all who have read the book will be able to appreciate.
  • The horse was an old, worn-out chestnut, with an ill-kept coat, and bones that showed plainly through it; the knees knuckled over, and the forelegs were very unsteady.
  • There was a hopeless look in the dull eye that I could not help noticing, and then, as I was thinking where I had seen that horse before, she looked full at me and said, 'Black Beauty, is that you?'
  • There were very few spots of sunshine in poor Ginger's life, and the sadnesses were so many!
  • When she came to the line, "There's freedom at thy gates, and rest," she exclaimed: "It means America!
  • The gate, I suppose, is New York City, and Freedom is the great statue of Liberty.
  • She even enters into the spirit of battle; she says, "I think it is right for men to fight against wrongs and tyrants."
  • She was quiet for a moment, and then asked, with spirit: How do you know that I cannot understand?
  • You must remember, dear teacher, that Greek parents were very particular with their children, and they used to let them listen to wise words, and I think they understood some of them.
  • After a time I became discouraged, and told her I was afraid she could not make it stand, but that I would build it for her; but she did not approve of this plan.
  • Until October, 1889, I had not deemed it best to confine Helen to any regular and systematic course of study.
  • Once, when a question puzzled her very much, I suggested that we take a walk and then perhaps she would understand it.
  • She shook her head decidedly, and said: My enemies would think I was running away.
  • I must stay and conquer them now, and she did.
  • The intellectual improvement which Helen has made in the past two years is shown more clearly in her greater command of language and in her ability to recognize nicer shades of meaning in the use of words, than in any other branch of her education.
  • Some of these words have successive steps of meaning, beginning with what is simple and leading on to what is abstract.
  • I regard my pupil as a free and active being, whose own spontaneous impulses must be my surest guide.
  • I have always talked to Helen exactly as I would talk to a seeing and hearing child, and I have insisted that other people should do the same.
  • In selecting books for Helen to read, I have never chosen them with reference to her deafness and blindness.
  • She always reads such books as seeing and hearing children of her age read and enjoy.
  • Of course, in the beginning it was necessary that the things described should be familiar and interesting, and the English pure and simple.
  • She had learned the printed letters, and for some time had amused herself by making simple sentences, using slips on which the words were printed in raised letters; but these sentences had no special relation to one another.
  • The cat can have some milk, and the mouse can have some cake.
  • The word THE she did not know, and of course she wished it explained.
  • Here I made the cat look at the mouse, and let Helen feel the cat.
  • I called her attention to the following line, and, although she knew only the three words, CAT, EAT and MOUSE, she caught the idea.
  • When she read, "Do not let the cat get the mouse!" she recognized the negation in the sentence, and seemed to know that the cat must not get the mouse.
  • GET and LET were new words.
  • She was familiar with the words of the last sentence, and was delighted when allowed to act them out.
  • By signs she made me understand that she wished another story, and I gave her a book containing very short stories, written in the most elementary style.
  • She ran her fingers along the lines, finding the words she knew and guessing at the meaning of others, in a way that would convince the most conservative of educators that a little deaf child, if given the opportunity, will learn to read as easily and naturally as ordinary children.
  • She often reads for two or three hours in succession, and then lays aside her book reluctantly.
  • One day as we left the library I noticed that she appeared more serious than usual, and I asked the cause.
  • They tell me over and over what I want to know.
  • The next lines are still more idiomatic, "When Suetonius left the country, they fell upon his troops and retook the island of Anglesea."
  • She feels the vibrations and understands what is said to her.
  • "Were did I come from?" and "Where shall I go when I die?" were questions Helen asked when she was eight years old.
  • A. says God made me and every one out of sand; but it must be a joke.
  • I am made of flesh and blood and bone, am I not?
  • After a moment she went on: A. says God is everywhere, and that He is all love; but I do not think a person can be made out of love.
  • She had met with the expression Mother Nature in the course of her reading, and for a long time she was in the habit of ascribing to Mother Nature whatever she felt to be beyond the power of man to accomplish.
  • She would say, when speaking of the growth of a plant, "Mother Nature sends the sunshine and the rain to make the trees and the grass and the flowers grow."
  • She is the mother of everything; the flowers and trees and winds.
  • I love the beautiful spring, because the budding trees and the blossoming flowers and the tender green leaves fill my heart with joy.
  • The daisies and the pansies will think I have forgotten them.
  • Who made the earth and the seas, and everything?
  • Little birds and chickens come out of eggs.
  • Why does not the earth fall, it is so very large and heavy?
  • Without that degree of mental development and activity which perceives the necessity of superhuman creative power, no explanation of natural phenomena is possible.
  • As we were passing a large globe a short time after she had written the questions, she stopped before it and asked, "Who made the REAL world?"
  • But after a great deal of thought and study, I told her, men came to believe that all forces were manifestations of one power, and to that power they gave the name GOD.
  • Where did He get the soil, and the water, and the seeds, and the first animals?
  • I told her that God was everywhere, and that she must not think of Him as a person, but as the life, the mind, the soul of everything.
  • The rocks have not life, and they cannot think.
  • I have already told her in simple language of the beautiful and helpful life of Jesus, and of His cruel death.
  • One day she said, sadly: I am blind and deaf.
  • "No one knows what the soul is like," I replied; "but we know that it is not the body, and it is that part of us which thinks and loves and hopes."
  • "Oh, yes!" she replied; "because last hour I was thinking very hard of Mr. Anagnos, and then my mind,"--then changing the word--"my soul was in Athens, but my body was here in the study."
  • At this moment another thought seemed to flash through her mind, and she added, "But Mr. Anagnos did not speak to my soul."
  • "But if I write what my soul thinks," she said, "then it will be visible, and the words will be its body."
  • It was more than a year before she alluded to the subject again, and when she did return to it, her questions were numerous and persistent.
  • She asked: Where is heaven, and what is it like?
  • The fact that sin exists, and that great misery results from it, dawned gradually upon her mind as she understood more and more clearly the lives and experiences of those around her.
  • The necessity of laws and penalties had to be explained to her.
  • Then why did He let little sister fall this morning, and hurt her head so badly?
  • Another time she was asking about the power and goodness of God.
  • She knows with unerring instinct what is right, and does it joyously.
  • At first, the words, phrases and sentences which she used in expressing her thoughts were all reproductions of what we had used in conversation with her, and which her memory had unconsciously retained.
  • And indeed, this is true of the language of all children.
  • Language grows out of life, out of its needs and experiences.
  • Good work in language presupposes and depends on a real knowledge of things.
  • I always tried to find out what interested her most, and made that the starting-point for the new lesson, whether it had any bearing on the lesson I had planned to teach or not.
  • In order to write one must have something to write about, and having something to write about requires some mental preparation.
  • The memory must be stored with ideas and the mind must be enriched with knowledge before writing becomes a natural and pleasurable effort.
  • Teach them to think and read and talk without self-repression, and they will write because they cannot help it.
  • Helen acquired language by practice and habit rather than by study of rules and definitions.
  • I believe every child has hidden away somewhere in his being noble capacities which may be quickened and developed if we go about it in the right way; but we shall never properly develop the higher natures of our little ones while we continue to fill their minds with the so-called rudiments.
  • Let them run in the fields, learn about animals, and observe real things.
  • They require guidance and sympathy far more than instruction.
  • It may be true, as some maintain, that language cannot express to us much beyond what we have lived and experienced; but I have always observed that children manifest the greatest delight in the lofty, poetic language which we are too ready to think beyond their comprehension.
  • "Oh, please read us the rest, even if we won't understand it," they pleaded, delighted with the rhythm, and the beauty which they felt, even though they could not have explained it.
  • It is not necessary that a child should understand every word in a book before he can read with pleasure and profit.
  • Helen has had the best and purest models in language constantly presented to her, and her conversation and her writing are unconscious reproductions of what she has read.
  • It is true, the more sensitive and imaginative the mind is that receives the thought-pictures and images of literature, the more nicely the finest lines are reproduced.
  • Helen has the vitality of feeling, the freshness and eagerness of interest, and the spiritual insight of the artistic temperament, and naturally she has a more active and intense joy in life, simply as life, and in nature, books, and people than less gifted mortals.
  • Her mind is so filled with the beautiful thoughts and ideals of the great poets that nothing seems commonplace to her; for her imagination colours all life with its own rich hues.
  • There has been much discussion of such of Miss Sullivan's statements and explanations as have been published before.
  • And this is Miss Sullivan's great discovery.
  • All day long in their play-time and work-time Miss Sullivan kept spelling into her pupil's hand, and by that Helen Keller absorbed words, just as the child in the cradle absorbs words by hearing thousands of them before he uses one and by associating the words with the occasion of their utterance.
  • Thus he learns that words name things and actions and feelings.
  • She urged every one to speak to Helen naturally, to give her full sentences and intelligent ideas, never minding whether Helen understood or not.
  • True, single words do suggest and express ideas; the child may say simply "mamma" when he means "Where is mamma?" but he learns the expression of the ideas that relate to mamma--he learns language--by hearing complete sentences.
  • Books are the storehouse of language, and any child, whether deaf or not, if he has his attention attracted in any way to printed pages, must learn.
  • He learns not by reading what he understands, but by reading and remembering words he does not understand.
  • It is true rather that she has a special aptitude for thinking, and her leaning toward language is due to the fact that language to her meant life.
  • When at the age of fourteen she had had but a few lessons in German, she read over the words of "Wilhelm Tell" and managed to get the story.
  • Of grammar she knew nothing and she cared nothing for it.
  • She got the language from the language itself, and this is, next to hearing the language spoken, the way for any one to get a foreign tongue, more vital and, in the end, easier than our schoolroom method of beginning with the grammar.
  • In the same way she played with Latin, learning not only from the lessons her first Latin teacher gave her, but from going over and over the words of a text, a game she played by herself.
  • Often I found her, when she had a little leisure, sitting in her favourite corner, in a chair whose arms supported the big volume prepared for the blind, and passing her finger slowly over the lines of Moliere's 'Le Medecin Malgre Lui,' chuckling to herself at the comical situations and humorous lines.
  • It is true that a teacher with ten times Miss Sullivan's genius could not have made a pupil so remarkable as Helen Keller out of a child born dull and mentally deficient.
  • And the fact remains that she was taught by a method of teaching language to the deaf the essential principles of which are clearly expressed in Miss Sullivan's letters, written while she was discovering the method and putting it successfully into practice.
  • And the fact remains that she was taught by a method of teaching language to the deaf the essential principles of which are clearly expressed in Miss Sullivan's letters, written while she was discovering the method and putting it successfully into practice.
  • And it can be applied by any teacher to any healthy deaf child, and in the broadest interpretation of the principles, can be applied to the teaching of language of all kinds to all children.
  • And it can be applied by any teacher to any healthy deaf child, and in the broadest interpretation of the principles, can be applied to the teaching of language of all kinds to all children.
  • If Miss Keller is fond of language and not interested especially in mathematics, it is not surprising to find Miss Sullivan's interests very similar.
  • And this does not mean that Miss Keller is unduly dependent on her teacher.
  • Any deaf child or deaf and blind child in good health can be taught.
  • And the one to do it is the parent or the special teacher, not the school.
  • When Miss Sullivan went out in the barnyard and picked up a little chicken and talked to Helen about it, she was giving a kind of instruction impossible inside four walls, and impossible with more than one pupil at a time.
  • That is just what the teacher of the deaf child must be, a child ready to play and romp, and interested in all childish things.
  • In the first place she had nineteen months' experience of sight and sound.
  • She had inherited vigour of body and mind.
  • Mrs. Keller writes me that before her illness Helen made signs for everything, and her mother thought this habit the cause of her slowness in learning to speak.
  • She recognized that others used their lips; she "saw" her father reading a paper and when he laid it down she sat in his chair and held the paper before her face.
  • Her early rages were an unhappy expression of the natural force of character which instruction was to turn into trained and organized power.
  • It was, then, to a good subject that Miss Sullivan brought her devotion and intelligence, and fearless willingness to experiment.
  • And finally all the conditions were good for that first nature school, in which the teacher and pupil played together, exploring together and educating themselves, pupil and teacher inseparable.
  • And finally all the conditions were good for that first nature school, in which the teacher and pupil played together, exploring together and educating themselves, pupil and teacher inseparable.
  • Miss Keller's later education is easy to understand and needs no further explanation than she has given.
  • Her voice is low and pleasant to listen to.
  • Her speech lacks variety and modulation; it runs in a sing-song when she is reading aloud; and when she speaks with fair degree of loudness, it hovers about two or three middle tones.
  • Some of her notes are musical and charming.
  • The principal thing that is lacking is sentence accent and variety in the inflection of phrases.
  • She speaks French and German.
  • It would, I think, be hard to make her feel just how to pronounce DICTIONARY without her erring either toward DICTIONAYRY or DICTION'RY, and, of course the word is neither one nor the other.
  • The only way is to hear it, especially in a language like English which is so full of unspellable, suppressed vowels and quasi-vowels.
  • This difficulty and some others may be corrected when she and Miss Sullivan have more time.
  • Miss Keller will never be able, I believe, to speak loud without destroying the pleasant quality and the distinctness of her words, but she can do much to make her speech clearer.
  • When she was at the Wright-Humason School in New York, Dr. Humason tried to improve her voice, not only her word pronunciation, but the voice itself, and gave her lessons in tone and vocal exercises.
  • Her friends grow accustomed to her speech and forget that it is different from that of any one else.
  • I explained to her that some deaf children were taught to speak, but that they could see their teachers' mouths, and that that was a very great assistance to them.
  • She at once resolved to learn to speak, and from that day to this she has never wavered in that resolution.
  • From the first she was not content to be drilled in single sounds, but was impatient to pronounce words and sentences.
  • But, with all her eagerness and intelligence, learning to speak taxed her powers to the utmost.
  • But there was satisfaction in seeing from day to day the evidence of growing mastery and the possibility of final success.
  • I can only say in reply, "This is due to habitual imitation and practice! practice! practice!"
  • I knew that Laura Bridgman had shown the same intuitive desire to produce sounds, and had even learned to pronounce a few simple words, which she took great delight in using, and I did not doubt that Helen could accomplish as much as this.
  • I thought, however, that the advantage she would derive would not repay her for the time and labour that such an experiment would cost.
  • The acquiring of speech by untaught deaf children is always slow and often painful.
  • In the very nature of things, articulation is an unsatisfactory means of education; while the use of the manual alphabet quickens and invigorates mental activity, since through it the deaf child is brought into close contact with the English language, and the highest and most abstract ideas may be conveyed to the mind readily and accurately.
  • She was already perfectly familiar with words and the construction of sentences, and had only mechanical difficulties to overcome.
  • When she was stricken down with the illness which resulted in her loss of sight and hearing, at the age of nineteen months, she was learning to talk.
  • The unmeaning babblings of the infant were becoming day by day conscious and voluntary signs of what she felt and thought.
  • Her pronunciation of this gradually became indistinct, and when I first knew her it was nothing more than a peculiar noise.
  • Her little hands felt every object and observed every movement of the persons about her, and she was quick to imitate these movements.
  • At the time when I became her teacher, she had made for herself upward of sixty signs, all of which were imitative and were readily understood by those who knew her.
  • The only signs which I think she may have invented were her signs for SMALL and LARGE.
  • Occasionally she broke out into a merry laugh, and then she would reach out and touch the mouth of any one who happened to be near her, to see if he were laughing also.
  • She liked to feel the cat purr; and if by chance she felt a dog in the act of barking, she showed great pleasure.
  • She always liked to stand by the piano when some one was playing and singing.
  • She kept one hand on the singer's mouth, while the other rested on the piano, and she stood in this position as long as any one would sing to her, and afterward she would make a continuous sound which she called singing.
  • It will be seen that they contain three vowel and six consonant elements, and these formed the foundation for her first real lesson in speaking.
  • Hard consonants were, and indeed still are, very difficult for her to pronounce in connection with one another in the same word; she often suppresses the one and changes the other, and sometimes she replaces both by an analogous sound with soft aspiration.
  • Enough appears in the accounts by Miss Keller's teacher to show the process by which she reads the lips with her fingers, the process by which she was taught to speak, and by which, of course, she can listen to conversation now.
  • It is a clumsy and unsatisfactory way of receiving communication, useless when Miss Sullivan or some one else who knows the manual alphabet is present to give Miss Keller the spoken words of others.
  • Indeed, when some friend is trying to speak to Miss Keller, and the attempt is not proving successful, Miss Sullivan usually helps by spelling the lost words into Miss Keller's hand.
  • President Roosevelt had little difficulty last spring in making Miss Keller understand him, and especially requested Miss Sullivan not to spell into her hand.
  • The ability to read the lips helps Miss Keller in getting corrections of her pronunciation from Miss Sullivan and others, just as it was the means of her learning to speak at all, but it is rather an accomplishment than a necessity.
  • It must be remembered that speech contributed in no way to her fundamental education, though without the ability to speak she could hardly have gone to higher schools and to college.
  • If you knew all the joy I feel in being able to speak to you to-day, I think you would have some idea of the value of speech to the deaf, and you would understand why I want every little deaf child in all this great world to have an opportunity to learn to speak.
  • Why, I use speech constantly, and I cannot begin to tell you how much pleasure it gives me to do so.
  • I also discuss the political situation with my dear father, and we decide the most perplexing questions quite as satisfactorily to ourselves as if I could see and hear.
  • It brings me into closer and tenderer relationship with those I love, and makes it possible for me to enjoy the sweet companionship of a great many persons from whom I should be entirely cut off if I could not talk.
  • I wonder if she remembers how eagerly and gladly they spread their wings and flew away.
  • So I want to say to those who are trying to learn to speak and those who are teaching them: Be of good cheer.
  • We shall speak, yes, and sing, too, as God intended we should speak and sing.
  • No teacher could have made Helen Keller sensitive to the beauties of language and to the finer interplay of thought which demands expression in melodious word groupings.
  • But the extracts from Miss Sullivan's letters and from her reports, although they are clear and accurate, have not the beauty which distinguishes Miss Keller's English.
  • In Captain Keller's library she found excellent books, Lamb's "Tales from Shakespeare," and better still Montaigne.
  • After the first year or so of elementary work she met her pupil on equal terms, and they read and enjoyed good books together.
  • For it was Dr. Bell who first saw the principles that underlie Miss Sullivan's method, and explained the process by which Helen Keller absorbed language from books.
  • There is, moreover, a reason why Helen Keller writes good English, which lies in the very absence of sight and hearing.
  • The disadvantages of being deaf and blind were overcome and the advantages remained.
  • On the other hand, the peculiar value to her of language, which ordinary people take for granted as a necessary part of them like their right hand, made her think about language and love it.
  • Language was her liberator, and from the first she cherished it.
  • Miss Keller has given her account of it, and the whole matter was discussed in the first Volta Bureau Souvenir from which I quote at length:
  • * In this paper Miss Sullivan says: During this winter (1891-92) I went with her into the yard while a light snow was falling, and let her feel the falling flakes.
  • The teachers at the Institution expressed the opinion that the description did not appear in any book in raised print in that library; but one lady, Miss Marrett, took upon herself the task of examining books of poems in ordinary type, and was rewarded by finding the following lines in one of Longfellow's minor poems, entitled 'Snowflakes':
  • 'Out of the bosom of the air, Out of the cloud-folds of her garments shaken, Over the woodlands brown and bare, Over the harvest-fields forsaken, Silent, and soft, and slow Descends the snow.'
  • It would seem that Helen had learned and treasured the memory of this expression of the poet, and this morning in the snow-storm had found its application.
  • One warm, sunny day in early spring, when we were at the North, the balmy atmosphere appears to have brought to her mind the sentiment expressed by Longfellow in "Hiawatha," and she almost sings with the poet: "The ground was all aquiver with the stir of new life.
  • 'All its birds and all its blossoms, all its flowers and all its grasses.'
  • About the same time, in a letter to a friend, in which she makes mention of her Southern home, she gives so close a reproduction from a poem by one of her favourite authors that I will give extracts from Helen's letter and from the poem itself:
  • The original story was read to her from a copy of "Andersen's Stories," published by Leavitt & Allen Bros., and may be found on p. 97 of Part I. in that volume.
  • The next year at Andover she said: It seems to me the world is full of goodness, beauty, and love; and how grateful we must be to our heavenly Father, who has given us so much to enjoy!
  • His love and care are written all over the walls of nature.
  • The pages of the book she reads become to her like paintings, to which her imaginative powers give life and colour.
  • The pictures the language paints on her memory appear to make an indelible impression; and many times, when an experience comes to her similar in character, the language starts forth with wonderful accuracy, like the reflection from a mirror.
  • The anemone, the wild violet, the hepatica, and the funny little curled-up ferns all peeped out at us from beneath the brown leaves.
  • Helen wrote a little letter, and, enclosing the manuscript, forwarded both by mail to Mr. Anagnos for his birthday.
  • This story, "Frost Fairies," appeared in a book written by Miss Margaret T. Canby, entitled "Birdie and his Fairy Friends."
  • As I had never read this story, or even heard of the book, I inquired of Helen if she knew anything about the matter, and found she did not.
  • Helen and I spent the summer of 1888 with Mrs. Hopkins at her home in Brewster, Mass., where she kindly relieved me a part of the time, of the care of Helen.
  • But as she was not able to find her copy, and applications for the volume at bookstores in Boston, New York, Philadelphia, Albany, and other places resulted only in failure, search was instituted for the author herself.
  • This became a difficult task, as her publishers in Philadelphia had retired from business many years ago; however, it was eventually discovered that her residence is at Wilmington, Delaware, and copies of the second edition of the book, 1889, were obtained from her.
  • She has since secured and forwarded to me a copy of the first edition.
  • Can you tell me in what paper the article appeared accusing Helen of plagiarism, and giving passages from both stories?
  • I should like much to see it, and to obtain a few copies if possible.
  • What a wonderfully active and retentive mind that gifted child must have!
  • Thank you very much for the Report, Gazette, and Helen's Journal.
  • Please give her my warm love, and tell her not to feel troubled about it any more.
  • No one shall be allowed to think it was anything wrong; and some day she will write a great, beautiful story or poem that will make many people happy.
  • Tell her there are a few bitter drops in every one's cup, and the only way is to take the bitter patiently, and the sweet thankfully.
  • I shall love to hear of her reception of the book and how she likes the stories which are new to her.
  • I have now (March, 1892) read to Helen "The Frost Fairies," "The Rose Fairies," and a portion of "The Dew Fairies," but she is unable to throw any light on the matter.
  • I give below a portion of Miss Canby's story, "The Rose Fairies," and also Helen's letter to Mr. Anagnos containing her "dream," so that the likenesses and differences may be studied by those interested in the subject:
  • And what do you think he did next!
  • He stood still a moment to look about him, and think what he should do first.
  • As he came in sight of the rose-bushes that grew near the side of the house, he suddenly clapped his hands, and with a little shout of joy stopped to look at them; they were all covered with lovely rosebuds.
  • Some were red, some white, and others pale pink, and they were just peeping out of the green leaves, as rosy-faced children peep out from their warm beds in wintertime before they are quite willing to get up.
  • After awhile he went nearer, and looking closely at the buds, found that they were folded up, leaf over leaf, as eyelids are folded over sleeping eyes, so that Birdie thought they must be asleep.
  • "Lazy roses, wake up," said he, giving the branches a gentle shake; but only the dew fell off in bright drops, and the flowers were still shut up.
  • It makes me very happy to please you and my dear teacher.
  • Teacher and I have just returned from our walk.
  • She gave me a kiss and then ran away, because she was a shy little girl.
  • Teacher says it was a day-dream, and she thinks you would be delighted to hear it.
  • I was a very happy little child with rosy cheeks, and large blue eyes, and the most beautiful golden ringlets you can imagine.
  • The fresh morning air blew gently in my face, as if to welcome me, and be my merry playmate, and the sun looked at me with a warm and tender smile.
  • Some were red, some white, and others were delicate pink, and they were peeping out from between the green leaves like beautiful little fairies.
  • Teacher and all of your friends send you their love.
  • Please give my love to your good Greek friends, and tell them that I shall come to Athens some day.
  • Lovingly your little friend and playmate, HELEN A. KELLER.
  • "The Frost Fairies" and "The Frost Kings" are given in full, as the differences are as important as the resemblances:
  • The Frost Fairies [From "Birdie and his Fairy Friends"] by Margaret T. Canby
  • Every year Santa Claus takes a journey over the world in a sleigh drawn by a strong and rapid steed called "Rudolph."
  • But his most wonderful work is the painting of the trees, which look, after his task is done, as if they were covered with the brightest layers of gold and rubies; and are beautiful enough to comfort us for the flight of summer.
  • He has two neighbours, who live still farther north; one is King Winter, a cross and churlish old monarch, who is hard and cruel, and delights in making the poor suffer and weep; but the other neighbour is Santa Claus, a fine, good-natured, jolly old soul, who loves to do good, and who brings presents to the poor, and to nice little children at Christmas.
  • Well, one day King Frost was trying to think of some good that he could do with his treasure; and suddenly he concluded to send some of it to his kind neighbour, Santa Claus, to buy presents of food and clothing for the poor, that they might not suffer so much when King Winter went near their homes.
  • So he called together his merry little fairies, and showing them a number of jars and vases filled with gold and precious stones, told them to carry those carefully to the palace of Santa Claus, and give them to him with the compliments of King Frost.
  • The fairies promised obedience and soon started on their journey, dragging the great glass jars and vases along, as well as they could, and now and then grumbling a little at having such hard work to do, for they were idle fairies, and liked play better than work.
  • At last they reached a great forest, and, being quite tired, they decided to rest awhile and look for nuts before going any further.
  • Then looking more closely at the trees around, they saw that the treasure was all melting away, and that much of it was already spread over the leaves of the oak trees and maples, which were shining with their gorgeous dress of gold and bronze, crimson and emerald.
  • It was very beautiful; but the idle fairies were too much frightened at the mischief their disobedience had caused, to admire the beauty of the forest, and at once tried to hide themselves among the bushes, lest King Frost should come and punish them.
  • Their fears were well founded, for their long absence had alarmed the king, and he had started out to look for his tardy servants, and just as they were all hidden, he came along slowly, looking on all sides for the fairies.
  • Of course, he soon noticed the brightness of the leaves, and discovered the cause, too, when he caught sight of the broken jars and vases from which the melted treasure was still dropping.
  • And when he came to the nut trees, and saw the shells left by the idle fairies and all the traces of their frolic, he knew exactly how they had acted, and that they had disobeyed him by playing and loitering on their way through the woods.
  • And when he came to the nut trees, and saw the shells left by the idle fairies and all the traces of their frolic, he knew exactly how they had acted, and that they had disobeyed him by playing and loitering on their way through the woods.
  • Their pleasure charmed away King Frost's anger, and he, too, began to admire the painted trees, and at last he said to himself, My treasures are not wasted if they make little children happy.
  • Then the fairies thanked him for his forgiveness, and promised to work very hard to please him; and the good-natured king took them all up in his arms, and carried them safely home to his palace.
  • The entrance to the palace is at the end of an arched recess, and it is guarded night and day by twelve soldierly-looking white Bears.
  • But, children, you must make King Frost a visit the very first opportunity you have, and see for yourselves this wonderful palace.
  • The old King will welcome you kindly, for he loves children, and it is his chief delight to give them pleasure.
  • You must know that King Frost, like all other kings, has great treasures of gold and precious stones; but as he is a generous old monarch, he endeavours to make a right use of his riches.
  • So he called together the merry little fairies of his household and, showing them the jars and vases containing his treasures, he bade them carry them to the palace of Santa Claus as quickly as they could.
  • The fairies promised obedience, and were off in a twinkling, dragging the heavy jars and vases along after them as well as they could, now and then grumbling a little at having such a hard task, for they were idle fairies and loved to play better than to work.
  • After awhile they came to a great forest and, being tired and hungry, they thought they would rest a little and look for nuts before continuing their journey.
  • Then they began to wander merrily about searching for nuts, climbing trees, peeping curiously into the empty birds' nests, and playing hide and seek from behind the trees.
  • King Sun laughed softly to himself when the delicate jars began to melt and break.
  • At length every jar and vase was cracked or broken, and the precious stones they contained were melting, too, and running in little streams over the trees and bushes of the forest.
  • Then looking around more closely, they saw that much of the treasure was already melted, for the oaks and maples were arrayed in gorgeous dresses of gold and crimson and emerald.
  • They were afraid that King Frost would come and punish them.
  • So they hid themselves among the bushes and waited silently for something to happen.
  • Their fears were well founded, for their long absence had alarmed the King, and he mounted North Wind and went out in search of his tardy couriers.
  • Of course, he had not gone far when he noticed the brightness of the leaves, and he quickly guessed the cause when he saw the broken jars from which the treasure was still dropping.
  • At first King Frost was very angry, and the fairies trembled and crouched lower in their hiding-places, and I do not know what might have happened to them if just then a party of boys and girls had not entered the wood.
  • When the children saw the trees all aglow with brilliant colors they clapped their hands and shouted for joy, and immediately began to pick great bunches to take home.
  • Their pleasure banished the anger from King Frost's heart and the frown from his brow, and he, too, began to admire the painted trees.
  • My idle fairies and my fiery enemy have taught me a new way of doing good.
  • When the fairies heard this, they were greatly relieved and came forth from their hiding-places, confessed their fault, and asked their master's forgiveness.
  • This morning I took a bath, and when teacher came upstairs to comb my hair she told me some very sad news which made me unhappy all day.
  • My heart was full of tears, for I love the beautiful truth with my whole heart and mind.
  • I thought very much about the sad news when teacher went to the doctor's; she was not here at dinner and I missed her.'
  • PERKINS INSTITUTION AND MASSACHUSETTS SCHOOL FOR THE BLIND SO.
  • Such rich treasures must be kept in a safe place, and so she had imagined them stored in jars and vases in one part of the royal palace.
  • In answer to my question she recited a part of the poem called 'Freaks of the Frost,' and she referred to a little piece about winter, in one of the school readers.
  • She could not remember that any one had ever read to her any stories about King Frost, but said she had talked with her teacher about Jack Frost and the wonderful things he did.
  • I asked Miss Sullivan to go at once to see Mrs. Hopkins and ascertain the facts in the matter.
  • She seems to have some idea of the difference between original composition and reproduction.
  • She could not keep back her tears, and the chief cause of her pain seemed to be the fear lest people should doubt her truthfulness.
  • Director of the Perkins Institution and Massachusetts School for the Blind.
  • The episode had a deadening effect on Helen Keller and on Miss Sullivan, who feared that she had allowed the habit of imitation, which has in truth made Miss Keller a writer, to go too far.
  • With most of us the contributions from different sources are blended, crossed and confused.
  • It shows how the child-mind gathers into itself words it has heard, and how they lurk there ready to come out when the key that releases the spring is touched.
  • The reason that we do not observe this process in ordinary children is, because we seldom observe them at all, and because they are fed from so many sources that the memories are confused and mutually destructive.
  • "Twelve soldierly-looking white bears" is a stroke of genius, and there is beauty of rhythm throughout the child's narrative.
  • This little story calls into life all the questions of language and the philosophy of style.
  • All use of language is imitative, and one's style is made up of all other styles that one has met.
  • The way to write good English is to read it and hear it.
  • Words often make the thought, and the master of words will say things greater than are in him.
  • Writing of the moment when she learned that everything has a name, she says: We met the nurse carrying my little cousin; and teacher spelled 'baby.'
  • So the master of words is master of thoughts which the words create, and says things greater than he could otherwise know.
  • Helen Keller writing "The Frost King" was building better than she knew and saying more than she meant.
  • The medium calls forth the thing it conveys, and the greater the medium the deeper the thoughts.
  • The substance of thought is language, and language is the one thing to teach the deaf child and every other child.
  • Let him get language and he gets the very stuff that language is made of, the thought and the experience of his race.
  • The deaf child who has only the sign language of De l'Epee is an intellectual Philip Nolan, an alien from all races, and his thoughts are not the thoughts of an Englishman, or a Frenchman, or a Spaniard.
  • In the early years of her education she had only good things to read; some were, indeed, trivial and not excellent in style, but not one was positively bad in manner or substance.
  • "A new word opens its heart to me," she writes in a letter; and when she uses the word its heart is still open.
  • "Paradise Lost," she answered, and she read it on the train.
  • I discovered the true way to walk when I was a year old, and during the radiant summer days that followed I was never still a minute....
  • My mother sat beside my little bed and tried to soothe my feverish moans while in her troubled heart she prayed, "Father in Heaven, spare my baby's life!"
  • But the fever grew and flamed in my eyes, and for several days my kind physician thought I would die.
  • But early one morning the fever left me as mysteriously and unexpectedly as it had come, and I fell into a quiet sleep.
  • Then my parents knew I would live, and they were very happy.
  • They did not know for some time after my recovery that the cruel fever had taken my sight and hearing; taken all the light and music and gladness out of my little life.
  • When I awoke and found that all was dark and still, I suppose I thought it was night, and I must have wondered why day was so long coming.
  • After all, sight and hearing are but two of the beautiful blessings which God had given me.
  • My mind remained clear and active, "though fled fore'er the light."
  • I would cling to my mother's dress as she went about her household duties, and my litt