at Amsterdam (1670-1683), in 7 vols.
Six editions of the Opera philosophica appeared at Amsterdam between 1650 and 1678; a twovolume edition at Leipzig in 1843; there are also French editions, euvres philosophiques, by A.
of Amsterdam, with which it is connected by steam tramway.
van Wet to Amsterdam, 1.
He spent two years from 1886 to 1888 in travelling, and visited Riga Polytechnic and the universities of Wiirzburg, Graz, Amsterdam and Leipzig.
of Amsterdam, connected by steam-tramway with Haarlem and Amsterdam, and on the North Holland canal.
Congo for maternity cases and cases of curable Ubangi-Chad illness; (2) the hospice, where the aged Madagascar poor, cases of incurable malady, orphans, Nossi-be Island foundlings and other children without Ste Marie Island means of support, and in some cases Comoro Islands lunatics, are received; (3) the bureau de Somali Coast bien-faisance, charged with the provision 9f Reunion out-door relief (secours a domicile) in money st Paul 1 or in kind, to the aged poor or those who, Amsterdam though capable of working, are prevented Kerguelen.
Within three months of the capture of Brill, Amsterdam was the only town in Holland in the hands of the Spaniards.
Palearii Verulani Opera), including four books of Epistolae and twelve Orationes besides the De immortalitate, was published at Lyons in 1552; this was followed by two others, at Basel, and several after his death, the fullest being that of Amsterdam, 1696.
in 1921, having also been made previously a member of the Amsterdam and Copenhagen Academies, while the universities of Geneva, Manchester, Rostock and Princeton conferred honorary degrees on him.
A small expedition sent by Cromwell in February 1654 to capture New Amsterdam (New York) from the Dutch was abandoned on the conclusion of peace, and the fleet turned to attack the French colonies; Major Robert Sedgwick taking with a handful of men the fort of St John's, Port Royal or Annapolis, and the French fort on the river Penobscot, the whole territory from this river to the mouth of the St Lawrence remaining British territory till its cession in 1667.
He was furnished with four ships of Amsterdam, two of Rotterdam and one from Zeeland.
More appeared in the North, for in 1770 Amsterdam sent forth the beginning of Nozeman's Nederlandsche Vogelen, a fairly illustrated work in folio, but only completed by Houttuyn in 1829, and in Scandinavia most of all was done.
Descartes replied to Vat directly in a letter, published at Amsterdam in 1643.
(Amsterdam, 1849); J.
In 1644 the third great work of Descartes, the Principia philosophiae, appeared at Amsterdam.
Pseudis was first described by Marie Sibylle de Merlon (1647-1717), in her work on the fauna of Surinam (published first in 1705 at Amsterdam, republished in Latin in 1719), as a frog changing into a fish.
(Amsterdam, 1898); Koning in Zeitschr.
It has regular steamboat communication with Zwolle, Deventer, Amsterdam, and Enkhuizen.
The town-hall, built in 1881, contains several stainedglass windows, two of which were the gift of citizens of Amsterdam and Hamburg, in gratitude for services rendered by the islanders to fishermen and seamen of those ports.
8vo; Amsterdam, 19 vols.
It is connected by the Zederik and Merwede canals with Amsterdam, and steamers ply hence in every direction.
1-288, and translated into Latin by Douwen and Land (Amsterdam, 1889).
Harwich is one of the principal English ports for continental passenger traffic, steamers regularly serving the Hook of Holland, Amsterdam, Rotterdam, Antwerp, Esbjerg, Copenhagen and Hamburg.
Halberstadt, De imperatoris Domitiani moribus et rebus (Amsterdam, 1877), an attempt to rehabilitate Domitian; S.
He was pastor at Franeker, and from 1679, at Amsterdam.
He died at Amsterdam.
4 The works of Catesby and Edwards were afterwards reproduced at Nuremberg and Amsterdam by Seligmann, with the letterpress in German, French and Dutch.
But in 1681 Gerard Blasius had brought out at Amsterdam an Anatome Animalium, containing the results of all the dissections of animals that he could find; and the second part of this book, treating of Volatilia, makes a respectable show of more than one hundred and twenty closely-printed quarto pages, though nearly two-thirds is devoted to a treatise De Ovo et Pullo, containing among other things a reprint of Harvey's researches, and the scientific rank of the whole book may be inferred from bats being still classed with birds.
The following year, 1808, being aided by Temminck of Amsterdam, of whose son we shall presently hear more, Le Vaillant brought out the sixth volume of 1 This is especially observable in the figures of the birds of prey.
A Century of Birds from the Himalaya Mountains was followed by The Temminck subsequently reproduced, with many additions, the text of this volume in his Histoire naturelle des pigeons et des gallinacees, published at Amsterdam in 1813-1815, in 3 vols.
The views of neither of these systematizers pleased Temminck, who in 1817 replied rather sharply to Vieillot in some Observations sur la classification methodique des oiseaux, a pamphlet published at Amsterdam, and prefixed to the second edition m i nd.
A collected edition of his philosophical works was published at Amsterdam (1691), with life by H.
Orangien, haer leven en bedrijf (Amsterdam, 1651); G.
Pijnappel, Maleisch-Hollandsch Woordenboek (Amsterdam, 1875), "Inleiding."
Other works by him were Reponse au livre de P. Nouet sur l'eucharistie (1668); CEuvres posthumes (Amsterdam, 1688), containing the Traite de la composition d'un sermon, translated into English in 1778.
Coote's Remarkable Maps of the X Vth, X Vlth and X VIIth Centuries reproduced in their Original Size (Amsterdam, 1894-1897), and Bibliotheca lindesiana (London, 1898) with facsimiles of the Harleian and other Dieppese maps of the 16th century.
The foreign and colonial clubs which are affiliated to the Kennel Club are: the Guernsey Dog Club, the Italian Kennel Club, the Jersey Dog Club, La Societe Centrale (Paris), Moscow Gun Club of the Emperor Alexander II., New South Wales Kennel Club, Nimrod Club (Amsterdam), Northern Indian Kennel Association, Royal St Hubert's Society (Brussels) and the South African Kennel Club (Cape Town).
EMMERICH (the ancient Embrica), a town of Germany, in the Prussian Rhine province, on the right bank of the Rhine and the railway from Cologne to Amsterdam, 5 m.
Lucio, De Regno Dalmatiae et Croatiae (Amsterdam, 1666); M.
The first hope of emancipation from the Turkish yoke had been founded by the Greeks on Peter the Great, who had planned the expulsion of the Turks from Europe and had caused the inscription " Petrus I., Russo-Graecorum Monarcha " to be placed beneath his portrait engraved at Amsterdam.
In 1632 he left Leiden to take the post of professor of history in the newly founded Athenaeum at Amsterdam, which he held till his death on the 19th of March 1649.
Collected works published at Amsterdam (6 vols., 1695-1701).
(Amsterdam, 1886); H.
daP4 References For Symmetric Functions.-Albert Girard, In- -vention nouvelle en l'algebre (Amsterdam, 1629); Thomas Waring, Meditationes Algebraicae (London, 1782); Lagrange, de l'acad.
's Gravesande, in four quarto volumes entitled Opera varia (Leiden, 1724) and Opera reliqua (Amsterdam, 1728).
The story of Hop's expedition is told in the Nouvelle description .du Cap de Bonne Esperance (Amsterdam, 1778).
A portion of his Latin verse is printed in the first volume (pp. 306354) of Delitiae poetarum Scotorum (Amsterdam, 1637).
de Martens, and by Mexico, Professor Asser and Professor de Savornin Lohman, both of Amsterdam.
historia (Amsterdam, 1647); F.
In 1778 he published at Amsterdam his Legislation orientale, in which he endeavoured to prove that the nature of oriental despotism had been greatly misrepresented.
He proceeded as far as Aix-la-Chapelle, where he fell sick of a fever, and suffered so much from weakness and poverty, that he made his way on foot to Amsterdam, and came back to Norway.
From Amsterdam he walked through Rotterdam to Antwerp, took a boat to Brussels, and on foot again reached Paris.
After spending a month in Paris, he walked on to Amsterdam, took sail to Hamburg, and so went back to Denmark in 1716.
Ohrig, an Amsterdam merchant who sympathized warmly with the cause of the emigrant farmers, reached port Natal, and its supercargo, J.
of Marie de Medici and Louis XIII.), sometimes attributed to Mezeray, published at Amsterdam in 1730 and, under the title Histoire de la regence de reine Marie de Medicis, femme de Henry IV., at the Hague in 1743 Memoires sur la regne de Louis XIII., extending from 1610 to 1638, and of which the earlier portion is a reprint of the Histoire de la mere et du fils, published in Petitot's collection (Paris, 1823 seq.); Testament politique d'Armand du Plessis, cardinal de Richelieu (Amsterdam, 1687 seq.); Journal de 1630-31 (Paris, 1645); "Lettres, instructions diplomatiques, et papiers d'etat," published by G.
This writer, after having published an edition of Stevin's works in 1625, published in 1629 at Amsterdam a small tract on algebra which shows a considerable advance on the work of Vieta.
He was almost as much loathed in Courland as in Russia; but the will of the empress was the law of the land, and large sums of money, smuggled into Courland in the shape of bills payable in Amsterdam to bearer, speedily convinced the electors.
Postma, Eenige schetsen voor eene geschiedenis van der Trekboeren (Amsterdam, 1897); A.
Oordt, P. Kruger en de opkomst der Zuid-Afrikaansche Republiek (Amsterdam, 1898); C. J.
She made her name by the publication of her Lettres neuchdteloises (Amsterdam, 1784), offering a simple and attractive picture of French manners.
ersten Entwicklungsphasen einiger Cynipidengallen (Amsterdam, 1882); Bordet, " Phagocytosis," Ann.
In 1629 the Dutch government granted to Killiaen van Rensselaer, an Amsterdam diamond merchant, a tract of land (24 sq.
The specimen in the Rijks Museum at Amsterdam has an eagle and two lions.
of Amsterdam, with which it is connected by railway and steamer.
(See Jaarboek voor suikerfabrikanten op Java, 13 e Jaargang 1908-1909, pp. 22-61, Amsterdam, J.
Examples of his attempted historical writing are Histoire du siecle d'Alexandre le Grand (Amsterdam, 1762), and Histoire impartiale des Jesuites (Madrid, 1768), the latter condemned to be burned.
During the tsar's first foreign tour, Menshikov worked by his side in the dockyards of Amsterdam, and acquired a thorough knowledge of colloquial Dutch and German.
Under these men and influences, Arminius studied with signal success; and the promise he gave induced the merchants' gild of Amsterdam to bear the further expenses of his education.
Next year he was called to Amsterdam, and there, in 1588, was ordained.
He greatly distinguished himself by fidelity to duty during a plague that devastated Amsterdam in 1602.
Arminius, fresh from Geneva, familiar with the dialectics of Beza, appeared to many the man able to speak the needed word, and so, in 1589, he was simultaneously invited by the ecclesiastical court of Amsterdam to refute Coornhert, and by Martin Lydius, professor at Franeker, to combat the two infralapsarian ministers of Delft.
In the Netherlands the Hanseatics clung to their position in Bruges until 1540, while trade was migrating to the ports of Antwerp and Amsterdam.
There is regular steamer communication with London, Christiania, Hamburg, Rotterdam and Amsterdam.
C. Coquerel, was born at Amsterdam on the 16th of June 1820.
E.) on the Ysel; and there is a regular steamboat service in various directions, Amsterdam being reached by the canalized Gouwe; Aar, Drecht and Amstel.
1683), who migrated from Amsterdam in 1650, and whose son, Peter (1657-1724), was the first mayor of Albany and chairman of the board of Indian commissioners of the province.
The Memoirs of Literature, the first English review consisting entirely of original matter, published in London from 1710 to 1714, had for editor Michel de la Roche, a French Protestant refugee, who also edited at Amsterdam the Bibliotheque angloise (1717-1719), and subsequently Memoires litte'raires de la Grande Bretagne (1720-1724).
From its commencement the Journal des savants was pirated in Holland, and for ten years a kind of joint issue made up with the Journal des Trevoux appeared at Amsterdam.
Nearly all of the preceding were produced either at Amsterdam or Rotterdam, and, although out of place in a precise geographical arrangement, really belong to France by the close ties of language and of blood.
An incomplete translation of the Spectator was published at Amsterdam in 1714, and many volumes of extracts from the Tatler, Spectator and Guardian were issued in France early in the 18th century.
The area south of this would be divided into four polders, with reservation, however, of a lake, Yselmeer, in the centre, whence branches would run to Ysel and the Zwolsche Diep, to Amsterdam, and, by sluices near Wieringen, to the northern part of the sea.
It is connected with Amsterdam by a steam tramway, passing by way of the small fortified towns of Naarden and Muiden on the Zuider Zee.
Between this and the Westminster Confession must be noted the first Baptist confession, published in Amsterdam in 1611.
Masson (Amsterdam, 1709); H.
She succeeded to the throne on her father's death, which took place on the 23rd of November 1890, but until her eighteenth year, when she was "inaugurated" at Amsterdam on the 6th of September 1898, the business of the state was carried on under the regency of the queen-mother, in accordance with a law made on the 2nd of August 1884.
In November 1692 he left Japan for Java and Europe, and in October 1693 he landed at Amsterdam.
Their posts on the African coast were captured and New Amsterdam (now New York) taken.
De Ruyter re-established the Dutch posts in Gambia, and, though he failed to retake New Amsterdam, did much injury to English trade before he returned to Holland.
For the Dutch side: Het Leven un Bedryf van den Heere Michiel de Ruiter, by Gerard Brandt (Amsterdam, 1687); Geschiedenis van den Nederlandsche Zeewegen, by J.
Conde now advised a cavalry raid on Amsterdam, but Louis, acting on the suggestion of the war minister Louvois, preferred to reduce Nijmwegen, Gorinchem and other places, before entering Utrecht province.
Louis now moved on Amsterdam, brushing aside the feeble opposition which was offered, and it seemed that the French must achieve their object in one short campaign.
Now, the dykes were cut and the sluices opened, and Amsterdam was covered by a wide inundation, against which the invader was powerless.
No attempt could be made on Amsterdam until the ice should cover the floods.
Conde in Holland was to renew his efforts against the Amsterdam defences; during the winter the demands of the war on the Rhine had reduced the French forces in the provinces to the size of a mere army of occupation.'
Conde made no headway against Amsterdam, and William retook Naarden (September 14th).
This fortress fell on the 12th of November, and the troops of the coalition gained possession of an unbroken line from Amsterdam to the Breisgau, while Louis' German allies (Cologne and Munster), now isolated, had to make peace at once.
In 1656, however, the Dutch West India Company sold part of what had been New Sweden to the city of Amsterdam, which in the following year established a settlement called " New Amstel " at Fort Casimir (New Castle).
In 1663 the whole of the Delaware country came under the jurisdiction of the city of Amsterdam, but in the following year this territory, with New Netherland, was seized by the English.
Amsterdam, 1717) was followed by An Impartial History, &c., 1724 (said to be by Sir Benjamin or Nathaniel Hodges).
In the Indian Ocean the Kerguelen Rise stretches broadly southward, east of the island which gives it a name, to the Antarctic Shelf with the greatest depths upon it usually less than 2000 fathoms, and it stretches northward beyond New Amsterdam to 30° S.
In 1890 he visited Berlin and Amsterdam to acquaint himself with the ways of younger theologians, especially with the Ritschlians, whose work he appreciated but did not accept as final.
He was apparently much in East Friesland till 1541; in North Holland, with Amsterdam as centre, from 1541 to 1543; again till '545 in East Friesland (where he held a disputation at Emden with John a Lasco in January 1 544); till 1547 in South Holland; next, about Lubeck; at Wismar in1553-1554(he held two disputations with Martin Micronius at Norden in February 1 554); lastly at Wustenfelde, a village near Oldesloo, between Hamburg and Lubeck, where he died on the 13th of January 1 559.
The collection of his Opera Omnia Theologica (Amsterdam, 1681), folio, in a Dutch version, comprises twenty-three tractates, with reference to nine unprinted.
He attacked Leon of Modena's anti-Kabbalistic treatises, and as a result of his conflict with the Venetian Rabbinate left Italy for Amsterdam, where, like Spinoza, he maintained himself by grinding lenses.
historic (1611, 4 parts); Beschryvinghe van Out Batavien (Arnheim, 1612); Het oude gontsche Chronycxken van Hollandt, edited by him, and printed at Amsterdam in 1663; Principes Hollandiae Zelandiae et Frisiae (Haarlem, 1650), translated (1678) into Dutch by Pieter Brugman.
Hoeufft, Parnassus latino-belgicus (Amsterdam, 1819).
It is the centre of the whole northern and eastern canal systems, and by means of the short canal, the Willemsvaart, which joins the Zwarte Water and the Ysel, has regular steamboat communication with Kampen and Amsterdam.
For a short time he was in a merchant's office in Amsterdam, but early devoted himself to the manufacture of microscopes and to the study of the minute structure of organized bodies by their aid.
Tramways connect it with Vreeswyk on the Lek (where are the large locks of the Merwede canal), Amsterdam, and by way of De Bilt with Zeist, and thence with Arnhem.
His great reputation and the influence of Sir William Boswell, the English resident, with the states-general procured his election in 1643 to the chair of mathematics in Amsterdam, whence he removed in 1646, on the invitation of the prince of Orange, to Breda, where he remained till 1652.
The Diophantine analysis was a favourite subject with Pell; he lectured on it at Amsterdam; and he is now best remembered for the indeterminate equation ax 2 +1 = y 2, which is known by his name.
It is connected by electric and steam tramways with Zandvoort, Leiden, Amsterdam and Alkmaar.
Of the ancient city gates the Spaarnewouder or Amsterdam gate alone remains.
The Dutch Society for the Promotion of Industry (Nederlaandsche Maatschappij ter Bevordering van Nijverheid), founded in 1777, has its seat in the Pavilion Welgelegen, a villa on the south side of the Frederiks Park, built by the Amsterdam banker John Hope in 1778, and afterwards acquired by Louis Bonaparte, king of Holland.
At Hamburg he got some money and letters of recommendation from the Hebraist Wolf, and took ship to Amsterdam.
The soundings made by the "Challenger" and "Gazelle" and the affinities which in certain respects exist between the islands, seem to point to the existence at one time of an extensive land area in this quarter, of which Kerguelen, Prince Edward's Islands, the Crozets, St Paul and Amsterdam are the remains.
Gradually they resumed church-fellowship in Amsterdam, where they chose the learned Henry Ainsworth as teacher, in place of Greenwood, but elected no new pastor, as they expected Francis Johnson (1562-1618) soon to be released and to rejoin them.
Vernon, 25,996; Cohoes, 24,183; Amsterdam, 2 3,943; Oswego, 22,572; New Rochelle, 20, 479; Gloversville, 18,672; Lockport, 17,552; Rome, 16,562; and Dunkirk, 15,250.
The first school was established by the Dutch at New Amsterdam (now New York City) as early as 1633, and at the close of the Dutch period there was a free elementary school in nearly every settlement.
The merchants of Amsterdam and Hoorn soon formed themselves into the New Netherland Company, and on the 11th of October 1614 received from the States-General a three years' monopoly of the Dutch fur trade in New Netherland, i.e.
It was authorized to plant colonies and to govern them under a very limited supervision of the States-General, such as the approval of its appointment of a governor and of its instructions to him; and its own government was vested in five chambers of directors and an executive board or college of nineteen delegates from those chambers, eight of the nineteen representing the Chamber of Amsterdam.
In June 1623, however, New Netherland was formally erected into a province and the management of its affairs assigned to the Chamber of Amsterdam, which in March 1624 despatched the " New Netherland," with the first permanent colonists (thirty families mostly Walloon), under Cornelis Jacobsen Mey, the first governor or director of the colony.
The director-general was formally appointed by the Company subject to the approval of the States-General, but the Amsterdam Chamber and the College of Nineteen supervised his administration.
Peter Minuit, the first director-general, arrived with more colonists in May 1626, and soon afterwards Manhattan Island was bought from the Indians, Fort Amsterdam was erected at its lower end, and the settlement here was made the seat of government.
Immediately after the issue of the charter a few of the more adroit directors of the Amsterdam Chamber hastened to acquire for themselves, as patroons, the tracts of land most favourably situated for trade.
In August 1641 Kieft called an assembly of the heads of families in the neighbourhood of Fort Amsterdam to consider the question of peace or war.
Peter Stuyvesant, his successor, arrived at Fort Amsterdam in May 1647.
In 1653, during the war between England and Holland, the Dutch, fearing an English attack, built a wall, from which the present Wall Street was named, across Manhattan Island at what was then the northern limits of New Amsterdam.
Nicolls won over the burgomaster of New Amsterdam and other prominent citizens by the favourable terms which he offered, and Stuyvesant was forced, without fighting, into a formal surrender on the 8th of September.
In August 1673, Holland and England being at war, a Dutch fleet surprised New York, captured the city, and restored Dutch authority and the names of New Netherland and New Amsterdam.
His works were collected and published in one volume folio, in Amsterdam in 1645.
Kuyper, De Post-Arta of Nahandelingen van de Nationale Synode van Dordrecht, een historische Studie (Amsterdam, 1899, new material); J.
They were from the beginning Separatists from the Church of England; they had established Independent (Congregational) churches at Scrooby and Gainsborough early in the 17th century, and some of them had fled to Amsterdam in 1608 to avoid persecution, and had removed to Leiden in the following year.
From Germany he proceeded to the Netherlands, staying at Leiden, Utrecht and Amsterdam, and passing in 1657 to Queen's College, Oxford, where he lived three years.
He then settled at Amsterdam, intending to practise medicine.
Elzevir of Amsterdam, his Descriptio Regni Japoniae, an excellent compilation.
In 1762 appeared the Contrat social at Amsterdam, and Emile, which was published both in the Low Countries and at Paris.
du Casse, Les Rois freres de Napoleon (Paris, 1883); A Gamier, La Cour de Hollande sous le regne de Louis Bonaparte, par un auditeur (Paris and Amsterdam, 1823); T.
Loosjes, Louis Bonaparte, Koning van Holland (Amsterdam, 1888); L.
de la Loubere, Description du royaume de Siam (Amsterdam, 1714); Captain Low, Journal Asiatic Society, vol.
Indie (Amsterdam, 1869), to which P. J.
Among Dutch official publications may be mentioned Jaarcijfers door het Centraal Bureau voor de Statistiek; Jaarboek van het Mijnwezen in Nederlandsch Oost-Indie (Amsterdam); Koloniale-Economische Bijdragen (the Hague); Koloniaal Verslag (the Hague); Regeerings-Almanak voor Nederlandsch-Indie (Batavia).
The chief gardens in Holland are at Amsterdam, owned by the society "Natura Artis Magistra."
Its principles are summed up in a more popular form in Bon Sens, ou idees naturelles opposees aux idees surnaturelles (Amsterdam, 1772).
PHILIPP VAN LIMBORCH (1633-1712), Dutch Remonstrant theologian, was born on the 19th of June 1633, at Amsterdam, where his father was a lawyer.
In 1657 he became a Remonstrant pastor at Gouda, and in 1667 he was transferred to Amsterdam, where, in the following year, the office of professor of theology in the Remonstrant seminary was added to his pastoral charge.
He died at Amsterdam on the 30th of April 1712.
His most important work, Institutiones theologiae christianae, ad praxin pietatis et promotionem pacis f'christianae unite directae (Amsterdam, 1686, 5th ed., 1735), is a full and clear exposition of the system of Simon Episcopius and Stephan Curcellaeus.
His editorial labours included the publication of various works of his predecessors, and of Epistolae ecclesiasticae praestantium ac eruditorum virorum (Amsterdam, 1684), chiefly by Jakobus Arminius, Joannes Uytenbogardus, Konrad Vorstius (1569-1622), Gerhard Vossius (1577-1649), Hugo Grotius, Simon Episcopius (his grand-uncle) and Gaspar Barlaeus; they are of great value for the history of Arminianism.
The first settlement on the site of Hartford was made by the Dutch from New Amsterdam, who in 1633 established on the bank of the Connecticut river, at the mouth of the Park river, a fort which they held until 1654.
Wetstein, one of Bentley's assistants, when living in Basel in 1730, published " Prolegomena " to the Text, and in 1751-1752 (at Amsterdam) the text of Stephanus with enlarged Prolegomena and apparatus criticus.
He arrived in New Amsterdam (later New York) on the 1 rth of May 1647, and was received with great enthusiasm.
In 1650 the statesgeneral suggested a representative government to go into effect in 1653, but the company opposed it; in 1653, however, there was established the first municipal government for the city of New Amsterdam modelled after that of the cities of Holland.
Amsterdam refused any hearing at all.
On the same day an attempt was made to occupy Amsterdam with troops.
Within fourteen years the following Bible societies were in active operation: the Basel Bible Society (founded at Nuremberg, 1804), the Prussian Bible Society (founded as the Berlin Bible Society, 1805), the Revel Bible Society (1807), the Swedish Evangelical Society (1808), the Dorpat Bible Society (1811), the Riga Bible Society (1812), the Finnish Bible Society (1812), the Hungarian Bible Institution (Pressburg, 1812), the Wurttemberg Bible Society (Stuttgart, 1812), the Swedish Bible Society (1814), the Danish Bible Society (1814), the Saxon Bible Society (Dresden, 1814), the Thuringian Bible Society (Erfurt, 1814), the Berg Bible Society (Eberfeld, 1814), the Hanover Bible Society (1814), the Hamburg-Altona Bible Society (1814), the Lubeck Bible Society (1814), the Netherlands Bible Society (Amsterdam, 1814).
There is also regular steamboat connexion with Katwyk, Noordwyk, Amsterdam and Gouda.
Noteworthy also are the collection of the Society of Dutch Literature (1766); the collections of casts and of engravings; the seamen's training school; the Remonstrant seminary, transferred hither from Amsterdam in 1873; the two hospitals (one of which is private); the house of correction; and the court-house.
(1875) of the Verhandelingen of the Amsterdam Academy of Sciences, Bierens de Haan has given a list of 553 tables of logarithms. A previous paper of the same kind, containing notices of some of the tables, was published by him in the Verslagen en Mededeelingen of the same academy (Afd.
An English translation, probably by John Bidle, was printed in Amsterdam and widely circulated.
In 182 9 Bosworth went to Holland as chaplain, first at Amsterdam and then at Rotterdam.
His defence of Amsterdam against the AngloRussian expedition under the duke of York was completely successful; the invaders were defeated, and compelled, after a miserable retreat, to re-embark.
These were collected (Amsterdam, 1787)as his Ouvres badines completes.
When he was about fourteen, in the hope of changing the bent of his mind, his father sent him to live with his agent at Amsterdam, where he worked under a tutor for four or five years.
Quinet, Marnix de St Aldegonde (Paris, 1854); Juste, Vie de Marnix (The Hague, 1858); Fredericq, Marnix en zijne nederlandsche geschriften (Ghent, 1882); Tjalma, Philips van Marnix, heer van Sint-Aldegonde (Amsterdam, 1896).
It seems probable that Forrett acted without authority, and his successor, Forrester, was arrested by the Dutch in New Amsterdam and sent to Holland before he could confirm the transfer.
Their seminary in Amsterdam has boasted of many distinguished names - Curcellaeus, Limborch, Wetstein, Le Clerc; and their liberal school of theology, which naturally grew more liberal and even rationalistic, reacted powerfully on the state church and on other Christian denominations.
and a Tour through the Interior Parts of New Spain was published at Philadelphia in 1810; was reprinted and rearranged in London in 1811; and was published in a French version in Paris in 1812, and a Dutch version at Amsterdam in 1812-1813.
His assumed memoir was printed for English readers in 1597 by William Ponsonby under the title of a Historie of the Great Emperor Tamerlan, drawn from the ancient monuments by Messire Jean du Bec, Abbot of Mortimer; and another version of the same book is to be found in the Histoire du Grand Tamerlan, by De Sainctyon, published at Amsterdam in 1678.
Early in 1789 he published at Amsterdam a three-volume work on the Despotisme des ministres de la France, and he adopted with enthusiasm the principles of the Revolution.
AMSTERDAM (NEW Amsterdam), an uninhabited and almost inaccessible island in the Indian Ocean, in 37 0 47' S., and 77° 34' E., about 60 m.
Amsterdam, New York >>
(Amsterdam); also his "Notice sur quelques quadrateurs, &c.," in Bull.
His collected Ouvres philosophiques appeared after his death in several editions, published in London, Berlin and Amsterdam respectively.
After studying at Leipzig, he went to Amsterdam, where he edited Homer and the Onomasticon of Julius Pollux for Wetzstein the publisher.
of Amsterdam by steam tramway.
Hanover is intersected by important trunk lines of railway; notably the lines from Berlin to Cologne, from Hamburg to Frankfort-onMain, from Hamburg to Bremen and Cologne, and from Berlin to Amsterdam.
Joseph Ellicott, the agent of the company, who has been called the "Father of Buffalo," laid out a town in 1801-1802, calling it New Amsterdam, and by this name it was known on the company's books until about 1810.
The success which followed his labours not only in the town of Utrecht, but also in Zwolle, Deventer, Kampen, Amsterdam, Haarlem, Gouda, Leiden, Delft, Zutphen and elsewhere, was immense; according to Thomas Kempis the people left their business and their meals to hear his sermons, so that the churches could not hold the crowds that flocked together wherever he came.
But personally Peter learnt nearly all that he wanted to know - gunnery at Konigsberg, shipbuilding at Saardam and Deptford, anatomy at Leiden, engraving at Amsterdam - and was proceeding to Venice to complete his knowledge of navigation when the revolt of the slryeltsy, or musketeers (June 1698), recalled him to Moscow.
In 1647 her husband, William II., succeeded his father as stadtholder, but three years later, just after his attempt to capture Amsterdam, he died; a son, afterwards the English king William III., being born to him a few days later (Nov.
JOHANN RUDOLF GLAUBER (1604-1668), German chemist, was born at Karlstadt, Bavaria, in 1604 and died at Amsterdam in 1668.
His treatises, about 30 in number, were collected and published at Frankfort in 1658-1659, at Amsterdam in 1661, and, in an English translation by Packe, at London in 1689.
His principal observations are given in his work, Experimenta nova, ut vocant, Magdeburgica de vacuo spatio (Amsterdam, 1672).
The extracts from Grueber's narrative, given by Athanasius Kircher in his China illustrate (Amsterdam, 1667), are accompanied by a good drawing of Potala.
Passing to Amsterdam he was introduced to John Locke and to Philip v.
A last attempt to live at Geneva, made at the request of relatives there, satisfied him that the theological atmosphere was uncongenial, and in 1684 he finally settled at Amsterdam, first as a moderately successful preacher, until ecclesiastical jealousy shut him out from that career, and afterwards as professor of philosophy, belles-lettres and Hebrew in the Remonstrant seminary.
Apart from his literary labours, Le Clerc's life at Amsterdam was uneventful.
These were the Bibliotheque universelle et historique (Amsterdam, 25 vols.
C. de la Croze; the Bibliotheque choisie (Amsterdam, 28 vols., 1703-1713); and the Bibliotheque ancienne et moderne, (29 vols., 1714-1726).
17, 59 (Amsterdam, 1707).
p. 16 (Amsterdam, 1707).
But the fact of there being no inlets of the sea is the reason of the absence of commercial towns along the sea-board, the only exception being Ymuiden, which has arisen at the mouth of the North Sea canal from Amsterdam.
This region is traversed by the North Holland canal (1819-1825), between Amsterdam and the naval station of den Helder.
This prosperity finally concentrated itself upon the Y (that is, upon Amsterdam) and the series of industrial villages situated on its offshoot the Zaam, of which Zaandam and Wormerveer are the most important.
An Amsterdam minister, James Laurent, published his Grotius papizans (1642), and it was continually being announced from Paris that Grotius had "gone over."
at Amsterdam (1644-1646; reprinted London, 1660; Amsterdam, 1679; and again Amsterdam, 1698).
Grotii epistolae quotquot reperiri potuerunt (fol., Amsterdam, 1687).
4to, Amsterdam, 1724); into German in Kirchmann's Philosophische Bibliothek (3 vols.
Their first minister was Jonas Michaelius, pastor in New Amsterdam of the "church in the fort" (now the Collegiate Church of New York City).
A minister, John van Mekelenburg (Johannes Megapolensis) migrated to Rensselaerwyck manor in 1642, preached to the Indians - probably before any other Protestant minister - and after 1649 was settled in New Amsterdam.
With the access of English and French settlers, Samuel Drisius, who preached in Dutch, German, English and French, was summoned, and he laboured in New Amsterdam and New York from 1652 to 1673.
The Church in America in 1738 asked the Classis of Amsterdam (to whose care it had been transferred from the West India Company) for the privilege of forming a Coetus or Association with power to ordain in America; the Classis, after trying to join the Dutch with the English Presbyterian churches, granted (1747) a Coetus first to the German and then to the Dutch churches, which therefore in September 1754 organized themselves into a classis.
Livingston (1746-1825), who had become pastor of the New York City church in 1770, on the basis of a plan drafted by the Classis of Amsterdam Coetus and Conferentie were reunited with a substantial independence of Amsterdam, which was made complete in 1792 when the Synod (the nomenclature of synod and classis had been adopted upon the declaration of American Independence) adopted a translation of the eighty-four Articles of Dort on Church Order with seventy-three "explanatory articles."' In 1800 there were about forty ministers and one hundred churches.
They did not, however, get beyond Amsterdam, for the outbreak of the Seven Years' War made it necessary for Winkler to return home without loss of time.
It must be further remarked that both the " dunepans," or depressions, which are naturally marshy through their defective drainage, and the geest grounds - that is, the grounds along the foot of the downs - have been in various places either planted with wood or turned into arable and pasture land; while the numerous springs at the base of the dunes are of the utmost value to the great cities situated on the marshy soil inland, the example set by Amsterdam in 1853 in supplying itself with this water having been readily followed by Leiden, the Hague, Flushing, &c.
below the Amsterdam zero' in some of the drained lands in the western half of the country.
In fact, one quarter of the whole kingdom, consisting of the provinces of North and South Holland, the western portion of Utrecht as far as the Vaart Rhine, Zeeland, except the southern part of ZeelandFlanders, and the north-west part of North Brabant, lies below the Amsterdam zero; and altogether 38% of the country, or all that part lying west of a line drawn through Groningen, Utrecht and Antwerp, lies within one metre above the Amsterdam zero and would be submerged if the sea broke down the barrier of dunes and dikes.
Thus the dam on the Amstel (1257) was the origin of Amsterdam,' and the dam on the Ye gave rise to Edam.
below the Amsterdam zero.
below the Amsterdam zero, but in the Noorderkwartier to the north, it reaches 102 ft.
below the Amsterdam zero, though the average is about I to 13 ft.
At Amsterdam the top of the Pliocene lay 625 ft.
Eastward and westward of Amsterdam, as well as southward, the Pliocene beds rise slowly to the surface, and gradually decrease in thickness.
The largest towns are Amsterdam, Rotterdam, the Hague, Utrecht, Groningen, Haarlem, Arnhem, Leiden, Nijmwegen, Tilburg.
was carried out, the following canals, among others, coming into existence in that period: the North Holland ship canal (depth, 161 ft.) from Amsterdam to den Helder, the Grift canal between Apeldoorn and Hattem, the Willemsvaart connecting Zwolle with the Ysel, the.
The large ship canals to Rotterdam and Amsterdam, called the New Waterway and the North Sea canal respectively, were constructed in 1866-1872 and 1865-1876 at a cost of 21 and 3 million pounds sterling, the former by widening the channel of the Scheur north of Rozenburg, and cutting across the Hook of Holland, the latter by utilizing the bed of the Y and cutting through the dunes at Ymuiden.
Amsterdam is connected with the Lek and the Zederik canal via Utrecht by the Vecht and the Vaart Rhine (1881-1893 depth 10.2 ft.).
In Friesland, finally, besides the ship canal from Harlingen to the Lauwers Zee there are canals from Leeuwarden to the Lemmer, whence there is a busy traffic with Amsterdam; and the Caspar Robles or Kolonels Diep, and the Hoendiep connect it with Groningen.
The first line was that between Amsterdam and Haarlem, opened in 1839 by the Holland railway company (Hollandsch Yzeren Spoorweg Maatschappij).
The four transverse lines belong to the State and Holland railways alternately and are, beginning with the State railway: (1) the line Flushing (1872) - Rozendaal (1860) - Tilburg (1863) - Bokstel (whence there is a branch line belonging to the North Brabant and Germany railway company via Vechel to Goch in Germany, opened in 1873) - Eindhoven - Venlo and across Prussian border (1866); (2) the line Hook of Holland - Rotterdam (1893) - Dordrecht (1872-1877) - Elst (1882-1885) - Nijmwegen (1879) - Cleves, Germany (1865); (3) the line Rotterdam - Utrecht (1866-1869) and Amsterdam - Utrecht - Arnhem (1843-1845) to Emmerich in Germany (1856): this line formerly belonged to the Netherlands-Rhine railway company, but was bought by the state in 1890; and finally (4) the line Amsterdam - Hilversum - Amersfoort - Apeldoorn (1875), whence it is continued (a) via Deventer, Almelo and Hengelo to Salzbergen, Germany (1865); (b) via Zutphen, Hengelo (1865), Enschede (1866) to Gronau, Germany; (c) via Zutphen (1876) and Ruurlo to Winterswyk (1878).
The northern and southern provinces are further connected by the lines Amsterdam - Zaandam (1878) - Enkhuizen (1885), whence there is a steam ferry across the Zuider Zee to Stavoren, from where the railway is continued to Leeuwarden (1883-1885); the Netherlands Central railway, Utrecht - AmersfoortZwoole - Kampen (1863); and the line Utrecht - 's Hertogenbosch (1868-1869) which is continued southward into Belgium by the lines bought in 1898 from the Grand Central Belge railway, namely, via Tilburg to Turnhout (1867), and via Eindhoven (1866) to Hasselt.
In 1892 Greenwich mean time was adopted on the railways and in the post-offices, making a difference of twenty minutes with mean Amsterdam time.
Other branches of industry include carpet-weaving at Deventer, the distillation of brandy, gin and liqueurs at Schiedam, Rotterdam and Amsterdam, and beer-brewing in most of the principal towns; shoe-making and leather-tanning in the Langstraat district of North Brabant; paper-making at Apeldoorn, on the Zaan, and in Limburg; the manufacture of earthenware and faience at Maastricht, the Hague and Delft, as well as at Utrecht, Purmerend and Makkum; clay pipes and stearine candles at Gouda; margarine at Osch; chocolate at Weesp and on the Zaan; mat-plaiting and broom-making at Genemuiden and Blokzyl; diamondcutting and the manufacture of quinine at Amsterdam; and the making of cigars and snuff at Eindhoven, Amsterdam, Utrecht, Kampen, &c. Shipbuilding is of no small importance in Holland, not only in the greater, but also in the smaller towns along the rivers and canals.
The principal shipbuilding yards are at Amsterdam, Kinderdijk, Rotterdam and at Flushing, where there is a government dockyard for building warships.
The number of members is loo, Amsterdam returning 9, Rotterdam 5, the Hague 3, Groningen and Utrecht 2 members each.
The chosen line of defence is marked by a series of forts which control the sluices, extending from Amsterdam, through Muiden, thence along the Vecht and through Utrecht to Gorinchem (Gorkum) on the Waal.
The administration of justice is entrusted (1) to the high council (hooge rand) at the Hague, the supreme court of the whole kingdom, and the tribunal for all high government officials and for the members of the states-general; (2) to the five courts of justice established at Amsterdam, the Hague, Arnhem, Leeuwarden and 's Hertogenbosch; (3) to tribunals established in each arrondissement; (4) to cantonal judges appointed over a group of communes, whose jurisdiction is restricted to claims of small amount (under 200 guilders), and to breaches of police regulations, and who at the same time look after the interest of minors.
Among societies of general utility are the Society for Public Welfare (Maatschappij tot nut van't algemeen, 1785), whose efforts have been mainly in the direction of educational reform; the Geographical Society at Amsterdam (1873); Teyler's Stichting or foundation at Haarlem (1778), and the societies for the promotion of industry (1777), and of sciences (1752) in the same town; the Institute of Languages, Geography and Ethnology of the Dutch Indies (1851), and the Indian Society at the Hague, the Royal Institute of Engineers at Delft (1848), the Association for the Encouragement of Music at Amsterdam, &c.
Towards 1840 a new congregation calling itself the Christian Reformed Church (Christelijke Gereformeerde Kerk) arose as a protest against the government and the modern tendencies of the Reformed Church; and for the same reason those who had founded the Free University of Amsterdam (1880) formed themselves in 1886 into an independent body called the Nederlandsche Gereformeerde Kerk.
Other Protestant bodies are the Walloons, who, though possessing an independent church government, are attached to the Low-Dutch Reformed Church; the Lutherans, divided into the main body of Evangelical Lutherans and a smaller division calling themselves the Re-established or Old Lutherans (Herstelde Lutherschen) who separated in 1791 in order to keep more strictly to the Augsburg confession; the Mennonites founded by Menno Simons of Friesland, about the beginning of the 16th century; the Baptists, whose only central authority is the General Baptist Society founded at Amsterdam in 1811; the Evangelical Brotherhood of Hernhutters or Moravians, who have churches and schools at Zeist and Haarlem; and a Catholic Apostolic Church (1867) at the Hague.
There are congregations of English Episcopalians at the Hague, Amsterdam and Rotterdam, and German Evangelicals at the Hague (1857) and Rotterdam (1861).
Special mention must be made in this connexion of the school of engineering in Amsterdam (1878) and the Academy of Plastic Arts at Rotterdam.
Among the schools which give specialized instruction, mention must be made of the admirable trade schools (ambachtsscholen) established in 1861, and the corresponding industrial schools for girls; the fishery schools and schools of navigation; the many private schools of domestic science, and of commerce and industry, among which the municipal school at Enschede (1886) deserves special mention; and the school of social work, " Das Huis," at Amsterdam (1900).
For the education of medical practitioners, civil and military, the more important institutions are the National Obstetrical College at Amsterdam, the National Veterinary School at Utrecht, the National College for Military Physicians at Amsterdam and the establishment at Utrecht for the training of military apothecaries for the East and West Indies.
The ancient athenaeums of Franeker (1585) and Harderwyk (1603) were closed in 1811, but that of Amsterdam was converted into a municipal university in 1877.
There is also a free (Calvinistic) university at Amsterdam founded in 1880 and enjoying, since 1905, the right of conferring degrees.
Blink, Nederland en zijne Bewoners (Amsterdam, 1888-1892), containing a copious bibliography; Tegenwoordige Staat van Nederland (Amsterdam, 1897); R.
Witkamp (Arnhem, 1895), is a complete gazetteer with historical notes, and Nomina Geographica Neerlandica, published by the Netherlands Geographical Society (Amsterdam, 1885, &c.), contains a history of geographical names.
Ritter (Amsterdam, 1898), containing a series of articles on all subjects connected with the kingdom during the second half of the 19th century, written by specialists; and Les Pays Bas (Leiden, 1899), and La Hollande geographique, ethnologique, politique, &c. (Paris, 1900), both works of the same class as the preceding.
Weisman, published by the Royal Antiquarian Society (Amsterdam, 1891); and Dud Holland, edited by A.
de Roever (Amsterdam, 1883-1886), containing miscellaneous contributions to the history of ancient Dutch art, crafts and letters.
Natural history is covered by various periodical publications of the Royal Zoological Society " Natura Artis Magistra " at Amsterdam, and the Natuurlijke Historie van Nederland (Haarlem, 1856-1863) written by specialists, and including ethnology and flora.
Statistics are furnished b y the annual publication of the Society for Statistics in the Netherlands, Amsterdam.
The reluctance of the States of Holland, and of Amsterdam in particular, to grant adequate supplies caused the campaigns of 1638 and 1639 to be in the main defensive and dilatory.
The United Provinces were recognized as free and independent, and Spain dropped all her claims; the uti possidetis basis was adopted in respect to all conquests; the Scheldt was declared entirely closed - a clause which meant the ruin of Antwerp for the profit of Amsterdam; the right to trade in the East and West Indies was granted, and all the conquests made by the Dutch from the Portuguese were ceded to them; the two contracting parties agreed to respect and keep clear of each other's trading grounds; each was to pay in the ports of the other only such tolls as natives paid.
Foremost among these was the great commercial capital, Amsterdam, whose rich burgher patriciate did not scruple on occasion to defy the authority of the States-General, the stadholder and even of the States of Holland themselves.
Amsterdam refused absolutely to admit either stadholder or commission.
Six leading mem bers of the States of Holland were seized (30th of July 1650) and imprisoned in Loevenstein Castle, and troops under the command of William Frederick, stadholder of Fries land, were sent to surprise Amsterdam.
The States of Holland and the town council of Amsterdam gave in their submission.
The Navigation Act was re-enacted, old grievances revived, and finally the Dutch colony of New Netherland was seized in time of peace (1664) and its capital, New Amsterdam, renamed New York.
The opposition of Amsterdam to an English expedition, in the absence of danger from the side of France, was overcome.
He had to contend, like his predecessors, with the perennial hostility of the burgher aristocracy of Amsterdam, and at times with other refractory town councils, but his power in the States during his life was almost autocratic. His task was rendered lighter by the influence and ability of Heinsius, the grand pensionary of Holland, a wise and prudent statesman, whose tact and modera tion in dealing with the details and difficulties of internal administration were conspicuous.
Under the close oligarchical rule of the patrician families, who filled all offices in the town councils, the States of Holland, in which the influence of Amsterdam was dominant, and which in their turn exercised predominance in the States-General, became more and more an assembly of " shopkeepers " whose policy was to maintain peace for the sake of the commerce on which they thrived.
in 1723,at once aroused Y P J P the strong opposition of the Amsterdam merchants who looked upon this invasion of their monopoly with alarm, and declared that the Ostend Company had been set up in contravention to the terms of Article V.
At first the stadholder's efforts to promote the trade and welfare of the country were hampered by the distrust and opposition of Amsterdam, and other strongholds of anti-Orange feeling, and just as his good i ntentions were becoming more generally recognized, William !y .
Amsterdam capitulated, the country was occupied, and the patriot leaders declared incapable of holding any office.
The very severe frost of that winter gave his troops an easy passage over all the rivers and low-lying = lands; town after town fell before him; he occupied Over= throw of Amsterdam, and crossing the ice with his cavalry the Stad- took the Dutch fleet, as it lay frost-bound at the holderate.
It draws its chief strength from Amsterdam and certain country districts of Friesland.
Lefevre-Pontalis, Jean de Witt, grand pensionnaire de Hollande (2 vols., Paris, 1884); P. Simons, Johan de Witt en zijn tijd (3 vols., Amsterdam, 1832-1842); W.
de Witt (Amsterdam, 1862); J.
Kernkamp (Amsterdam, 1906).
at Amsterdam and Breda) and Belgium preserve more faithfully the characteristics of earlier days.
All commerce and industry was at a standstill; grass grew in the streets of Bruges and Ghent; and the trade of Antwerp was transferred to Amsterdam.
It then weighed 186carats, but was recut in London by Amsterdam workmen, and now weighs 106416 carats.
It was sent to Amsterdam to be cut, and in 1908 was divided into nine large stones and a number of small brilliants.
It bears a strong resemblance to a Dutch town, for the houses are built in the style of those of Amsterdam, and the narrow channel separating it from its western suburb of Overzijde and the waters of the Waigat, which intersect it, recall the canals.
Hobbes now entrusted it, early in 1646, to his admirer, the Frenchman Samuel de Sorbiere, by whom it was seen through the Elzevir press at Amsterdam in 1647 - having previously inserted a number of notes in reply to objections, and also a striking preface, in the course of which he explained its relation to the other parts of the system not yet forthcoming, and the (political) occasion of its having been composed and being now published before them.
iii.), included with the general collection of his works published at Amsterdam in 1668.
The collected edition of his Latin works (in two quarto volumes) appeared at Amsterdam in 1668, because he could not obtain the censor's licence for its publication at London, Oxford or Cambridge.
Near the present site in 1643 colonists from Sweden built Fort Elfsborg; but the Swedish settlers in 1655 submitted to the Dutch at New Amsterdam, and the latter in turn surrendered to the English in 1664.
1307-7323 (Amsterdam, 1692); Hahn, Gesch.
These- L'Histoire du stathouderat (The Hague, 1748), L'Histoire du parlement d'Angleterre (London, 1748), Anecdotes historiques (Amsterdam, 3 vols., 1 753) - gained for him access to the salons of Mme.
He had the assistance of various members of the philosophe coteries in his most important work, L'Histoire philosophique et politique des etablissements et du commerce des Europeens dans les deux Indes (Amsterdam, 4 vols., 1770).
See John Selden, Titles of Honor (1672); Antonius Matthaeus, De nobilitate, de principibus, de ducibus, &c., libri quatuor (Amsterdam and Leiden, 1696, lib.
The railway from Amsterdam to Groningen traverses Drente; branch lines connect Meppel with Leeuwarden and Assen with Delfzyl.
Passenger steamship services are worked in connexion with the Lancashire & Yorkshire railway to Amsterdam, Antwerp, Bruges, Copenhagen, Rotterdam and other north European ports.
See Minuccio Minucci, Historia degli Uscochi (Venice, 1603); enlarged by P. Sarpi, and translated into French as a supplement to Amelot de la Houssaye's Histoire du gouvernement de Venise (Amsterdam, 1705).
Spanheim, Gangraena theologiae Anabaptisticae (Franekerd, 1656); Balthasar Lydius, Waldensia, id est conservatio verae Ecclesiae (Rotterdam, 1616); Herman Schyn, Historiae Mennonitarum (Amsterdam, 1729); Joh.
Cool, With the Dutch in the East (Amsterdam and London, 1897), in Dutch and English, is a narrative of the events sketched above, and contains many particulars about the folklore and dual religions of Lombok, which, with Bali, forms the last stronghold of Hinduism east of Java.
Similar institutions existed also in Amsterdam, Utrecht, Antwerp and elsewhere in the Netherlands.
In 1507 Charles of Egmont invaded Holland and Brabant, captured Harderwijk and Bommel in 1511, threatened Amsterdam in 1512, and took Groningen.
On the 28th of December he crossed the Meuse on the ice, and stormed the island of Bommel, then crossed the Waal in the same manner, and, driving the English before him, entered Utrecht on the 19th of January, and Amsterdam on the 10th of January, and soon occupied the whole of Holland.
This grand feat of arms was marked by many points of interest, such as the capture of the Dutch ships, which were frozen in the Helder, by the French hussars, and the splendid discipline of the ragged battalions in Amsterdam, who, with the richest city of the continent to sack, yet behaved with a self-restraint which few revolutionary and Napoleonic armies attained.
He became Doctor of Divinity and pastor of the Dutch Reformed Church at Beesd in 1863, and in 1870 moved to Amsterdam, where he became in 1876 leader of the anti-Revolutionary party which aimed at the restoration of strictly Calvinistic doctrine in the guidance of State affairs.
Zuid-Afrikaansche Republiek (Amsterdam, 1898); the Memoirs already mentioned; F.
The following are his most important works: Sur la figure de la terre (Paris, 1738); Discours sur la parallaxe de la lune (Paris, 1741); Discours sur la figure des astres (Paris, 1742); Elements de la geographie (Paris, 1742); Lettre sur la comete de 1742 (Paris, 1742); Astronomie nautique (Paris, 1745 and 1746); Venus physique (Paris, 1 745); Essai de cosmologie (Amsterdam, 1750).
During the following twelve years he resided in Holland, and preached before Calvinistic congregations at Amsterdam, Leiden and Utrecht.
de Hooge (Amsterdam, 1704).
Little is known of his youth, beyond the fact that he was sent in the year of Waterloo to Amsterdam for his education.
In that capacity, and, before his appointment at Leiden, as a lecturer on political science, history and economics at Amsterdam, he gained great reputation as a political reformer, particularly after the publication of his standard work, Aanteekeningen op de Grondwet (" Annotations on the Constitution," 1839; 2nd ed., Amsterdam, 1841-1843), which became the textbook and the groundwork for the new reform party in Holland, as whose leader Thorbecke was definitely recognized.
At Amsterdam there appeared in 1873 a highly interesting Correspondence with his academy friend and lifelong political adversary Groen van Prinsterer, which, although dating back to the early 'thirties, throws much light on their subsequent relations and the political events that followed 1848.
In 1876 a statue of Thorbecke was unveiled in one of the squares of Amsterdam.
Levy, an Amsterdam lawyer.
During the 16th century Bruges, Antwerp and Amsterdam became the great emporia Dutch whence Indian produce, imported by the Portuguese,.
At about the same time they discovered the coast of Australia, and in North America founded the city of New Amsterdam or Manhattan, now New York.
There are in the library some volumes written in Latin, which, according to Boot (Notice sur les manuscrits trouves a Herculaneum, Amsterdam, 1845), were found tied up in a bundle apart.
After leaving his second post he was received into the house of a merchant at Riga named Johann Christoph Behrens, who contracted a great friendship for him and selected him as his companion for a tour through Danzig, Berlin, Hamburg, Amsterdam and London.
Amsterdam and St Paul, uninhabited islands in the South Indian Ocean, included in an official list of the dependencies of Mauritius drawn up in 1880, were in 1893 annexed by France.
Her writings, containing an account of her life and of her visions and opinions, were collected by her disciple, Pierre Poiret (19 vols., Amsterdam, 1679-1686), who also published her life (2 vols., 1679).
Devoting himself to the elaboration of his scheme, Comenius settled first at Elbing, and then at Lissa; but, at the burning of the latter city by the Poles, he lost nearly all his manuscripts, and he finally removed to Amsterdam, where he died in 1671.
Van Vloten, Recherches sur la domination arabe, le Chiitisme et les croyances messianiques sous le Khalifat des Omayades (Amsterdam, 1894), p. 63 seq.
and xi.; Memoires de la Ligue (new ed., Amsterdam, 1758); the histories of T.
Muller, Reizen en onderzoekingen in den Indischen Archipel (Amsterdam, 1857); C. Bock, Head-hunters of Borneo (London, 1881), and Reis in Oost en Zuid-Borneo (The Hague, 1887); J.
Nevertheless the epidemic spread in the next few years over Spain and Germany, and a little later to Holland, where Amsterdam in1663-1664was again ravaged with a mortality given as 50,000, also Rotterdam and Haarlem.
Oudemans, Bijdrage tot de Kennis den Thysanura en Collembola (Amsterdam, 1888); B: Grassi, who published between 1885 and 1889 a series of memoirs entitled "I progenitori dei Miriapodi e degli Insetti," in the Atti Accad.
(Amsterdam, 1838); F.
From the Levant the Sabbataean movement spread to Venice, Amsterdam, Hamburg and London.
Meursius, Cyprus (Amsterdam, 1675), marshals the classical authorities; and W.
This same press, with a few modifications, was apparently still in general use till the early part of the 17th century, when Willem Janszon Blaeu (1J71-1638) of Amsterdam, who was appointed map maker to the Dutch Republic in 1633, made some substantial improvements in it.
Both have often been printed; they were translated by Surenhusius (Amsterdam, 1698-1703).
He was Louis, count of Vermandois, son of Louise de la Valliere (Memoires secrets pour servir d l'histoire de Perse, Amsterdam, 1745); Vermandois, however, died in 1683.
Amsterdam, 1768), although Monmouth was beheaded in 1685.
Smyth was appointed preacher of the city of Lincoln in 1600 as an ordained clergyman, but became a separatist in 1605 or 1606, and, soon after, emigrated under stress of persecution with the Gainsborough Independents to Amsterdam.
These then formed the first English Baptist Church which in 1611 published "a declaration of faith of English people remaining at Amsterdam in Holland."
Kok, Vaderlandsch Woordenboek (Amsterdam, 1785-1799); also bibliography to chaps.
BARUCH SPINOZA (1632-1677), or, as he afterwards signed himself, Benedict de Spinoza, Dutch philosopher, was born at Amsterdam on the 24th of November 1632.
The philosopher's grandfather appears to have been the recognized head of the Jewish community in Amsterdam in 1628, and his father, Michael Espinoza, was repeatedly warden of the synagogue between 1630 and 1650.
She cannot, therefore, have been more than eleven, or twelve in 1656, the year in which Spinoza left Amsterdam; and as Kerckkrink was seven years younger than Spinoza, they cannot well have been simultaneous pupils of Van den Ende's and simultaneous suitors for his daughter's hand.
But, though the details of the story thus fall to pieces, it is still possible that in the five years which followed his retirement from Amsterdam Spinoza, who was living within easy distance and paid visits to the city from time to time, may have kept up his connexion with Van den Ende, and that the attachment may have dated from this later period.
Warned by this that Amsterdam was hardly a safe place of residence for him any longer, Spinoza had already left the city before the sentence of excommunication was pronounced.
A number of the younger men in Amsterdam - many of them students of medicine or medical practitioners - had also come to regard him as their intellectual leader.
Spinoza meanwhile concentrated his attention upon the Ethics, and we learn from the correspondence with his Amsterdam friends that a considerable part of book i.
A journey made to Amsterdam in that year is conjectured to have had reference to its publication.
In 1675 we learn from his correspondence that he entertained the idea of publishing the Ethics, and made a journey to Amsterdam to arrange matters with the printer.
On Saturday, the 20th of February, he sent to Amsterdam for his friend Dr Meyer.
His desk, containing his letters and his unpublished works, Spinoza had previously charged his landlord to convey to Jan Rieuwertz, a publisher in Amsterdam.
In September 1778, however, while at Aix-la-Chapelle, he negotiated a plan of a treaty with Jan de Neufville, who represented Van Breckel, pensionary of Amsterdam.
Passing over to Amsterdam, he was received into the synagogue, having his name changed from Gabriel to Uriel.
In 1723 the chapter of Utrecht, in order to preserve the canonical succession of the Dutch clergy, elected Cornelius Steenoven archbishop. He was consecrated (15th October 1724) by Dominique Varlet, bishop of Babylon in partibus, who, having been deposed by the pope for Jansenism, had settled in Amsterdam in 1720.
Disliking his father's trade of bookbinding, for which he was intended, he left home in 1755, and after taking lessons in surgery and chemistry at Amsterdam, became a ship's surgeon in the Dutch service.
More settlers were landed from time to time, including a number of orphan girls from Amsterdam, and during1688-1689the colony was greatly strengthened by the arrival of some three hundred Huguenots (men, women and children), who were located at Stellenbosch, Drakenstein, Frenchhoek and Paarl.
In 1789 so strong had feeling amongst the burghers become that delegates were sent from the Cape to interview the authorities at Amsterdam.
Blink, Aardrijksunde van Zuid-Afrika (2 vols., Amsterdam, 1889); F.
Cypriano, Vita Campanellae (Amsterdam, 1705 and 1722); Al.
His works, which even the Biographia Britannica (1778) testifies were famous over Europe, were collected at Amsterdam in 5 vols.
It contains a monument to Richard Nicolls (1624-1672), who, under the patronage of the duke of York, brother to Charles II., to whom the king had granted the Dutch North American colony of New Netherlands, received the submission of its chief town, New Amsterdam, in 1664, and became its first English governor, the town taking the name of New York.
Placed midway between The Hague and Amsterdam, he was able to obtain, besides the learned circle of Leiden, the advantages of the best society of both these capitals.
distant, with the New York Central), and by electric lines connecting with Johnstown, Amsterdam and Schenectady.
of Amsterdam, on the railway to Enkhuizen, with which it is also connected by steam tramway.
In Amsterdam many Maranos found asylum; Spinoza was descended from such a family.
He then devoted himself 1 The Solov'evs were three brothers ostensibly employed by the Russian government to ship corn from Russia and sell it at Amsterdam.
in the possession of Sir William Boswell; its title is De mundo nostro sublunari philosophia nova (Amsterdam, 1651).
Huet devoted much pains to them, but his results were not made public. The first edition which calls for notice, except in a complete ¦)ibliography, is that of Le Duchat (Amsterdam, 1711).
His works were published at Amsterdam in 1738-1740 and his Annales politiques in London in 1757.
PIETER CORNELISSEN HOOFT (1581-1647), Dutch poet and historian, was born at Amsterdam on the 16th of March 1581.
His father was one of the leading citizens of Holland, both in politics and in the patronage of letters, and for some time burgomaster of Amsterdam.
He returned through Germany, and after an absence of three years and a half found himself in Amsterdam again on the 8th of May 1601.
In 1602 he brought out his second tragedy, Theseus and Ariadne, printed at Amsterdam in 1614.
In August 1610 he married Christina van Erp, an 1 Kaspar van Baerle (1584-1648), professor of rhetoric at Amsterdam, and famous as a Latin poet.
His next production was his Miseries of the Princes of the House of Medici (Amsterdam, 1638).
In 1642 he published at Amsterdam a folio comprising the first twenty books of his Dutch History, embracing the period from 1555 to 1585, a magnificent performance, to the perfecting of which he had given fifteen years of labour.
Hoof t died on a visit to the Hague, whither he had gone to attend the funeral of Prince Frederick Henry, on the 21st of May 1647, and was buried in the New Church at Amsterdam.
Surenhusius, in his Latin edition of the last-named code (Amsterdam 1698-1703), translated Bertinoro's commentary.
Lucio in his De regno Dalmatiae et Croatiae (Amsterdam, 1666), include several which deal specially with Salona and Spalato.
Towards the end of 1608 Hudson "had a call" to Amsterdam, where he saw the celebrated cosmographer the Rev. Peter Plancius and the cartographer Hondius, and after some delay, due to the rivalry which was exhibited in the attempt to secure his services, he undertook for the Dutch East India Company his important third voyage to find a passage to China either by the north-east or north-west route.
In 1623 the first party of permanent homeseekers arrived at New Amsterdam, and a portion of these formed a settlement on the eastern bank of the Delaware and built Fort Nassau near the site of the present Gloucester City.
From these places and from New Amsterdam the Dutch spread into the Raritan Valley.
2 In 1634 a party of English from Virginia, having ascended the Delaware and occupied Fort Nassau, which the Dutch had abandoned, were promptly captured by the Dutch, taken to New Amsterdam, and thence sent home, arriving just in time to prevent the departure of a second English expedition up the Delaware.
An expedition was sent from England in May, under the command of Richard Nicolls, and in the following August the English flag floated over New Amsterdam.
De Sade's Life of the poet (Amsterdam, 1764-1767) marks an epoch in the history of his numerous biographies; but this is in many important points untrustworthy, and it has been superseded by Gustav Koerting's exhaustive volume on Petrarcas Leben and Werke (Leipzig, 1878).
(Amsterdam, 1888), p. 226; Renaud, Jaarboek van het Mynwezen (1882); J.
The chief ports for continental passenger traffic are as follows: Harwich to Amsterdam, Antwerp, Hamburg, Hook of Holland, Rotterdam (Great Eastern railway); to Copenhagen and Esbjerg (Royal Danish mail route).
DIRCK VOLCKERTSZOON COORNHERT (1522-1590), Dutch politician and theologian, youngest son of Volckert Coornhert, cloth merchant, was born at Amsterdam in 1522.
Zondervan, Banka en Zijne bewoners (Amsterdam, 1895), with bibliography; T.
The first importation from India took place in 1867, since which time the cultivated bark has arrived in Europe in constantly increasing quantities, London being the chief market for the Indian barks and Amsterdam for those of Java.
AMSTERDAM, the chief city of Holland, in the province of North Holland, on the south side of the Y or IJ, an arm of the Zuider Zee, in 52° 22' N.
Amsterdam, the "dam or dyke of the Amstel," is so called from the Amstel, the canalized river which passes through the city to the Y.
The nucleus of the town lies within the innermost crescent canal, and, with the large square, the Dam, in the centre, represents the area of Amsterdam about the middle of the 14th century.
The streets in the oldest part of Amsterdam are often narrow and irregular, and the sky-line is picturesquely broken by fantastic gables, roofs and towers.
Modern Amsterdam extends southward beyond the Singel Gracht, and here the houses are often very handsome, while the broad streets are planted with rows of large trees.
The Dam is the vital centre of Amsterdam.
The Oude Kerk (St Nicholaas), so called, was built about the year 1300, and contains some beautiful stained glass of the 16th and 17th centuries, by Pieter Aertsen of Amsterdam (1508-1575) and others.
One window contains the arms of the burgomasters of Amsterdam from 1578 to 1767.
Froger; the new building (1860) of the Seamen's Institute, founded in 1785; the cellular prison; and the so-called Paleis van Volksvlijt, an immense building of iron and glass with a fine garden, built by Dr Samuel Sarphati, and used for industrial exhibitions, the performance of operas, &c. The museums and picture galleries of Amsterdam are of great interest.
The nucleus of this unsurpassed national collection of pictures was formed out of the collections removed hither from the Pavilion at Haarlem, consisting of modern paintings, and from the town-hall, the van der Hoop Museum and the Trippenhuis in Amsterdam.
- There are two universities in Amsterdam: the Free University (1880), and the more ancient state university of Amsterdam, originally founded in 1632, but reconstructed in 1887.
Amsterdam is also remarkable for the number and high character of its benevolent institutions, which are to a large extent supported by voluntary contributions.
Among other Amsterdam societies are the Felix Meritis (1776), and the Anti et Amicitiae (1839), whose art exhibitions are of a high order.
The first attempt which the city of Amsterdam made to overcome the evils wrought to its trade by the slow formation of the Pampus sandbank at the entrance to the Y from the Zuider Zee, was the construction of the North Holland canal to the Helder in 1825.
Opening out of one of the crescent canals which penetrate the city from the Y is the State Entrepot dock (1900), the free harbour of Amsterdam, where the produce from the Dutch East Indies is stored.
Although no longer the centre of the banking transactions of the world, the Amsterdam exchange is still of considerable importance in this respect.
The celebrated Bank of Amsterdam, founded in 1609, was dissolved in 1796, and the present Bank of the Netherlands was established in 1814 on the model of the Bank of England.
of Amstel built a castle there, Amsterdam was a fishing hamlet held in fee by the lords of Amstel of the bishops of Utrecht, for whom they acted as bailiffs.
Amsterdam, influenced by its trading interests, did not join the other towns in revolt against Spain until 1578.
The great development of Amsterdam was due, however, to the treaty of Westphalia in 1648, by which its rival, Antwerp, was ruined, owing to the closing of the Scheldt.
in 1672; and Amsterdam, now reconciled with the stadtholder, was one of the staunchest supporters of William III.
In 1787 Amsterdam was occupied by the Prussians, and in 1795 by the French under Pichegru.
When, in 1810, this was united with the French empire, Amsterdam was recognized officially as the third town of the empire, ranking next after Paris and Rome.
ter Gouw, Geschiedenis van Amsterdam (3 vols., Amsterdam, 1879-1881), a full history with documents.
New Amsterdam >>
Floris made himself master of Amstelland and First Gooiland; and Amsterdam, destined to become the Charter to chief commercial town of Holland, counts him the Amster- founder of its greatness.
The Amstelland with its capital, Amsterdam, which had hitherto been held as a fief of Utrecht, was by William, on the death of his uncle Bishop Guy, finally annexed to Holland.
and of Amsterdam, and many of his plans of campaign were thwarted by the refusal of the Hollanders to furnish supplies.
Amsterdam during this period was the centre and head of the United Provinces.
This change was effected smoothly, for though William had many differences with Amsterdam, he had in Anthony Heinsius (van der Heim), who was grand pensionary of Holland from 1690 to his death in 1720, statesman whom he thoroughly trusted, who worked with him in the furtherance of his policy during life and who continued to carry out that policy after his death.
But until the final destruction of the federal republic by the French armies, the perennial struggle went on between the Holland or federal party (Staatsgesinden) centred at Amsterdam - out of which grew the patriot party under William V.
The following eighteen towns sent representatives: South Quarter - (I) Dordrecht, (2) Haarlem, (3) Delft, (4) Leiden, (5) Amsterdam, (6) Gouda, (7) Rotterdam, (8) Gorinchem, (9) Schiedam, (10) Schoonhoven, (11) Brill; North Quarter: - (12) Alkmaar, (13) Hoorn, (14) Enkhuizen, (15) Edam, (16) Monnikendam, (17) Medemblik, (18) Purmerend.
The more important - that for the south quarter - consisted of ten members, (1) the senior member of the nobility, who sat for life, (2) representatives (for periods of three years) of the eight towns: Dordrecht, Haarlem, Delft, Leiden, Amsterdam, Gouda, Rotterdam and Gorinchem, with a tenth member (usually elected biennially) for the towns of Schiedam, Schoonhoven and Brill conjointly.
Cats was contemporary with Hooft and Vondel and other distinguished Dutch writers in the golden age of Dutch literature, but his Orangist and Calvinistic opinions separated him from the liberal school of Amsterdam poets.
Probably the oldest example of this genus in cultivation is in the Botanic Garden of Amsterdam, its age is considered by Professor de Vries to be about two thousand years: although an accurate determination of age is impossible, there is no doubt that many cycads grow very slowly and are remarkable for longevity.
von Overstraten, Jacoba van Beieren (Amsterdam, 1790).
Hertzberg, in Ersch and Gruber's Allgemeine Encyklopcidie, and an anonymous monograph, Precis historique de la maison imperiale des Comnenes (Amsterdam, 1784); and, for the history of the period, the works referred to under Later Roman Empire.
12mo, Amsterdam) containing the CEuvres diverses as well as the plays.
The general surface measure is the old Amsterdam Morgen, reckoned equal to 2.11654 acres; 1000 Cape lineal feet are equal to 1033 British imperial feet.
(a) Descriptive accounts, geography, commerce and economics: - The best early accounts of the colony are found in de la Caille's Journal historique du voyage fait au Cap de Bonne Espe'rance (Paris, 1763), the Nouvelle Description du Cap de Bonne Esperance (Amsterdam, 1778); F.
A work published at Amsterdam in 1678, entitled De Americaensche Zee Roovers, from the pen of a buccaneer named Exquemelin, was translated into several European languages, receiving additions at the hands of the different translators.
His papers were found to contain a sketch of a treaty between the United States and Holland projected by William Lee, in the service of Congress, and Jan de Neufville, acting on behalf of Mynheer Van Berckel, pensionary of Amsterdam, and this discovery eventually led to war between Great Britain and the United Provinces.
Harlingen has become the most considerable seaport of Friesland since the construction of the large outer harbour in 1870-1877, and in addition to railway and steamship connexion with Bremen, Amsterdam, and the southern provinces there are regular sailings to Hull and London.
Amsterdam, 1727), tom.
Vossius, De Baptismo (Amsterdam, 1648); Edmond Martene, De Ant.
Steam tramways connect it with the seaside villages of Scheveningen, Kykduin and 's Gravenzande, as well as with Delft, Wassenaar and Leiden, and it is situated on a branch of the main canal from Rotterdam to Amsterdam.
4 Commonly quoted as Oud en nieuw Oost Indien (Amsterdam, 1726).
the surface of the North Sea at Amsterdam, and 0.066 metres (= 216 ft.) below its level at Ostend.
It is situated on the Marsdiep, the channel separating the island of Texel from the mainland, and the main entrance to the Zuider Zee, and besides being the terminus of the North Holland canal from Amsterdam, it is an important naval and military station.
On the east side of the town, called the Nieuwe Diep, is situated the fine harbour, which formerly served, as Ymuiden now does, as the outer port of Amsterdam.
Mauritii Nassoviae (Amsterdam, 1647); L.
At Amsterdam was published (1665-1669) the Bibliotheca fratrum polonorum, embracing the works of Hans Krell, their leading theologian, of Jonas Schlichting, their chief commentator, of Sozzini and of Johann Ludwig Wolzogen; the title-page of this collection, bearing the words quos Unitarios vocant, introduced this term to Western Europe.
This council has held biennial sessions in London, Amsterdam, Geneva and Boston.
In 1607 he sailed from Amsterdam to the Indies as second commercial agent, and remained away four years.
At Paris he met men of science and letters - Peter Guenellon, the well-known Amsterdam physician; Ole Romer, the Danish astronomer; Thoynard, the critic; Melchisedech Thevenot, the traveller; Henri Justel, the jurist; and Francois Bernier, the expositor of Gassendi.
More insurrectionary plots followed in the summer of 1682, after which, suspected at home, the versatile statesman escaped to Holland, and died at Amsterdam in January 1683.
Amsterdam was his first Dutch home, where he lived in the house of Dr Keen, under the assumed name of Dr Van der Linden.
The Latin version by Richard Burridge of Dublin followed a year after, reprinted in due time at Amsterdam and at Leipzig.
in the British Museum, the Public Record Office, the Lambeth, Christ Church and Bodleian libraries, and in the Remonstrants' library at Amsterdam.
Moreri, Le Grand Dictionnaire historique (Amsterdam, 1740).
He has stated in his autobiography that through all his early years of struggle, when he was successively grocer's apprentice a