The Amphibia, to which the sea is a barrier, are almost exclusively of Australian affinities.
This interesting animal, though a member of the Amphibia, is terrestrial and viviparous.
The Dipnoi show a distinct transition between fishes and amphibia.
Oxyuris, though chiefly parasitic in the Mammalia, occurs also in reptiles, Amphibia and one or two insects.
13), consisting of the sacrum (already described) and the pelvic arch, namely ilium, ischium and pubis, it follows that only birds and mammals possess a pelvis proper, whilst such is entirely absent in the Amphibia and in reptiles with the exception of some of the Dinosaurs.
Starting from the basis " that the phrase `birds are greatly modified reptiles' would hardly be an exaggerated expression of the closeness " of the resemblance between the two classes, which he had previously brigaded under the name of Sauropsida (as he had brigaded the Pisces and Amphibia as Ichthyopsida), he drew in bold outline both their likenesses and their differences, and then proceeded to inquire how the A y es could be most appropriately subdivided into orders, suborders and families.
AMPHIBIA, a zoological term originally employed by Linnaeus to denote a class of the Animal Kingdom comprising crocodiles, lizards and salamanders, snakes and Caeciliae, tortoises and turtles and frogs; to which, in the later editions of the Systema N aturae he added some groups of fishes.
In the Tableau Elementaire, published in 1795, Cuvier adopts Linnaeus's term in its earlier sense, but uses the French word "Reptiles," already brought into use by Brisson, as the equivalent of Amphibia.
Latreille,2 rightly estimating the value of these differences, though he was not an original worker in the field of vertebrate zoology, proposed to separate Brongniart's Batrachia from the class of Reptilia proper, as a group of equal value, for which he retained the Linnaean name of Amphibia.
Cuvier went no further than Brongniart, and, in the Regne Animal, he dropped the term Amphibia, and substituted Reptilia for it.
Meckel, 3 on the other hand, while equally accepting Brongniart's classification, retained the term Amphibia in its earlier Linnaean sense; and his example has been generally followed by German writers, as, for instance, by H.
In 1816, de Blainville, 4 adopting Latreille's view, divided the Linnaean Amphibia into Squamiferes and Nudipelliferes, or Amphibiens; though he offered an alternative arrangement, in which the class Reptiles is preserved and divided into two subclasses, the Ornithoides and the Ichthyoides.
An appeal made by Miller for observations on the development of the Caeciliae, and of those Amphibia which retain gills or gill-clefts throughout life, has unfortunately yielded no fruits.
Latreille 6 published a new classification of the Vertebrata, which are primarily divided into Haematherma, containing the three classes of Maminifera, Monotremata and A y es; and Haemacryma, also containing three classes - Reptilia, Amphibia and Pisces.
This division of the Vertebrata into hot and cold blooded is a curiously retrograde step, only intelligible when we reflect that the excellent entomologist had no real comprehension of vertebrate morphology; but he makes some atonement for the blunder by steadily upholding the class distinctness of the Amphibia.
Huxley adopted Latreille's view of the distinctness of the Amphibia, as a class of the Vertebrata, co-ordinate with the Mammalia, A y es, Reptilia and Pisces; and the same arrangement was accepted by Gegenbaur and Haeckel.
In the Hunterian lectures delivered at the Royal College of Surgeons in 1863, Huxley divided the Vertebrata into Mammals, Sauroids and Ichthyoids, the latter division containing the Amphibia and Pisces.
Sir Richard Owen, in his work on The Anatomy of Vertebrates, followed Latreille in dividing the Vertebrata into Haematotherma and Haematocrya, and adopted Leuckart's term of Dipnoa for the Amphibia.
Huxley, in the ninth edition of this Encyclopaedia, treated of Brongniart's Batrachia, under the designation Amphibia, but this use of the word has not been generally accepted.
Ter-pill-05a ij iirooa toroKouvra, four - footed or legless Enaema which lay eggs (= Reptiles and Amphibia).
Orders: (a) Monodelphia: Bimana, Quadrumana, Cheiroptera, Insectivora, Rodentia, Edentata, Carnivora, Amphibia, Pachydermata, Ruminantia, Cetacea; (b) Didelphia: Marsupialia, Monotremata.
Classes: Pisces, Amphibia, Reptilia, Ayes, Mammalia.
They are transparent leaf-like organisms and may often be found attached to the skin, mouth, nostrils or gills of fish; on the skin and bladder of Amphibia; and on those of certain Reptilia.
viii., "Amphibia and Reptiles," by permission of Macmillan & Co., Ltd.
Amphibia appeared before its close, and plant life was abundant and varied, though the types were not greatly in advance of those of the Devonian.
Among land animals the amphibia had great development at this time.
They present a strong family likeness which is not found in any other terrestrial vertebrated animals with exception of some lizards and possibly Caecilians amongst the Amphibia.
In addition to frogs, Germany has few varieties of Amphibia.
There are apparently no salamanders or tailed Amphibia.
His earlier publications were on zoology; he dealt with the Amphibia (1839), Reptiles (1840), with Mollusca and Crustacea (1845) and more generally with the invertebrate fauna of the Mediterranean (1854).
Gadow, in a paper on the origin of mammals contributed to the Zeitschrift fiir Morphologie, sums up as follows: " Mammals are descendants of reptiles as surely as they [the latter] have been evolved from Amphibia.
Huxley, in his article on this subject in the ninth edition of the Encyclopaedia Britannica, for applying the name Amphibia to those lung-breathing, pentadactyle vertebrates which had been first severed from the Linnaean Amphibia by Alexandre Brongniart, under the name of Batrachia, have not met with universal acceptance.
Many authors who have devoted special attention to questions of nomenclature therefore think Reptilia and Batrachia the correct names of the two great classes into which the Linnaean Amphibia have been divided, and consider that the latter term should be reserved for the use of those who, like that great authority, the late Professor Peters, down to the time of his death in 1883, would persist in regarding reptiles and batrachians as mere sub-classes (1).
However extraordinary it may appear, especially to those who bring the living forms only into focus, that opposition should still be made to Huxley's primary division of the vertebrates other than mammals into Sauropsida (birds and reptiles) and Ichthyopsida (batrachians and fishes), it is certain that recent discoveries in palaeontology have reduced the gap between batrachians and reptiles to such a minimum as to cause the greatest embarrassment in the attempt to draw a satisfactory line of separation between the two; on the other hand the hiatus between fishes and batrachians remains as wide as it was at the time Huxley's article Amphibia (Encyclopaedia Britannica, 9th ed.) was written.
The division of the class Amphibia or Batrachia into four orders, as carried out by Huxley, is maintained, with, however, a change of names: Stegocephalia, for the assemblage of minor groups that cluster round the Labyrinthodonta of R.
Bibliography.-(1) On the use of the names Batrachia and Amphibia, cf.
Lydekker, Catalogue of the Fossil Reptilia and Amphibia in the British Museum, part iv.
Gadow, "On the Evolution of the Vertebral Column of Amphibia and Amniota," Phil.
The land fauna however is very poor; there are few mammals with the exception of dogs, rats and pigs; and amphibia and insects are also generally scarce.
2 The 'genera Ascaris, Filaria, Trichosoma are found throughout the Vertebrata; Cucullanus (in the adult condition) only in fishes and Amphibia; Ankylostoma, Trichocephalus, Trichina and Pseudalius live only in the Mammalia., the last-mentioned genus being confined to the order Cetacea; Strongylus and Physaloptera are peculiar to mammals, birds and reptiles, while Dispharagus, Syngamus and Hystrichis are confined to birds.
Bearing in mind that Linnaeus, in his use of the name Amphibia, was not alluding to the gill-breathing and air-breathing periods through which most frogs and newts pass in the course of their existence, but only wished to convey the fact that many of the constituents of the group resort to both land and water (e.g.
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