Chemical analyses made by Mr F.
Dalton himself made many analyses with the purpose of establishing his views, but his skill as an analyst was not very great.
he carefully analyses the principles of sound historical method and the essentials of a trustworthy historical record.
Examples of analyses treated in this manner are furnished in the last column of Table I., from which it will be seen that the nearest approach to pure carbon is furnished by anthracite, which contains above 90%.
But on account of experimental errors in weighing and measuring, and through loss of material in the transfer of substances from one vessel to another, such analyses are rarely trustworthy to more than one part in about Soo; so that small changes in weight consequent on the chemical change could not with certainty be proved or disproved.
He analyses significant stylistic peculiarities such as occur, e.g., in Isaiah xxiv.-xxvii.
With a brilliant subtlety Bradley analyses the various types of judgment in his own way, with results that must be taken into account by all subsequent logicians of this type.
Below are given examples of the analyses of a poor sandy soil and an ordinary loam: - Since the dry weight of the first foot of soil over an acre is about 4,000,000 lb the poor sandy soil contains within it: Nitrogen.
The constancy of composition shown by repeated analyses of atmospheric air led to the view that it was a chemical compound of nitrogen and oxygen; but there was no experimental confirmation of this idea, and all observations tended to the view that it is simply a mechanical mixture.
Stahler, who obtained the value 39.114 from analyses of the chloride, and by Richards and E.
The following analyses (Rayleigh, Phil.
Most of the material termed " sand " in such analyses consists of particles ranging in diameter from .5 to.
Soc., 1906, 28, p. 1360), by analyses of the chloride and bromide, obtained 54.96 (0 = 16).
The effect of the two processes on the purity of the market lead is clearly shown by the two following analyses by Hampe, which represent lead from Lautenthal in the Harz Mountains, where the Parkes process replaced that of Pattinson, the ores and smelting process remaining practically the same: - It is absolutely necessary for the success of the Parkes process that the zinc and lead should contain only a small amount of impurity.
The analyses published in this work show that nearly all the widely advertised secret remedies contain only well-known and inexpensive drugs.
Kriiss and Nilson derived the value 230.7 (H = I) from analyses of the carefully purified sulphate.
Since the earliest quantitative analyses of sea-water were made by Lavoisier in 1772, Bergman in 177 4, Vogel in 1813 and Marcet in 1819 the view has been held that the salts are present in sea-water in the form in which they are deposited when the water is evaporated.
This office he actually held for the long period of forty-two years; and it was in this official capacity that he wrote the Histoire du renouvellement del' Academie des Sciences (Paris, 3 vols., 1708, 1717, 1722) containing extracts and analyses of the proceedings, and also the -loges of the members, written with great simplicity and delicacy.
analyses the classes of accident comprised in items, 3 and 6 of Table X.
The average of a large number of analyses of Upland cotton seed gives the following figures for its fertilizing constituents: - Nitrogen, 3.07%; phosphoric acid, 1.02%; potash, 1.17%; besides small amounts of lime, magnesia and other valuable but less important ingredients.
The chemical composition of typical obsidians is shown by the following analyses Obsidian, when broken, shows a conchoidal fracture, like that of glass, and yields sharp-edged fragments, which have been used in many localities as arrow-points, spear-heads, knives and razors.
Analyses of the two classes of hydraulic lime are as follows: Hydraulic lime contains a good deal of uncombined lime, and has to be slaked before it is used as a cement.
The first of these, casting is chiefly adapted for bronze, or ' Analyses of the iron of prehistoric weapons have brought to light the interesting fact that many of these earliest specimens of iron manufacture contain a considerable percentage of nickel.
Analyses of this character would appear to indicate the permanent productive capacity of the soil rather than its immediate power of growing a crop.
Kriiss worked with the same salt, and obtained the value 195.65; while Mallet, by analyses of gold chloride and bromide, and potassium auribromide, obtained the value 195.77.
These consist of galactin and lactochrome, substances peculiar to milk, discovered by Winter Blyth, with certain animal principles such as leucin, pepton, kreatin, tyrosin, &c. The salts in milk consist, according to the average of numerous analyses by Fleischmann, of the following Milk thus is not to be regarded as a definite chemical compound nor even as a mixture of bodies in fixed and invariable proportions.
Eldridge in California Genealogical Society (1901); elaborate bibliographies in Bancroft with analyses and appreciations of many works.
Special glasses have therefore been produced by Tonnelot in France and at the Jena glassworks in Germany expressly for the manufacture of thermometers for accurate physical measurements; the analyses of these are shown in Table III.
(3) Marti (1904) abandons the attempt to explain the prophecy as a unity, and analyses it into three elements, viz.
The following are typical analyses: The raw materials for the production of plate-glass are chosen.
The analyses of modern chemists have now revealed the existence of 32 out of the 80 known elements as existing dissolved in sea-water, and it is scarcely too much to say that the remaining elements also exist in minute traces which the available methods of analysis as yet fail to disclose.
The most numerous analyses have been carried out by Forchhammer, who dealt with 150 samples, and Dittmar, who made complete analyses of 77 samples obtained on the" Challenger"expedition.
It often happens that analyses of brown iron ores reveal a larger proportion of water than required by the typical formula of limonite, and hence new species have been recognized.
More attention seems to have been given to the matter in the United States of America and in Germany and Russia than in England, but the infinite variety of samples known to the commercial expert, and the impossibility of standardizing those in such a manner as to make readily recognizable what the chemist has treated, renders most of the recorded analyses of uncertain value.
The quantity of these materials is so small that analyses of Keene's cement show it to be almost pure anhydrous calcium sulphate, and make it difficult to explain what, if any, influence these minute amounts of alum and the like can exert on the setting of the cement.
The Commentaries of Averroes fall under three heads: - the larger commentaries, in which a paragraph is quoted at large, and its clauses expounded one by one; the medium commentaries, which cite only the first words of a section; and the paraphrases or analyses, treatises on the subjects of the Aristotelian books.
But both these unnatural forms, which are certainly not analyses of any conscious process of categorical reasoning, break down at once, because they cannot explain those moods in the third figure, e.g.
Such analyses, which do not always admit of great accuracy, have been confirmed by a few carefully planned experiments in which two components were brought together under very varied conditions, and the resulting compound analysed.
Included in this group are some rocks which are more properly to be regarded as vitreous forms of trachyte than as glassy rhyolites (Iceland), but except by chemical analyses they cannot be separated.
In the ordinary chemical analyses of the soil determinations are made of the nitrogen and various carbonates present as well as of the amount of phosphoric acid, potash, soda, magnesia and other components soluble in strong hydrochloric acid.
Many attempts have been made to correlate the results of the analyses of a soil with its known cropping power, but there is yet much to be learnt in regard to these matters.
The results of many analyses show that the capacity of soils for moisture increases with the amount of organic substances present; decomposition appears to be most active when the moisture is about 4%, but can continue when it is as low as 2%, while it appears to be retarded by any excess over 4%.
The following analyses of upper leaves made at the Connecticut state station, and recorded in Report No.
While professor of morals at Leipzig, Otto Mencke planned the Acta eruditorum, with a view to make known, by means of analyses, extracts and reviews, the new works produced throughout Europe.
As Marcet had foreshadowed from the analysis of 14 samples in 1819, the larger series of exact analyses proved that the variations in the proportion of individual salts to the total salts are very small, and all analyses since Dittmar's have confirmed this result.
Cavendish made many analyses: from more than soo determinations of air in winter and summer, in wet and clear weather, and in town and country, he discerned the mean composition of the atmosphere to be, oxygen 20 833% and nitrogen 79.167% The same experimenter noticed the presence of an inert gas, in very minute amount; this gas, afterwards investigated by Rayleigh and Ramsay, is now named argon.
Regnault, from analyses of the air of Paris, obtained a variation of 20 999 to 20 913; country air varied from 20.903 to 21.000; while air taken from over the sea showed an extreme variation of 20 940 to 20 850.
One reason may be that analyses are generally made of tea liquors produced by distilled water, which is the very worst possible from the point of view of the commercial expert or in domestic usage.
p. 721) obtained the values 9.113 from analyses of beryllium acetonyl-acetate and beryllium basic acetate.
There he made analyses of phosphates and phosphites, arsenates and arsenites, confirming the conclusions of J.
The following analyses show their general composition: An artificial product which serves perfectly as a pozzuolana is granulated blast-furnace slag.
His analyses were both chemical and bacteriological, and his dissatisfaction with the processes in vogue for the former at the time of his appointment caused him to spend two years in devising new and more accurate methods.
Berzelius found 235.5; Delafontaine, 229.7; Cleve, 232.6 by analyses of the sulphate, and 232.2 by analyses of the oxalate.
The elementary composition of sugar and alcohol was fixed in 1815 by analyses made by GayLussac, Thenard and de Saussure.
But he left very interesting psychological analyses, and several new, just, and true expositions of philosophical systems, especially that of Locke and the philosophers of Scotland.
His object is to discover the highest end of human life, and with this view he classifies the various activities of the human soul, rejects such as are material or animal, and then analyses the various spiritual forms to which the activities may be directed.
They conduct feng shui analyses for clients' homes and based on the results offer changes, recommendations and even feng shui cures.
You can apply the five elements of earth to your home by using the many feng shui tools and analyses to determine each sector within your home.
Among the rituals on the menu are cups of tea, neck and shoulder massages and hairstyling analyses.
A more evolved Taurus learns to curb this natural tendency and often channels it into something more positive such as a career that requires critical analyses.
Cantor's histories of mathematics, and more elaborate analyses are those of Nesselmann (Die Algebra der Griechen, Berlin, 1842) and G.
So much, indeed, does the character of the herbage vary from plot to plot that the effect may fairly be described as kaleidoscopic. Repeated analyses have shown how greatly both the botanical constitution and the chemical composition of the mixed herbage vary according to the description of manure applied.
He was an active worker in physiological chemistry, and carried out many analyses of the products of living organisms, among them being one of the gastric juice which, at the end of 1823, resulted in the notable discovery that the acid contents of the stomach contain hydrochloric acid which is separable by distillation.
The composition of typical samples of chalk and clay is shown in the following analyses: These materials are mixed in the proportion of about 3 :Iby weight so that the dried mixture contains approximately 75% of calcium carbonate, the balance being clay.
Analyses usually, however, show the presence of more iron, owing to the intimate admixture of iron-pyrites.
It has been said that chemistry is of little avail in determining the value of a wine, and this is undoubtedly true as regards the bouquet and flavour, but there is no gainsaying the fact that many hundreds of analyses of the wines of the Gironde have shown that they are, as a class, distinctly different in the particulars referred to from wines of the claret type produced, for instance, in Spain, Australia or the Cape.
The wines are made entirely from white grapes, and the methods of collecting the latter, and of working them up Analyses of Chateau Lafite of Different Vintages.'
Analyses of Different Clarets of the Same Vintage.'
Analyses of Champagne.
The general composition of high-class champagnes, as supplied to the English market, will be gathered from the preceding table, which is taken from a large number of analyses published by the author and a collaborator in the Analyst for January 1900.
The very great variations which are shown by the same growths of different vintages makes it impracticable in the case of the German white wines to give representative analyses of them.
In the fragment De Interpretation Naturae Prooemium (written probably about 1603) Bacon analyses his own mental character and lays before us the objects he had in view when he entered on public life.
His letters, in which he analyses the various relations in which such a man must stand, and prescribes the course of action suitable for each, are valuable and deserving of attention.'
In consequence of the quantitative analyses he performed of a large number of salts, he has been credited with the discovery of the law of neutralization (Vorlesungen fiber die chemische Verwandtschaft der Korper, 1777).
2c-16, 20 seq., written from Caesarea), to disentangle one or more original notes of Paul from the subsequent additions, but the comparative evenness of the style does not favour such analyses.'
Letheby gives the following as the average composition of the potato - a result which approximates closely to the average of nineteen analyses cited in How Crops Grow from Grouven.
In some analyses, however, the starch is put as low as 13.30, and the nitrogenous matter as 0.92 (Dehbrain, Cours de chimie agricole, p. 1 59).
The "ash" contains on the average of thirty-one analyses as much as 59.8% of potash, and 19.1% of phosphoric acid, the other ingredients being in very minute proportion.
126, 1860), who suggests that its presence may perhaps account for the discrepancies in the analyses of aesculin given by different authors.
The most recent and radical analyses are those of Spitta (Urchristentum, iii.
For analyses see A.
From analyses of the leaves, bark and root, it appears that quinine is present only in small quantities in the leaves, in larger quantity in the stem bark, and increasing in proportion as it approaches the root, where quinine appears to decrease and cinchonine to increase in amount, although the root bark is generally richer in alkaloids than that of the stem.
Let us now listen to Duhm, who analyses the book into six groups of passages.
Mitscherlich, who, by the elementary analyses of lactates, proved the existence of this acid as a distinct compound.
Scholars have varied greatly in their critical analyses of the work (see Charles, op. cit.
It is obvious that experiments of the kind referred to cannot take into account all the conditions of the problem met with in actual practice, such as the effect of the rock at the sides of the valley and variations of temperature, &c., but deviations in practice from the conditions which mathematical analyses or experiments assume are nearly always present.
Such analyses and experiments are not on that account the less important and useful.
By judiciously watching all stages of the process, by observing the draught, the strength of the acid produced, the temperature, and especially by frequent analyses of the gases, the yield of acid has been brought up to 98% of the theoretical maximum, with a loss of nitre sometimes as low as two parts to loo of sulphur burned.
Treating this rule as axiomatic the Schoolmen elaborated their analyses of the sacrament of penance, distinguishing form and matter, attrition and contrition, mortal and venial sins.
The latter treatise' analyses the method exemplified in the formation of ideas, in the new inductions of science, and in the applications and systematization of these inductions, all exhibited by the History in the process of development.
But no art of discovery, such as Bacon anticipated, follows, for "invention, sagacity, genius" are needed at each step. He analyses induction into three steps: - (I) the selection of the (fundamental) idea, such as space, number, cause or likeness; (2) the formation of the conception, or more special modification of those ideas, as a circle, a uniform force, &c.; and (3) the determination of magnitudes.
Here he analyses " abstract ideas," and instructively illustrates the confusion apt to be produced in them by the inevitable imperfection of words.
Socrates, in the Cratylus of Plato, expounds " a philosophy which came to him all in an instant," an explanation of the divine beings based on crude philological analyses of theif names.
His attention was given to chemistry and mineralogy, and he published analyses of calamines and other papers in the Annals of Philosophy and Phil.
Thiel (Ber., 1904, 37, p. 1135) obtained the values 115.08 and 114.81 from analyses of the chloride and bromide, whilst F.
Gill, Oil Analyses (1909); G.
The above critical analyses were attacked and rejected by Clemen (Stud.
In an analysis course you will learn how to perform simple quantitative analyses.
Analysis was conducted by Lonie Lorne, a scientist at the NOC working in DNA analyses.
Joly (Comptes rendus, 1890, 110, p. 1131) from analyses of potassium and ammonium chloriridites, the value 191.78 (0 =15.88).
This law has been abundantly verified by experiment; for example, five oxides of nitrogen are known, and independent analyses show that, if we consider the same weight of nitrogen in every case, the weights of oxygen combined with it are to one another as i: 2: 3: 4: 5.
The law of the conservation of matter, an important element in the atomic theory, has been roughly verified by innumerable analyses, in which, a given weight of a substance having been taken, each ingredient in it is isolated and its weight separately determined; the total weight of the ingredients is always found to be very nearly equal to the weight of the original substance.
His analyses of another compound, silver iodate, confirm the law to one part in 78,000.
Recent analyses prove the presence of a small but variable amount of potassium (K 2 O, 2.68-4.13Ã‚°/x) in the Cornish crystals, though in those from Hungary there is only a trace; this constituent appears to take the place of basic hydrogen in the above formula.
From analyses of water, which he regarded as composed of one atom of hydrogen and one of oxygen, he This dictum was questioned by the researches of H.
It is on our familiarity with modes of transmission such as these, and with the exact analyses of them which the science of mathematical physics has been able to make, that our predilection for filling space with an aethereal transmitting medium, constituting a universal connexion between material bodies, largely depends; perhaps ultimately it depends most of all, like all our physical conceptions, on the intimate knowledge that we can ourselves exert mechanical effect on outside bodies only through the agencies of our limbs and sinews.
Meuller, who obtained the values 39.1135 and 39.1143 from analyses of the bromide '(see' Abs.
The extent of the problem is not known as of the early 2000s because no large-scale analyses have been done.
Routine blood and urine analyses are performed.
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