Berthollet in 1788 by acting with ammonia on precipitated silver oxide.
On heating in hydrogen, ammonia or carbon monoxide, or with carbon or sodium, it is reduced to the metallic state.
To the residue add ammonia, shake, then filter.
If it possesses an alkaline or acid reaction, it must be tested in the first case for ammonia, and in the second case for a volatile acid, such as sulphuric, nitric, hydrochloric, &c.
Nitrogen may be detected by the evolution of ammonia when the substance is heated with soda-lime.
Boyle recognized many reagents which gave precipitates with certain solutions: he detected sulphuric and hydrochloric acids by the white precipitates formed with calcium chloride and silver nitrate respectively; ammonia by the white cloud formed with the vapours of nitric or hydrochloric acids; and copper by the deep blue solution formed by a solution of ammonia.
It is a colourless fuming liquid boiling at 90.5° C. With water and with ammonia it undergoes the same reactions as the chloride.
Hofmann, Ber., 188 2, 1 5, p. 977), by the partial hydrolysis of the nitriles, by the action of ammonia or ammonium carbonate on acid chlorides or anhydrides, or by heating the.
Boron fluoride also combines with ammonia gas, equal volumes of the two gases giving a white crystalline solid of composition BF 3 NH 3 i with excess of ammonia gas, colourless liquids BF 3.2NH 3 and BF 3.3NH 3 are produced, which on heating lose ammonia and are converted into the solid form.
It is decomposed by heat into the oxide and water, and is soluble in ammonia but not in excess of dilute potassium hydroxide; this latter property serves to distinguish it from zinc hydroxide.
The independence of the two is suggested by the fact that fungi can live, thrive and grow in nutritive media which contain carbohydrates together with certain salts of ammonia, but which are free from proteids.
It is also readily soluble in solutions of the caustic alkalis, slightly soluble in aqueous ammonia solution, and almost insoluble in sodium carbonate solution.
Borimide B 2 (NH) 3 is obtained on long heating of the compound B 2 S 3.6NH 3 in a stream of hydrogen, or ammonia gas at 115-120° C. It is a white solid which decomposes on heating into boron nitride and ammonia.
A curious property is to be observed when a crystal of pharmacosiderite is placed in a solution of ammonia - in a few minutes the green colour changes throughout the whole crystal to red; on placing the red crystal in dilute hydrochloric acid the green colour is restored.
To the filtrate add ammonia in excess: a white precipitate indicates bismuth; if the solution be blue, copper is present.
Meta-aminophenol is prepared by reducing metanitrophenol, or by heating resorcin with ammonium chloride and ammonia to 200° C. Dimethyl-meta-aminophenol is prepared by heating meta-aminophenol with methyl alcohol and hydrochloric acid in an autoclave; by sulphonation of dimethylaniline, the sulphonic acid formed being finally fused with potash; or by nitrating dimethylaniline, in the presence of sulphuric acid at 0° C. In the latter case a mixture of nitro-compounds is obtained which can be separated by the addition of sodium carbonate.
On boiling their solution in caustic alkalis, ammonia is liberated.
It unites readily with ammonia gas forming a white crystalline solid of composition 2BC13.3NH3.
Heating spirits of hartshorn, he was able to collect "alkaline air" (gaseous ammonia), again because he was using mercury in his pneumatic trough; then, trying what would happen if he passed electric sparks through the gas, he decomposed it into nitrogen and hydrogen, and "having a notion" that mixed with hydrochloric acid gas it would produce a "neutral air," perhaps much the same as common air, he synthesized sal ammoniac. Dephlogisticated air (oxygen) he prepared in August 1774 by heating red oxide of mercury with a burning-glass, and he found that in it a candle burnt with a remarkably vigorous flame and mice lived well.
Ammonia, recognizable by its odour and alkaline reaction, indicates ammoniacal salts or cyanides containing water.
To the filtrate from the aluminium, iron and chromium precipitate, ammonia and ammonium sulphide are added; the precipitate may contain nickel, cobalt, zinc and manganese sulphides.
An important class of compounds, termed amines (q.v.), results from the condensation of alcohols with ammonia, water being eliminated between the alcoholic hydroxyl group and a hydrogen atom of the ammonia.
This compound is converted by chlorine water into octachloracetylacetone (3) by methyl alcohol into the ester of dichlormalonic acid and tetrachioracetone (4); whilst ammonia gives dichloracetamide (5) (Th.
the formation of nitrites and nitrates from ammonia and its compounds in the soil, was formerly held to be a purely chemical process, until Schloesing and Mintz suggested in 1877 that it was biological.
The powder is soluble in alcohol and strong solutions of alkalis, such as ammonia.
Gradually, however, the technical difficulties were overcome and success assured, largely as a result of improved methods worked out by Mond for the recovery of the ammonia.
esters with ammonia.
The fungus seems to do better when supplied with compounds of ammonia.
Long ago the view that this gas might be the source of the combined nitrogen found in different forms within the plant, was critically examined, particularly by Boussingault, and later by Lawes and Gilbert and by Pugh, and it was ascertained to be erroneous, the plants only taking nitrogen into their substance when it is presented to their roots in the form of nitrates of various metals, or compounds of ammonia.
The picrate so formed is then decomposed by ammonia.
Industry, 1899, 18, p. 553) adds excess of sodamide to a solution of the phenol in a suitable solvent, absorbs the liberated ammonia in an excess of acid, and titrates the excess of acid.
The solution on the addition of ammoniacal silver nitrate behaves similarly to that of potassium pentathionate, but differs from it in giving an immediate precipitate of sulphur with ammonia, whereas the solution of the pentathionate only gradually becomes turbid on standing.
Natural gas is found to consist mainly of the lower paraffins, with varying quantities of carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, hydrogen, nitrogen and oxygen, in some cases also sulphuretted hydrogen and possibly ammonia.
Ammonia soaps have also been made, but with little commercial success; in 1906 H.
It absorbs ammonia readily, forming Ru2C16.7NH,.
For example, one volume of oxygen combined with two of hydrogen to form two volumes of steam, three volumes of hydrogen combined with one of nitrogen to give two volumes of ammonia, one volume of hydrogen combined with one of chlorine to give two volumes of hydrochloric acid.
One other instance may be given; the equation 2NH3=N2+3H2 represents the decomposition of ammonia gas into nitrogen and hydrogen gases by the electric spark, and it not only conveys the information that a certain relative weight of ammonia, consisting of certain relative weights of hydrogen and nitrogen, is broken up into certain relative weights of hydrogen and nitrogen, but also that the nitrogen will be contained in half the space which contained the ammonia, and that the volume of the hydrogen will be one and a half times as great as that of the original ammonia, so that in the decomposition of ammonia the volume becomes doubled.
A masterly device, initiated by him, was to collect gases over mercury instead of water; this enabled him to obtain gases previously only known in solution, such as ammonia, hydrochloric acid, silicon fluoride and sulphur dioxide.
Foerster and by Pullinger; the phosphoplatinic compounds formed primarily from platinum and phosphorus pentachloride; and also the " ammino " compounds, formed by the union of ammonia with the chloride, &c., of these metals, which have been studied by many chemists, especially S.
Of other phosphorus compounds we may here notice Gengembre's discovery of phosphuretted hydrogen (phosphine) in 1783, the analogy of which to ammonia was first pointed out by Davy and supported at a later date by H.
von Hofmann continued the investigation, and established their recognition as ammonia in which one or more hydrogen atoms had been replaced by hydrocarbon radicals, thus formulating the " ammonia type."
Taking as types hydrogen, hydrochloric acid, water and ammonia, he postulated that all organic compounds were referable to these four forms: the hydrogen type included hydrocarbons, aldehydes and ketones; the hydrochloric acid type, the chlorides, bromides and iodides; the water type, the alcohols, ethers, monobasic acids, acid anhydrides, and the analogous sulphur compounds; and the ammonia type, the amines, acid-amides, and the analogous phosphorus and arsenic compounds.
It is washed by ejecting a jet of water, ammonia or other prescribed liquid on to the side of the filter paper until the paper is nearly full.
Haitinger, Monats., 1882, 3, p. 228); and by boiling succinic dialdehyde with ammonia and glacial acetic acid (C. Harries, Ber., 1901, 34, p. 1 497).
Willstatter (Ber., 1900, 33, p. 1164) obtained this acid by the action of a methyl alcoholic solution of ammonia on dibrompropylmalonic ester at 140° C., the diamide formed being then hydrolysed either by hydrochloric acid or baryta water: CH 2 CBr(C02H) 2 CH 2.
Knorr, by the action of ammonia on aceto-acetic ester, obtained (3-imidobutyric ester, which with nitrous acid yields a-isonitroso-(3-imidobutyric ester, CH 3 C(:NH) C(:N OH) CO 2 C 2 H 5.
Reduction of this ester leads to the formation of ammonia, hydroxylamine, and dimethyl pyrrol dicarboxylic ester, C(CH3): C C02R HN< C(CO 2 R) :C CH3.
When boiled with calcium chloride and ammonia, salicylic acid gives a precipitate of insoluble basic calcium salicylate, C 6 H 4 ‹ 0 2 i Ca, a reaction which serves to distinguish it from the isomeric metaand para-hydroxybenzoic acids.
Methyl Salicylate, C,H 4 (OH) CO 2 CH 31 found in oil of wintergreen, in the oil of Viola tricolor and in the root of varieties of Polygala, is a pleasant-smelling liquid which boils at 222° C. On passing dry ammonia into the boiling ester, it gives salicylamide and dimethylamine.
It behaves as a powerful reducing agent, and on hydrolysis with dilute mineral acids is decomposed into formaldehyde and hydroxylamine, together with some formic acid and ammonia, the amount of each product formed varying with temperature, time of reaction, amount of water present, &c. This latter reaction is probably due to some of the oxime existing in the form of the isomeric formamide HCO NH 2.
The acetyl compound on reduction yields two of its nitrogen atoms in the form of ammonia and the third in the form of methylamine.
A boiling solution of caustic potash hydrolyses it to ammonia and succinic acid.
The pentose is then obtained from the acetylated compound by successive treatment with ammonia and dilute acids: CH 2 OH ([[Choh) 3 Choh Ch: Noh -)Ch20h (Choh)3 Choh Cn - Ch 2 Oh (Choh) 3 Cho]].
to form (1) oxides and nitric acids, (2) ammonia, (3) readily decomposable nitrides, (4) cyanides, (5) cyanamides.
The conversion of nitrogen into ammonia by electricity has received much attention, but the commercial aspect appears to have been first worked out by de Hemptinne in 1900, who used both the spark and silent discharge on mixtures of hydrogen and nitrogen, and found that the pressure and temperature must be kept low and the spark gap narrow.
p. 862), calcium is heated in a current of hydrogen, and nitrogen passed over the hydride so formed; this gives ammonia and calcium nitride, the latter of which gives up its nitrogen as ammonia and reforms the hydride when heated in a current of hydrogen.
For the so-called nitrogen iodide see Ammonia.
Nitrogen combines with hydrogen to form ammonia, NH 3, hydrazine, N 2 H 4, and azoimide, N 3 H (qq.v.); the other known hydrides, N 4 H 4 and N5H5, are salts of azoimide, viz.
The silver salt is a bright yellow solid, soluble in dilute sulphuric and nitric acids, and may be crystallized from concentrated solutions of ammonia.
188188); or by passing air, or a mixture of oxygen and ammonia, over heated metallic oxides (ibid., 168272).
pharm., 1835, 21, p. 315) by the action of ammonia on sulphur chloride, has been investigated by 0.
Geisel (Ber., 1904, 37, p. 1 573; 1905, 38, p. 2659), who also obtained it by dissolving sulphur in liquid ammonia.
Dry hydrochloric acid gives ammonia but no nitrogen; with ammonia it gives N:SNH 2 and S :S(NH 2) 2; and with secondary amines it forms thiodiamines, S(NR2)2, nitrogen and ammonia being liberated.
When heated with CS 2 to 1 00° C. under pressure, it forms liquid nitrogen sulphide, N 2 S 5, a mobile red liquid which solidifies to an iodine-like mass of crystals which melt at Io-I I° C. Water, alkalis and acids decompose it into sulphur and ammonia (W.
P For sulphonic acids containing nitrogen see Ammonia.
Among the larger private establishments there existed in the same year seven breweries, one brandy distillery, two jam, two soap and candle factories, two building and furniture works, a factory for spinning thread, one iron and steel works, one paper and one ammonia and soda factory, and one mineral-oil refinery.
The oxides are then converted into double sulphates which are separated from each other by repeated fractional crystallization or by fractional precipitation with ammonia or some other base.
The source of the carbon of organic tissues is carbonic acid; that of the nitrogen in the proteids is the nitrates, nitrites and salts of ammonia dissolved in sea-water; the material of the shells or other skeletons is the silica, phosphate and calcium of the salts of sea-water (and, in rare cases, the salts of strontium).
Mineral nitrogenous compounds (nitrates, nitrites and ammonia) are much more rare.
The reagents in common use are: Millon's reagent, a solution of mercuric nitrate containing nitrous acid, this gives a violet-red coloration; nitric acid, which gives a yellow colour, turning to gold when treated with ammonia (xanthoproteic reaction); fuming sulphuric acid, which gives violet solutions; and caustic potash and copper sulphate, which, on warming, gives a red to violet coloration (biuret reaction).
Boiling with dilute mineral acids, or baryta water, decomposes albumins into carbon dioxide, ammonia and fatty aminoand other acids.
ii., Leipzig, 1893) investigated the relative affinities of acids for potash, soda and ammonia, and proved them to be independent of the base used.
In the case of substances like ammonia and acetic acid, where the dissociation is very small, I - a is nearly equal to unity, and only varies slowly with dilution.
When exposed to air the latex gradually undergoes putrefactive changes accompanied by coagulation of the caoutchouc. The addition of a small quantity of ammonia or of formalin to some latices usually has the effect of preserving them for a considerable time.
in three days, has a strong ammoniacal odour, which rapidly disappears, and in consequence of the loss of ammonia the latex will not keep for longer than a day unchanged; hence when it has to be carried to a distance from the place of collection, 3% of ammonia solution is added.
Alkalis have little effect on it under ordinary circumstances, although prolonged contact with ammonia results in a partial change.
Before it is put in, the article is roughly put together, and the expansion of the included air forces the rubber into contact with the internal surface of the mould, or a little carbonate of ammonia is enclosed.
In order to make spongy or porous rubber, some material is incorporated which will give off gas or vapour at the vulcanizing temperature, - such as carbonate of ammonia, crystallized alum, and finely ground damp sawdust.
Klaproth in the mineral honeystone, which is the aluminium salt of the acid, The acid may be prepared by warming honeystone with ammonium carbonate, boiling off the excess of the ammonium salt and adding ammonia to the solution.
Long digestion of the acid with excess of phosphorus pentachloride results in the formation of the acid chloride, C 6 (0001),, which crystallizes in needles, melting at 190° C. By heating the ammonium salt of the acid to 150-160° C. as long as ammonia is evolved, a mixture of CO paramide (mellimide), C6 (CO > NH) 3, and ammonium euchroate is obtained.
The corresponding hydrate, Pb(OH)2, is obtained as a white crystalline precipitate by adding ammonia to a solution of lead nitrate or acetate.
Heating or exposure to sunlight reduces it to the red oxide; it fires when ground with sulphur, and oxidizes ammonia to nitric acid, with the simultaneous formation of ammonium nitrate.
Lead sesquioxide, Pb203, is obtained as a reddish-yellow amorphous powder by carefully adding sodium hypochlorite to a cold potash solution of lead oxide, or by adding very dilute ammonia to a solution of red lead in acetic acid.
The borate, Pb 2 B 6 0 1 u 4H20, is obtained as a white precipitate by adding borax to a lead salt; this on heating with strong ammonia gives PbB2044H2.
They act as reducing agents, silver nitrate in the presence of ammonia being rapidly reduced to the condition of metallic silver.
They form many addition compounds, combining with ammonia to form aldehyde ammonias of the type R.
These are colourless crystalline compounds, which are most readily prepared by passing ammonia gas into an ethereal solution of the aldehyde.
Aldehyde ammonia, CH 3.
By passing acrolein vapour into ammonia, acrolein ammonia, C 6 H 9 NO, is obtained.
With ammonia, benzaldehyde does not form an aldehyde ammonia, but condenses to hydrobenzamide, (C 6 H 5 CH) 3 N 2, with elimination of water.
He also showed that crystals of alum cannot be obtained by dissolving alumina in sulphuric acid and evaporating the solutions, but when a solution of potash or ammonia is dropped into this liquid, it immediately deposits perfect crystals of alum (Sur la regeneration de l'alun, Marggraf's Opusc. ii.
Bergman also observed that the addition of potash or ammonia made the solution of alumina in sulphuric acid crystallize, but that the same effect was not produced by the addition of soda or of lime (De confectione aluminus, Bergman's Opusc. i.
Stannous chloride and hydrochloric acid reduce the nitroparaffins to 0-alkyl hydroxylamines, amines and some ammonia being simultaneously produced (V.
When reduced by the Sabatier and Senderens' method (Comptes rendus, 1902, 135, p. 225) they are converted into amines, provided the temperature be kept at 150°-200° C., a higher temperature leading to the formation of paraffins and ammonia.
These are oxidized and precipitated conjointly by excess of ammonia.
Solutions of uranyl salts (nitrate, &c.) behave to reagents as follows: sulphuretted hydrogen produces green uranous salt with precipitation of sulphur; sulphide of ammonium in neutral solutions gives a black precipitate of UO 2 S, which settles slowly and, while being washed in the filter, breaks up partially into hydrated UO 2 an sulphur; ammonia gives a yellow precipitate of uranate of ammonia, characteristically soluble in hot carbonate of ammonia solution; prussiate of potash gives a brown precipitate which in appearance is not unlike the precipitate produced by the same reagent in cupric salts.
Both iodides combine with ammonia.
The solutions are oxidized, precipitated with ammonia, the precipitate dissolved in hydrochloric acid, and re-thrown down by boiling with sodium sulphate.
Ammonia is also active, but not quite in the same manner as the alkali hydroxides.
Dry guncotton heated in ammonia gas detonates at about 70°, and ammonium hydroxide solutions of all strengths slowly decompose it, yielding somewhat complex products.
The iminobiazoles are formed by conversion of diacylhydrazines into iminochlorides which with ammonia or bases yield the required triazoles (R.
CYANAMIDE, NC NH 2j the amide of normal cyanic acid, obtained by the action of ammonia on cyanogen chloride, bromide or iodide, or by the desulphurization of thio-urea with, mercuric oxide; it is generally prepared by the latter process.
Nascent hydrogen reduces cyanamide to ammonia and methylamine.
The cornmercial product (which is known in Germany as "Kalkstickstof") contains from 14 to 22% of nitrogen, which is liberated as ammonia when the substance is treated with water; to this decomposition it owes its agricultural value.
It may be separated by shaking out with dilute sulphuric acid, and then precipitating the sulphuric acid solution with potassium bichromate, the resulting acridine bichromate being decomposed by ammonia.
These substances condense to form tetra-aminotriphenylmethane, which, on heating with acids, loses ammonia and yields diaminodihydrophenylacridine, from which benzoflavin is obtained by oxidation.
It decomposes ammonia at a red heat, liberating hydrogen and yielding a compound containing silicon and nitrogen.
It combines directly with ammonia to form the compound SiF 4 2NH,, and is absorbed by dry boric acid and by many metallic oxides.
It combines directly with ammonia gas to form SiC1 4 .
It unites directly with ammonia gas yielding a compound of variable composition.
Silicon nitrogen hydride, SiNH, is a white powder formed with silicon amide when ammonia gas (diluted with hydrogen) is brought into contact with the vapour of silicon chloroform at -10° C. Trianilino silicon hydride, SiH (NHC 6 H 5) 3, is obtained by the action of aniline on a benzene solution of silicon chloroform.
Triethyl silicol, (C2H5),Si OH, is a true alcohol, obtained by condensing zinc ethyl with silicic ester, the resulting substance of composition, (C2H5)3 SiOC2H51 with acetyl chloride yielding a chloro-compound (C2H5)3SiC1, which with aqueous ammonia yields the alcohol.
Silicobenzoic acid, C 6 H 5 S10.0H, results from the action of dilute aqueous ammonia on phenyl silicon chloride (obtained from mercury diphenyl and silicon tetrachloride).
They show all the reactions of esters, being readily hydrolysed by caustic alkalis, and reacting with ammonia to produce carhamic esters and urea.
When heated with ammonia it yields guanidine, and on boiling with alcoholic potash it yields potassium carbonate.
When heated with ammonia it yields urethane.
Wohl forms the oxime and converts it into an acetylated nitrile by means of acetic anhydride and sodium acetate; ammoniacal silver nitrate solution removes hydrocyanic acid and the resulting acetate is hydrolysed by acting with ammonia to form an amide, which is finally decomposed with sulphuric acid.
- Fischer found that if one molecule of phenylhydrazine acted upon one molecule of an aldose or ketose a hydrazone resulted which in most cases was very soluble in water, but if three molecules of the hydrazine reacted (one of which is reduced to ammonia and aniline) insoluble crystalline substances resulted, termed osazones, which readily characterized the sugar from which it was obtained.
The compounds of ammonia thus formed from the complex substances by many varied kinds of micro-organisms are ultimately oxidized into nitrates.
It is only when these conditions are attended to that decay and nitrification of dung, guano, fish-meal, sulphate of ammonia and other manures take place, and the constituents which they contain become available to the crops for whose benefit they have been applied to the land.
These organisms reduce nitrates to nitrites and finally to ammonia and gaseous free nitrogen which escapes into the atmosphere.
The peculiar properties of snuff are dependent on the presence of free nicotine, free ammonia and the aromatic principles developed during fermentation.
Zinc is also soluble in soda and potash solutions, but not in ammonia.
It also dissolves in aqueous caustic alkalis, including ammonia, forming "zincates" [e.g.
With ammonia and alkaline bromides and iodides double salts are formed.
In the case of acetate the precipitation is quite complete; from a sulphate or chloride solution the greater part of the metal goes into the precipitate; in the presence of a sufficiency of free HC1 the metal remains dissolved; sulphide of ammonium precipitates the metal completely, even in the presence of ammonium salts and free ammonia.
Rejecting the old notion that plants derive their nourishment from humus, he taught that they get carbon and nitrogen from the carbon dioxide and ammonia present in the atmosphere, these compounds being returned by them to the atmosphere by the processes of putrefaction and fermentation - which latter he regarded as essentially chemical in nature - while their potash, soda, lime, sulphur, phosphorus, &c., come from the soil.
Of the carbon dioxide and ammonia no exhaustion can take place, but of the mineral constitutents the supply is limited because the soil cannot afford an indefinite amount of them; hence the chief care of the farmer, and the function of manures, is to restore to the soil those minerals which each crop is found, by the analysis of its ashes, to take up in its growth.
On this theory he prepared artificial manures containing the essential mineral substances together with a small quantity of ammoniacal salts, because he held that the air does not supply ammonia fast enough in certain cases, and carried out systematic experiments on ten acres of poor sandy land which he obtained from thr town of Giessen in 1845.
(-anthrol and anthranol give the corresponding amino compounds (anthramines) when heated with ammonia.
Ti 3 N 4 is a copper-coloured powder obtained by heating the ammonio-chloride TiC1 4.4NH 3 in ammonia.
TiN 2 is a dark blue powder obtained when the oxide is ignited in an atmosphere of ammonia; while TiN is obtained as a bronze yellow mass as hard as the diamond by heating the oxide in an atmosphere of nitrogen in the electric furnace.
The pure salt is dissolved in hot water and decomposed with ammonia to produce a slightly ammoniacal hydrated oxide; this, when ignited in platinum, leaves pure TiO 2 in the form of brownish lumps, the specific gravity of which varies from 3.9 to 4.25, according to the temperature at which it was kept in igniting.
It forms addition compounds similar to those formed by stannic chloride, and combines with ammonia to form TiCl 4.8NH 3 and TiC1 4.6NH 3, both of which with liquid ammonia give titanamide, Ti(NH2)4.
Acid solutions of titanates are not precipitated by sulphuretted hydrogen; but ammonium sulphide acts on them as if it were ammonia, the sulphuretted hydrogen being liberated.
AMINES, in chemistry, derivatives of ammonia in which one or more of the hydrogen atoms are replaced by alkyl or aryl groups.
The structural relations of these compounds may be shown thus: NH 3; NH2R; Ammonia; primary amine; NHR 2; NR3; NR41.
- These compounds possess properties very similar to those of ammonia, the lowest members of the series being combustible gases readily soluble in water.
They are ionized in aqueous solution to a much greater extent than ammonia, the quaternary ammonium bases being the most ionized, and the secondary bases being more strongly ionized than the primary or tertiary bases.
Ladenburg, Ber., 1886, 19, p. 783); by heating the esters of nitric acid with alcoholic ammonia at 10o C. (0.
By the action of ammonia on the alkyl iodides a complex mixture of primary, secondary and tertiary amines, along with a quaternary ammonium salt, is obtained, the separation of which is difficult.
Tetramethylammonium iodide, N(CH 3) 4 I, is the chief product obtained by the action of methyl iodide on ammonia (Hofmann).
Tafel, Ber., 1886, 19, p. 1924), by distilling the amido-acids with lime, by heating phenols with zinc chloride ammonia (V.
It is to be noted that only traces of the aromatic amines are produced by heating the halogen substituted benzenes with ammonia, unless the amino group be situated in the side chain, as in the case of benzylamine.
It can also be obtained by the action of ammonia on benzyl chloride (S.
frequented by sea-birds, whence come the guano deposits, the retention of ammonia and other fertilizing properties being due to the absence of rain.
The Coffey still is one of the most effective and is employed in the spirit, ammonia, coal-tar and other industries.
The first portion of the distillate brings over the gases dissolved in the water, ammonia and other volatile impurities, and is consequently rejected; scarcely two-fifths of the entire quantity of water can be safely used as pure distilled water.
With dry ammonia at 60° the metal forms strontium ammonium, which slowly decomposes in a vacuum at 20° giving Sr(NH 3) 2; with carbon monoxide it gives Sr(CO) 2; with oxygen it forms the monoxide and peroxide, and with nitric oxide it gives the hyponitrite (Roederer, Bull.
It is a white solid, which combines with gaseous ammonia to form SrC1 2.8NH 3, and when heated in superheated steam it decomposes with evolution of hydrochloric acid.
It is readily decomposed by water, with liberation of ammonia.
Oxamic acid, HO 2 C CONH 2, is obtained on heating acid ammonium oxalate; by boiling oxamide with ammonia; and among the products produced when amino-acids are oxidized with potassium permanganate (J.
Oxamide, (CONH 2) 2, is best prepared by the action of ammonia on the esters of oxalic acid.
Small, stimulating doses, and repeated, are good, but stimulation can be more effectively produced by ammonia or strychnine.
Hypodermic injection of strychnine, in some cases as much as one to two grains (but not into a vein!), has in some cases had good results; but injection of ammonia, instead of doing any good, has disastrous sloughing results.
With concentrated ammonia auric oxide forms a black, highly explosive compound of the composition AuN2H3.3H20, named " fulminating gold "; this substance is generally considered to be Au(NH 2)NH.
This salt is prepared by precipitating a solution of gold in aqua regia by ammonia, and then introducing the well-washed precipitate into a boiling solution of potassium cyanide.
Hampe prepared chemically pure bismuth by fusing the metal with sodium carbonate and sulphur, dissolving the bismuth sulphide so formed in nitric acid, precipitating the bismuth as the basic nitrate, redissolving this salt in nitric acid, and then precipitating with ammonia.
Bismuth trichloride forms double compounds with hydrochloric acid, the chlorides of the alkaline metals, ammonia, nitric oxide and nitrosyl chloride.
These compounds closely resemble the trichloride in their methods of preparation and their properties, forming oxyhaloids with water, and double compounds with ammonia, &c.
But the two substances were generally confounded as "fixed alkali" (carbonate of ammonia being "volatile alkali"), till Duhamel du Monceau in 1736 established the fact that common salt and the ashes of seaplants contain the same base as is found in natural deposits of soda salts ("mineral alkali"), and that this body is different from the "vegetable alkali" obtained by incinerating land plants or wood (pot-ashes).
In modern chemistry alkali is a general term used for compounds which have the property of neutralizing acids, and is applied more particularly to the highly soluble hydrates of sodium and potassium and of the three rarer "alkali metals," caesium, rubidium and lithium, also to aqueous ammonia.
For this purpose the zero or pure blue is represented by a solution of i part of copper sulphate and 9 parts of ammonia in 190 parts of water.
The brine is cooled in a tank filled with spiral pipes, in which anhydrous ammonia, previously liquefied by compression, is vaporized in vacuo at the atmospheric temperature by the sensible heat of the returncurrent of brine, whose temperature has been slightly raised in its passage through the circulating tubes.
Although at the present time a marvellous improvement has taken place all round in the quality of the carbide produced, the acetylene nearly always contains minute traces of hydrogen, ammonia, sulphuretted hydrogen, phosphuretted hydrogen, silicon hydride, nitrogen and oxygen, and sometimes minute traces of carbon monoxide and dioxide.
The ammonia found in the acetylene is probably partly due to the presence of magnesium nitride in the carbide.
On decomposition by water, ammonia is produced by the action of steam or of nascent hydrogen on the nitride, the quantity formed depending very largely upon the temperature at which the carbide is decomposed.
The formation of nitrides and cyanamides by actions of this kind and their easy conversion into ammonia is a useful method for fixing the nitrogen of the atmosphere and rendering it available for manurial purposes.
In experiments with these various bodies it is found that they are all of them effective in also ridding the acetylene of the ammonia and sulphuretted hydrogen, provided only that the surface area presented to the gas is sufficiently large.
Where the production of acetylene is going on on a small scale this method of purification is undoubtedly the most convenient one, as the acid present absorbs the ammonia, and the copper salt converts the phosphuretted and sulphuretted hydrogen into phosphates and sulphides.
The vessel, however, which contains this mixture has to be of earthenware, porcelain or enamelled iron on account of the free acid present; the gas must be washed after purification to remove traces of hydrochloric acid, and care must be taken to prevent the complete neutralization of the acid by the ammonia present in the gas.
The second process is one patented by Fritz Ullmann of Geneva, who utilizes chromic acid to oxidize the phosphuretted and sulphuretted hydrogen and absorb the ammonia, and this method of purification has proved the most successful in practice, the chromic acid being absorbed by kieselgiihr and the material sold under the name of "Heratol."
Dr P. Wolff has found that when this is used on the large scale there is a risk of the ammonia present in the acetylene forming traces of chloride of nitrogen in the purifying-boxes, and as this is a compound which detonates with considerable local force, it occasionally gives rise to explosions in the purifying apparatus.
If, however, the gas be first passed through a scrubber so as to wash out the ammonia this danger is avoided.
This anhydrous chloride is reduced to a lower chloride, of composition SmC1 2, when heated to a high temperature in a current of hydrogen or ammonia (Matignon and Cazes, Coupes rendus, 2906, 142, p. 183).
The double fluoride is decomposed with hot concentrated sulphuric acid; the mixed sulphate is dissolved in water; and the zirconia is precipitated with ammonia in the cold.
The precipitate, being difficult to wash, is (after a preliminary washing) re-dissolved in hydrochloric acid and re-precipitated with ammonia.
The iodide combines with liquid ammonia to form ZrI 4.8NH 3 i and with ether to give Zr14.4(C2H5)20.
Nitric acid and lower nitrogen oxides are present, being formed by electrical discharges, and by the oxidation of atmospheric ammonia by ozone.
Ammonia is also present, but in very varying amounts, ranging from 135 to 0 I parts (calculated as carbonate) in a million parts of air.
Ammonia is carried back to the soil by means of rain, and there plays an important part in providing nitrogenous matter which is afterwards assimilated by vegetable life.
All soluble orthophosphates give with silver nitrate a characteristic yellow precipitate of silver phosphate, Ag 3 PO 4, soluble in ammonia and in nitric acid.
Other precipitants of phosphoric acid or its salts in solution are: ammonium molybdate in nitric acid, which gives on heating a canary-yellow precipitate of ammonium phosphomolybdate, 12[M00 3] (NH 4) 3 PO 4, insoluble in acids but readily soluble in ammonia; magnesium chloride, ammonium chloride and ammonia, which give on standing in a warm place a white crystalline precipitate of magnesium ammonium phosphate, Mg(NH 4)PO 4.6H 2 0, which is soluble in acids but highly insoluble in ammonia solutions, and on heating to redness gives magnesium pyrophosphate, Mg 2 P 2 0 7; uranic nitrate and ferric chloride, which give a yellowish-white precipitate, soluble in hydrochloric acid and ammonia, but insoluble in acetic acid; mercurous nitrate which gives a white precipitate, soluble in nitric acid, and bismuth nitrate which gives a white precipitate, insoluble in nitric acid.
Metaphosphoric acid can be distinguished from the other two acids by its power of coagulating albumen, and by not being precipitated by mag nesium and ammonium chlorides in the presence of ammonia.
Water decomposes it to give hydrogen free from ammonia and acetylene, i gram yielding about loo ccs.
It combines with gaseous ammonia and forms crystalline compounds with certain alcohols.
The mineral brushite, CaHPO 4.2H 2 0, which is isomorphous with the acid arsenate pharmacolite, CaHAs04.2H20, is an acid phosphate, and assumes monoclinic forms. The normal salt may be obtained artificially, as a white gelatinous precipitate which shrinks greatly on drying, by mixing solutions of sodium hydrogen phosphate, ammonia, and calcium chloride.
Salts of ammonia have been known from very early times; thus the term Hammoniacus sal appears in the writings of Pliny (Nat.
39), although it is not known whether the term is identical with the more modern sal-ammoniac. In the form of sal-ammoniac, ammonia was known, however, to the alchemists as early as the 13th century, being mentioned by Albertus Magnus, whilst in the 15th century Basil Valentine showed that ammonia could be obtained by the action of alkalies on sal-ammoniac. At a later period when sal-ammoniac was obtained by distilling the hoofs and horns of oxen, and neutralizing the resulting carbonate with hydrochloric acid, the name spirits of hartshorn was applied to ammonia.
Gaseous ammonia was first isolated by J.
Ammonia is found in small quantities as the carbonate in the atmosphere, being produced from the putrefaction of nitrogenous animal and vegetable matter; ammonium salts are also found in small quantities in rain-water, whilst ammonium chloride (sal-ammoniac) and ammonium sulphate are found in volcanic districts; and crystals of ammonium bicarbonate have been found in Patagonian guano.
Ammonia can be synthesized by submitting a mixture of nitrogen and hydrogen to the action of the silent electric discharge, the combination, however, being very imperfect.
Large quantities of ammonia and ammonium salts are now obtained from the ammoniacal liquor of gas-works.
Ammonia is a colourless gas possessing a characteristic pungent smell and a strongly alkaline reaction; it is lighter than air, its specific gravity being oï¿½589 (air =1).
It is extremely soluble in water, one volume of water at o° C. and normal pressure absorbs 1148 volumes of ammonia (Roscoe and W.
All the ammonia contained in an aqueous solution of the gas may be expelled by boiling.
Ammonia gas has the power of combining with many substances, particularly with metallic halides; thus with calcium chloride it forms the compound CaCl 2.8NH 3, and consequently calcium chloride cannot be used for drying the gas.
3NH 3 at temperatures below 15° C.; the other, 2AgC1.3NH 3 at temperatures above 20° C. On heating these substances, ammonia is liberated and the metallic chloride remains.
It was by the use of silver chloride ammonia compounds that in 1823 M.
Faraday was first able to liquefy ammonia.
It can be shown by Isambert's results that the compound AgC1.3NH 3 cannot be formed above 20° C., by the action of ammonia on silver chloride at atmospheric pressure; whilst 2AgC1.3NH 3, under similar conditions, cannot be formed above about 68° C. Liquid ammonia is used for the artificial preparation of ice.
At a red heat ammonia is easily decomposed into its constituent elements, a similar decomposition being brought about by the passage of electric sparks through the gas.
Chlorine takes fire when passed into ammonia, nitrogen and hydrochloric acid being formed, and unless the ammonia be present in excess, the highly explosive nitrogen chloride NC1 3 is also produced.
p. 55) by the interaction of nitrogen iodide with zinc ethyl, the products of the reaction being triethylamine and ammonia; the ammonia liberated was absorbed in hydrochloric acid, and 95% of the theoretical amount of the ammonium chloride was obtained.
The hydrogen in ammonia is capable of replacement by metals, thus magnesium burns in the gas with the formation of magnesium nitride Mg3N2, and when the gas is passed over heated sodium or potassium, sodamide, NaNH 2, and potassamide, KNH 2, are formed.
One of the most characteristic properties of ammonia is its power of combining directly with acids to form salts; thus with hydrochloric acid it forms ammonium chloride (sal-ammoniac); with nitric acid, ammonium nitrate, &c. It is to be noted that H.
p. 612) has shown that perfectly dry ammonia will not combine with perfectly dry hydrochloric acid, moisture being necessary to bring about the reaction.
The aqueous solution of ammonia is very basic in its reactions, and since it is a weak electrolyte, one must assume the solution to contain a certain amount of ammonium hydroxide NH 4 OH, although it is probably chiefly composed of a solution of ammonia in water.
(On the constitution of aqueous ammonia solutions see also Carl Frenzel, Zeit fiir angew.
3, p. 319.) Ammonia finds a wide application in organic chemistry as a synthetic reagent; it reacts with alkyl iodides to form amines, with esters to form acid amides, with halogen fatty acids to form amino-acids; while it also combines with isocyanic esters to form alkyl ureas and with the mustard oils to form alkyl thioureas.
Aldehydes also combine directly with ammonia.
Liquid ammonia possesses strong ionizing powers, and solutions of salts in liquid ammonia have been much studied.
The salts produced by the action of ammonia on acids are known as the ammonium salts and all contain the compound radical ammonium (NH 4).
By the addition of sodium amalgam to a concentrated solution of ammonium chloride, the so-called ammonium amalgam is obtained as a spongy mass which floats on the surface of the liquid; it decomposes readily at ordinary temperatures into ammonia and hydrogen; it does not reduce silver and gold salts, a behaviour which distinguishes it from the amalgams of the alkali metals, and for this reason it is regarded by some chemists as being merely mercury inflated by gaseous ammonia and hydrogen.
Ammonium iodide, NH 4 I, can be prepared by the action of hydriodic acid on ammonia.
Ammonium chlorate, NH 4 C10 3, is obtained by neutralizing chloric acid with either ammonia or ammonium carbonate, or by precipitating barium, strontium or calcium chlorates with ammonium carbonate.
Ammonia gas passed into a strong aqueous solution of the sesquicarbonate converts it into normal ammonium carbonate, (NH 4) 2 CO 3, which can be obtained in the crystalline condition from a solution prepared at about 30° C. This compound on exposure to air gives off ammonia and passes back to ammonium bicarbonate.
The aqueous solutions of all the carbonates when boiled undergo decomposition with liberation of ammonia and of carbon dioxide.
Ammonium nitrate, NH 4 NO 3, is prepared by neutralizing nitric acid with ammonia, or ammonium carbonate, or by double decomposition between potassium nitrate and ammonium sulphate.
Ammonium nitrite, NH 4 NO 2, is formed by oxidizing ammonia with ozone or hydrogen peroxide; by precipitating barium or lead nitrites with ammonium sulphate, or silver nitrite with ammonium chloride.
The normal phosphate, (NH4)3P04,is obtained as a crystalline powder, on mixing concentrated solutions of ammonia and phosphoric acid, or on the addition of excess of ammonia to the acid phosphate (NH 4) 2 HPO 4.
It is soluble in water, and the aqueous solution on boiling loses ammonia and the acid phosphate NH 4 H 2 PO 4 is formed.
Diammonium hydrogen phosphate, (NH 4) 2 HPO 4, is formed by evaporating a solution of phosphoric acid with excess of ammonia.
Ammonium dihydrogen phosphate, NH 4 ï¿½H 2 PO 4, is formed when a solution of phosphoric acid is added to ammonia until the solution is distinctly acid.
The aqueous solution on boiling loses some ammonia and forms an acid sulphate.
Ammonium sulphide, (NH 4) 2 S, is obtained, in the form of micaceous crystals, by passing sulphuretted hydrogen mixed with a slight excess of ammonia through a well-cooled vessel; the hydrosulphide NH 4 ï¿½HS is formed at the same time.
The hydrosulphide 'NH' 4 ï¿½HS can be obtained as a white solid, by mixing well-cooled ammonia with a slight excess of sulphuretted hydrogen.
p. 283), if sulphuretted hydrogen is passed into strong aqueous ammonia at ordinary temperature, the compound (NH 4) 2 Sï¿½2NH 4 HS is obtained, which, on cooling to o C. and passing more sulphuretted hydrogen, forms the compound (NH4)2Sï¿½ i 2NH 4 HS.
Compounds are known which may be looked upon as derived from ammonia by the replacement of its hydrogen by the sulpho-group (HS0 3); thus potassium ammon-trisulphonate,N(SO 3 K) 3.2H20,is obtained as a crystalline precipitate on the addition of excess of potassium sulphite to a solution of potassium nitrite, KN02+3K2S03+2H20=N(S03K) 3 +4KHO.
The disulphonate is more readily obtained by moistening the nitrilosulphonate with dilute sulphuric acid and letting it stand for twenty-four hours, after which it is recrystallized from dilute ammonia.
Ammonia and ammonium salts can be readily detected, in very minute traces, by the addition of Nessler's solution, which gives a distinct yellow coloration in the presence of the least trace of ammonia or ammonium salts.
Larger quantities can be detected by warming the salts with a caustic alkali or with quicklime, when the characteristic smell of ammonia will be at once apparent.
The amount of ammonia in ammonium salts can be estimated quantitatively by distillation of the salts with sodium or potassium hydroxide, the ammonia evolved being absorbed in a known volume of standard sulphuric acid and the excess of acid then determined volumetrically; or the ammonia may be absorbed in hydrochloric acid and the ammonium chloride so formed precipitated as ammonium chlorplatinate, (NH4)2PtC16.
SAL AMMONIAC, 1 or Ammonium Chloride, NH4C1, the earliest known salt of ammonia, was formerly much used in dyeing and metallurgic operations.
Hasselquist, who had travelled in that country as a 1 Some derive the name sal ammoniac from Jupiter Ammon, near whose temple it is alleged to have been found; others, from a district of Cyrenaica called Ammonia.
Dr Thomson first pointed out a process by synthesis, which has the advantage of being very simple, and at the same time rigidly accurate, resulting from his observation that when hydrochloric acid gas and ammonia gas are brought in contact with each other, they always combine in equal volumes.
It is now obtained from the ammoniacal liquor of gas works by distilling the liquor with milk of lime and passing the ammonia so obtained into hydrochloric acid.
p. 2207); and by the action of ammonia on a-halogen ketonic compounds (W.
They are also formed when grape sugar is heated with ammonia or when glycerin is heated with ammonium chloride and ammonium phosphate (C. Stoehr, Journ.
It also combines with dry ammonia at 300-400° to form sodamide, NaNH 2, a white waxy mass when pure, which melts at 155°.
Sodium trioxide, Na 2 O 31 is said to be formed from an excess of oxygen and a solution of sodammonium in liquid ammonia.
of ammonia, 86.3 ccs.
It liquefies at 7° C. It is an exceedingly reactive compound, combining with water to form malonic acid, with hydrogen chloride to form malonyl chloride, and with ammonia to form malonamide.
It unites directly with ammonia gas to form ammonium carbamate, NH 2 00ONH 4.
Paraquinones also combine with ammonia and with amines yielding amino-derivatives and hydroquinones.
When the oxide-free metal is heated gently in dry ammonia it is gradually transformed into a blue liquid, which on cooling freezes into a yellowish-brown or flesh-coloured solid, potassamide, KNH 2.
When heated to redness the amide is decomposed into ammonia and potassium nitride, NK 3, which is an almost black solid.
Both it and the amide decompose water readily with formation of ammonia and caustic potash.
Potassamide, NH 2 K, discovered by Gay-Lussac and Thenard in 1871, is obtained as an olive green or brown mass by gently heating the metal in ammonia gas, or as a white, waxy, crystalline mass when the metal is heated in a silver boat.
It decomposes in moist air, or with water, giving caustic potash and ammonia, in the latter case with considerable evolution of heat.
The soluble iodides, on the addition of silver nitrate to their nitric acid solution, give a yellow precipitate of silver iodide, which is insoluble in ammonia solution.
It is obtained by passing ammonia gas over hot coal; by subliming a mixture of ammonium chloride and potassium cyanide; by passing a mixture of ammonia gas and chloroform vapour through a red hot tube; and by heating a mixture of ammonia and carbon monoxide: CO+2NH 3 = NH 4 NC+H 2 0.
Barium cyanide, Ba(NC) 2, prepared by the action of potassium cyanide on baryta, or by passing air over a heated mixture of barium carbonate and coal, is a white solid, which when heated with water to 300° C. loses the whole of its nitrogen in the form of ammonia.
More successful results are obtained by the use of ammonia.
935 0 - 2 (1900)] pass ammonia over a mixture of alkali or alkaline carbonate and charcoal, first at a dull red heat and then at a bright red heat: KHO + NH 3 + C = KNC + H 2 O.
242938 (1894)] passes anhydrous ammonia over heated sodium to form sodamide, which is then brought in a molten condition into contact with carbon: NaNH 2 +C = NaNC+H 2.
33 28, 3329 (1901)] prepare sodium cyanamide by melting sodium with carbons or some hydrocarbon, and passing ammonia over the melt at from 400 0 -600° C. The temperature is then raised to 700°-800° C., and the sodium cyanamide in contact with the residual carbon forms sodium cyanide.
Ind., 1893, 13, p. 887) digest carbon bisulphide with ammonia and lime in quantities slightly in excess of those demanded by the following equation: 2CS 2 + 2NH 3 + 2Ca(OH) 2 = Ca(SCN) 2 Ca(SH)2+4H20; the product is then treated with a current of carbon dioxide, calcium carbonate being precipitated, sulphuretted hydrogen escaping, and calcium sulphocyanide remaining in solution.
9474 (1892)] passes the gas (after freeing it from ammonia) through a solution of potassium carbonate containing ferric oxide or ferrous carbonate (actually ferrous sulphate and potassium carbonate) in suspension; the sulphuretted hydrogen in the gas probably converts the iron salts into ferrous sulphide which then, in the presence of the hydrocyanic acid in the gas, and the alkaline carbonate, forms the ferrocyanide, thus: FeS+6HCN+ 2K 2 CO 3 = K 4 Fe(NC) 6 + H 2 S + 2CO 2 + 2H 2 0.
They behave in most respects as unsaturated compounds; they combine with hydrogen to form amines; with water to form acidamides; with sulphuretted hydrogen to form thio-amides; with alcohols, in the presence of acids, to form imido-ethers R C(:NH) OR'; with ammonia and primary amines to form amidines R C(:NH) NH 2 i and with hydroxylamine to form amidoximes, R C(:NOH) NH 2.
Ammonia should be given by inhalation, and artificial respiration must never be forgotten, as by it the paralysed breathing may be compensated for and the poison excreted.
Formamide, Hconh 2, is obtained by heating ethyl formate with ammonia; by heating ammonium formate with urea to 140° C., 2HCO.
It is a liquid which boils in vacuo at 150°, but at 192-195° C. under ordinary atmospheric pressure, with partial decomposition into carbon monoxide and ammonia.
Normal chromates on the addition of silver nitrate give a red precipitate of silver chromate, easily soluble in ammonia, and with barium chloride a yellow precipitate of barium chromate, insoluble in acetic acid.
Chromium in the form of its salts may be estimated quantitatively by precipitation from boiling solutions with a slight excess of ammonia, and boiling until the free ammonia is nearly all expelled.
Several forms of hydrated chromium sesquioxide are known; thus on precipitation of a chromic salt, free from alkali, by ammonia, a light blue precipitate is formed, which after drying over sulphuric acid, has the composition Cr 2 0 3 -7H 2 0, and this after being heated to zoo° C. in a current of hydrogen leaves a residue of composition CrO.
Gaseous ammonia passed over the oxide reduces it to the sesquioxide with formation of nitrogen and water.
It dissolves iodine and absorbs chlorine, and is decomposed by water with formation of chromic and hydrochloric acids; it takes fire in contact with sulphur, ammonia, alcohol, &c., and explodes in contact with phosphorus; it also acts as a powerful oxidizing agent.
By suspending it in ether and passing ammonia, potassium amidochromate, Cr02-NH2.
By passing ammonia over heated chromic chloride, the nitride, CrN, is formed as a brownish powder.
Chromium salts readily combine with ammonia to form complex salts in which the ammonia molecule is in direct combination with the chromium atom.
In many of these salts one finds that the elements of water are frequently found in combination with the metal, and further, that the ammonia molecule may be replaced by such other molecular groups as - N02, &c. Of the types studied the following may be mentioned: the diammine chromium thiocyanates, M[Cr(NH3)2 (SCN)4], the chloraquotetrammine chromic salts, R 1 2 [Cr(NH 3) 4 H 2 0 C1], the aquopentammine or roseo-chromium salts,R 1 3 [Cr(NH 3) 6.
It will be advantageous if the spectra of ammonia, benzene, aniline and dimethyl aniline be compared, when the re-' markable coincidences will at once become apparent, as also the different weighting of the molecule.
On the other hand, it differs from the aliphatic aldehydes in many respects; it does not form an addition product with ammonia but condenses to hydrobenzamide (C 6 H 5 CH) 3 N 2; on shaking with alcoholic potash it undergoes simultaneous oxidation and reduction, giving benzoic acid and benzyl alcohol (S.
Hantzsch has shown that aldehydes condense with aceto-acetic ester and ammonia to produce the homologues of pyridine, thus: R R [[Rooc Ch 2 Cho Ch 2 Coor Rooc C - Ch - C Coor]] + + 1 = Ii II +3H20.
By the reduction of ortho-nitrobenzaldehyde with ferrous sulphate and ammonia, ortho-aminobenzaldehyde is obtained.
It is prepared by adding sodium phosphate to magnesium sulphate in the presence of ammonia and ammonium chloride.
When heated to 100° C., it loses five molecules of water of crystallization, and at a higher temperature loses the remainder of the water and also ammonia, leaving a residue of magnesium pyrophosphate, Mg 2 P 2 0 7.
Water decomposes it with liberation of ammonia and formation of magnesium hydroxide.
The magnesium salts may be detected by the white precipitate formed by adding sodium phosphate (in the presence of ammonia and ammonium chloride) to their solutions.
This relation does not hold for very soluble gases, such as ammonia, at low temperatures.
Certain solvents, such as water, liquid ammonia or liquid hydrocyanic acid, possess the power of making some solutes, such as mineral salts and acids, when dissolved in them, conductors of electricity.
Beyond variable quantities of moisture and traces of carbonic acid, hydrogen, ammonia, &c., the only constituents recognized were nitrogen and oxygen.
convenient method devised by Vernon Harcourt, in which air charged with ammonia is passed over red-hot copper.
Under the influence of the heat the atmospheric oxygen unites with the hydrogen of the ammonia, and when the excess of the latter is removed with sulphuric acid, the gas properly desiccated should be pure nitrogen, derived in part from the ammonia, but principally from the air.
A few concordant determinations of density having been effected, the question was at first regarded as disposed of, until the thought occurred that it might be desirable to try also the more usual method of preparation in which the oxygen is removed by actual oxidation of copper without the aid of ammonia.
Subsequently when oxygen was substituted for air in the first method, so that all (instead of about one-seventh part) of the nitrogen was derived from ammonia, the difference rose to 2%.
Whatever were the means employed to rid air of accompanying oxygen, a uniform value of the density was arrived at, and this value was z% greater than that appertaining to nitrogen extracted from compounds such as nitrous oxide, ammonia and ammonium nitrite.
- Of these the most important are such as yield, by maceration in ammonia, the dyes known in commerce as archil, cudbear and litmus.
He proceeds to give what has been quoted as his first table of atomic weights, but on p. 248 of his laboratory notebooks for 1802-1804, under the date 6th of September 1803, there is an earlier one in which he sets forth the relative weights of the ultimate atoms of a number of substances, derived from analysis of water, ammonia, carbon-dioxide, &c. by chemists of the time.
Aluminium hydrate, Al(OH) 3, is obtained as a gelatinous white precipitate, soluble in potassium or sodium hydrate, but insoluble in ammonium chloride, by adding ammonia to a cold solution of an aluminium salt; from boiling solutions the precipitate is opaque.
It combines with ammonia to form AlC13.3NH3; and forms double compounds with phosphorus pentachloride, phosphorus oxychloride, selenium and tellurium chlorides, as well as with many metallic chlorides; sodium aluminium chloride, AlC1 3 ï¿½NaC1, is used in the production of the metal.
The chief point to be borne in mind in making these mixtures is not to combine in the same compost any bodies that are antagonistic in their nature, as for example lime and ammonia.
It should not be allowed to lie too long unmoved when fresh, as it will then heat violently, and the ammonia is thus driven off.
Quicklime should not be used, as it dispels the greater part of the ammonia.
The urine should be allowed to putrefy, as in its decomposition a large amount of ammonia is formed, which should then be fixed by sulphuric acid or gypsum; or it may be applied to the growing crops after being freely diluted with water or absorbed in a compost heap. Liquid manures can be readily made from most of the solid manures when required, simply by admixture with water.
The following are inorganic manures: Ammonia is the most powerful and one of the most important of the constituents of manures generally, since it is the chief source whence plants derive their nitrogen.
It is largely supplied in all the most fertilizing of organic manures, but when required in the inorganic state must be obtained from some of the salts of ammonia, as the sulphate, the muriate or the phosphate, all of which, being extremely energetic, require to be used with great caution.
These salts of ammonia may be used at the rate of from 2 to 3 cwt.
The most commonly used nitrogenous manures are nitrate of soda, nitrate of potash and sulphate of ammonia, the prices of which are constantly fluctuating.
It is also employed in the case of liquid manures to fix the ammonia.
Soot forms a good top-dressing; it consists principally of charcoal, but contains ammonia and a smaller proportion of phosphates and potash, whence its value as a manure is derived.
Liebig, Ann., 1832, r, p. 199), by heating chloral with alkalis (Liebig), CC1 3 CHO + NaHO = CHC1 3 + NaHCO 2, or by heating trichloracetic acid with ammonia (J.
With ammonia they yield complex condensation products; acetone forming diand tri acetonamines (W.
Hinsberg, Ann., 1887,237, p. 327), and with ammonia and aldehydes to form imidazoles.
The -y-diketones are characterized by the readiness with which they yield furfurane, pyrrol and thiophene derivatives, the furfurane derivatives being formed by heating the ketones with a dehydrating agent, the thiophenes, by heating with phosphorus pentasulphide, and the pyrrols by the action of alcoholic ammonia or amines.
The 1 5 diketones of this type, when heated with aqueous ammonia, form pyridine derivatives.
The hydroxyl group is more reactive than in the phenols, the naphthols being converted into naphthylamines by the action of ammonia, and forming ethers and esters much more readily.
Diazoimino compounds, R N3, may be regarded as derivatives of azoimide; they are formed by the action of ammonia on the diazoperbromides,or by the action of hydroxylamine on the diazonium sulphates (J.
On reduction it yields ammonia and glycocoll (aminoacetic acid).
Concentrated ammonia converts it into diazoacetamide, CHN 2 CONH 2, which crystallizes in golden yellow plates which melt at 114° C. For other reactions see Hydrazine.
Hydrogen is a very powerful reducing agent; the gas occluded by palladium being very active in this respect, readily reducing ferric salts to ferrous salts, nitrates to nitrites and ammonia, chlorates to chlorides, &c.
When heated with ammonia, they yield acid amides.
When heated with ammonia it yields ethylamine nitrate, and when reduced with tin and hydrochloric acid it forms hydroxylamine (W.
NH 2, which may be considered as derived from the acid-amides by replacement of oxygen by the divalent imino (= NH) group. They may be prepared by the action of ammonia or amines on imide chorides, or on thiamides (0.
They are monacid bases, which are not very stable; they readily take up the elements of water (when boiled with acids or alkalies), yielding amides and ammonia.
On dry distillation they yield nitriles and ammonia.
Acetamidine, CH 3 C: (NH)ï¿½NH 2, is alkaline in reaction, and readily splits up into acetic acid and ammonia when warmed with acids.
C: (NH) NH 2, forms colourless crystals which melt at 75-80° C. When warmed it breaks down into ammonia and cyanphenine (s-triphenyl triazine).
This process is repeated several times, and the final precipitate is dissolved in hydrochloric acid and precipitated by ammonia, washed and dried.
Beryllium is estimated quantitatively by precipitation with ammonia, and ignition to oxide.
Besides having a considerable share in the commerce of the port of New York, Bayonne is an important manufacturing centre; among its manufactures are refined petroleum, refined copper and nickel (not from the ore), refined borax, foundry and machine-shop products, tubular boilers, electric launches and electric motors, chemicals (including ammonia and sulphuric and nitric acids), iron and brass products, wire cables and silk goods.
In either case the two hydrocarbons are finally separated by fractional crystallization of their picrates, which are then decomposed by ammonia.
When heated above its melting-point, it yields ammonia, cyanuric acid, biuret and ammelide.
Dry chlorine gas passed into melted urea decomposes it with formation of cyanuric acid and ammonium chloride, nitrogen and ammonia being simultaneously liberated.
It is also decomposed by warm aqueous solutions of caustic alkalis, with evolution of ammonia and carbon dioxide.
In this reaction urea is heated in a dry tube until it gives off ammonia freely; the residue is dissolved in water, made alkaline with caustic soda, and a drop of copper sulphate solution is added, when a fine violet-red coloration is produced.
Hydrolysis by alkalis decomposes them into carbon dioxide, amines and ammonia.
When heated with water it is decomposed into carbon dioxide, ammonia, methylamine and acetic acid.
They are readily decomposed by alkalis, yielding cyanuric acid and ammonia.
Biuret (allophanamide), NH 2 CO NH CO NH 2, is formed by heating urea; by the action of ammonia on allophanic ester; and by heating urea to 140° C. and passing chlorine into the melt at 140-150° C. (J.
When heated strongly it is decomposed into ammonia and cyanuric acid.
Baryta water hydrolyses it to carbon dioxide, ammonia and urea.
It is hydrolysed by alkalis, giving carbon dioxide, ammonia and sulphuretted hydrogen.
Benzamide, C 6 H 5 CONH 2, is prepared by the action of benzoyl chloride on ammonia or ammonium carbonate, or from ethyl benzoate and ammonia.
In the presence of ammonium salts the precipitate is dirt y white in colour, whilst in the presence of free ammonia it is a buff colour.
Manganese may be estimated quantitatively by precipitation as carbonate, this salt being then converted into the oxide, Mn 3 0 4 by ignition; or by precipitation as hydrated dioxide by means of ammonia and bromine water, followed by ignition to NIn 3 0 4.
This amidoguanidine decomposes on hydrolysis with the formation of semicarbazide, NH 2 CO NH NH 21 which, in its turn, breaks down into carbon dioxide, ammonia and hydrazine.
- Ammonia - soda Carbonating Towers and Filters.
ammonium salts, is first freed from these by moderate heating (of course taking care that the ammonia is completely recovered), and later on, by raising the temperature, it is decomposed into solid sodium carbonate and gaseous carbon dioxide.
the recovery of the ammonia from the mother-liquor coming from the vacuum filters and various washing liquors.
Moreover, the ammonia process has been gradually elaborated into a very complicated but perfectly regularly working scheme, in which the cost of labour and the loss of ammonia are reduced to a minimum.
It begins, however, not with ready-made ammonium bicarbonate, but with the substances from which it is formed - ammonia, water and carbon dioxide - which are made to act on sodium chloride.
These vessels, as well as all others which are used in the process, are not open to the air, but communicate with it through washers in which fresh salt solution is employed for retaining any escaping vapours of ammonia.
This is a tall iron erection, built up from superposed cylinders, which are separated from one another by perforated horizontal diaphragms, con this recovery is carried out in the most efficient manner, the process cannot possibly pay; but so much progress has been made in this direction that the loss of ammonia is very slight indeed, merely a fraction per cent.
The ammonia is for the major part found in the mother-liquor as ammonium chloride.
The ammonium carbonates are driven out from their solutions by mere prolonged boiling, being thereby decomposed into ammonia, carbon dioxide and water, but the ammonium chloride is not volatile under these conditions, and must be decomposed by milk of lime: 2NH 4 C1+Ca(OH) 2 = 2NH 3 +CaC1 2 +2H 2 0.
The solution of calcium chloride is run to waste, the ammonia is re-introduced into the process.
The steam causes the action of the lime on the ammonium chloride to take place in this lower portion of the still, from which the steam, mixed with all the liberated ammonia, rises into the upper portion of the column where its heat serves to drive out the volatile ammonium carbonate.
Just below the top there is a cooling arrangement, so that nearly all the water is condensed and runs back into the column, while the ammonia, with the carbon dioxide formerly combined with part of it, passes on first through an outside cooler where the remaining water is condensed, and afterwards into the vessels, already described, where the ammonia is absorbed by a solution of salt and thus again introduced into the process.
The reversible character of the principal reaction has the consequence that a considerable portion of the sodium chloride (up to 33%) is lost, being contained in the waste calcium chloride solution which issues from the ammonia stills.
A special treatise on the manufacture of ammonia soda ash has been published in German by H.
His treatises Coal Tar and Ammonia (5th ed.
It is readily soluble in acids and in an aqueous solution of ammonia.
Ammonium hydroxide gives a green precipitate of the hydroxide, soluble in excess of ammonia, forming a blue solution.
It forms crystalline compounds with ammonia and the organic bases.
Nickel chloride ammonia, NiC1 2.6NH3, is obtained as a white powder when anhydrous nickel chloride is exposed to the action of ammonia gas (H.
Ann., 1830, 96, p. 155), or in the form of blue octahedra by evaporating a solution of nickel chloride in aqueous ammonia.
When heated to 100° C. it loses four molecules of ammonia.
It loses four molecules of water of crystallization when heated to 100° C. and becomes anhydrous at about 300° C. The hexahydrate is dimorphous, a tetragonal form being obtained by crystallization of a solution of the heptahydrate between 20° and 30° C., and a monoclinic form between 50° and 70° C. Nickel sulphate combines with many metallic sulphates to form double salts, and also forms addition compounds with ammonia aniline and hydroxylamine.
Moissan (Comptes rendus, 1903, 136, p. 1177) by the action of liquid ammonia on rubidium.
Chalcopyrite is decomposed by nitric acid with separation of sulphur and formation of a green solution; ammonia added in excess to this solution changes the green colour to deep blue and precipitates red ferric hydroxide.
On boiling gelatinous silica with ammonium polytungstate and evaporating with the occasional addition of ammonia, ammonium silicodecitungstate is obtained as short rhombic prisms. On adding silver nitrate and decomposing the precipitated silver salt with hydrochloric acid, a solution is obtained which on evaporation in a vacuum gives the free acid as a glassy mass.
It is sparingly soluble in cold water, but is easily dissolved by potassium carbonate or ammonia.
A nitride, W2N3, is obtained as a black powder by acting with ammonia on the oxytetrachloride or hexachloride; it is insoluble in sodium hydroxide, nitric and dilute sulphuric acids; strong sulphuric acid, however, gives ammonia and tungstic acids.
Ammonia does not react with tungsten or the dioxide, but with trioxide at a red heat a substance of the formula W 5 H 6 N 3 0 5 is obtained, which is insoluble in acids and alkalis and on ignition decomposes, evolving nitrogen, hydrogen and ammonia.
His method consisted in using magnesia instead of lime for the recovery of the ammonia (which occurs in the form of ammonium chloride in the ammonia-soda process), and then by evaporating the magnesium chloride solution and heating the residue in steam, to condense the acid vapours and so obtain hydrochloric acid.
At 300° C. the ammonium chloride is decomposed by the magnesia, with the formation of magnesium chloride and ammonia.
Heated in a current of ammonia it gives succinimide, which is also obtained on heating acid ammonium succinate.
When warmed with baryta water it yields succinamic acid, H02C CH2 CH2 CONH21 and with alcoholic ammonia at 100° C. it gives succinamide.
Succinamide, C 2 H 4(CONH2)2, best obtained by the action of ammonia on diethyl succinate, crystallizes in needles which melt at 242243° C., and is soluble in hot water.
It undoubtedly contains a keto-group, for it reacts with hydrocyanic acid, hydroxylamine, phenylhydrazine and ammonia; sodium bisulphite also combines with it to form a crystalline compound, hence it contains the grouping CH 3 ï¿½CO-.
It dissolves in ammonia, forming a colourless solution which rapidly oxidizes and turns blue.
Both the oxide and hydroxide dissolve in ammonia to form a beautiful azure-blue solution (Schweizer's reagent), which dissolves cellulose, or perhaps, holds it in suspension as water does starch; accordingly, the solution rapidly perforates paper or calico.
Its solution in ammonia is at first colourless, but rapidly turns blue, owing to oxidation.
It absorbs ammonia, forming the compound Cu 2 I 2r 4NH 3.
Ammonia gives a characteristic blue coloration when added to a solution of a copper salt; potassium ferrocyanide gives a brown precipitate, and, if the solution be very dilute, a brown colour is produced.
Investigation of the cyanic ethers (1848) yielded a class of substances which opened out a new field in organic chemistry, for, by treating those ethers with caustic potash, he obtained methylamine, the simplest organic derivative of ammonia (1849), and later (1851) the compound ureas.
The ammonium salt yields on dry distillation carbon dioxide, ammonia, pyrrol and other substances.
Silver picrate and methyl iodide yield the methyl ester, which gives with ammonia picramide.
Guntz (Comptes rendus, 1901, 133, p. 872) electrolyses a saturated solution of barium chloride using a mercury cathode and obtains a 3% barium amalgam; this amalgam is transferred to an iron boat in a wide porcelain tube and the tube slowly heated electrically, a good yield of pure barium being obtained at about looo C. The metal when freshly cut possesses a silver white lustre, is a little harder than lead, and is extremely easily oxidized on exposure; it is soluble in liquid ammonia, and readily attacks both water and alcohol.
Thus carbolic acid or carbolized ammonia are sniffed into the nose to destroy the microbes there, or the nose is washed out by an antiseptic solution as a nasal douche; bismuth or morphine are insufflated, or zinc ointment is applied, to cover the mucous membrane, and protect it from further irritation; and various antiseptic gargles, paints and powders applied to the pharynx in order to prevent the microbic inflammation from extending to the pharynx and down the trachea and bronchi, for many a severe bronchitis begins first by sneezing and nasal irritation.
Two very old remedies for fever are acetate of ammonia and nitrous ether.
Now we can see the reason for their administration, because the nitrous ether, consisting chiefly of ethyl nitrite, dilates the superficial vessels and thus allows greater escape of heat from the surface; while acetate of ammonia, by acting as a diaphoretic and stimulating the secretion of sweat, increases the loss of heat by evaporation.
Among the substances of which he investigated the composition were ammonia, sulphuretted hydrogen and prussic acid, and his experiments on chlorine, which he regarded, not as an element, but as oxygenated muriatic (oxymuriatic) acid, led him to propose it as a bleaching agent in 1785.
In effect the urea first becomes carbonate of ammonia by a simple hydrolysis brought about by bacteria, more and more definitely known since Pasteur, van Tieghem and Cohn first described them.
Many forms in rivers, soil, manure heaps, &c., are capable of bringing about this change to ammonium carbonate, and much of the loss of volatile ammonia on farms is preventible if the facts are apprehended.
It had long been known that under certain conditions large quantities of nitrate (saltpetre) are formed on exposed heaps of manure, &c., and it was supposed that direct oxidation of the ammonia, facilitated by the presence of porous bodies, brought this to pass.
nitrification; one of these, which he terms the Nitroso-bacteria., is only capable of bringing about the oxidation of the ammonia to nitrous acid, and the astonishing result was obtained that 12.42.1140, 10.01 10;3U 2.13, 2.35 2.58 4.52 3.43 :` 4.3 0 4.12 this can be done, in the dark, by bacteria to which only pure mineral salts - e.g.
In other words these bacteria can build up organic matter from purely mineral sources by assimilating carbon from carbon dioxide in the dark and by obtaining their nitrogen from ammonia.
When the latter have oxidized ammonia to nitrite, however, the former step in and oxidize it still further to nitric acid.
In addition to the bacterial actions which result in the oxidization of ammonia to nitrous acid, and of the latter to nitric acid, the reversal of such processes is also brought about by numerous bacteria in the soil, rivers, &c. Warington showed some time ago that many species are able to reduce nitrates to nitrites, and such reduction is now known to occur very widely in nature.
The researches of Gayon and Dupetit, Giltay and Aberson and others have shown, moreover, that bacteria exist which carry such reduction still further, so that ammonia or even free nitrogen may escape.
Fresh manure abounds in de-nitrifying bacteria, and these organisms not only reduce the nitrates to nitrites, even setting free nitrogen and ammonia, but their effect extends to the undoing of the work of what nitrifying bacteria may be present also, with great loss.
The combined nitrogen of dead organisms, broken down to ammonia by putrefactive bacteria, the ammonia of urea and the results of the fixation of free nitrogen, together with traces of nitrogen salts due to meteoric activity, are thus seen to undergo various vicissitudes in the soil, rivers and surface of the globe generally.
The ammonia may be oxidized to nitrites and nitrates, and then pass into the higher plants and be worked up into proteids, and so be handed on to animals, eventually to be broken down by bacterial action again to ammonia; or the nitrates may be degraded to nitrites and even to free nitrogen or ammonia, which escapes.
He studied the formation of aldehyde from alcohol by various methods, also obtaining its crystalline compound with ammonia, and he was the discoverer of furfurol.
It is then heated with a mixture of ammonium chloride and ammonia, filtered and washed with a hot dilute solution of the same mixture.
To the filtrate (or, if no silver is present, to the diluted nitric acid solution) io cc. of ammonia are added, and a standard solution of potassium cyanide is run in from a burette until the blue colour has nearly disappeared.
The potassium cyanide solution is standardized by dissolving 0.5 gramme o£ pure copper in 5 cc. of nitric acid, diluting, adding io cc. of ammonia, and titrating exactly as described above.
The solution is cooled, 50 cc. water added, then 5 cc. ammonia, and the solution is boiled for five minutes.
A few drops of starch solution are then added, and when the blue colour has nearly vanished a drop or two of methyl orange makes the end reaction very sharp. The thiosulphate solution is standardized by dissolving o 3 to o 5 gramme of pure copper in 3 cc. of nitric acid, adding 50 cc. of water and 5 cc. of ammonia, and titrating as above after the addition of 5 cc. of glacial acetic acid and 5 cc. of the potassium iodide solution.
Tannic acid, for instance, precipitates codeine as a tannate, salts of many of the heavy metals form precipitates of meconates and sulphates, whilst the various alkalis, alkaline carbonates and ammonia precipitate the important alkaloids.
With ammonia it reacts to form di- and triacetoneamines.
The fused mass is dissolved in dilute ammonia and diluted to about fifty times the weight of the silver it contains.
It dissolves in ammonia with the liberation of nitrogen and the formation of silver oxide, Ag 2 O; and in sulphuric acid forming a fairly stable dark green liquid which, on dilution, gives off oxygen and forms silver sulphate.
The sesquioxide, Ag 4 O 3, is supposed to be formed when silver peroxide is treated with ammonia (Watson, Jour.
It readily dissolves in ammonia, the solution, on evaporation, yielding rhombic crystals of 2AgC1.3NH 3; it also dissolves in sodium thiosulphate and potassium cyanide solutions.
It is very slightly soluble in nitric acid, and less soluble in ammonia than the chloride.
It combines with ammonia to form the readily soluble 2NH 3 Ag 2 SO 4.
Fulminating silver is an extremely explosive black powder, first obtained in 1788 by Berthelot, who acted with ammonia on silver oxide (prepared by adding lime water to a silver solution).
Hantzsch (Ann., 1882, 215, p. I; Ber., 1882, 15, p. 2914) which consists in the condensation of two molecules of aceto-acetic ester with one of an aldehyde and one of ammonia: RO 2 C CH 2 R' CHO CH 2 CO 2 R RO 2 C C CHR' C C02R CH 3 CO + NH 3 + CO CH 3 -' CH3 C-NH-C CH3 The resulting dihydro-compound is then oxidized with nitrous acid, the ester hydrolysed and the resulting acid heated with lime; carbon dioxide is eliminated and a trisubstituted pyridine of the type CH C(CH3) is obtained.
Ruhemann prepared y-substituted dioxypyridines by condensing alkyl-dicarboxy-glutaconic esters with ammonia.
5 diketones of the type inset, when heated with ammonia, also yield pyridine derivatives.
When heated with fuming hydriodic acid to 300° C. it yields normal pentane and ammonia, and hydrogen peroxide oxidizes it to glutarimide and to a piperidinium oxide or oxime (R.
Fischer (Berichte, 1897, 30, p. 2238) by heating 2.6.8-trichlorpurin with 10 times its weight of ammonia for six hours at 100° C.; by this means 6-amino-2.8-dichlorpurin is obtained, which on reduction by means of hydriodic acid and phosphonium iodide is converted into adenine.
On heating with hydrochloric acid at 180-200° C. it is decomposed; the products of the reaction being glycocoll, ammonia, formic acid and carbon dioxide.
It is decomposed by hydriodic acid with liberation of selenium and iodine, and by ammonia with formation of selenium and nitrogen.
It is also obtained when dry ammonia gas is passed into a dilute solution of selenyl chloride in benzene, the precipitate produced being digested with potassium cyanide to remove any selenium (V.
It is, however, very soluble in excess of ammonia.
When a solution of chlorine is first added and then ammonia an emerald green colour, due to the formation of thalleoquin, is developed.
of liquor ammoniae (the pharmacopeial solution of ammonia), and 18 fluid oz.
Its value in the early stages of a bronchitis or tracheitis is due to the ammonia.
Lithium ammonium, LiNH 3, is obtained by passing ammonia gas over lithium, the product being heated to 70° C. in order to expel any excess of ammonia.
It is decomposed by water evolving hydrogen, and when heated in vacuo at 50°-60° C. it gives lithium and ammonia.