Amur sentence example

amur
  • The Amur proper flows at first in a south-easterly direction for about Boo m., as far as long.
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  • Its principal tributaries from the south are the Sungari, which the Chinese consider to be the true head-river of the Amur, and the Usuri; from the north it receives the Oldoi, Zeya, Bureya, Kur, Gorin and Amgun.
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  • South of this enclosed depression is another great hydrographic barrier which parts it from the low plains of the Amur, of China, Siam and India, bordered by the shallows of the Yellow Sea and the shoals which enclose the islands of Japan and Formosa, all of them once an integral part of the continent.
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  • Starting from the Amur river and reaching along the eastern margin of the Gobi desert towards the sources of the Hwangho, it merges into the Altyn-tagh and the Kuen-lun, forming the northern face of the vast Tibetan highlands which are bounded on the south by the Himalaya.
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  • The Pamir highlands between the base of the Tian-shan mountains and the eastern buttresses of the Hindu Kush unite these two great divides, enclosing the Gobi depression on the west; and they would again be united on the east but for the transverse valley of the Amur, which parts the Khingan mountains from the Yablonoi system to the east of Lake Baikal.
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  • From the north of Manchuria the Khingan range stretches southward to the Chinese frontier near Peking, east of which the drainage falls into the Amur and the Yellow Sea, while to the west is an almost rainless region, the inclination of which is towards the central area of the continent, Mongolia.
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  • The Jebel Amur was traversed by the column which seized El Aghuat in 1852, and from that time dates the survey of the mountains.
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  • The orography of the Aldan region is little known; but travellers who journey from the Aldan (tributary of the Lena) to the Amur or to the Sea of Okhotsk have to cross the same plateau and its border-range.
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  • A typical feature of the north-eastern border of the high plateau is a succession of broad longitudinal 5 valleys along its outer base, ' The wide area between the middle Lena and the Amur, as well as the hilly tracts west of Lake Baikal, and the Yeniseisk mining region are in this condition.
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  • The south-eastern slope of the great plateau of Asia cannot properly be reckoned to Siberia, although parts of the province of Amur and the Maritime Province are situated on it; - they have quite a different character, climate and vege- eastern, tation, and ought properly to be reckoned to the Manslope of, churian region.
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  • The lower Amur occupies the northern part of this broad valley.
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  • Gold is found on the high plateau in the basin of the upper Vitim, on the lower plateau in the Nerchinsk district, and on the upper tributaries of the Amur (especially the Oldoi) and the Zeya, in the north-east continuation of the Nerchinsk Mountains.
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  • The gold-bearing gravels of East Siberia, especially those of the Lena and the Amur, are relatively more prolific than those of West Siberia.
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  • The total yield annually amounts to some 700,000 oz., the largest quantity coming from the Olekminsk, district in the province of Yakutsk, and this district is followed by the Amur region, the Maritime province, and Nerchinsk and Transbaikalia.
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  • The Amur, the upper tributaries of which rise on the eastern border-range of the high plateau, is similar.
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  • The Shilka and the Argun, which form it, flow first towards the north-east along the windings of the lower terrace of the great plateau; from this the Amur descends, cutting through the Great Khingan and flowing down the terraces of the eastern versant towards the Pacific. A noteworthy feature of the principal Siberian rivers is that each is formed by the confluence of a pair of rivers.
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  • Examples are the Ob and the Irtysh, the Yenisei and the Angara (itself a double river formed by the Angara and the Lower Tunguzka), the Lena and the Vitim, the Argun and the Shilka, while the Amur in its turn receives a tributary as large as itself - the Sungari.
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  • Owing to the fact that the great plateau separates the Lena from the Amur, no easy water communication can be established between the latter and the other Siberian rivers.
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  • The tributaries of the Amur (the Shilka with its affluent the Ingoda) become navigable only on the lower terrace of the plateau.
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  • Engler's Versuch einer Entwickelungsgeschichte der Pflanzenwelt (Leipzig, 1879-1882), we should have in Siberia (a) the arctic region; (b) the sub-arctic or coniferous region - north Siberian province; (c) the Central-Asian domain - Altai and Daurian mountainous regions; and (d) the east Chinese, intruding into the basin of the Amur.
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  • The insect fauna is very similar to that of Russia; but a few genera, as the Tentyria, do not penetrate into the steppe region of West Siberia, while the tropical Colasposoma, Popilia and Languria are found only in south-eastern Transbaikalia, or are confined to the southern Amur.
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  • East Siberia suffers less from this plague than the marshy Baraba steppe; but on the Amur and the Sungari large gnats are an intolerable plague.
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  • It follows the course of the Amur, again in a succession of villages some 20 m.
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  • A good deal of the Amur region was peopled in this way.
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  • Serfs in the imperial mines were liberated and organized in Cossack regiments (the Transbaikal Cossacks); some of these were settled on the Amur, forming the Amur and Usuri Cossacks.
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  • Other parts of the river were colonized by peasants who emigrated with government aid, and were bound to settle in villages, along the Amur, at spots designated by officials.
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  • Nonconformist priest Avvakum 2 following in chains the ex ploring party of Pashkov on the Amur.
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  • On the left of the Amur there are some 60,000 Chinese and Manchurians about the mouth of the Zeya, and 26,000 Koreans on the Pacific coast.
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  • The Tunguses (nearly 70,000) occupy as their hunting-grounds an immense region on the high plateau and its slopes to the Amur, but their limits are yearly becoming more and more circumscribed both by Russian gold-diggers and by Yakut settlers.
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  • Usuri district were Koreans and Chinese, and in the Amur province there were nearly 15,000 Manchus and Koreans.
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  • Tyumen (29,651) in West Siberia, head of Siberian navigation; Barnaul (29,850), capital of the Altai region; Krasnoyarsk (33337) and Tobolsk (21,401), both mere administrative centres; Biysk (17,206), centre of the Altai trade; Khabarovsk (15,082), administrative centre of the Amur region; Chita (11,480), the capital of Transbaikalia; Nikolsk (22,000); Irbit (20,064); Kolyvan (11,703), the centre of the trade of southern Tomsk; Yeniseisk (11,539), the centre of the gold-mining region of the same name; Kurgan (10, 579), a growing town in Tobolsk; and Minusinsk (10,255), in the southern part of .the Yeniseisk province, trading with north-west Mongolia.
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  • Although agriculture is carried on on the upper Amur, where land has been cleared from virgin forests, it really prospers only below Kumara and on the fertile plains of the Zeya and Silinji.
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  • In the depression between the Bureya range and the coast ranges it suffers greatly from the heavy July and August rains, and from inundations, while on the lower Amur the agriculturists barely maintain themselves by growing cereals in clearances on the slopes of the hills, so that the settlements on the lower Amur and Usuri continually require help from government to save them from famine.
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  • Private property is insignificant in extent - purchase of land being permitted only in the Amur region.
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  • The forests on the Amur yielded a rich return of furs during the first years of the Russian occupation, and the Amur sable, although much inferior to the Yakutsk and Transbaikalian, was largely exported.
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  • The native populations of the Amur - Golds and Gilyaks - support themselves chiefly by fishing, when the salmon enters the Amur and its tributaries in dense masses.
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  • Prior to the building of the trans-Siberian railway a fairly active trade was carried on between China and the Amur region; but since the opening of that railway (in 1902-1905) the Amur region has seriously and rapidly declined in all that concerns trade, industry, general prosperity and civilization.
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  • In the Far East the chief trade centres are Vladivostok and Nikolayevsk on the Amur, with Khabarovsk and Blagovyeshchensk, both on the same river.
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  • In the Amur system, the Zeya, the Bureya and the Argun are navigated.
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  • From Lake Baikal the road proceeds to Verkhne-udinsk, Chita and Stryetensk on the Shilka, whence steamers ply to the mouth of the Amur and up the Usuri and Sungacha to Lake Khangka.
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  • When the rivers are frozen communication is maintained by sledges on the Amur; but in spring and autumn the only continuous route down the Shilka and the Amur, to its mouth, is on horseback along a mountain path (very difficult across the Bureya range).
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  • On the lower Amur and on the Usuri the journey is also difficult even on horseback.
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  • When the water in the upper Amur is low, vessels are sometimes unable to reach the Shilka.
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  • Another route of importance before the conquest of the Amur is that which connects Yakutsk with Okhotsk or Ayan.
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  • From that place it was intended to push it down the Amur to Khabarovsk, and finally to proceed up the Usuri to Vladivostok.
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  • A line was constructed from Vladivostok to the Amur before it became known that the idea of following the latter part of the route originally laid down would have to be abandoned.
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  • Within eighty years the Russians had reached the Amur and the Pacific. This rapid conquest is accounted for by the circumstance that neither Tatars nor Turks were able to offer any serious resistance.
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  • In 1643 Poyarkov's boats descended the Amur, returning to Yakutsk by the Sea of Okhotsk and the Aldan, and in1649-1650Khabarov occupied the banks of the Amur.
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  • In 1852 a Russian military expedition under Muraviev explored the Amur, and by 1857 a chain of Russian Cossacks and peasants were settled along the whole course of the river.
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  • In the same year in which Khabarov explored the Amur (1648) the Cossack Dejnev, starting from the Kolyma, sailed round the north-eastern extremity of Asia through the strait which was rediscovered and described eighty years later by Bering (1728).
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  • Middendorff's journey (1844-1845) to north-eastern Siberia - contemporaneous with Castren's journeys for the special study of the Ural-Altaian languages - directed attention to the far north and awakened interest in the Amur, the basin of which soon became the scene of the expeditions of Akhte and Schwarz (1852), and later on (1854-1857) of the Siberian expedition to which we owe so marked an advance in our knowledge of East Siberia.
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  • The Siberian branch of the Russian Geographical Society was founded at the same time at Irkutsk, and afterwards became a permanent centre for the exploration of Siberia; while the opening of the Amur and Sakhalin attracted Maack, Schmidt, Glehn, Radde and Schrenck, whose works on the flora, fauna and inhabitants of Siberia have become widely known.
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  • In the same way the Kentei (or Gentei) Mountains, as they are called, to the north of Urga, and the Yablonoi Mountains of Transbaikalia, separate the higher terrace of north-west Mongolia (drained by the tributaries of the Selenga) from the lower terrace of the Gobi, which is drained by the upper tributaries of the Onon and the Kerulen, both belonging to the basin of the Amur.
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  • During the regency of Sophia, sister of Peter the Great, he was sent to the Amur to defend the new Muscovite fortress of Albazin against the Chinese.
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  • On the south, the RikiU Islands bring her within reach of Formosa and the Malayan archipelago; on the west, Oki, Iki, and Tsushima bridge the sea between her and Korea; on the north-west Sakhalin connects her with the Amur region; and on the north, the Kuriles form an almost continuous route to Kamchatka.
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  • The Columbia river canoe resembled that of the Amur, the bow and stern being pointed at the water-line.
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  • Kropotkin had never wished for a military career, but, as he had not the means to enter the St Petersburg University, he elected to join a Siberian Cossack regiment in the recently annexed Amur district, where there were prospects of administrative work.
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  • Opportunities for administrative work, however, were scanty, and in 1864 Kropotkin accepted charge of a geographical survey expedition, crossing North Manchuria from Transbaikalia to the Amur, and shortly afterwards was attached to another expedition which proceeded up the Sungari River into the heart of Manchuria.
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  • The chief ranges are Ksur and Amur in the west and the Aures in the east.
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  • In the Amur are Jebel Ksel (6594 ft.) and Tuila Makna (6561 ft.).
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  • It rises on the northern slopes of the Amur mountains and flows N.E.
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  • It is formed by the Habra (140 m.) and the Sig (130 m.), which rise in the Amur mountains and flowing north unite in a marshy plain, whence issues the Macta.
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  • The eastern quarter belongs to the Jews, of whom there are about 300 families; the western is occupied by the Medabia, Arabs from the Jebel Amur.
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  • Next comes a belt of fertile plateaus bounded on the east by the Little Khingan, or Dusse-alin, a picturesque well-wooded range, which stretches in a north-easterly direction from Kirin across Manchuria, is pierced by the Amur, and continues on its left bank, separating the Bureya from the Amgun.
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  • The Russians are represented by the Amur Cossacks, whose villages, e.g.
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  • Steamers ply regularly along the Amur for 62 months, from Khabarovsk to Stryetensk, on the Shilka terminus of the Trans-Siberian railway; but only light steamers with 2 to 3 ft.
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  • The great engineering difficulties in building a railway along the Amur induced the Russian government to obtain from China permission to build a railway through Manchuria, but the project for a railway from Khabarovsk to Stryetensk received imperial sanction in the summer of 1906.
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  • Cold north-west winds prevail from October to March, while in July and August torrential rains fall, resulting in a sudden and very considerable rise in the Amur and its right-bank tributaries.
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  • In 1649-1651 a party of Cossacks, under Khabarov, built a fort at Albazin on the Amur river, but in 1689 they withdrew in favour of the Chinese.
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  • Four years later China ceded to Russia the whole left bank of the Amur, and also the right bank below the confluence of the Ussuri, and in 1860 all the territory between the Ussuri and the Eastern Sea.
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  • These are similar to the Amur skins previously referred to, but of much poorer quality and generally only suitable for linings.
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  • The Amur skins are paler, but often of a pretty bluish stony tone with many frequently interspersed silvery hairs.
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  • When the Chinese government was terrified by the advance of the AngloFrench expedition of 1860 and the burning of the Summer Palace, he worked on their fears so dexterously that he obtained for Russia not only the left bank of the Amur, the original object of the mission, but also a large extent of territory and sea-coast south of that river.
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  • The town was founded first on the left bank of the Amur, below the mouth of the Zeya, but was abandoned, and the present town was founded in 1684.
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  • It was here that Count Muraviev concluded, in May 1857, the Aihun treaty, according to which the left bank of the Amur was conceded to Russia.
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  • Its most northern range is the territory of the Amur, its most southern the islands of Sumatra, Java and Bali.
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  • In Asia it abounds in Siberia and on the mountains of the Amur region; on the European Alps it occurs at a height of 5600 ft., and on the Pyrenees it is found at still higher elevations; on the northern side of Etna it is said to grow at above 7000 ft.
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  • Founded in 1856, the town had, in 1900, 37,368 inhabitants, and is the seat of the bishop of Amur and Kamchatka.
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  • It is a centre for tea exported to Russia, cattle brought from Transbaikalia and Mongolia for the Amur, and for grain.
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  • In 1864 authority was granted to an American company to make explorations for a proposed Russo-American company's telegraph line overland from the Amur river in Siberia to Bering Strait, and through Alaska to British Columbia.
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  • Of specially remarkable species Lygeum is found on the sea-sand of the eastern half of the Mediterranean basin, and the minute Coleanthus occurs in three or four isolated spots in Europe (Norway, Bohemia, Austria, Normandy), in North-east ' Asia (Amur) and on the Pacific coast of North America (Oregon, Washington).
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  • From 1864 to 1866 he taught geography at the military school at Warsaw, and in 1867 he was admitted to the general staff and sent to Irkutsk, where he started to explore the highlands on the banks of the Usuri, the great southern tributary of the Amur.
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  • He received permission to remove to the Amur region, whence he succeeded in escaping, making his way through Japan and the United States to England in 1861.
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  • But Ibn Batuta found it still in great part a ruin when the famous chieftain Aidin had conquered it about 1330 and made his son Amur governor.
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  • But it was soon found that the cost of the section required to complete the railway between Stryetensk and Khabarovsk, along the Shilka (246 m.) and the Amur (1160 m.), would be enormous, while neither the wild mountainous tracts of the lower Shilka and upper Amur, nor the marshy, often inundated region between Khabarovsk and the Little Khingan mountains, could ever be the seat of a numerous population.
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  • On the east and south the Amur embraces no less than 776,000 sq.
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  • From here it follows this affluent to its junction with the Amur river, and the Amur river to its junction with the Usuri.
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  • Altogether the entire railway system, including the cost of the Usuri line, the unfinished Amur line, the circum-Baikal line and the eastern Chinese railway, is put down at a total of £87,555,760, and the total distance, all branches included, is 5413 m., of which 1070 m.
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  • In 1689 he concluded with the Celestial empire the treaty of Nerchinsk, by which the line of the Amur, as far as its tributary the Gorbitsa, was retroceded to China because of the impossibility of seriously defending it.
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  • The governor-generalship of Amur includes this government and the Maritime province, the total area being 888,830 sq.
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  • The picturesque Bureya Mountains above the Amur, the forest-clad Sikhota-alin on the Pacific, and the volcanic chains of Kamchatka belong, however, to quite another orographical construction, being the border-ridges of the terraces by which the great plateau formation descends to the depths of the Pacific Ocean.
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  • The double river-systems of the Volga and Kama, the Ob and Irtysh, the Angara and Yenisei, the Lena and Vitim on the Arctic slope, and the Amur and Sungari on the Pacific slope, are instances.
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  • The most important of the new railways is the Siberian, of which the first section, Chelyabinsk to Omsk, was opened in December 1895, and which, except for a short section round Lake Baikal, in 1901 was completed right through to Stryetensk, on the Shilka, the head of navigation on the Shilka and the Amur, 2710 m.
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  • At the Pacific end of the Siberian railway a line connecting Vladivostok with Khabarovsk (479 m.) at the junction of the Amur and the Usuri, was first of all built, following the valley of the Usuri.
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  • By the treaty of Aigun (May 28, 1858), and without any military operations, the cession of a great part of the basin of the Amur was obtained from China.
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  • From the Khingan ranges to the Pacific, south of the Amur, stretch the rich districts of Manchuria, a province which connects Russia with the Korea by a series of valleys formed by the Sungari and its affluents - a land of hill and plain, forest and swamp, possessing a delightful climate, and vast undeveloped agricultural resources.
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  • Of these the Sungari, which is the largest, rises on the northern slopes of the Chang pai Shan range, and runs in a north-westerly direction to its junction with the Nonni, from which point it turns north-east until it empties itself into the Amur.
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  • Gold mines are worked at several places in the northern part of Manchuria, of which the principal are on the Muho river, an affluent of the Amur, and near the Russian frontier.
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  • The second road runs from the treaty port of Niu-chwang through Mukden to Petuna in the north-western corner of the Kirin province, and thence to Tsitsihar, Mergen and the Amur.
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