If their ancestors had been carried out to sea once or twice by a flood and safely drifted as far as the Galapagos Islands" (Wallace), "they must have been numerous on the continent" (Rothschild and Hartert).
At the graves of national heroes or ancestors worship was paid.
It had ancestors in a flourishing condition during the Secondary epoch.
And with a Frenchman's easy and naive frankness the captain told Pierre the story of his ancestors, his childhood, youth, and manhood, and all about his relations and his financial and family affairs, "ma pauvre mere" playing of course an important part in the story.
His ancestors, it is believed, came from Scotland, and settled at Bayonne when that region was occupied by the English.
Brauer, that the Thysanura represent more nearly than any other existing insects the ancestors of the class, has been accepted by the great majority of students.
And the whore hung up before I could tell her what I thought of her and her ancestors back to Mrs. Adam!
Not only is he great, but so are his ancestors, his brothers, his stepsons, and his brothers-in-law.
Long ago, his ancestors had rigged the planet to blow the mines and turn the atmosphere into a toxic mix no one would survive.
Get., cap. v.), and to send a son of the Gothic king Telephus to fight at the siege of Troy, with the ancestors of the Romans.
But whether the great gods of polytheism were really transfigured ancestors is very doubtful.
The Mowbray match had already brought to the Howards the representation of an elder line of the Fitzalan earls, who sat in the seats of their ancestors, the Aubignys and Warennes, great earls near akin to their sovereigns.
He was descended in the sixth generation from Jonathan Dickinson, first president of the College of New Jersey (now Princeton University), and his ancestors had been closely connected with the Presbyterian church.
During this period a number of prisoners of the Petcheneg tribe were settled in the neighbourhood, in all probability the ancestors of the Shop tribe which now inhabits the surrounding districts.
It is reasonable to suppose that their ancestors and those of the Hindus at one time formed a single tribe somewhere in central Asia.
He was, however, the first to show clearly that the Ratitae are the retrograde descendants of flying ancestors, that the various groups of surviving Ratitae are, as such, a polyphyletic group, and he has gone fully into the interesting question of the development and subsequent loss of the power of flight, a loss which has taken place not only in different orders of birds but also at various geological periods, and is still taking place.
N.) is a cottage shown by an inscription to have been the home of the ancestors of William McKinley, president of the United States.
The reigning family, however, became extinct when Duke Julius Francis died in September 1689, and there were at least eight claimants for his duchy, chief among them being John George III., elector of Saxony, and George William, duke of Brunswick-Luneburg-Celle, the ancestors of both these princes having made treaties of mutual succession with former dukes of Saxe-Lauenburg.
They have an ancient spear which they believe was brought from Samoa, and they actually name the valley from which their ancestors started.
EDWARD GIBBON (1737-1794), English historian, was descended, he tells us in his autobiography, from a Kentish family of considerable antiquity; among his remoter ancestors he reckons the lord high treasurer Fiennes, Lord Say and Sele, whom Shakespeare has immortalized in his Henry VI.
The religion consists of fear of the spirits of the wood, the sea, disease and ancestors, and of avoidance of acts traditionally displeasing to them.
No longer individual sons of Jacob or Israel, united tribes were led out by Moses and Aaron; and, after a series of incidents extending over forty years, the " children of Israel " invaded the land in which their ancestors had lived.
A "General Society of Mayflower Descendants" was organized in 1894 by lineal descendants of passengers of the "Mayflower" to "preserve their memory, their records, their history, and all facts relating to them, their ancestors and their posterity."
They were almost certainly the ancestors of the modern Magyars, also called Jugra.
Wallace, this author is of opinion that marsupials did not effect an entrance into Australia till about the middle of the Tertiary period, their ancestors being probably opossums of the American type.
In the centre were 8000 French infantry (the ancestors of the later Picardie and Piedmont regiments) under the seigneur de Molart, and 5000 Italian infantry.
The story of the settlement of the national and tribal ancestors in Palestine is interrupted by an account of the southward movement of Jacob (or Israel) and his sons into a district under the immediate influence of the kings of Egypt.
Yahweh had admittedly been the God of Israel's ancestors, but his name was only now made known (Exod.
The one associates itself with the ancestors of the Hebrews and has an ethnic character.
The striped (as distinct from the blotched) short-haired tabby is probably the one most nearly allied to the wild ancestors, the stripes being, however, to a great extent due to the European wild cat.
14), and distinguished ancestors (Ecclus.
1 Yahweh appears to have been known to them before he revealed himself to Moses, and the ancestors of the Israelites are recognized as worshippers of Yahweh, but are on another level (Exod.
Irish and French share common ancestors.
It is from such a fusion as this that the ancestors of the Jews were descended, and both the history and the genius of this people can be properly understood only by taking into account the physical features of their land and the characteristics of the Semitic races in general (see Palestine, Semitic Languages).
Only three hypotheses as to the origin of Endopterygota can be suggested as possible, viz.: - (i) That some of the Palaeozoic insects, though we infer them to have been exopterygotous, were really endopterygotous, and were the actual ancestors of the existing Endopterygota; (2) that Endopterygota are not descended from Exopterygota, but were derived directly from ancestors that were never winged; (3) that the predominant division - i.e.
This measure divided the community into three great categories: (1) those who had never sat in the council themselves and whose ancestors had never sat; these were of course the vast majority of the population, and they were excluded for ever from the great council: (2) those whose paternal ancestors .had sat in the council; these were eligible and were gradually admitted to a seat, their sons becoming eligible on majority: (3) those who were of the council at the passing of this act or had sat during the four preceding years; their sons likewise became eligible on attaining majority.
The Romans celebrated the birthday of a town and of its genius, just as they celebrated that of a man; and a snake was a frequent form for this kind of demon; when we compare with this the South African belief that the snakes which are in the neighbourhood of the kraal are the incarnations of the ancestors of the residents, it seems probable that some similar idea lay at the bottom of the Roman belief; to this day in European folklore the house snake or toad, which lives in the cellar, is regarded as the "life index" or other self of the father of the house; the death of one involves the death of the other, according to popular belief.
There is great probability that the central stems, together with the brain, must be looked upon as local longitudinal accumulations of ner vous tissue in what was in more primitive ancestors a less highly differentiated nervous plexus, situated in the body-wall in a similar way to that which still is found in the less highly o rga n ized C oelenterates.
He also by another charter in 1508 confirmed letters patent granted by Peter de Mauley in 1341, by which the latter renounced to the inhabitants of Doncaster all the manorial claims which he had upon them, with the "pernicious customs" which his ancestors claimed from bakers, brewers, butchers, fishers and wind-fallen trees.
Lamarck, Treviranus, Erasmus Dar win, Goethe, and Saint-Hilaire preached to deaf ears, for they advanced the theory that living beings had developed by a slow process of transmutation in successive generations from simpler ancestors, and in the beginning from simplest formless matter, without being able to demonstrate any existing mechanical causes by which such development must necessarily be brought about.
Among Asiatic points of resemblance to which attention has since been called is the Mexican belief in the nine stages of heaven and hell, an idea which nothing in nature would suggest directly to a barbaric people, but which corresponds to the idea of successive heavens and hells among Brahmans and Buddhists, who apparently learnt it (in common with our own ancestors) from the Babylonian-Greek astronomical theory of successive stages or concentric planetary spheres belonging to the planets, &c. The Spanish chronicles also give accounts of a Mexican game called patolli, played at the time of the conquest with coloured stones moved on the squares of a cross-shaped figure, according to the throws of beans marked on one side; the descriptions of this rather complicated game correspond closely with the Hindu backgammon called pachisi (see Tylor in Jour.
Unfortunately for the historical standing of these four ancestors, there are in the Aztec picture-writings representations of four trees, each with a bird perched on it, and placed facing the four quarters, which make it probable that the four Tutul-Xiu of tradition may be only mythic personifications of the four cardinal points (see SchultzSellack in Zeitschr.
It is therefore not surprising to find that many peoples on the lower planes of culture respect and even worship animals (see Totem; Animal Worship); though we need not attribute an animistic origin to all the developments, it is clear that the widespread respect paid to animals as the abode of dead ancestors, and much of the cult of dangerous animals, is traceable to this principle.
Tacitus himself records a variant form of the genealogy (see above), according to which Mannus had a larger number of sons, who were regarded as the ancestors of the Suebi, Vandilii, Marsi and others (see Suebi, Vandals).
Members are encouraged to prepare family histories, both to record the information for future generations and as a source of information on which ancestors can be called to become believers in the Mormon faith.
Some are actively searching for detailed information on their ancestors while others are content with learning the origin of their surname or the design of their family crest.
By capturing your personal information and the information of your immediate family members you will have the basis to start additional research on ancestors from previous generations.
These traditions of migration and kinship are in themselves entirely credible, but the detailed accounts of the ancestors Abraham, Isaac and Jacob, as given in Genesis, are inherently doubtful as regards both the internal conditions, which the (late) chronological scheme ascribes to the first half of the second millennium B.C., and the general circumstances of the life of these strangers in a foreign land.
Holmes (Caesar's Conquest of Gaul, 1899), who comes to the conclusion that "when the Reman delegates told Caesar that the Belgae were descended from the Germans, they probably only meant that the ancestors of the Belgic conquerors had formerly dwelt in Germany, and this is equally true of the ancestors of the Gauls who gave their name to the Celtae; but, on the other hand, it is quite possible that in the veins of some of the Belgae flowed the blood of genuine German forefathers."
If this ancient civilized race was really allied to the ancestors of the Turks and Huns, it is a remarkable instance of how civilization thrives best by being transplanted at a certain period of growth.
The Rarotongas call themselves Maori, and state that their ancestors came from Hawaiki, and Pirima and Manono are the native names of two islands in the Samoan group. The almost identical languages of the Rarotongas and the Maoris strengthen the theory that the two peoples are descended from Polynesians migrating, possibly at widely different dates, from Samoa.
How far totemism, or belief in deified animal ancestors, existed in prehistoric Israel, as evidenced by the tribal names Simeon (hyena, wolf), Caleb (dog), IIamor (ass), Rahel (ewe) and Leah (wild cow), as well as by the laws respecting clean and unclean animals, is too intricate and speculative a problem to be discussed here.
She gasped, recognizing it as the one he wore often, the heirloom passed down through his ancestors.
Let her play 'let's pretend' with her ancestors.
His conclusions were that the group "has never been nearer the mainland than it is now, nor have its members been at any time closer together"; and that the character of the flora and fauna is the result of species straggling over from America, at long intervals of time, to the different islets, where in their isolation they have gradually varied in different degrees and ways from their ancestors.
At any rate, there seems little doubt that it was the region where creodonts and other primitive mammals were first differentiated from their reptilian ancestors.
1 The Finance Bill1909-1910re-imposed this duty, and extended it to husbands and wives as well as descendants and ancestors.
Their religion was a nature-worship intimately connected with the veneration of ancestors.
9, ro, that God would visit the sins of the fathers upon the children, and it lived on in later Judaism under exaggerated forms. The hopes of the individual Jew were based on the piety of holy ancestors.
Settled in and around Jerusalem, they look upon themselves as the sole community, the true Israel, even as it was believed that once before Israel entered and developed independently in the land of its ancestors.
These cases render it highly probable that insects may in some circumstances become wingless, though their ancestors were winged.
He now prepared to march to the conquest of Turkestan, the original seat of his ancestors.
These new conquerors were Niichihs, and therefore direct ancestors of the Manchus.
The Heteronemertini thus appear to have developed an extra layer of longitudinal fibres internally to those which they inherited from more primitive ancestors, whereas the Metanemertini are no longer in possession of the internal circular layer, but have on the contrary largely developed the external circular one, which has dwindled away in the Heteronemertini.
76, at Italica in Hispania Baetica (according to others, at Rome), where his ancestors, originally from Hadria in Picenum, had been settled since the time of the Scipios.
As ancestors of the Artiodactyle section of the Ungulata, we may look to forms more or less closely related to the North American Lower Eocene genera Mioclaenus and Pantolestes, respectively typifying the families Mioclaenidae and Pantolestidae.
His colonial ancestors held official positions in the civil and military service of Virginia.
Following the example of his ancestors Philip cared for education and the general welfare of his land, and the Protestant university of Marburg, founded in 1527, owes to him its origin.
He derived his surname from the fact that his ancestors were burgraves or chatelains of the town; his parents, who belonged to illustrious Flemish families, were probably the Jean Chastellain and his wife Marie de Masmines mentioned in the town records in 1425 and 1432.
The Perissodactyla may be divided into the four following sections, namely the extinct Titanotheroidea, the Hippoidea, represented by the horse tribe and their ancestors, the Tapiroidea, typified by the tapirs, and the Rhinocerotoidea, which includes the modern rhinoceroses and their forerunners.
Wortman and C. Earle, "Ancestors of the Tapir from the Lower Miocene of Dakota," Bull.
On the whole agriculture is backward, despite the richness of the soil; for the cultivators are a very conservative race, and prefer the methods and implements of their ancestors.
Spanish is a comomon language of the Jews, whose ancestors fled hither, during the 16th century, to escape the Inquisition.
Rather than subject themselves to the tyranny of Ali Pasha, the Pargiotes decided to forsake their country; and accordingly in 1819, having previously exhumed and burned the remains of their ancestors, they migrated to the Ionian Islands.
The horse is supposed by these writers to have originated by separate lines of descent in the Old World and the New, from five-toed ancestors!
other large Arachnids have not been derived from the scorpions directly, but have independently developed from aquatic ancestors, and from one of these independent groups - probably through the harvest-men from the spiders - the Acari have finally resulted.
The Epectinate Arachnids do not stand so close to the aquatic ancestors of the Embolobranchia as do the Pectiniferous scorpions.
Pocock, "Ancestors and Relatives of the Dog," in The Kennel Encyclopaedia (London, 1907).
From him also the reigning sovereign is lineally descended, and he is the liege lord of whom all the chiefs or nobles hold their lands in feu, for services which they or their ancestors had performed, or in virtue of their relationship to the family.
His ancestors had been members of the community of the Bohemian Brethren, and had secretly maintained their Protestant belief throughout the period of religious persecution, eventually giving their adherence to the Augsburg confession as approximate to their original faith.
Before the Manchurian conquest the Mongols were governed by their own feudal princes, who regarded themselves as being descended from seven different ancestors, all, however of the same kin.
Mihaly V6rosmartyo, Ferencz KOlcsey, Ferencz Kazinczy and his associates, to mention but a few of many great names, were, consciously or unconsciously, as the representatives of the renascent national literature, accomplishing a political mission, and their pens proved no less efficacious than the swords of their ancestors.
According to that theory, every organ, every part, colour and peculiarity of an organism, must either be of benefit to that organism itself or have been so to its ancestors: no peculiarity of structure or general conformation, no habit or instinct in any organism, can be supposed to exist for the benefit or amusement of another organism, not even for the delectation of man himself.
Necessarily, according to the theory of natural selection, structures either are present because they are selected as useful or because they are still inherited from ancestors to whom they were useful, though no longer useful to the existing representatives of those ancestors.
The first post-Darwinian systematists naturally and without reflexion accepted of' the idea that existing simpler forms represent stages i n the gradual progress of development - are in fact survivors from past ages which have retained the exact grade of development which their ancestors had reached in past ages.
the explanation of animal (and vegetable) mechanism, colouring, habits, &c., as advantageous to the species or to its ancestors, are only gradually being carried further.
The later stages of evolution leading from his ape-like ancestors to man have consisted definitely in the acquirement of a larger and therefore more educable brain by man and in the consequent education of that brain.
In front of the bestpreserved obelisk is a raised altar with holes sunk in it apparently to receive the blood of the sacrifice to the ancestors.
His own family was of great antiquity, his ancestors having been hereditary ministerials of the bishop of Worms since the time of Ekbert the chamberlain, who founded in i 119 the Augustinian monastery of Frankenthal and died in 1132.
The house consists principally of one large room opening on the front verandah and containing the altar of the family's ancestors, a table in the centre and couches placed against the wall.
China, and in what is now Tongking and northern Annam, are regarded by the Annamese as their ancestors, and tradition ascribes to their first rulers descent from the Chinese imperial family.
If the Roman aristocracy of his time had lost much of the virtue and of the governing qualities of their ancestors, they showed in the last years before the establishment of monarchy a taste for intellectual culture which might have made Rome as great in literature as in arms and law.
McCall Theal states that the ancestors of the tribes living in what is now Natal and Zululand were acquainted with the regimental system and the method of attack in crescent shape formation in the 17th century.
His ancestors had been celebrated as physicians for several generations, and his son was afterwards held by the Arabians to be even more eminent in his profession than Avenzoar himself.
On the neighbouring Schlossberg is the ancestral castle of the counts of La Marck, ancestors, on the female side, of the Prussian royal house.
Mahomet's life before he appeared as a prophet and the story of his ancestors are indeed mixed with many fables illustrated by spurious verses.
Under such conditions the deeply-rooted nature of the blood-sucking instinct is most remarkable; for insects whose ancestors for many generations may not have tasted blood will seek for it with the utmost keenness and pertinacity so soon as an opportunity presents itself.
1045 a vast horde of Beduins from Upper Egypt (Beni Hilal and Solaim), the ancestors of the modern nomads of Barbary.
There are two libraries; one founded in 1836, and now a public library in the Atheneum building; and the other in what is now the School of Industrial and Manual Training (1904), founded in 1827 as a Lancasterian school by Admiral Sir Isaac Coffin (1759-1839), whose ancestors were Nantucket people.
Heroic honours were at first bestowed upon the founders of a colony or city, and the ancestors of families; if their name was not known, one was adopted from legend.
In many cases these heroes were purely fictitious; such were the supposed ancestors of the noble and priestly families of Attica and elsewhere (Butadae at Athens, Branchidae at Miletus Ceryces at Eleusis), of the eponymi of the tribes and demes.
Bertini, officially compiled in order to preserve the memory of the more interesting acts of Charlemagne, his ancestors and his successors.
His ancestors had also ruled in Egypt as caliphs of the BeniFatimites for a number of years, at a period coeval with the Crusades.
William inherited the baleful lustre, without the substantial power, which his ancestors had given to the name of Orange.
The steady dependence of Sparta on the Delphic oracle, for example, is best explained as an observance inherited from Parnassian ancestors.
The population (about 39,000) is divided into two classes- orang burger or citizens, and orang negri or villagers, the former being a class of native origin enjoying certain privileges conferred on their ancestors by the old Dutch East India Company.
Every endeavour is made to gloss over, or modify, expressions which seemed derogatory to the ancestors of ' According to Zunz, Gottesdienstliche Vortrdge, 2nd ed., p. 80, its contents bear the following proportions to Genesis, z o o to Exodus, about 1 1 4 to Leviticus, s to Numbers, and 4 to Deuteronomy.
The younger line became stadtholders of the other states after the extinction of the elder, and were the ancestors of the present royal family of the Netherlands.
For the history of the Hebrews the life of Abraham is of the same value as other stories of traditional ancestors.
Equally contradictory of any such law of development is the circumstance that the Greeks of the 5th and 4th centuries B.C., although Pheidias and other artists were embodying their gods and goddesses in the most perfect of images, nevertheless continued to cherish the rude aniconic stocks and stones of their ancestors.
26), claims that his ancestors discovered the art of making gods, and since they could not create souls, they called up the souls of demons or angels and introduced them into the holy images and divine mysteries, that through these souls the idols might possess powers of doing good and harm.
Of the Portuguese inhabitants more than three-fourths are natives of Macao - a race very inferior in point of physique to their European ancestors.
His family came from Livonia, one of his ancestors having been burgomaster of Riga.
The seigneurs of Bethune, avoues (advocati) of the great abbey of Saint-Vaast at Arras from the I 1 th century, were the ancestors of a great French house whence sprang the dukes of Sully, Charost, Orval, and Ancenis; the marquises of Rosny, Courville and Chabris; the counts of Selles and the princes of Boisbelle and Henrichemont.
The families (to judge from the northwards extension of Judaean territory) are probably those of the population in the later Persian period, hardly those who returned to the precise homes of their ancestors (see C. F.
by a very illustrious line of ancestors.
west of the burgh, once belonged to the Murrays of Tullibardine, ancestors of the duke of Atholl, who derives the title of marquis of Tullibardine from the estate.
" By forbidding appeals to a council the pope treats us like slaves, and wishes to take for his own pleasures all that we and our ancestors have accumulated by honest labour.
The old view that the Lares were the deified ancestors of the family has been rejected lately by Wissowa, who holds that the Lar was originally the protecting spirit of a man's lot of arable land, with a shrine at the compitum, i.e.
His father, Joseph Chatfield Alcox, was a farmer and mechanic whose ancestors, then bearing the name of Alcocke, had settled in eastern Massachusetts in colonial days.
of the Lower Pliocene of Greece, at one time regarded as antelopes,, are now known to be ancestors of the okapi.
Summers, Our Lollard Ancestors (1906), pp. 51, 92, 109 ff.
At a meeting held in January 1766, in protest against the Stamp Act, it was declared, that "Whereas it appears from ancient Records and other Memorials of Incontestible Validity that our Ancestors with a great Sum Purchased said township, with great Peril possessed and Defended the Same, we are Born free (having never been in bondage to any), an inheritance of Inestimable Value," and a penalty of 20S.
There is no doubt that it contains an element of truth; as among the Romans the gradual deification of ancestors and the apotheosis of emperors were prominent features of religious development, so among primitive peoples it is possible to trace the evolution of family and tribal gods from great chiefs and warriors.
His parents were of Scottish-Irish descent, but the ancestors of both had been in New England for several generations.
of England, though no connexion between this family, who were sieurs de Lesparre, and the essayist's ancestors can be made out.
Eisenach fell in in 1644 and Altenburg in 1672, thus leaving the dukes of Saxe-Weimar and Saxe-Gotha to become the ancestors of the modern ruling houses.
Though a very able soldier, he was without the intellectual culture which the Gracchi, his political ancestors, possessed.
proves that the position which the later priests abused had been won by ancestors who earned the respect of the nation as worthy representatives of a divine Torah.
The island was variously identified with America, Scandinavia, the Canaries and even Palestine; ethnologists saw in its inhabitants the ancestors of the Guanchos, the Basques or the ancient Italians; and even in the 17th and 18th centuries the credibility of the whole legend was seriously debated, and sometimes admitted, even by Montaigne, Buffon and Voltaire.
They expanded and developed, and applied to new situations and circumstances of the national life, the truths which in a more germinal form they had inherited from their ancestors.
The traditions of many of the Polynesian islanders refer to a black indigenous race which occupied their islands when their ancestors arrived, and the black woolly-haired Papuan type is not only found to-day in Melanesia proper, but traces of it occur throughout Polynesia and Micronesia.
It is most probable that the two stocks have Asiatic ancestors in common, though the Polynesians remain today, what they must have always been in remote times, a distinct race.
Ortmann has traced the centre of dispersal of the fresh-water Crawfish genera Cambarus, Potamobius and Cambaroides to eastern Asia, where their common ancestors lived in Cretaceous time.
Of these two kinds of genetic and adaptive resemblance, homogeny is the warp composed of the vertical, hereditary strands, which connect animals with their ancestors and their successors, while analogy is the woof, composed of the horizontal strands which tie animals together by their superficial resemblances.
The Roman Catholic religion was enforced at the time of the conquest, but a large percentage of the natives may still be considered semi-pagan, the gods of their ancestors being worshipped in secret, and the forms and tenets of the dominant faith, which they but faintly comprehend, being largely adulterated with superstitions and practices of pagan origin.
The remarkable phenomenon of nations so similar in bodily make but so distinct in language can hardly be met except by supposing a long period to have elapsed since the country was first inhabited by the ancestors of peoples whose language has since passed into so different forms. The original peopling of America might then well date from the time when there was continuous land between it and Asia.
After this comes the creation of the four men and their wives who are the ancestors of the Quiches, and the tradition records the migrations of the nation to Tulan, otherwise called the Seven Caves, and thence across the sea, whose waters were divided for their passage.
As in the Guatemala traditions, we hear of ancient migration from the Mexican legendary region of Tula; and here the leaders are four famous chiefs or ancestors who bear the Aztec name of the Tutul-Xiu, which means " Bird-Tree."
In the nearly unexplored central part of Nicaragua Dr Lehmann found fragments of painted polychrome clay pottery similar to objects known from the Ulloa Valley (Honduras) amongst other ceramic pieces which seem to have been left by the ancestors of the Sumo Indians, now extinct in that territory.
The notion that the ruined cities now buried in the Central-American forests were of great antiquity and the work of extinct nations has no solid evidence; some of them may have been already abandoned before the conquest, but others were inhabited by the ancestors of the Indians who now build their mean huts and till their patches of maize round the relics of the grander life of their ancestors.
Both were acquired in the next century by the ancestors of Viscount Tredegar, to whom they now belong.
Sennacherib records that several of his royal ancestors had been buried in Nineveh and they presumably had resided there.
Aristotle in his Ethics stigmatizes as "extremely unloving" (Xiav a4xXov) the denial that ancestors are interested in or affected by the fortunes of their descendants; and in effect ancestor-worship is the staple of most religions, ancient or modern, civilized or savage.
In the Russo-Japanese War in 1904-5 the greatest incentive to deeds of patriotic valour was for Japanese soldiers the belief that the spirits of their ancestors were watching them; and in China it is not the man himself that is ennobled for his philanthropic virtues or learning, but his ancestor.
Oftener, however, they were mere masques worn at funerals by men who personated the ancestors and wore their robes of office.
A man only shared in house, tribe and state, so far as he was descended from particular ancestors and eponymous heroes, and due cult of these illustrious dead was the condition of his enjoying any rights or inheriting any property.
The gens in turn was regarded as an expansion of the family, as was the state of the gens; and members of these larger units by worship of common ancestors - usually mythical - kept alive the feeling that they were a single organic whole animated by a common soul and joined in consanguinity.
Outcasts alone, the offspring of irregular unions, could be ignorant of the blood which ran in their veins, of the unseen ancestors to be fed and tended in family and gentile rites.'
The family have on the preceding days solemnly visited the grave, and offered to the shades gifts of water, wine, milk, honey, oil, and the blood of black victims; they have decked the tomb with flowers, have renewed the feast and farewell of the funeral, and have prayed to the ancestors to watch over their welfare.
The Church when it had once conquered the world allowed such precepts to lapse and fall into the background, and no one save monks or Manichaean heretics remembered them any more; indeed modern divines affect to believe that marriage rites and family ties were the peculiar concern of the Church from the very first; and few moderns will fail to sympathize with the misgivings of the barbarian chief who, having been converted and being about to receive Christian baptism, paused as he stepped down into the font, and asked the priests if in the heaven to which their rites admitted him he would meet and converse with his pagan ancestors.
But many primitive societies do not trace descent through males and yet may be said to worship ancestors.
The question has often been raised, what is the relation of private cults of ancestors to public religion?
Its historical ancestors were the counts of Kafernburg, from whom the counts of Schwarzburg sprang about the beginning of the 13th century.
The gill-plates have a structure very different from that of the labial tentacles, and one which in Anodonta is singularly complicated as compared with the condition presented by these organs in some other Lamellibranchs, and with what must have been their original condition in the ancestors of the whole series of living Lamellibranchia.
In Athens such speeches were delivered at national festivals or games, with the object of rousing the citizens to emulate the glorious deeds of their ancestors.
On the other hand, there is no evidence that the forms which show no metamerism, such as the Gastropoda, are descended from metameric ancestors.
JOHN FECKENHAM (c. 1515-1584), English ecclesiastic, last abbot of Westminster, was born at Feckenham, Worcestershire, of ancestors who, by their wills, seem to have been substantial yeomen.
Name-songs, written at the birth of a chief, gave his genealogy and the deeds of his ancestors; dirges and love-songs were common.
The site of Ripon was purchased in 1838 by John Scott Horner (1802-1883), of Virginia, secretary and acting-governor of Michigan Territory in 1835, and the first secretary of Wisconsin Territory in 1836-37, who named the village when it was established in 1849 from the seat of his ancestors in Yorkshire.
These sudden appearances of vast bodies of lemmings, and their singular habit of persistently pursuing the same onward course of migration, have given rise to various speculations, from the ancient belief of the Norwegian peasants, shared by Olaus Magnus, that they fall down from the clouds, to the hypothesis that they are acting in obedience to an instinct inherited from ancient times, and still seeking the congenial home in the submerged Atlantis, to which their ancestors of the Miocene period were wont to resort when driven from their ordinary dwelling-places by crowding or scarcity of food.
In English documents also we find eponymous national ancestors grouped together in genealogical trees, and there is reason to believe that the common origin of the various Teutonic peoples was remembered to a certain extent until comparatively late in the middle ages.
Some of these eponymous ancestors may be regarded as heroes rather than gods, and classed with such persons, as Skioldr, the eponymous.
15 Persian Gulf; the tradition, therefore, seems to show that the Phoenicians believed that their ancestors came originally from Babylonia.
For it is to be expected a priori that, since albinoes were derived from pigmented progenitors and may at any time appear, side by side with pigmented brothers, in a litter from pigmented parents, they would be carrying the pattern determinants of some one or other of their pigmented ancestors.
Zeller thinks that his ancestors belonged to the Cadmean tribe in Boeotia, who were intermingled with the Ionians of Asia Minor, and thus reconciles the conflicting statements.
Sanquhar Castle, on a hill overlooking the Nith, once belonged to the Crichtons, ancestors of the marquess of Bute, but is now a ruin.
This appears to indicate that the Neomeniomorpha are descended from Chiton-like ancestors, and that they have lost their shell valves.
exchanged it with Roger de Newburgh, earl of Warwick, whose descendant, William de Beauchamp, in the reign of Edward I., claimed by prescription a court leet with assize of bread and ale and other liberties here, which were allowed him, as it was found that his ancestors had held the same.
was growing to manhood, and his numerous adherents throughout the country spared no efforts to undermine the authority of De Witt, and secure for the young prince of Orange the dignities and authority of his ancestors.
It is worthy of note that the dynasty claimed to be of the same origin as the royal house of Bernicia and that two of Cerdic's ancestors, Freawine and Wig, figure in the.
His ancestors had been gentlefolk, but his father had reduced himself to hard straits by loose living.
Kandahar was occupied, and Shah Shuja reinstated on the throne of his ancestors.
Apart from other signs of a late date in this list of the ancestors and descendants of Boaz, iv.
GEORGE OF TREBIZOND (1395-1484), Greek philosopher and scholar, one of the pioneers of the revival of letters in the Western world, was born in the island of Crete, and derived his surname Trapezuntios from the fact that his ancestors were from Trebizond.
He had inherited from his ancestors a scrofulous taint, and his parents were weak enough to believe that the royal touch would cure him.
The early English ancestors, the breed of which is not on record in America, were most probably of Lincoln origin.
As early as 1430 some of them - sprung of Alan, lord of Buckenhall - settled in the neighbourhood of Calne and Devizes, whence descended the immediate ancestors of "worthy Mr Tobie Alleine of Devizes," father of Joseph, who, the fourth of a large family, was born at Devizes early in 1634.1645 is marked in the title-page of a quaint old tractate, by an eye-witness, as the year of his setting forth in the Christian race.
In his books on geological subjects he maintained a distinctly theological attitude, declining to admit the descent or evolution of man from brute ancestors, and holding that the human species only made its appearance on this earth within quite recent times.
By the treaty of Prague (August 23, 1866) the emperor surrendered the position in Germany which his ancestors had held for so many centuries; Austria and Tirol, Bohemia and Salzburg, ceased to be German, and eight million Germans were cut off from all political union with their fellow-countrymen.
He was an ardent Nonconformist, proud to number among his ancestors John Gratton, a friend of George Fox, and one of the persecuted and imprisoned preachers of the Society of Friends.
Nay more, my own ancestors, who in past time suffered persecution for what is now held to be a righteous cause, have all been buried like dogs, if that phrase is true."
governorship of Egypt; it is said to have had the sense of king in Ferghana, whence this persons ancestors had come to enter the service of the caliph Mota~im.
Among the literary ornaments of his reign was the historian and geographer Ismgil Abulfeda, to whom Malik al-N5~ir restored the government of Hamath, which had belonged to his ancestors, and even gave the title sultan.
He was one of the Toske tribe, and his ancestors had for some time held the hereditary office of bey of Tepeleni.
He was a Scot by descent, and retained the vital energy of his ancestors as a birthright.
The ancestors of his father, Aime Robert Merle d'Aubigne (1755-1799), were French Protestant refugees.
He thence intrigued with the old earl of Atholl (heir to the crown if the ancestors of James by Robert II.
When beetles, or medusae, or cats vary, the range of possible variation is limited and determined by the beetle, medusa or cat constitution, and any possible further differentiation or specialization must be in a sense at least orthogenetic - that is to say, a continuation of the line along which the ancestors of the individual in question have been forced.
3); and whenever he entered his native country he gave a gold piece to every woman of Pasargadae in remembrance of the heroic intervention of their ancestors in the battle (Nic. Damasc. loc. cit.; Plut.
Above the relationship of parents all are simply ancestors, no term being used for grandfather which would not equally apply to any more remote male ancestor.
Morgan has given special terms for grandfather and grandmother, because it would prove too much to show that the people had no grandfathers, &c. But these terms are used for ancestors of any generation.
The gods of clans were probably the spirits of the ancestors in their own line.
His exile gave rise to a schism in the church, and the Johannists (as they were called) did not return to communion with the archbishop of Constantinople till the relics of the saint were, 30 years after, brought back to the Eastern metropolis with great pomp and the emperor publicly implored forgiveness from Heaven for the guilt of his ancestors.
He then proceeds to show that, though His lineage is traced through Joseph's ancestors, He was but the adopted son of Joseph, and he tells the story of the Virgin-birth.
His ancestors in the 18th century had sent recruits to the famous brigade of Irish exiles in the service of France,' and those who remained at home either lived as tenants on the possessions of which they had once been lords, or gradually made money by smuggling, a very general calling in that wild region.
Columbus, whose ancestors came from Savona, gave the name of the city to one of the first islands he discovered in the Antilles.
This legislation appears as that of the Israelites, newly escaped from bondage in Egypt, joined by an ethical covenant-relation with Yahweh, and waiting in the desert to enter and conquer the land of their ancestors.
It reveals itself in the days of the Patriarchs, before the " Amarna " age - or rather in the narratives relating to these remote ancestors.
The siege of Gaza was famous; but in the end the city was taken by storm, and Antiochus, secure at last of the province, which his ancestors had so long coveted, was at peace with Ptolemy, as the Roman embassy directed.
At last a priestly family at a village called Modein committed themselves to active resistance; and, when they suspended the Sabbath law for purposes of self defence, they were joined by the Hasidaeans (Assidaeans), who seem to have been the spiritual ancestors of the Pharisees.
Callender House, immediately to the S., was the seat of the earl and his ancestors.
The antiquity of their type is evidenced by the monuments of Egypt, where their ancestors are pictured with the same comparatively blond features which many of them still display.
After the fall of the central power, the scattered Hunnish settlers, like so many before them, became rapidly Hinduized, and are probably the ancestors of some of the most famous Rajput clans.4 The last native monarch, prior to the Mahommedan conquest,' to establish and maintain paramount power in the north was Harsha, or Harshavardhana (also known as Siladitya), for whose reign (606-648) full and trustworthy materials exist in the book of travels written by the Chinese pilgrim Hstian Tsang and the Harsha-charita (Deeds of Harsha) composed by Bana, a Brahman who lived at the royal court.
to enforce the claims of the papacy, and that of John of Anjou to enter into the heritage of his ancestors.
Equally obscure is the relation between the Paphlagonians and the Eneti or Heneti (mentioned in connexion with them in the Homeric catalogue) who were supposed in antiquity to be the ancestors of the Veneti, who dwelt at the head of the Adriatic. But no trace is found in historical times of any tribe of that name in Asia Minor.
Individuals reproduce unexpectedly the traits of earlier ancestors, and ethnologists and criminologists frequently explain by "atavism" the occurrence of degenerate species of man; but the whole subject is complicated by other possible explanations of such phenomena, included in the scientific study of normal "variation."
It is unnecessary to refer more fully to the evidence for former human sacrifice or to the popular stories and grim superstitions which indicate its persistence; the grisly custom of our ancestors has been attested by comparatively recent observation in Mexico, Peru, Fiji and W.
Although much evidence connects the serpent with the dead, especially as a guardian-spirit over the living, any discussion of this aspect of the subject is bound up with the varying beliefs regarding ancestors and death.
The religious myths are generally identifiable with the Polynesian, but a belief in the gods proper is overshadowed by a general deification of ancestors, who are supposed from time to time to occupy certain blocks of stone, set up near the family dwelling, and surrounded by circles of smaller ones.
Such a belief greatly strengthened the king's authority, for the spirits of his ancestors were necessarily more powerful than any other spirits.
To this were added from time to time the various estates scattered throughout Ross-shire - the most considerable of which were the districts around Ullapool and Little Loch Broom on the Atlantic coast, the area in which Ben Wyvis is situated, and a tract to the north of Loch Fannich - which had been acquired by the ancestors of Sir George Mackenzie (1630-1714), afterwards Viscount Tarbat (1685) and 1st earl of Cromarty (1703).
The Danish king " Scyld Scefing," whose story is told in the opening lines of the poem, and his son Beowulf, are plainly identical with Sceldwea, son of Sceaf, and his son Beaw, who appear among the ancestors of Woden in the genealogy of the kings of Wessex given in the Old English Chronicle.
And even after this event, whatever may have been the attitude of churchmen towards the old heathen poetry, the kings and warriors would be slow to lose their interest in the heroic tales that had delighted their ancestors.
when the fair-coloured Aryan immigrants first came in contact with, and drove back or subdued the dark-skinned race that occupied the northern plains - doubtless the ancestors of the modern Dravidian people - the preservation of their racial type and traditionary order of things would naturally become to them a matter of serious concern.
Of peculiar importance in this respect is the worship of the Pitris (" fathers") or deceased ancestors, as entering largely into the everyday life and family relations of the Hindus.
It is doubtless a sense of filial obligation coupled with sentiments of piety and reverence that gave rise to this practice of offering gifts of food and drink to the deceased ancestors.
His family was illustrious and noble; and his ancestors for many generations had held the highest posts of honour in the state, as may be seen in his own genealogical Ricordi autobiografici e di famiglia (Op. ined.
The other confines it to what was known by our ancestors as the Revival of Learning.
The worship of ancestors has again and again gathered around it powerful and ethical influences, emphasizing the parental and filial relations, and strengthening the mutual obligations of communal life.
In the Moluccas, where the Dutch have had settlements for 250 years, some of the inhabitants trace their descent to early immigrants; and these, as well as most of the people of Dutch descent in the east, are quite as fair as their European ancestors, enjoy excellent health, and are very prolific. But the Dutch accommodate themselves admirably to a tropical climate, doing much of their work early in the morning, dressing very lightly, and living a quiet, temperate and cheerful life.
It confirms to his free burgesses of Esse the liberties enjoyed by them under his ancestors, viz.: burgage tenure, exemption from all jurisdiction save the "hundred court of the said town," suit of court limited to three times a year, a reeve of their own election, pasturage in his demesne lands on certain terms, a limited control of trade and shipping, and a fair in the middle of the town.
These, de Guignes suggests, were the ancestors of the Huns, and many ethnologists hold that the Hiung-nu were the ancestors of the modern Turks.
The north transept, with early Decorated windows, has been covered in and walled off, and is the burial-ground of the Kerrs of Fernihirst, ancestors of the marquess of Lothian.
The Ynglingatal and Ynglinga Saga enumerate Aail's ancestors to no less than seventeen generations, with short accounts of each.
Civilization and Religion of the Iranians.In the period when the ancestors of Indian and Iranian alike still formed a single nationthat of the Aryansthey developed A
A little later, the Alans, a great Iranian tribe in the south of Russiathe ancestors of the present-day Ossetsbroke for the first time through the Caucasian passes, and ravaged Media and Armeniaan incursion which they often repeated in the following centuries.
On the 16th of November the victorious Nadir entered Isfahan, and was soon followed by the young shah Tahmasp II., who burst into tears when he beheld the ruined palace of his ancestors.
Al~mad al-Asadi, the author of the oldest Persian glossary, who completed in 1066 (458 A.H.), in upwards of 9000 distichs, the Gars/zaslrnama, or marvellous story of tlie warlike feats and love adventures of Garshasp, one of Rustams ancestors.
Jehoshaphat, attempting to follow his ancestors' example, was foiled by the shipwreck of his navy (r Kings xxii.
They are so nearly mythical that it is impossible to insist on the usual identification with the ancestors of the Huns.
He determined to take holy orders, in the expectation that he would become cardinal, and then pope, when he would wrest from the Venetians his principality of Verona, of which the republic had despoiled his ancestors.
Its earliest known ancestors were the Iberians.
Finally, it looks as if Socrates was either himself originally a Novatianist who had afterwards joined the Catholic Church, or stood, through his ancestors or by education, in most intimate relations with the Novatianist Church.
c. 1430) he was born at Wickham, Hants, in 1323 or 1324, son of John, whose name was probably Wykeham, but nicknamed Long, who was "endowed with the freedom of his ancestors," and "according to some" had a brother called Henry Aas.
The domesticated Indians profess the Roman Catholic faith, but it is tinged with the superstitions of their ancestors.
to Scyphomedusae - represent periods during which the hypothetical ancestors II.
An imperial message addressed to the diet of Prague (September 14, 1871) stated that the sovereign " in consideration of the former constitutional position of Bohemia and remembering the power and glory which its crown had given to his ancestors, and the constant fidelity of its population, gladly recognized the rights of the kingdom of Bohemia, and was willing to confirm this assurance by taking the coronation oath."
Moreover, at the time of Livy's birth, Padua had long been in possession of the full Roman franchise, and the historian's family name may have been taken by one of his ancestors out of compliment to the great Livian gens at Rome, whose connexion with Cisalpine Gaul is well-established (Suet.
His ancestors in the Middle Ages were enrolled in the patricians of Genoa, while other branches of his family followed the popes to Avignon in the 14th century, and eventually their sons took service in the army of the king of France, under the name of d'Eglise.
Nevertheless, it remains probable that Zeus had already been conceived as a personal and pre-eminent god by the ancestors of the leading Hellenic tribes before they entered the peninsula which became their historic home.
They also are agriculturists and gardeners; while some 12,000 Kundrovsk Tatars still continue the nomadic life of their ancestors.
It is quite probable, however, that in the primitive ancestors of existing Crustacea a still smaller number of somites formed the head.
170) describes the reception of the ambassadors of Aeneas by Latinus in an ancient temple or palace, containing figures of his divine ancestors, amongst them Picus, famous as an augur and soothsayer.
Then followed in the 7th century the Bessi, a Thracian tribe, who gave their name to the region, and in the 9th the Ugrians, that is to say the ancestors of the present Magyars of Hungary, the country being then known as Atel-kuzu.
Family chronicles preserved the memory of heroic ancestors whose deeds in the earliest age would have passed into the keeping of the bards.
They were most likely Finns (Samoyed has the same meaning) and perhaps the ancestors of the Mordvinians (?..).
His ancestors, English Friends, settled in Portsmouth, Rhode Island, between 1640 and 1660; his father was a farmer, a Quaker, and in 1798 and in 1814 was a member of the New York Assembly.
Seven of his ancestors were ministers of New England churches.
In the former the bow with vegetable string is the chief weapon, and clothing is woven from palm fibre; in the east spears are found, and in the Welle district swords and throwing-knives also; clothing made from skins also makes its appearance, and more attention is paid to the shades of departed ancestors.
His succession is somewhat remarkable, as his direct ancestors do not seem to have held the throne for six generations.
Thenceforward it was impossible to exclude a theory of descent of man from ancestral beings whom zoological similarity connects also, though by lines of descent not at all clearly defined, with ancestors of the anthropomorphic apes.
The fishes of the Palaeozoic age are in no respect the ancestors of the reptiles of the Secondary age, nor does man descend from the mammals which preceded him in the Tertiary age.
of dignity and authority which had been held by his of ancestors of the house of Orange, and the stadholdership was declared to be hereditary in his family.
On the other hand, from the experiments of Mendel and others, we now know that crossbred animals and plants may present all the characters of one of their pure-bred parents, and we also know that the offspring of what are regarded as pure-bred parents sometimes revert to remote, it may be quite different, ancestors.
Rumanian historians have striven, by Vlachs piecing together the stray fragments of evidence which survive, to prove that their Vlach ancestors had not, as sometimes alleged, been reduced to a scattered community of nomadic shepherds, dwelling among the Carpathians as the serfs of their more powerful neighbours.
They are of a sturdy, patient type, like their Indian ancestors, and are sufficiently industrious to carry on many of the small industries and occupations, and to meet the labour requirements of the inhabited plateau districts.
A new power, too, appeared from the north: the Gurjaras (ancestors, it is supposed, of the Gujar caste), who had probably entered India with the White Huns, established their power over Gujarat and (c. 600) overran northeastern Kathiawar, made the raja of Valabhi their tributary, and established a branch at Broach (585-740).
Although it has inherited the forelock from its longwool ancestors, it approximates more nearly to the shortwool type, and is accordingly classified as such.
She was descended on her mother's side from Peter Folger, one of the first settlers of Nantucket, and the grandfather of Benjamin Franklin; her father's ancestors, also, were among the first settlers of Nantucket.
Very near his end he had the lugubrious curiosity to cause the coffins of his embalmed ancestors to be opened at the Escorial.
Craniometrical evidence strongly favours the theory, now generally accepted, that they represent a branch of the pre-Aryan Dravidians of southern India, and that their ancestors probably made a settlement in the island of Ceylon in prehistoric times, detaching themselves from a migrating horde which passed through the island to find at last a permanent home in the continent of Australia.
Their religion has been described as a kind of demonworship, consisting of rude dances and shouts raised to scare away the evil spirits, whom they confound with their ancestors.
But there are also records which show him, not as an enemy, but a friend, like his ancestors, to Greek culture.
The problem of the interrelations of the classes will thus be reduced to its simplest terms, and even questions as to the nature of the primitive Echinoderm and its affinity to the ancestors of other phyla may become more than exercises for the ingenuity of youth.
The Pentactaea, at all events as it sprang from the brain of Semon, must pass to the limbo of mythological ancestors.
The evolution of the modern Echinoidea from their Palaeozoic ancestors is also well understood, but in this case the ancestral form to which the palaeontologist is led does not at first sight present many resemblances to the Pelmatozoa.
But only slight modifications are required to produce the Tornaria larva of the Enteropneusta and other larvae, including the special type that is inferred from the Dipleurula larval stages of recent forms to have characterized the ancestor of the Echinoderms. We cannot enter here into all the details of comparison between these larval forms; amid much that is hypothetical a few homologies are widely accepted, and the preceding account will show the kind of relation that the Echinoderms bear to other animals, including what are now usually regarded as the ancestors of the Chordata (to which back-boned animals belong), as well as the nature of the evidence that their study has been, or may be, made to yield.
- Families: Apiocrinidae with the recent Calamocrinus, Bourgueticrinidae with recent Rhizocrinus, Antedonidae, Atelecrinidae, Actinometridae, Thaumatocrinidae (these four recent families include free-moving forms with atrophied stem, probably derived from different ancestors), Eugeniacrinidae, Holopodidae (recent), Eudesicrinidae.
These genera attained the Colophiuran grade in respect of external plating, but it is unlikely that they or their ancestors had acquired even the Streptophiuran type of vertebra.
Though their ancestors had been pirates as fierce as the vikings of the 9th century, and though some of their later kings had led naval armamentsEdwin had annexed for a moment Man and Anglesea, and Ecgfrith had cruelly ravaged part of Irelandyet by the year 800 they appear to have ceased to be a seafaring race.
Yet lom 978 to 991 no irreparable harm came to England; the machinery for government and defence which his ancestors had establshed seemed fairly competent to defend the realm even under a wayward and incapable king.
But if the strength of the invader was greater than that of his predecessors, ~thelred also was far better equipped for war than his ancestors of the 9th century.
of France, brought to her second husband the whole of the lands from Pojtou to the Pyrenees, the accumulated gains of many warlike ancestors: In wealth and fighting strength the duchy of Aquitaine was a full third of France.
Unfortunately for himself the third Henry inherited the continental cosmopolitanism of his Atigevin ancestors, and found himself confronted with a nation which was growing ever more and more insular in its ideals.
The king seemed firmly seated on his throneso much so that in 1395 he had found leisure for a long expedition to Ireland, which none of his ancestors had visited since King Rkhard John.
James IV., reverting to War wfth the traditionary policy of his ancestors, had taken the Scotland.
For this last patent he, by a settlement following a recovery suffered, gave the king and his heirs male Berkeley Castle and all that remained to him of his ancestors' lands, enjoying for his two remaining years a bare life interest.
This Thomas, who had a command at Flodden, held his ancestors' castle as constable for the king.
In these years Maximilian created three organs (apparently following the precedent set by his Burgundian ancestors in the Netherlands) - a Hofrat, a Hofkammer for finance, and a Hofkanzlei.
They who should have been to me as posterity are in the place of ancestors."
Others however (inclusive of Tritylodon and Microlestes, if they be really mammals), seem nearer to the Monotremata; and the question has yet to be decided whether placentals and marsupials on the one hand, and monotremes on the other are not independently derived from reptilian ancestors.
With regard to the evolution of marsupials and placentals, it has been pointed out that the majority of modern marsupials exhibit in the structure of their feet traces of the former opposability of the thumb and great toe to the other digits; and it has accordingly been argued that all marsupials are descended from arboreal ancestors.
In all the groups which are at present arboreal, the palaeontological evidence goes to show that their ancestors were likewise so; while since, in the case of modern terrestrial forms, the structure of the wrist and ankle joints tends to approximate to the arboreal type, as we recede in time, the available evidence, so far as it goes, is in favour of Dr Matthew's contention.
As regards the latter order, although we are at present unacquainted with all the connecting links between the lemurs and the monkeys, there is little doubt that the ancestors of the former represent the stock from which the latter have originated.
The dingo was, however, almost certainly brought from Asia by the ancestors of the modern natives; while the Papuan pig is also in all probability a human introduction, very likely of much later date.
It appears very probable that at the dawn of history East Turkestan was inhabited by an Aryan population, the ancestors of the present Slav and Teutonic races, and that a civilization not inferior to that of Bactria had already developed at that time in the region of the Tarim.'
He was the son of William de Barri and Augharat, a daughter of Gerald, the ancestors of the Fitzgeralds and the Welsh princess, Nesta, formerly mistress of King Henry I.
Hyparthropoda (hypothetical forms connecting ancestors of Chaetopoda with those of Arthropoda).
We are driven by the conclusions arrived at as to the derivation of the Arachnida from branchiate ancestors, independently of the other tracheate Arthropods, to formulate the conclusion that tracheae have been independently developed in the Arachnidan class.
Our general conclusion from a survey of the Arthropoda amounts to this, that whilst Peripatus, the Diplopoda, and the Arachnida represent terrestrial offshoots from successive lower grades of primitive aquatic Arthropoda which are extinct, the Crustacea alone present a fairly full series of representatives leading upwards from unspecialized forms. The latter were not very far removed from the aquatic ancestors (Trilobites) of the Arachnida, but differed essentially from them by the higher specialization of the head.
His ancestors in Spain had been content with the title of sultan.
In education the Scandinavian Lapps are far ahead of their Russian brethren, to whom reading and writing are arts as unfamiliar as they were to their pagan ancestors.
The Lapps have a dim tradition that their ancestors lived in a far eastern land, and they tell rude stories of conflicts with Norsemen and Karelians.
Immediately after his arrival in Constantinople, Filelfo placed himself under the tuition of John Chrysoloras, whose name was already well known in Italy as relative of Manuel, the first Greek to profess the literature of his ancestors in Florence.
The second rank (who, though far above mortals, are subject to their passions, and even to death) comprised the spirits of chiefs, heroes and other ancestors.
In the line of mythical ancestors which extends without interruption up to Noah, the names of Fenius Farsaid, Goedel Glas, Eber Scot and Breogan constantly recur in Irish story.
Mog Nuadat had a son Ailill Aulom who plays a prominent part in the Irish sagas and genealogies, and his sons Eogan, Cian and Cormac Cas, all became the ancestors of wellknown families.
In this connexion it may be noted that practically all the Milesian pedigrees converge on three ancestors in the 2nd century - Conn Cetchathach king of Tara, Cathair Mor of Leinster, and Ailill Aulom of Munster, - whilst in scarcely any of them are mythological personages absent when we go farther back than A.D.
But though Loigaire refused to desert the faith of his ancestors we are told that a number of his nearest kinsmen accepted Christianity; and if there be any truth in the story of the codification of the Brehon Laws we gather that he realized that the future belonged to the new religion.
Iron, on the contrary, especially magnetite, is found abundantly and has for long been worked by the Malagasy with the simple appliances brought by their ancestors from their original home in the Far East.
The Andriana are, strictly speaking, royal clans, being descendants of petty kings who were conquered or otherwise lost their authority through the increasing power of the ancestors of the reigning family.
Blood and fat are used to anoint many of these stones, as well as the tombs of ancestors, and especially those of the Vazimba.
It is an ideal view of the manner in which a divinely appointed leader guided a united people into the promised land of their ancestors, and, after a few brief wars of extermination (x.
His functions were partly sacrificial or ritualistic, but these were the least important; the real power lay in the administration of the jus divinum, the chief departments of which may briefly be described as follows: (1) the regulation of all expiatory ceremonials needed as the result of pestilence, lightning, &c.; (2) the consecration of all temples and other sacred places and objects dedicated to the gods by the state through its magistrates; (3) the regulation of the calendar both astronomically and in detailed application to the public life of the state; (4) the administration of the law relating to burials and burying-places, and the worship of the Manes, or dead ancestors; (5) the superintendence of all marriages by confarreatio, i.e.
While we need not believe with Euemerus and with Herbert Spencer that the god of Greece or the god of the Hottentots was once a man, we cannot deny that the myths of both these gods have passed through and been coloured by the imaginations of men who practised the worship of real ancestors.
As Spencer thinks ancestor-worship the first form of religion, and as he holds that persons with such names as sun, moon and the like became worshipped as ancestors, his theory results in the belief that nature-worship and the myths about natural phenomena - dawn, wind, sky, night and the rest - are a kind of transmuted worship of ancestors and transmuted myths about real men and women.
As the ancestors of the Greeks, with the Aryans of India, the Egyptians, and others advanced in civilization, their religious thought was shocked and surprised by myths (originally dating from the period of savagery, and natural in that period) which were preserved down to the time of Pausanias by local priesthoods, or which were stereotyped in the ancient poems of Hesiod and Homer, or in the Brahmanas and Vedas of India, or were retained in the popular religion of Egypt.
" We may believe that ancient and early tribes framed gods like themselves in action and in experience, and that the allegorical element in myths is the addition of later peoples who had attained to purer ideas of divinity, yet dared not reject the religion of their ancestors " (Aglaoph.
This being cannot have been evolved out of the cult of ancestors, where ancestors are not worshipped; and he is not even regarded as a spirit, but, in Matthew Arnold's phrase, as " a magnified non-natural man."
The Zulus are great worshippers of ancestors (who appear to men in the form of snakes), and they regard a being called Unkulunkulu as their first ancestor, and sometimes as the creator, or at least as the maker of men.
according to Egede, who settled the Danish colony in Greenland, regarded the stars " very nonsensically," as " so many of their ancestors "; the Egyptian priests showed Plutarch the stars that had been Isis and Osiris.
Among the original land-holders were Matthew Grant and Thomas Dewey, ancestors respectively of General ' In the township of Windsor Locks (pop. 1910, 3715), immediately north, cotton yarn and thread, silk, paper, steel and machinery are manufactured.
2), and we have stories of the" sons,"the ancestors of the tribes.
Stories of heroic ancestors and of tribal eponyms intermingle; personal, tribal and national traits are interwoven.
The association of the ancestors of Israel with certain sites is a feature which finds analogies even in modern Palestine.
seq.) is in The fact that one is not dealing with literal history complicates the question of the nomadic or semi-nomadic life of the Israelite ancestors.'
The chief points were (I) the lawfulness and expediency of certain terms employed by the Jesuits in naming God Almighty, such as Tien, " Heaven," and Shang-ti, " Supreme Ruler" or "Emperor," instead of Tien-Chu, " Lord of Heaven," and in particular the erection of inscribed tablets in the churches, on which these terms were made use of; 2 (2) in respect to the ceremonial offerings made in honour of Confucius, and of personal ancestors, which Ricci had recognized as merely "civil" observances; (3) the erection of tablets in honour of ancestors in private houses; and (4), more generally,- sanction and favour accorded to ancient Chinese sacred books and philosophical doctrine, as not really trespassing;on Christian faith.
There are two ancient burying-grounds; the oldest, on Park Street, dates from about 1642 and contains the graves of ancestors of four presidents - Cleveland, Benjamin Harrison, Franklin Pierce and Garfield - and a granite obelisk to the memory of Loammi Baldwin (1744-1807).
Without prosecuting this subject further, it may be enough here to follow out the lines of the Darley Arabian, the Byerly Turk, and the Godolphin Arabian or Barb, the main ancestors of the British thoroughbred of the 18th and 19th centuries, through several famous race-horses, each and all brilliant winners,-Flying Childers, Eclipse, Herod and Matchem,-to whom it is considered sufficient to look as the great progenitors of the race-horse of to-day.
Whether the race-horse of to-day is as good as the stock to which he traces back has often been disputed, chiefly no doubt because he is brought to more early maturity, commencing to win races at two years instead of at five years of age, as in the days of Childers and Eclipse; but the highest authorities, and none more emphatically than the late Admiral Rous, have insisted that he can not only stay quite as long as his ancestors, but also go a good deal faster.
The name Erichthonius is connected with xecbv ("earth") and the representation of him as half-snake, like Cecrops, indicates that he was regarded as one of the autochthones, the ancestors of the Athenians who sprung from the soil.
We now understand how the Phoenicians, whose ancestors arrived in the second Semitic migration, came to call their land " Canaan."
It is a plausible theory that in the conventional language of their inscriptions they preserved a number of geographical and religious phrases which, for them, had no clear meaning, and belonged properly to the land of their distant ancestors, Arabia.3 For their own traditions as to their origin see Phoenicia; we cannot venture to reject these altogether.
They are good cultivators of the soil, but are poor, superstitious, ignorant and unambitious, and they live in semi-subterranean houses as their ancestors did Boo years B.C. The townsmen, especially in the large towns, have more regular features - often of the Persian type.
They are skilled artisans, bankers and merchants, and are remarkable for their industry, their quick intelligence, their aptitude for business, and for that enterprising spirit which led their ancestors, in Roman times, to trade with Scythia, China and India.
The modern name is Bahr Lut or "Sea of Lot" - a name hardly to be explained as a survival of a vague tradition of the patriarch, but more probably due to the literary influences of the Hebrew Scriptures and the Koran filtering through to the modern inhabitants or their ancestors.
Pop. (1905) about 130,000, including some 60,000 Sephardic Jews, whose ancestors fled hither in the 16th century to escape religious persecution in Spain and Portugal: their language is a corrupt form of Spanish, called Ladino (i.e.
Credner, basing his views on the discovery by him of various annectent forms between the Stegocephalia and the Rhynchocephalian reptiles, has proposed a class, Eotetrapoda, to include these forms, ancestors of the batrachians proper on the one hand, of the reptiles proper on the other.
Her paternal ancestors came from Bordeaux, and Renan used to say that in his own nature the Gascon and the Breton were constantly at odds.
1437), who belonged to a younger branch, and who had obtained Berg by virtue of the marriage of one of his ancestors.
I was with my immortal brothers fighting the Others, the ancestors to your father.
Our ancestors were immortalized --albeit incorrectly --in myths.
The Council disallowed lasers or other advanced weapons, instead opting for the traditional weapons of their ancestors, and the only weapons some planets with their crude civilizations in the nearby galaxies used.
Without knowing what her ancestors had done, she was the only one strong and brave enough to try to rid Tiyan of its curse.
The first order of business on lunar New Year's Day is offering ritual homage to one's ancestors.
Some of the native aborigines of Australia still live a similar existence to their ancestors.
ailments susceptibility To Illness Low History Ancestors of the Tibetan Mastiff have been known to exist in Tibet for many centuries.
ancestors originated from the Pleiades.
They also suggest that at some point in the past, the distant ancestors of modern humans were able to break down cellulose too.
Scarlett Johansson's maternal ancestors originally came from Poland.
Archibald also states our evolutionary distance of millennia from our prehistoric ancestors.
Specifically the set of information-processing machines were designed to solve problems faced by our hunter-gatherer ancestors.
Once it was accepted that humans had evolved from primate ancestors, the quest for the chronology of events was on.
As a gift King Canute returned some of the land that had been taken from the Bishops of Durham by his viking ancestors.
The contents would be of immediate interest to any researcher with Cornish mining ancestors who emigrated to the USA, Canada or Australia.
ancestors of the clan.
ancestors of tribes that live in the area today.
anecdotal tales of his ancestors.
The ancestors of this gentleman have for ages obtained the distinguished appellation of Kings of Patterdale.
The first are truly aquatic and retain the method of respiration of their marine ancestors, gills.
australopithecine ancestors on the plains of East Africa had a struggle to survive.
Do today's steel bollards have the same solid design consistency of their cast iron ancestors?
countless Buddhas and Ancestors from time immemorial have said yes.
Human neural circuitry was designed by natural selection to solve problems our ancestors faced during our evolutionary history.
descent from legendary ancestors with whom their connection is based simply on oral tradition.
dowsethe north, the Yew was used for dowsing to find lost property (enlisting the help of the ancestors?
We do not inherit the earth from our ancestors, we borrow it from our children.
They were not unlike their ancestors of the previous century, the one that so ensnared them.
euphonic names of the Greek letters, the ancestors of our own?
evolved from primate ancestors, the quest for the chronology of events was on.
The British worker has a family tree, he knows who his ancestors were, he has a family tradition.
far-off days of our celtic ancestors?
What did our ancestors do before hi-tech gadgetry was invented?
From dusty cities to eventual empires, these unearthed gems show how our ancestors learned to appreciate the finer things in life.
Their ancestors were flying birds, as shown by the similarities in their pectoral girdle to that of modern flying species.
hominid ancestors and steadily developed to become today's complex systems.
hunter-gatherer ancestors to survive.
ill-bred person, lest your ancestors be disgraced.
He also established the first inspectorates of schools, the ancestors of your OFSTED.
offerings on family altars to commemorate their ancestors.
ogham sticks and can be used for contact with ancestors.
Many ancient cultures have legends that their ancestors originated from the Pleiades.
The hoard is possibly the imperial regalia of the royal house in East Anglia in the first century BC: the ancestors of Boudica.
Contains documents concerning the history of immigration through Ellis Island and genealogy information for those wishing to trace relatives and ancestors.
sacrificed a lamb at Passover because that's what their ancestors had to do when they were slaves in Egypt.
On his father's side, his ancestors had all been big men, and he was no degenerate scion.
I certainly sha n't judge your ancestors for (presumably) trying to make things easier.
Topics such as ancestors, dreaming and prayer often not included in western core shamanism are part of his teachings.
He was also very interested in his family history and his ancestors the Banks family shipbuilders of Plymouth.
On this tour we visit the sacred shrines of our ancestors whose spirit dwells in these natural sanctuaries.
In the past leprosy was said to be sent by the ancestors to punish either individual sinners or members of a sinner's family.
As at last summer solstice a Maori group greeted the sun, the ancestors who built the place, and the other celebrants present.
Common ailments susceptibility To Illness Low History Ancestors of the Tibetan Mastiff have been known to exist in Tibet for many centuries.
thanksgiving prayers to ancestors.
traces page gives an update on my research to date on tracing back the ancestry of Neil's BEST ancestors in Kent.
They who prove unworthy of their ancestors deserve less indulgence than others.
Well, our ancestors seem to have covered all grounds like the local weatherman, eh?
On the contrary, fuelled with missionary zeal, they followed their biblical ancestors in the conquest of the holy land.
By giving him a Red Button, or button of the highest rank, a Peacock's Feather, the order of the Double Dragon, a patent of nobility to his ancestors for three generations, and the title of Junior Guardian of the heir apparent, the Chinese showed their appreciation of his manifold and great services; while under the seal of the British government there were bestowed upon him the orders of C.M.G.
The Seriema must be regarded as the not greatly modified heir of some very old type, such as one may fairly imagine to have lived before many of the existing groups of birds had become differentiated, and it is probable that the extinct birds known as Stereornithes, and in particular the fossil Phororhachos from the Miocene of Patagonia, were closely allied to its ancestors.
Dollo's view that marsupials were originally arboreal, that, on account of their foot-structure, they could not have been the ancestors of placentals, and that they themselves are degenerate placentals, Mr Bensley contrasts this with Huxley's scheme of mammalian evolution.
According to the latter, the early monotremes which became specialized into modern monotremes, gave rise to the ancestors of the modern marsupials; while the modern placentals are likewise an offshoot from the ancestral marsupial stcck.
Another view is to regard both marsupials and placentals as derivates from implacental ancestors more or less nearly related to the creodont carnivora, or possibly as independently descended from anomodont reptiles (see Creodonta).
The gradual passage of the thick root of the tail into the body is a character common to the Tasmanian wolf and the aard-vark, and may be directly inherited from reptilian ancestors (see Thylacine).
He regards the Australians as representing the lowest and most primitive examples of this primitive Caucasic type, and he urges that they must have arrived in Australia at a time when their ancestors had no pottery, knew no agriculture, domesticated no animals, had no houses and used no bows and arrows.
Native tradition attributes these mines to the Siamese, but no importance can be attached to this, as it is very general for the Malays to give this explanation for anything which is obviously not the work of their own ancestors.
The older method was to attempt the comparison between the highest member of a lower group and the lowest member of a higher group - to suppose, for example, that the gorilla and the chimpanzee, the highest members of the apes, were the existing representatives of the ancestors of man and to compare these forms with the lowest members of the human race.
He was named after Peisistratus, the youngest son of Nestor, the alleged ancestor of his family; he was second cousin on his mother's side to Solon, and numbered among his ancestors Codrus the last great king of Athens.
But they are separated by so many generations from the earliest historic times that sure conclusions regarding them are impossible; at all events, as yet Russian archaeologists are not agreed as to whether the ancestors of the Sla y s were Sarmatians only or Scythians also, whose skulls have nothing in common with those of the Mongol race.
Worst of all, the Orthodox tsar occasionally abandoned the decorous flowing robes of his venerated ancestors, and appeared publicly in the unseemly costume of heretical foreigners, whilst his consort, when carried through the streets in a litter, did not conceal her face from the public gaze.
How far totemism, or belief in deified animal ancestors, existed in prehistoric Israel, as evidenced by the tribal names Simeon (hyena, wolf), Caleb (dog), IIamor (ass), Rahel (ewe) and Leah (wild cow), &c., 6 as well as by the laws respecting clean and unclean animals, is too intricate and speculative a problem to be discussed here.
His father, Gottlob Israel Ranke, was an advocate, but his ancestors, so far back as the family can be traced, had been ministers of religion.
The nomomeristic Arachnids comprise two sub-classes - one a very small degenerate offshoot from early ancestors; the other, the great bulk of the class.
On the other hand, the marked resemblance of the structure of the tarsus is probably indicative of descent from nearly allied condylarthrous ancestors (see Phenacodus).
The wolf story again recalls the tales of werewolves so common among Slavonic peoples, and there is much probability in Schafarik's conjecture that the Neuri are nothing but the ancestors of the Sla y s.
His ancestors on the paternal side were Scotch-Irish who lived at Dervock, Co.
Another development is ancestor-worship, the organized cult of ancestors marking, however, a certain stage of advance beyond the very primitive, though the dead are always sacred and have mana which the living may exploit for their own advantage.
It is needless to discuss at length the origin of the Gymnosperms. The two views which find most favour in regard to the Coniferales and Cycadophyta are: (I) that both have been derived from remote filicinean ancestors; (2) that the cycads are the descendants of a fern-like stock, while conifers have been evolved from lycopodiaceous ancestors.
These additional features are the following - (1) All existing Arthropoda have an ostiate heart and have undergone " phleboedesis," that is to say, the peripheral portions of the blood-vascular system are not fine tubes as they are in the Chaetopoda and as they were in the hypothetical ancestors of Arthropoda, but are swollen so as to obliterate to a large extent the coelom, whilst the separate veins entering the dorsal vessel or heart have coalesced, leaving valvate ostia (see fig.
Our theory is, therefore, that the savage and senseless element in mythology is, for the most part, a legacy from ancestors of the civilized races who were in an intellectual state not higher than that of Australians, Bushmen, Red Indians, the lower races of South America, Mincopies, and other worse than barbaric peoples.
We are creating at a rate exponentially more than our most recent ancestors.
It is as precious to us as it was to our Saxon and Norman ancestors.
Russia will shudder to learn of the abandonment of the city in which her greatness is centered and in which lie the ashes of your ancestors!
In the past leprosy was said to be sent by the ancestors to punish either individual sinners or members of a sinner 's family.
They sacrificed a lamb at Passover because that 's what their ancestors had to do when they were slaves in Egypt.
Some species still reportedly retain a visible ' tail ' although much atrophied from their supposedly extinct ' saurian ancestors.
On his father 's side, his ancestors had all been big men, and he was no degenerate scion.
It will be interesting to learn what part of our brain now dedicated to language was doing in our simian ancestors.
Often a tree or group of trees would be chosen to become a place of worship or of thanksgiving prayers to ancestors.
This page gives an update on my research to date on tracing back the ancestry of Neil 's BEST ancestors in Kent.
You can trace our risk-taking ethos back to the risk our ancestors who made a perilous ocean crossing.