I'm an American; we don't have masters.
"Awesome tat," a distinctly American male voice said.
Alex planned to make it a safari of North American wildlife.
He was the first great American painter.
Why, you yourself seem to think that I taught you American braille, when you do not know a single letter in the system!
He held out his American Express.
Huge numbers of foreigners own American stocks and debt instruments.
It is difficult to describe my emotions when I stood on the point which overhangs the American Falls and felt the air vibrate and the earth tremble.
"American, you like beer?" one of the Germans asked.
Perhaps an American hamburger?
Perhaps an American hamburger?
White tailed deer, as well as an abundance of smaller wildlife already frequented the ranch, so his North American Safari had its foundation.
To my dismay I found that it was in the American notation.
While governor he was a frequent contributor to the New Jersey Gazette, and in this way he greatly aided the American cause during the war by his denunciation of the enemy and appeals to the patriotism of his countrymen.
In September 1851 he was liberated and embarked on an American man-of-war.
The American commodore was now able to blockade the British flotilla at Kingston.
Longhorns – they aren't actually native American wildlife, are they?
On the other hand, in the short-chinned mastodons, as represented by the Pleistocene North American Mastodon americanus and the Pliocene European M.
How does it become a man to behave toward this American government to-day?
The tile floor was dressed with a Native American rug that didn't look like a Target sale item.
He looked like any normal nerdy American with big glasses and a scrawny frame.
The American commodore was considered by many of his subordinates to have displayed excessive caution.
The American commodore was considered by many of his subordinates to have displayed excessive caution.
The most convenient print for the blind is braille, which has several variations, too many, indeed--English, American, New York Point.
It wasn't until she mentioned that goats were as much a part of American history as Longhorns that he realized how much she missed them.
Miss Sullivan's account in her address at Chautauqua, in July, 1894, at the meeting of The American Association to Promote the Teaching of Speech to the Deaf, is substantially like Miss Keller's in points of fact.
"JACK LONDON (1876-1916), American novelist, was born at San Francisco Jan.
In 1958, an American economist named Leonard Read wrote an essay called "I, Pencil," written from the pencil's point of view, about how no one on the planet knows how to make a pencil.
American makers of plowshares could, with time and as required, make swords as well.
If your father is American and your mother Chinese, you will have a different understanding of differences between those countries, and, on balance, will be less amenable to war between those nations.
American universities are thought by many to be among the best in the world.
Please give generously to the American Red Cross.
You wanted all kinds of North American wildlife on your safari.
The PMF—Poor Man's Front—had started as a protest during the war against the elite that ultimately won and divided the American society between those who lived comfortably—and everyone else.
And then in smaller letters below it: American Wildlife Safari.
And, of course, American fast food is the food the world loves to say it hates.
As the nation grew, so did what came to be called the American Dream.
Then in the 1940s, another American, Oswald Avery, was able to show, through an ingenious method, that the genetic information had to be carried by the DNA.
It is fascinating reading to this day because the things he notes about the American character are still very much with us.
American ethanol policies do not "kill" the poor, but they do drive up corn prices.
As American diplomat Ralph Johnson Bunche aptly observed, "There are no warlike people, just warlike leaders."
It is true that I was familiar with all literary braille in common use in this country--English, American, and New York Point; but the various signs and symbols in geometry and algebra in the three systems are very different, and I had used only the English braille in my algebra.
She spun, the action rocking her precarious balance, only to come face-to-face with the American nerd.
Firefly is a term popularly used for certain tropical American click-beetles (Pyrophorus), due to their power of emitting light.
The most attractive parts are the American quarter, where the employes of the Panama railway have their homes, and the old French quarter, where dwelt the French officers during their efforts to build the canal.
This Robert Livingston, founder of the American family, became in 1675 secretary of the important Board of Indian Commissioners; he was a member of the New York Assembly in1711-1715and 1716-1727 and its speaker in 1718-1725, and in 1701 made the proposal that all the English colonies in America should be grouped for administrative purposes "into three distinct governments."
And the American farmer produces key crops, such as wheat, very inexpensively.
I thought that was a South American animal.
At La Carlota the Spanish government established a station for the study of the culture of sugar-cane; by the American government this has been converted into a general agricultural experiment station, known as "Government Farm."
An American originally from New Orleans, Jim Haynes lives in Paris.
In 1902, an American named Walter Sutton noticed that chromosomes duplicated themselves before cells divided so that each new cell had a full copy of the chromosomes.
I did not ask the American Medical Association their opinion of this arrangement.
Both Mr. Keith and I were distressed and full of forebodings for the morrow; but we went over to the college a little before the examination began, and had Mr. Vining explain more fully the American symbols.
The following letter from Mr. Anagnos is reprinted from the American Annals of the Deaf, April, 1892:
A gland and tuft are present on the skin of the outer side of the upper part of the hind cannon-bone; but, unlike American deer, there is no gland on the inner side of the hock.
In 1852 he graduated at Harvard, and became computer to the American Ephemeris and Nautical Almanac. He made his name by contributions on mathematical and physical subjects in the Mathematical Monthly.
He soon, however, turned his attention to metaphysics and psychology, and for the North American Review and later for the National he wrote philosophical essays on the lines of Mill, Darwin and Spencer.
From 1863 to 1870 he was secretary and recorder to the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, and in the last year of his life he lectured on mathematical physics at Harvard.
At the end of the year, when the Austrians were approaching Pesth, he asked for the mediation of Mr Stiles, the American envoy.
It is a clear case of an ancient frontier laid out in American fashion.
WILLIAM LIVINGSTON (1723-1790), American political leader, was born at Albany, New York, probably on the 30th of November 1723.
Loyal to American interests and devoted to General Washington, he was one of the most useful of the state executives during the War of Independence.
William's Son, (HENRY) BROCKHOLST LIVINGSTON (1757-1823), was an officer in the American War of Independence, and was an able lawyer and judge.
In 1852 he graduated at Harvard, and became computer to the American Ephemeris and Nautical Almanac. He made his name by contributions on mathematical and physical subjects in the Mathematical Monthly.
American English is taught in schools and American slang is practiced in bars everywhere.
The college authorities did not allow Miss Sullivan to read the examination papers to me; so Mr. Eugene C. Vining, one of the instructors at the Perkins Institution for the Blind, was employed to copy the papers for me in American braille.
"Welcome to our American Wildlife Safari," she said with a smile, handing each of the men a flyer.
Sir James Yeo began by blockading Sackett's Harbor in the early part of 1814, but when the American squadron was ready he was compelled to retire by the disparity of the forces.
The two German women sharing her room ceased talking when she entered and looked her over before one said in halting English, "You're American."
By his energy, industry and sound judgment he gradually enlarged his operations, did business in all the fur markets of the world, and amassed an enormous fortune, - the largest up to that time made by any American.
In 1895 he bought the New York Journal and the following year founded the Evening Journal, the morning paper being known after 1902 as the New York American.
During the War of Independence Norfolk was bombarded on the 1st of January 1776 by the British under John Murray, 4th earl of Dunmore (1732-1809); much of the town was burned by the American troops to prevent Dunmore from establishing himself here.
BENJAMIN LUNDY (1789-1839), American philanthropist, prominent in the anti-slavery conflict, was born of Quaker parentage, at Hardwick, Warren county, New Jersey, on the 4th of January 1789.
Mission Park (10 acres) here is adorned by native and foreign shrubs and by maples, elms, pines and arbor vitae, and "Haystack Monument" in this park marks the place where Samuel John Mills (1783-1818), in 1806, held the prayer meeting which was the forerunner of the American foreign missionary movement.
The numerous concordats concluded towards the middle of the 19th century with several of the South American republics either have not come into force or have been denounced and replaced by a more or less pacific modus vivendi.
These blocks are distinguished, after the American fashion, by letters and numerals.
It is the oldest existing European settlement on the South American continent, having been founded by Diego Castellon in 1523 under the name of Nueva Toledo.
NATHANIEL WILLIAM TAYLOR (1786-1858), American Congregational theologian, was born in New Milford, Connecticut, on the 2 3 rd of June 1786, grandson of Nathaniel Taylor (1722-1800), pastor at New Milford.
ARMADILLO, the Spanish designation for the small mail-clad Central and South American mammals of the order Edentata, constituting the family Dasypodidae.
JOSEPH BELLAMY (1719-1790), American theologian, was born in Cheshire, Connecticut, on the 20th of February 1719.
Instruction in the Albanian language is prohibited by the Turkish government for political reasons; a single exception has been made in the case of an American school for girls at Kortcha.
PODOPHYLLIN, a drug obtained from the rhizome of the American mandrake or may apple, Podophyllum peltatum, an herbaceous perennial belonging to the natural order Berberidaceae, indigenous in woods in Canada and the United States.
Kaisarieh is the headquarters of the American mission in Cappadocia, which has several churches and schools for boys and girls and does splendid medical work.
In opposition to the Canadian Pacific railway a southern line was built from Winnipeg to the American boundary.
In 1837 the membership in Great Britain and Ireland was 318,716; in foreign mission stations, 66,007; in Upper Canada, 14,000; while the American Conferences had charge of 650,678 members.
The intention was to make American Methodism a facsimile of that in England, subject to Wesley and the British Conference-a society and not a Church.
Its constitution has spread to Holland, Scotland (Ireland, England), and to the great American (and Colonial) churches.
The Charleston church alone of these early churches maintains its independence of any American denomination.
These New England ministers in the Delaware valley, with Francis Makemie as moderator, organized in 1706 the first American presbytery, the presbytery of Philadelphia.
The Presbyterians from the Scotch Established Church combined with the American Presbyterian Church, but the separating churches of Scotland organized independent bodies.
Ministers and people with few exceptions - the most notable being the Scotch Highlanders who had settled in the valley of the Mohawk in New York and on Cape Fear river in North Carolina - sided with the patriot or Whig party: John Witherspoon was the only clergyman in the Continental Congress of 1776, and was otherwise a prominent leader; John Murray of the Presbytery of the Eastward was an eloquent leader in New England; and in the South the Scotch-Irish were the backbone of the American partisan forces, two of whose leaders, Daniel Morgan and Andrew Pickens, were Presbyterian elders.
The foreign missionary work of the General Assembly had been carried on after 1812 through the (Congregational) American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions (organized in 1810) until the separation of 1837, when the Old School Assembly established its own board of foreign missions; the New School continued to work through the American board; after the union of 1869 the separate board was perpetuated and the American board transferred to it, with the contributions made to the American board by the New School churches, the missions in Africa (1833), in Syria (1822), and in Persia (1835).
The Church now has, besides these missions, others in India (1834), Siam (1840), China (1846),(1846), Colombia (1856), Brazil (1859),(1859), Japan (1859), Laos (1867),(1867), Mexico (transferred in 1872 by the American and Foreign Christian Union), Chile (transferred in 1873 by the same Union; first established in 1845), Guatemala (1882),(1882), Korea (1884)(1884) and the Philippine Islands (1899).
On American Presbyterianism, see Charles Hodge, Constitutional History of the Presbyterian Church in the United States of America,1706-1788(2 vols., Philadelphia, 1839-1840); Records of the Presbyterian Church in the United States of America from 1706 to 1788 (ibid., 1841); Richard Webster, History of the Presbyterian Church in America (ibid., 1858); E.
Briggs, American Presbyterianism (New York, 1885).
of the American Church History Series; in the same series in vol.
Of this $11,271,708 was the value of collars and cuffs (89.5% of the value of the total American product), an industry which gave employment to 49.3% of the wage-earners in Troy, and paid 42.1% of the wages.
ALLEN GRANBERY THURMAN (1813-1895), American jurist and statesman, was born at Lynchburg, Virginia, on the 13th of November 1813.
Thurman was a member of the Electoral Commission of 1877, and was one of the American delegates to the international monetary conference at Paris in 1881.
KU KLUX KLAN, the name of an American secret association of Southern whites united for self-protection and to oppose the Reconstruction measures of the United States Congress, 1865-1876.
Brown, Lower South in American History (New York, 1901); J.
The timid viscacha (Lagostomus trichodactylus), living in colonies, often with the burrowing owl, and digging deep under ground like the American prairie dog, was almost the only quadruped to be seen upon these immense open plains.
The census of 1895 increased this total to 3,954,9 11, exclusive of wild Indians and a percentage for omissions customarily used in South American census returns.
of France, and he was obliged to leave the enterprise of South American discoveries to his wealthy nobles.
Zeballos, Description Amena de la Republica Argentina (3 vols., Buenos Aires, 1881); Anuario de la Direcion General de Estadistica 1898 (Buenos Aires, 1899); Charles Wiener, La Republique Argentine (Paris, 1899); Segundo Censo Republica Argentina (3 vols., Buenos Aires, 1898); Handbook of the Argentine Republic (Bureau of the American Republics, Washington, 1892-1903).
Class (I) includes the American colonies, Reunion, French India, Senegal.
DANIEL CHESTER FRENCH (1850-), American sculptor, was born at Exeter, New Hampshire, on the 20th of April 1850, the son of Henry Flagg French, a lawyer, who for a time was assistant-secretary of the United States treasury.
The nearest island to the South American coast lies 580 m.
ROCKY MOUNTAIN GOAT, or White Goat (Oreamnus montanus), a North American hollow-horned ruminant of the family Bovidae, distinguished by its white colour.
The Didelphyidae are almost exclusively Central and South American, only one or two species ranging into North America.
Wallace, this author is of opinion that marsupials did not effect an entrance into Australia till about the middle of the Tertiary period, their ancestors being probably opossums of the American type.
Existing marsupials may be divided into three main divisions or sub-orders, of which the first, or Polyprotodontia, is common to America and Australasia; the second, or Paucituberculata, is exclusively South American; while the third, or Diprotodonts, is as solely Australasian inclusive of a few in the eastern Austro-Malayan islands.
The first family is that of the true or American opossums- Didelphyidae, in which there are five pairs of upper incisors, while the feet are of the presumed primitive arboreal type, the hind foot having the four outer toes subequal and separate, with the first opposable to them all.
From the Oligocene deposits of France and southern England have been obtained numerous remains of opossums referable to the American family Didelphyidae.
Amphitherium, of the Stonesfield Slate, typifies the family Amphitheriidae, which includes the American Dryolestes, and in which some would class the European Purbeck genus Amblotherium, although Professor H.
Bensley, "A Theory of the Origin and Evolution of the Australian Marsupialia," American Naturalist (1901); "On the Evolution of the Australian Marsupialia, &c.," Trans.
HORATIO SEYMOUR (1810-1886), American statesman, was born at Pompey, Onondaga county, New York, on the 31st of May 1810.
Unlike the American Indians, who supposed Columbus and his crew to be supernatural beings, and their ships in some way endowed with life, and were thrown into convulsions of terror by the first discharge of firearms which they witnessed, these Australians were neither excited to wonder by the ship nor overawed by the superior number and unknown weapons of the strangers.
JACOB ALBRIGHT (1759-1808), American clergyman, was born near Pottstown, Pennsylvania, on the 1st of May 1759.
WILLIAM HENRY GREEN (1825-1900), American Hebrew scholar, was born in Groveville, near Bordentown, New Jersey, on the 27th of January 1825.
CRAWFORD HOWELL TOY (1836-), American Hebrew scholar, was born in Norfolk, Virginia, on the 23rd of March 1836.
The horses of Vermont have been famous in the development of American racing stocks; the Morgan stock is best known, and other famous Vermont strains are Messenger and Black Hawk.
Ethan Allen (q.v.) and some of the other leaders seemed inclined to accept these overtures, but for various reasons, the chief of which was the general success of the American cause, the scheme was soon abandoned.
Robinson, Vermont (Boston, 1892) in the "American Commonwealths" Series.
GUACO, Huaco or Guao, also Vejuco and Bejuco, terms applied to various Central and South American and West Indian plants, in repute for curative virtues.
ALEXANDER JOHNSTON (1849-1889), American historian, was born in Brooklyn, New York, on the 29th of April 1849.
WILLIAM HENRY SEWARD (1801-1872), American statesman, was born on the 16th of May 1801 in the village of Florida, Orange county, New York.
After Lincoln was elected in 1860 he chose Seward for his secretary 1 In 1837 the vessel `"Caroline," which had been used by the Canadian insurgents, was seized by the Canadian authorities in American territory and was destroyed.
While his treaty with Lord Lyons in 1862 for the suppression of the slave trade conceded to England the right of search to a limited extent in African and Cuban waters, he secured a similar concession for American war vessels from the British government, and by his course in the Trent Affair he virtually committed Great Britain to the American attitude with regard to this right.
He also negotiated treaties for the purchase of the Danish West Indies, the Bay of Samana, and for American control of the isthmus of Panama; but these were not ratified by the Senate.
Lothrop, in the "American Statesmen Series."
coccinea, often confounded with the red oak, but with larger leaves, with long lobes ending in several acute points; they change to a brilliant scarlet with the first October frosts, giving one of the most striking of the various glowing tints that render the American forests so beautiful in autumn.
The live oak is one of the most valuable timber trees of the genus, the wood being extremely durable, both exposed to air and under water; heavy and closegrained, it is perhaps the best of the American oaks for shipbuilding, and is invaluable for water-wheels and mill-work.
Next a small party consisting of two British subjects, two American citizens, and a Dane, sailed from the Sandwich Islands for Port Lloyd in 1830, taking with them some Hawaiian natives.
When Commodore Perry arrived in 1853, there were on Peel Island thirty-one inhabitants, four being English, four American, one Portuguese and the rest natives of the Sandwich Islands, the Ladrones, &c.; and when Mr Russell Robertson visited the place in 1875, the colony had grown to sixty-nine, of whom only five were pure whites.
McENTEE, Jervis (1828-1891), American artist, was born at Rondout, New York, on the 14th of July 1828, and was a pupil of Frederick E.
DUFF GREEN (1791-1875), American politician and journalist, was born in Woodford county, Kentucky, on the 15th of August 1791.
wide, communicating with the gulfs and straits of the North American Arctic archipelago; (2) Davis Strait, about 200 m.
Bruce, the leader of the Scottish expedition, finds that there is a ridge " extending in a curve from Madagascar to Bouvet Island, and from Bouvet Island to the Sandwich group, whence there is a forked connexion through the South Orkneys to Graham's Land, and through South Georgia to the Falkland Islands and the South American continent."
Beyond this parallel the gradient is directed towards the north-west, and temperatures are much higher on the European than on the American side.
The isothermals of mean surface temperature in the South Atlantic are in the lower latitudes of an cn- shape, temperatures being higher on the American than on the African side.
On reaching the South American coast, the southern equatorial current splits into two parts at Cape St Roque: one branch, the Brazil current, is deflected southwards and follows Currents.
"IRVING FISHER (1867-), American economist, was born at Saugerties, N.Y., Feb.
Cotton growing under European direction began about 1900, with the result that in 1901-1902 over 100,000 lb of cotton grown from native, American and Egyptian seed were shipped to Bremen.
He had always opposed the American War, and on the accession of Lord Shelburne to power in 1782 was made bishop of Llandaff, being permitted to retain his other preferments on account of the poverty of the see.
House, of Vermont, U.S., and was very successfully worked on some of the American telegraph lines till 1860, after which it was gradually displaced by other forms. Various modifications of the instrument are still employed for stock telegraph purposes.
-- American Code, - - o ..
On the American side Cyrus W.
Gisborne for a land line connecting St John's, Newfoundland, and Cape Ray, in the Gulf of St Lawrence, and proceeded himself to get control of the points on the American coast most suitable as landing places for a cable.
The manufacture of the cable, begun early in the following year, was finished in June, and before the end of July it was stowed partly in the American ship " Niagara " and partly in decided to begin paying out in mid-ocean, the two vessels, after splicing together the ends of the cable they had on board, sailing away from each other in opposite directions.
Although a good deal of cable had been lost, enough remained to connect the British and American shores, and accordingly it was determined to make another attempt immediately.
Experiments very similar to these of Edison were made by Elisha Gray of Boston, Mass., and described by him in papers communicated to the American Electrical Society in 1875 and 1878.
The line of circuit passed through the secondary of the induction coil I to the line, from that to the telephone T at the receiving station, 'See Journal of the Telegraph, New York, April 1877; Philadelphia Times, 9th July 1877; and Scientific American, August 181 This term was used by Wheatstone in 1827 for an acoustic apparatus intended to convert very feeble into audible sounds; see his Scientific Papers, p. 32.
Speech has been habitually transmitted for business purposes over a distance of 1542.3 m., viz., over the lines of the American Telegraph and Telephone Company from Omaha to Boston.
In 1885 there were only 3800 telephone subscribers in London and less than io,000 in the rest of the United Kingdom, and telephonic services were available in only about 75 towns, while in the same year the American Bell Telephone Company had over 134,000 subscribers.
ABRAM STEVENS HEWITT (1822-1903), American manufacturer and political leader, was born in Haverstraw, New York, on the 31st of July 1822.
Cotton (Gossypium herbaceum), which at the beginning of the 19th century, at the time of the Continental blockade, and again during the American War of Secession, was largely cultivated, is now grown only in parts of Sicily and in a few southern provinces.
American vines, are.
Sulphur mining M h 1 supplies large industries of sulphur-refining and grinding, - in spite of American competition.
Rhys Davids (American Lectures, p. 37) sums up that, when the name of an earlier deity is 4 See (with writers already mentioned) Sir H.
His advocacy of an American episcopate, in connexion with which he wrote the Answer to Dr Mayhew's Observations on the Charter and Conduct of the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign Parts (London 1764), raised considerable opposition in England and America.
Here it is used, in the limited sense defined by an American Court, as " the authority by which judicial officers take cognizance of and decide causes."
CHOLONES, a tribe of South American Indians living on the left bank of the Huallaga river in the Amazon valley.
HARRIET ELIZABETH STOWE [BEECHER] (1811-1896), American writer and philanthropist, seventh child of Lyman and Roxana (Foote) Beecher, was born at Litchfield, Connecticut, U.S.A., on the, 4th of June 1811.
A description of the contents of all these books in the canon is given in Rhys Davids's American Lectures, PP. 44-86.
P. canadensis, the "cotton-wood" of the western prairies, and its varieties are perhaps the most useful trees of the genus, often forming almost the only arborescent vegetation on the great American plains.
The above description applies to all European and North American tadpoles, and to the great majority of those known from the tropics.
The tadpole of the North American bull-frog measures six inches, and that of the Chilian Calyptocephalus gayi seven and a half inches.
THOMAS MACDONOUGH (1786-1825), American sailor, was born in the state of Delaware, his father being an officer of the Continental Army, and entered the United States navy in 1800.
Evidence of the intense interest taken by American visitors in Stratford is seen in the memorial fountain and clock-tower presented in 1887, and in a window in the church illustrating scenes from the Incarnation and containing figures from English and American history.
Sequoia (which had already appeared in the American Upper Cretaceous) and the deciduous cypress (Taxodium distichum) are found in Europe.
While it has been customary to describe the Miocene flora of Europe as of a North American type, it would be more accurate to describe the latter as having in great measure preserved its Miocene character.
Broadly speaking, the American portion of the sub-region consists of an Atlantic and Pacific forest area and an intervening non-forest one, partly occupied by the Rocky Mountains, partly by intervening plains.
The western dry areas have the old-world leguminous Astragalus and Prosopis (Mesquit), but are especially characterized by the northward extension of the new-world tropical Cactaceae, Mgmmillaria, Cereus and Opuntia, by succulent Amar llideae such as A gave (of which the so-called American aloe is a type), and by arborescent Liliaceae (Yucca).
Its closest connection is with the South American Andine.
The South American sub-region is perhaps richer in peculiar and distinctive types than either of the preceding.
Out of the 860 indigenous plants, 80% are endemic, but Hillebrand finds that a large nun.mber are of American affinity.
While so many conspicuous Australian elements are wanting in New Zealand, one-eighth of its flora belongs to South American genera.
At first sight a South African Euphorbia might be mistaken for a South American Cactus, an Aloe for an A gave, a Senecio for ivy, or a New Zealand Veronica for a European Salicornia.
At the least there should be some consideration of four separate systems of discovery - the Eastern, in which Chinese and Japanese explorers acquired knowledge of the geography of Asia, and felt their way towards Europe and America; the Western, in which the dominant races of the Mexican and South American plateaus extended their knowledge of the American continent before Columbus; the Polynesian, in which the conquering races of the Pacific Islands found their way from group to group; and the Mediterranean.
On reaching the North American coast, he proceeded northward, fixed the position of the western extremity of America and surveyed Bering Strait.
He was stopped by the ice in 70° 41' N., and named the farthest visible point on the American shore Icy Cape.
The Lap- surface of the North American arch is sagged down- worth's wards in the middle into a central depression which fold= lies between two long marginal plateaus, and these theory.
Professor Keane groups man round four leading types, which may be named the black, yellow, red and white, or the Ethiopic, Mongolic, American and Caucasic. Each may be subdivided, though not with great exactness, into smaller groups, either according to physical_; characteristics, of which the form of the head is most important, or according to language.
175,000,000 Red (American).
The rushes to gold-fields and diamond-fields are typical in- stances; the growth of towns on coal-fields and near other sources of power, and the rapid settlement of such rich agricultural districts as the wheat-lands of the American prairies and great plains are other examples.
Sensational evidence of a mock burial was given by an American witness named Caldwell, and others; but eventually it was agreed that the grave at Highgate should be opened.
On Congress Street, below the Observatory, is the Eastern Cemetery, the oldest burying ground of the city; in it are the graves of Commodore Edward Preble, and of Captain Samuel Blythe (1784-1813) and Captain William Burroughs (1785-1813), who were killed in the engagement between the British brig "Boxer" and the American brig "Enterprise," their respective ships, off this coast on the 5th of September 1813.
He was, indeed, the first to show clearly the relationship of the heron-like birds with the Steganopodes; of storklike birds with the American vultures; the great difference between the latter and the other birds of prey; the connexion of the gulls and auks with the plovers, and that of the sand-grouse with the From Newton's FIG.
Most interesting is the avifauna of the Sandwich islands; entirely devoid of Psittaci and of Coraciiformes, these islands show an extraordinary development of its peculiar family Drepanidae, which are probably of South or Central American descent.
The nature of the South American avifauna will perhaps become still more evident if we arrange the characteristic members as follows: i.
The following groups may be mentioned as characteristic and typically American, and, since we consider them as comparatively recent immigrants into the Neotropical region, as originally peculiar to the Nearctic area: Mniotiltidae, Vireonidae, Icteridae, Meleagris and various Tetraoninae.
In any case the various Nearctic subdivisions completely merge into each other, just as is to be expected from the physical configuration and other bionomic conditions of the North American continent.
Trochilidae, humming-birds, American.
Tyrannidae, American, Formicariidae, Pteroptochidae, neotropical.
He served in the American War of Independence under Rochambeau, and in 1789 was sent as deputy to the States General by the nobles of the bailliage of Peronne.
Of his two brothers, Theodore Lameth (1756-1854) served in the American war, sat in the Legislative Assembly as deputy from the department of Jura, and became marechal-de-camp; and Charles Malo Francois Lameth (1757-1832), who also served in America, was deputy to the States General of 1789, but emigrated early in the Revolution, returned to France under the Consulate, and was appointed governor of Wiirzburg under the Empire.
RUFUS KING (1755-1827), American political leader, was born on the 2 4 th of March 1755 at Scarborough, Maine, then a part of Massachusetts.
When his father was sent as minister to Great Britain in 1825 he accompanied him as secretary of the American legation, and when his father returned home on account of ill health he remained as charge d'affaires until August 1826.
A third son, James Gore King (1791-1853), was an assistant adjutant-general in the war of 1812, was a banker in Liverpool and afterwards in New York, and was president of the New York & Erie railroad until 1837, when by his visit to London he secured the loan to American bankers of £i,000,000 from the governors of the Bank of England.
JOHN LANGDON (1741-1819), American statesman, was born in Portsmouth, New Hampshire, on the 25th of June 1741.
In December 1774, as a militia captain he assisted in the capture of Fort William and Mary at New Castle, New Hampshire, one of the first overt acts of the American colonists against the property of the crown.
Prayer and spell in North American religion: W.
Matthews, "The Prayer of a Navajo Shaman," in American Anthropologist, i.; idem, "The Mountain Chant; a Navajo Ceremony," in Fifth Report of Bureau of American Ethnology; J.
JOHN McALLISTER SCHOFIELD (1831-1906), American soldier, was born at Gerry, Chautauqua county, New York, on the 29th of September 1831.
Here you find articles in the encyclopedia about American military people.
HUGH SWINTON LEGARE (1797-1843), American lawyer and statesman, was born in Charleston, South Carolina, on the 2nd of January 1797, of Huguenot and Scotch stock.
During his term of office he appeared in a case before the United States Supreme Court, where his knowledge of civil law so strongly impressed Edward Livingston, the secretary of state, who was himself an admirer of Roman Law, that he urged Legare to devote himself to the study of this subject with the hope that he might influence American law toward the spirit and philosophy and even the forms and processes of Roman jurisprudence.
Through Livingston, Legare was appointed American chargé d'affaires at Brussels, where from 1833 to 1836 he perfected himself in civil law and in the German commentaries on civil law.
A pueblo or villa called Branciforte, one of the least important of the Spanish settlements (now a suburb of Santa Cruz), was founded in the vicinity in 1797, and before the American conquest was merged with the settlement that had grown up about the mission.
He was five times president of the Royal Astronomical Society, was correspondent of the French Academy and belonged to many other foreign and American societies.
The American rebellion, the French Revolution and the British invasions of Montevideo and Buenos Aires (1806-7), under GeneralsAuchmuty(i 756-1 822)andJohnWhitelocke (1757-1833), all contributed to the extinction of the Spanish power on the Rio de la Plata.
Martin, Through Five Republics (London, 1905); Anuario Estadistico and Anuario Demografico (official, Montevideo); British and American Consular Reports; Publications, Bureau of American Republics.
The two principal American taffrail logs are the Negus and Bliss (Messrs Norie and Wilson).
Only two or three thousand American emigrants - at most - have come to Liberia since 1860.
The colony was really founded by Jehudi Ashmun, a white American, between 1822 and 1828.
In 1847 the American colonists declared their country to be an independent republic, and its status in this capacity was recognized in1848-1849by most of the great powers with the exception of the United States.
These American settlements were dotted at intervals along the coast from the mouth of the Sewa river on the west to the San Pedro river on the east (some 60 m.
As a result of the commissioners' report negotiations were set on foot for the adjustment of the Liberian debt and the placing of United States officials in charge of the Liberian customs. In July 1910 it was announced that the American government, acting in general agreement with Great Britain, France and Germany, would take charge of the finances, military organization, agriculture and boundary questions of the re public. A loan for £400,000 was also arranged.
British and American divines, on the other hand, are slow to suspect that a new apologetic principle may mean a new system of apologetics, to say nothing of a new dogmatic. Among the evangelicals, for the most part, natural theology, far from being rejected, is not even modified, and certain doctrines continue to be described as incomprehensible mysteries.
Much American work of merit on the character of Christ is headed by W.
(5) Boarding Schools: German province, 14; British, 7; American, 5.
At present the Moravian Church is divided into four provinces, German, British, American North and American South (North Carolina).
The city of Panama was formerly a stronghold of yellow fever and malaria, which American sanitary measures have practically eradicated.
west of the city, connected with it by railway, and formerly called La Boca), the port of Panama and the actual terminus of the canal, is in the Canal Zone and is a port under the jurisdiction of the United States, the commercial future of Panama is dependent upon American tariffs and the degree to which Panama and Balboa may be identified.
In the American Epicauta vittata the larva is parasitic on the eggs and eggcases of a locust.
31) and the American "elephant-beetles" (Dynastes) are the largest of all insects.
adjuvare) staff-officer to a general in command, but now a distinct high functionary at the head of a special office in the British and American war departments.
army is one of the principal officers in the war department, the head of the bureau for army correspondence, with the charge of the records, recruiting, issue of commissions, &c. Individual American states also have their own adjutant-general, with cognate duties regarding the state militia.
These latter, like the colonists in the American Far West, had to be constantly on the alert against the attacks of their troublesome neighbours, and they accordingly organized themselves in semi-military fashion.
In 1831 the Baltimore & Ohio Company offered a prize of $4000 for an American engine weighing 32 tons, able to draw 15 tons at 15 m.
Miller, delivered to the South Carolina railroad in 1834, presented a feature which has remained characteristic of American locomotives - the front part was supported on a four-wheeled swivelling bogie-truck, a device, however, which had been applied to Puffing Billy in England when it was rebuilt in 1815.
Unjustifiable railway expansion had much to do with the American commercial panics of 1884 and 1893.
Thus it will be observed that the five great cities of the Pacific coast-Seattle and Tacoma, Wash., Portland, Ore., and San Francisco and Los Angeles, Cal.-were already well supplied with railways; but the growth of the fertile region lying west of the transcontinental divide was most attractive to American railway builders; and railways serving this district, almost all of them in trouble ten years before, were showing great increases in earnings.
Recent American railway development, viewed in its larger aspects, has thus been characterized by what may be described as the rediscovery of the Pacific coast.
309,974 Outside the United States and Canada, the most interesting American developments are in Mexico and Argentina, these countries Miles.
But as traffic becomes more dense, year by year, the rebuilding process is constant, and American railway lines are gradually becoming safer.
Johnson, American Railway Transportation (New York, 1908); L.
Y.) American Railway Legislation Before 1870.
In any comparison between British and American records the first point to be borne in mind is the difference in mileage and traffic. The American railways aggregate approximately ten times the length of the British lines; but in train miles the difference is far less.
shows the casualties on American railways in 1907 and 1908 (year ending June 30).
In the earlier years of American railway building, each project was commonly the subject of a special law; then special laws were in turn succeeded by general railway laws in the several states, and these in turn have come to be succeeded in most parts of the country by jurisdiction vested in the' state railway commission.
As a result it has been far easier for the American than for the European railway builder to take advantage of the speculative instinct in obtaining money.
The debt in that country is relatively small in amount, and is not represented by securities based upon hypothecation of the company's real property, as with the American railway bond, resting on a first, second or third mortgage.
Although this fact will not in itself make the companies liable to any process of reorganization similar to that following insolvency and foreclosure of the American railway, it is probable that reorganization of some sort must nevertheless take place in Great Britain, and it may well be questioned whether the position of the transportation system of that country would not have been better if it had been built up and projected on the experience gained by actual earlier losses, as in the United States.
The American railways do not have to face this situation; but, after a long term of years, when they were allowed to do much as they pleased, they have now been brought sharply to book by almost every form of constituted authority to be found in the states, and they are suffering from increased taxation, from direct service requirements, and from a general tendency on the part of regulating authorities to reduce rates and to make it impossible to increase them.
of railway, and the tendency of all the great American railway systems, even when not tied to one another in common ownership, is to increase their mileage year by year by acquiring tributary lines.
- American Railways * Includes $ 1 45,3 21, 601 assigned to other than railway property, hut earning net receipts.
It was not till more than half a century later that an American, Sylvester Marsh, employed the rack system for the purpose of enabling trains to surmount steep slopes on the Mount Washington railway, where the maximum gradient was nearly 1 in 22.
- Hjilf of American Double Track.
In Germany, where they have met with greater favour, there were over 261 millions in use in 1905, 1 and they I ave been tried by some American railways.
In the United States a committee of the American Society of Civil Engineers, appointed to consider the question of rail manufacture in consequence of an increase in the number of rail-failures, issued an interim report in 1907 in which it suggested a range of carbon from 0-55 to 0-65% for the heaviest sections of Bessemer steel flange rails, with a phosphorus maximum of 0.085%; while the specifications of the American Society for Testing Materials, current at the same period, put the carbon limits at o 45 to 0-55%, and the phosphorus limit at o io.
For rails of basic open-hearth steel, which is rapidly ousting Bessemer steel, the Civil Engineers' specifications allowed from o 65 to 0-75% of carbon with 0-05% of phosphorus, while the specifications of the American Railway Engineering and Maintenance of Way Association provided for a range of 0.75 to 0-85% of carbon, with a maximum of 0.03% of phosphorus.
- American Rail, 90 lb to the yard, showing rail joint.
For much detailed information regarding American smoke-box practice, reference may be made to Locomotive Sparks, by Professor W.
The arrangements for arresting sparks in American practice and on the continent of Europe are somewhat elaborate.
- Smoke-box, American Railway Master Mechanics' Association.
The point is further illustrated by some curves published in the American Engineer (June 1901) by G.
For many years this was practically the only one used in America for all traffic, and it is often spoken of as the " American " type.
This is of American origin, and is there known as the " Mogul."
Occasionally the American eight-coupled type has a bogie instead of a single leading axle (4-8-0), and is then termed a " Twelve-wheeler," or " Mastodon."
The American engineer is more fortunately situated than his English brother with regard to the possibility of a solution, as will be seen from the comparative diagrams of construction gauges, figs.
26 gives a general idea of the American gauge in a particular case, generally typical, however, of the American limits.
The leading dimensions of a few locomotives typical of English, American and European practice are given in Table Xxii.
End doors opening on end platforms have always been characteristic of American passenger equipment.
The fundamental American vestibule patent, issued to H.
The principal types to be found in the United Kingdom and on the continent of Europe are open wagons (the lading often protected from the weather by tarpaulin sheets), mineral wagons, covered or box wagons for cotton, grain, &c., sheep and cattle trucks, &c. The principal types of American freight cars are box cars, gondola cars, coal cars, stock cars, tank cars and refrigerator cars, with, as in other countries, various special cars for special purposes.
On this account it is common to put small end doors, in American box cars, through which timber and rails may be loaded.
American cars, on the other hand, have long bodies mounted on two swivelling bogie-trucks of four wheels each, and are commonly constructed of steel.
But an American car with a capacity of 10o,000 lb may weigh only 40,000 lb, and thus the ratio of its capacity to its tare weight is only about 5 to 2.
In addition the increased size of the American freight car has diminished the interest on the first cost and the expenses of maintenance relatively to the work done; it has diminished to some extent the amount.
This minimum was at first fixed at 50%, but on and after the 1st of August 1906 it was raised to 75%, with the result that soon after that date practically all the rolling stock of American railways, whether passenger or freight, was provided with compressed air brakes.
The cost of building an ordinary two-track elevated railway according to American practice varies from $300,000 to $400,000 a mile, exclusive of equipment, terminals or land damages.
Gulls and amphibious birds abound in large variety; three kinds of penguin have their rookeries and breed here, migrating yearly for some months to the South American mainland.
The large majority of the inhabitants live in the East Island, and the predominating element is Scottish - Scottish shepherds having superseded the South American Gauchos.
His administration was marked by a revival of American industries and a reduction of the public debt, and at its conclusion the country was left in a condition of prosperity and on friendly terms with foreign nations.
In this capacity he appeared before the international tribunal of arbitration at Paris in 1899, worthily maintaining the reputation of the American bar.
on "The Survival of Animal Sacrifices" in the American Journal of Theology (Chicago, Jan.
The American warship "Nipsic" was cast upon the beach, but was afterwards floated and saved.
Cultivation has been extended under European and American rule, and in 1904 the exports from the German islands had reached a value of 83,750, and those from the American islands of is'4200.
The islands, especially Upolu, now began to attract American and European (mostly German) capitalists, and the Hamburg firm of J.
In 1877 the American consul hoisted his country's flag, but the action was repudiated by his government, which, however, in 1878 obtained Pago Pago as a coaling station and made a trading treaty with the natives.
But in 1887 and 1888 civil war prevailed on the question of the succession to the native kingship, the Germans supporting Tamasese, and the British and American residents supporting Malietoa.
After the latter had been deported by the Germans, the British and American support was transferred to his successor, Mataafa.
Civil war immediately ensued, in which several American and British officers and sailors were killed by the natives, the Germans upholding the claims of Mataafa, and the British and Americans supporting the rival candidate.
The American hornbeam, blue or water beech, is Carpinus americana (also known as C. caroliniana); the common hophornbeam, a native of the south of Europe, is a member of a closely allied genus, Ostrya vulgaris, the allied American species, 0.
WILLIAM HICKLING PRESCOTT (1796-1859), American historian, was born in Salem, Massachusetts, on the 4th of May 1796.
He still continued his yearly experimental contributions to the North American Review, elaborating them with a view as much to ultimate historical proficiency as to immediate literary effect, the essays on Scottish Song (1826), Novel-Writing (1827), Moliere (1828), and Irving's Granada (1829)) belonging to this preparatory period.
The deciduous cypress was one of the first American trees introduced into, England; it is described by John Parkinson in his Herbal of 1640.
NEVADA (a Spanish word meaning " snow-clad " or " snowy land," originally applied to a snow-capped mountain range on the Pacific slope), one of the far western states of the American Union, lying between 35° and 42° N.
For the three years1875-1877the production of gold and silver in Nevada was more than the combined product of all the other American states and Territories.
In 1903 and 1907 Nevada ranked second among the American states in the production of sulphur, but its output is very small in comparison with that of Louisiana.
Nevada thus became the fourth American state to adopt the referendum.
American trappers came about the same time.
"CALVIN COOLIDGE (1873-), American statesman, was born at Plymouth, Vt., July 4 1873.
WILLIAM THOMAS SAMPSON (1840-1902), American naval commander, was born at Palmyra, New York, on the 9th of February 1840, and graduated at the head of his class from the U.S. Naval Academy in 1861.
Adams in the Magazine of American History, ix.
Debs, president of the American Railwa y Union, sent one Frank W.
FEDERALIST PARTY, in American politics, the party that organized the national government of the United States under the constitution of 1787.
It may be regarded as, in various important respects, the lineal predecessor of the American Whig and Republican parties.
Hence these measures became the issues on which the first American parties were formed.
of Hamilton) were out of harmony, in various respects, with American ideals.
Hazen, Contemporary American Opinion of the French Revolution ("J.H.U.
PATRICK HENRY (1736-1799), American statesman and orator, was born at Studley, Hanover county, Virginia, on the 29th of May 1736.
Within the seven years next following he failed twice as a storekeeper and once as a farmer; but in the meantime acquired a taste for reading, of history especially, and read and re-read the history of Greece and Rome, of England, and of her American colonies.
The more conservative members strongly opposed them as premature, whereupon Henry supported them in a speech familiar to the American school-boy for several generations following, closing with the words, "Is life so dear or peace so sweet as to be purchased at the price of chains and slavery ?
JOHN FISKE (1842-1901), American historical, philosophical and scientific writer, was born in Hartford, Connecticut, on the 30th of March 1842, and died at Gloucester, Massachusetts, on the 4th of July 1901.
His historical writings, with the exception of a small volume on American Political Ideas (1885), an account of the system of Civil Government in the United States (1890), The Mississippi Valley in the Civil War (1900), a school history of the United States, and an elementary story of the revolutionary war, are devoted to studies, in a unified general manner, of separate yet related episodes in American history.
"ROBERT BACON (1860-1919), American banker, was born in Boston, Mass., July 5 1860.
JOHN YOUNG MASON (1799-1859), American political leader and diplomatist, was born in Greenesville county, Virginia, on the r 8th of April 1799.
Marcy, who had ordered American ministers to wear a plain civilian costume), and by joining with James Buchanan and Pierre Soule, ministers to Great Britain and Spain respectively, in drawing up (Oct.
EDWARDS PARK Amasa (1808-1900), American Congregational theologian, was born in Providence, Rhode Island, on the 29th of December 1808, the son of Calvin Park (1774-1847), a Congregational minister, professor from 5804 to 1825 at Brown University, and pastor at Stoughton, Massachusetts, in 1826-1840.
An ardent admirer of Jonathan Edwards, whose great-grand-daughter he married, Park was one of the most notable American theologians and orators.
THOMAS FRANCIS MEAGHER (1823-1867), Irish nationalist and American soldier, was born in Waterford, Ireland, on the 3rd of August 1823.
The French assembly did not succeed in obtaining formal assent to these decisions (except from Frankfort and Holland), but they gained the practical adhesion of the majority of Western and American Jews.
There were few Jews in England from that date till the Commonwealth, but Jews settled in the American colonies earlier in the 17th century, and rendered considerable services in the advancement of English commerce.
(Full accounts of Anglo-Jewish institutions are given in the Jewish Year-Book published annually since 1895.) 55 The American Continent.
The American Jews bore their share in the Civil War (7038 Jews were in the two armies), and have always identified themselves closely with national movements such as the emancipation of Cuba.
Within the Synagogue the reform movement began in 1825, and soon won many successes, the central conference of American rabbis and Union College (1875) at Cincinnati being the instruments of this progress.
American universities have owed much to Jewish generosity, a foremost benefactor of these (as of many other American institutions) being Jacob Schiff.
Such institutions as the Gratz and Dropsie colleges are further indications of the splendid activity of American Jews in the educational field.
(Full accounts of American Jewish institutions are given in the American Jewish Year-Book, published annually since 1899.) 56.
The following approximate figures are taken from the American Jewish Year-Book for1909-1910and are based on similar estimates in the English Jewish Year-Book, the Jewish Encyclopedia, Nossig's Jiidische Statistik and the Reports of the Alliance Israelite Universelle.
Near this hamlet on the coast of the Gulf of Mirabello in east Crete,t he American archaeologist MissHarriet Boyd hasexcavated a great part of another Minoan town.
Seager, an American explorer, has found striking remains of flourishing Minoan settlements.
Mr. Henderson visited Paris in the company of Mr. Ramsay Macdonald to discuss the situation with Labour over there, but found that neither French, nor Belgian, nor Italian, nor American Labour was disposed to join.
"HERBERT CLARK HOOVER (1874-), American mining engineer and public official, was born of Quaker parentage on a farm at West Branch, Ia., Aug.
He reached every American household by enlisting the services of the women.
In the autumn of 1921 he undertook the general supervision of relief work in Russia, first having exacted, as a condition, the release of all American prisoners held by the Soviet authorities.
until it is merged in the great Central American plateau.
JAY GOULD (1836-1892), American financier, was born in Roxbury, Delaware county, New York, on the 27th of May 1836.
1868), became widely known as a philanthropist, and particularly for her generous gifts to American army hospitals in the war with Spain in 1898 and for her many contributions to New York University, to which she gave $250,000 for a library in 1895 and $100,000 for a Hall of Fame in 1900.
Owen, "A Biography of Mississippi," in the Annual Report of the American Historical Association, 1 899, i.
167-184; and Transition from Spanish to American Rule in Mississippi, iii.
In the swamps are the bald cypress, the white cedar and the live oak, usually draped in southern long moss; south of Cape Fear river are palmettos, magnolias, prickly ash, the American olive and mock orange; along streams in the Coastal Plain Region are the sour gum, the sweet bay and several species of oak; but the tree that is most predominant throughout the upland portion of this region is the long-leaf or southern pine.
FRANCIS ASBURY (1745-1816), American clergyman, was born at Hamstead Bridge in the parish of Handsworth, near Birmingham, in Staffordshire, England, on the 10th of August 1 745.
In 1771 he volunteered for missionary work in the American colonies.
The greatest testimony to the work that earned for him the title of the "Father of American Methodism" was the growth of the denomination from a few scattered bands of about 300 converts and 4 preachers in 1771, to a thoroughly organized church of 214,000 members and more than 2000 ministers at his death, which occurred at Spottsylvania, Virginia, on the 31st of March 1816.
"JOHN WINGATE WEEKS (1860-), American public official, was born at Lancaster, N.H., April II 1860.
C. McCook in the American genus Myrmecocystus, and by later observers in Australian and African species of Plagiolepis and allied genera.
Other genera of South American ants - A pterostigma and Cyphomyrmex - make similar fungal cultivations, but they use wood, grain or dung as the substratum instead of leaf fragments.
aus den Tropen, (1893), contain classical observations on American species.
Among recent American writers on habit may be mentioned W.
Wheeler (American Naturalist, 1900-1902) and A.
MATTHEW STANLEY QUAY (1833-1904), American political "boss," was born in Dillsburg, York county, Pennsylvania, on the 30th of September 1833.
JOHN HENNINGER REAGAN (1818-1905), American politician, was born in Sevier county, Tennessee, on the 8th of October 1818.
Catasetinae, with three tropical American genera, two of which, Cataselurn and Cycnoches, have dior tri-morphic flowers.
In 1889-1891 the American traveller, W.
above the zero of Fahrenheit; the lowest mean tem perature anywhere observed is about 4° Fahr., at Melville Island, north of the American continent.
The extension of modified forms of the Mongolian type over the whole American continent may be mentioned as a remarkable circumstance connected with this branch of the human race.
In December 1678 he was, with sixty others, sentenced to banishment to the American plantations, but the party was liberated in London, and Peden made his way north again to divide the remaining years of his life between his own country and the north of Ireland.
In the dispute with the American colonies his sympathies were with the latter, and in 1766 he carried the repeal of the Stamp Act.
When in July of that year Rockingham gave place to Chatham, Conway retained his office; and when Chatham became incapacitated by illness he tamely acquiesced in Townshend's reversal of the American policy which he himself had so actively furthered in the previous administration.
In 1780 and 1781 he took an active part in opposition to Lord North's American policy, and it was largely as the result of his motion on the 22nd of February in the latter year, demanding the cessation of the war against the colonies, when the ministerial majority was reduced to one, that Lord North resigned office.
THOMAS EWING (1789-1871), American lawyer and statesman, was born near West Liberty, Ohio (disambiguation)|Ohio county, Virginia, on the 28th of December 1789.
The semi-centennial of this debate was celebrated in 1908, when the Illini Chapter, Daughters of the American Revolution, caused a suitably inscribed boulder weighing 23 tons to be set up in Washington Park as a memorial.
He had read a pamphlet published in America attacking the proposed order, which was to form a bond of association between the officers who had fought in the American War of Independence against England; the arguments struck him as true and valuable, so he re-arranged them in his own fashion, and rewrote them in his own oratorical style.
THOMAS WENTWORTH HIGGINSON (1823-), American author and soldier, was born in Cambridge, Massachusetts, on the 22nd of December 1823.
DANIEL WEBSTER (1782-1852), American statesman, was born in Salisbury (now Franklin), New Hampshire, on the 18th of January 1782.
Henry Clay, the speaker, appointed him a member of the Committee on Foreign Relations, of which John C. Calhoun was chairman, and for some forty years these three constituted a great triumvirate in American politics.
On the last point, however, the case was carried to the Supreme Court of the United States, and there Webster, presenting principally arguments of his colleagues at the state trial and making a powerful appeal to the emotions of the court, won the case for the college and for himself the front rank at the American bar.
Meanwhile Webster had come to be recognized as the first American orator.
His oration in 1825 at the laying of the corner stone of the Bunker Hill monument contained perhaps the clearest statement to be found anywhere of the principles underlying the American War of Independence.
He opposed the tariff bill of 1816 and in 1824, and he repudiated the name of "American system," claimed by Clay for his system of protection.
Alexander M`Leod boasted in November 1840 that he was one of a Canadian party who, on the 29th of December 1837, had captured and burned a small American steamboat, the "Caroline," and in the course of the attack had shot Amos Durfee.
He had con - vinced the Supreme Court, and established the principle in American jurisprudence, that whenever a power is granted by a Constitution, everything that is fairly and reasonably involved in the exercise of that power is granted also.
The establishment of these principles was essential to the integrity and permanence of the American Union.
In 1776 he was appointed to the command of the North American station.
He suppressed, however, a number of octrois and minor duties,' and opposed, on grounds of economy, the participation of France in the War of American Independence, though without success.
These features of Bentham's character are illustrated in the graphic account given by the American minister, Richard Rush, of an evening spent at his London house in the summer of the year 1818.
The museum includes 3300 books, many being of the 15th and 16th centuries, a department of engravings, a Virginia Room with portraits and relics, some tapestries, an excellent collection of casts and valuable American archaeological specimens.
In 1850 the commission accepted the model submitted by Thomas Crawford (1814-1857), an American sculptor, the corner-stone of the monument was laid in that year, and the equestrian statue of Washington, with sub-statues of Patrick Henry and Thomas Jefferson, was unveiled on the 22nd of February 1858.
We are reminded of the practice of the Pawnees and other North-American Indians, who shaved the head with the exception of one lock (the scalp-lock), which was removed by a victorious enemy (Catlin, North American Indians, ii.
After sections on the history and chief modern features of British agriculture, a separate account is given of the general features of American agriculture.
The disastrous American War for a time interfered with the national prosperity; but with the return of peace in 1783 the cultivation of the country made more rapid progress.
He supported the North in the American crisis of 1862, using all his strength to explain what has since been universally recognized as the issue really at stake in the struggle, the abolition of slavery.
American literature began as far back as 1788, when a report on the Hessian fly was issued by Sir Joseph Banks; in 1817 Say began his writings; while in 1856 Asa Fitch started his report on the " Noxious Insects of New York."
In 1883 appeared a work on fruit pests by William Saunders, which mainly applies to the American continent; and another small book on the same subject was published in 1898 by Miss Ormerod, dealing with the British pests.
FRANCIS WILKINSON PICKENS (1805-1869), American politician, was born in Togadoo, St Paul's parish, South Carolina, on the 7th of April 1805, son of Andrew Pickens (1779-1838) and grandson of General Andrew Pickens (1739-1817).
The American "essence of spruce," occasionally used in England for making spruce-beer, is obtained by boiling the shoots and buds and concentrating the decoction.
JOSIAH WILLARD GIBBS (1839-1903), American mathematical physicist, the fourth child and only son of Josiah Willard Gibbs (1790-1861), who was professor of sacred literature in Yale Divinity School from 1824 till his death, was born at New Haven on the 11th of February 1839.
Between 1882 and 1889 a series of papers on certain points in the electromagnetic theory of light and its relation to the various elastic solid theories appeared in the American Journal of Science, and his last work, Elementary Principles in Statistical Mechanics, was issued in 1902.
The name of Willard Gibbs, who was the most distinguished American mathematical physicist of his day, is especially associated with the "Phase Rule," of which some account will be found in the article Energetics.
The American explorations of the Argive Heraeum, concluded in 1895, also failed to prove that site to have been important in the prehistoric time, though, as was to be expected from its neighbourhood to Mycenae itself, there were traces of occupation in the later Aegean periods.
He used his facilities carefully and judiciously; and the result is a work on the whole accurate and unprejudiced, and quite indispensable to the student either of the history of the early colonies, or of the institutions and customs of the aboriginal American peoples.
ALEXANDER HAMILTON STEPHENS (1812-1883), American statesman, vice-president of the Confederate States during the Civil War, was born in Wilkes (now Taliaferro) county, Georgia, on the 11th of February 1812.
This was in 1761, and the argument inspired him with zeal for the cause of the American colonies.
Political conditions in Great Britain, at the moment, made the conclusion of peace almost a necessity with the British ministry, and eventually the American negotiators were able to secure a peculiarly favourable treaty.
In 1785 John Adams was appointed the first of a long line of able and distinguished American ministers to the court of St James's.
Morse, John Adams (Boston, 1885; later edition, 1899), in the " American Statesmen Series"; and Mellen Chamberlain, John Adams, the Statesman of the Revolution; with other Essays and Addresses (Boston, 1898).
Many European forms of this age have been described by C. Brongniart, and American by S.
EZRA ABBOT (1819-1884), American biblical scholar, was born at Jackson, Waldo county, Maine, on the 28th of April 1819.
Hackett) of the enlarged American edition of Dr (afterwards Sir) William Smith's Dictionary of the Bible (1867-1870), to which he contributed more than 400 articles besides greatly improving the bibliographical completeness of the work; was an efficient member of the American revision committee employed in connexion with the Revised Version (1881-1885) of the King James Bible; and aided in the preparation of Caspar Rene Gregory's Prolegomena to the revised Greek New Testament of Tischendorf.
Of strictly American origin can here be cited only W.
vols., Boston, 1875), The Water Birds (2 vols., Boston, 1884); Elliott Coues, Check List of North American Birds (Boston, 2882), Key to North American Birds (Boston, 1887), Birds of the Northwest, U.S. Geological Survey, Misc. pubs., No.
i i (2878); Robert Ridgway, Manual of North American Birds (Philadelphia, 1887); Frank M.
Alexander Wilson's American Ornithology, originally published beween 1808 and 1814, has gone through many editions including those issued in Great Britain, by Jameson (4 vols.
On the other hand, he declares that the American rodstart, Muscicapa, or, as it now stands, Setophaga ruticilla, when young, has its vocal organs like the rest - an extraordinary statement which is worthy the attention of the many able American ornithologists.
Thus he separates the birds of prey into three great groups - (I) the ordinary Diurnal forms, including the Falconidae and Vulturidae of the systematist of his time; but distinguishing the American Vultures from those of the Old World; (2) Gypogeranus, the secretary-bird; and (3) the owls (q.v.).
to the Zoological Society in 1866, and published in its Proceedings for that year (pp. 5-20), since it was immediately after reprinted by the Smithsonian Institution, and with that authoriza tion has exercised a great influence on the opinions of American ornithologists.
Unfortunately none of these, however, can be compared for singularity with Archaeopteryx or with some American fossil forms next to be noticed, for their particular It is true that from the time of Buffon, though he scorned any regular classification, geographical distribution had been occasionally held to have something to do with systematic arrangement; but the way in which the two were related was never clearly put forth, though people who could read between the lines might have guessed the secret from Darwin's Journal of Researches, as well as from his introduction to the Zoology of the " Beagle" Voyage.
Brief notices of his spoils appeared from time to time in various volumes of the American Journal of Science and Arts (Silliman's), but it is unnecessary here to refer to more than a few of them.
Next stands the order Gallinae with 4 " cohorts "; (I) Tetraonomorphae, comprising 2 families, the sand-grouse (Pterocles) and the grouse proper, among which the Central American Oreophasis finds itself; (2) Phasianomorphae, with 4 families, pheasants peacocks, turkeys, guinea fowls, partridges, quails, and hemipodes (Turnix); (3) Macronyches, the megapodes, with 2 families; (4) the Duodecimpennatae, the curassows and guans, also with 2 families; (5) the Struthioniformes, composed of the tinamous; and (6) the Subgrallatores with 2 families, one consisting of the curious South American genera Thinocorus and Attagis and the other of the sheathbill (Chionis).
The next attempt of importance appeared in the American Standard Natural History, published in Boston in 1885.
Stejneger and was founded on Elliot Coues's Key to North American Birds.
Wilgus, "Evolution of Township Government in Ohio," in the Annual Report of the American Historical Association for 18 94, pp. 403-412 (Washington, 1895); D.
Sidlo, "Centralization in Ohio Municipal Government," in the American Political Science Review for November 1909.
The best history is Rufus King, Ohio; First Fruits of the Ordinance of 1787 (Boston and New York, 1888), in the "American Commonwealths" series.
Slocum, Ohio Country between 1783 and 1815 (New York, 1910); and John Armstrong's Life of Anthony Wayne in Sparks' "Library of American Biography" (Boston, 1834-1838), series i.
REVERDY JOHNSON (1796-1876), American political leader and jurist, was born at Annapolis, Maryland, on the 21st of May 1796.
WILLIAM WORTH BELKNAP (1829-1890), American soldier and politician, was born at Newburgh, N.Y., on the 22nd of September 1829.
In the American Presbyterian church he was a prominent figure; he worked for union with the Congregationalists and with the Dutch Reformed body; and at the synod of 1786 he was one of the committee which reported in favour of the formation of a General Assembly and which drafted "a system of general rules for.
WILLIAM WARREN (1812-1888), American actor, was born in Philadelphia on the 17th of November 1812, the son of an English actor (1767-1832) of the same name.
ELISHA KENT KANE (1820-1857), American scientist and explorer, was born in Philadelphia on the 10th of February 1820, the son of the jurist John Kintzing Kane (1795-1858), a friend and supporter of Andrew Jackson, attorney-general of Pennsylvania in 1845-1846, U.S. judge of the Eastern District of Pennsylvania after 1846, and president of the American Philosophical Society in 1856-1858.
Kane and other American Explorers, by S.
Until after the War of Independence the primitive topography remained unchanged, but it was afterwards subjected to changes greater than those effected on the site of any other American city.
Faneuil Hall (the original hall of the name was given to the city by Peter Faneuil, a Huguenot merchant, in 1742) is associated, like the Old South, with the patriotic oratory of revolutionary days and is called " the cradle of American liberty."
Boston compares favourably with other American cities in the character of its public and private architecture.
The park system is quite unique among American cities.
From 1847 to 1851 he arranged gifts from France to American libraries aggregating 30,655 volumes, and a gift of 50 volumes by the city of Paris in 1843 (reciprocated in 1849 with more than 1000 volumes contributed by private citizens) was the nucleus of the Boston public library.
and pamphlets), the Massachusetts Historical Society (founded 1791; 50,300), the Boston medical library (founded 1874; about 80,000), the New England Historic-Genealogical Society (founded 18 45; 33,750 volumes and 34,150 pamphlets), the state library (founded 1826; 140,000), the American Academy of Arts and Sciences (founded 1780; 30,000), the Boston Society of Natural History (founded 1830; about 35,000 volumes and 27,000 pamphlets).
During each winter, also, a series of public lectures on American history is delivered in the Old South meeting house.
In theatrical matters Boston is now one of the chief American centres.
Two Boston periodicals (one no longer so) that still hold an exceptional position in periodical literature, the North American Review (1815) and the Atlantic Monthly (1857), date from this period.
In 1840 Boston was selected as the American terminus of the Cunard Line, the first regular line of trans-Atlantic steamers.
Largely owing to activity in public works Boston has long been the most expensively governed of American cities.
Population.-Up to the War of Independence the population was not only American, but it was in its ideas and standards essentially Puritan; modern liberalism, however, has introduced new standards of social life.
A Boston vessel, the " Columbia " (Captain Robert Gray), opened trade with the north-west coast of America, and was the first American ship to circumnavigate the globe (1787-1790).
In 1805 Boston began the export of ice to Jamaica, a trade which was gradually extended to Cuba, to ports of the southern states, and finally to Rio de Janeiro and Calcutta (1833), declining only after the Civil War; it enabled Boston to control the American trade of Calcutta against New York throughout the entire period.
The American Unitarian Association, organized in 1825, has always retained its headquarters in Boston.
on its schools, its libraries, its literary traditions, its splendid public works and its reputation as the chief centre of American culture.
From Sackett's Harbor American expeditions against York (now Toronto) and Fort George respectively set out in April and May 1813; though scantily garrisoned it was successfully defended by General Jacob Brown (who had just taken command) against an attack, on the 29th of May, of Sir George Prevost with a squadron under Sir James Lucas Yeo.
The British losses were 259; the American 157, including Lieut.-Colonel Electus Backus, commander of the garrison before General Brown's arrival.
Almost all the American stores at the naval station were destroyed to save them from the enemy.
The general American doctrine is that where the contract is contained in separate writings they must connect themselves by reference, and that parol evidence is not admissible to connect them.
The English doctrine that a verbal lease may be specifically enforced if there has been part performance by the person seeking the remedy has been fully adopted in nearly all the American states.
American Law: Bouvier, Law Dictionary (ed.
Foreign and Colonial Laws: Field, Landholding and the relation of Landlord and Tenant in various Countries; Ruling Cases (American Notes), (London and Boston, 1894-1901).
Hagen on the North American Neuroptera, of D.
In 1767 he was appointed to the charge of Mill Hill Chapel at Leeds, where he again changed his religious opinions from a loose Arianism to definite Socinianism and wrote many political tracts hostile to the attitude of the government towards the American colonies.
At New Haven also are published several weekly English, German and Italian papers, and a number of periodicals, including the American Journal of Science (1818), the Yale Law Journal (1890) and the Yale Review (1892), a quarterly.
The period of greatest material prosperity of New Haven in the colonial period began about 1750, when a thriving commerce with other American ports and the West Indies developed.
When news of the embargo of the port at Boston arrived at New Haven, a Committee of Correspondence was at once formed; and in the War of Independence the people enthusiastically supported the American cause.
By careful selection (the methods of which are described below) in the United States, the quality of the product was much improved, and on the recent revival of the cotton industry in the West Indies American " Sea Island " seed was introduced back again to the original home of the species.
hirsutum is the most important cottonyielding plant, being the source of American cotton, i.e.
According to Watt there are many hybrids in American cottons between G.
The United States being the most important cotton-producing country, the methods of cultivation practised there are first described, notes on methods adopted in other countries being added only when these differ considerably from American practice.
The main object, therefore, of the American cotton-planter is to prevent erosion.
1.2 American Cotton Good middling Memphis.
Opposed to the various types of roller gins is the " saw gin," invented by Eli Whitney, an American, in 1792.
Some of the American ginners are very large indeed, a number (Bulletin of the Bureau of the Census on Cotton Production) being reported as containing on the average 1 156 saws with an average production of 4120 bales of cotton.
The American bale has been described in a standard American book on cotton as " the clumsiest, dirtiest, most expensive and most wasteful package, in which cotton or any other commodity of like value is anywhere put up."
It is easily transported from place to place in seed-cotton, and for this reason the Egyptian government in 1904 prohibited the importation of American cotton seed.
In the cotton belt of the United States it would be possible to put a still greater acreage under this crop, but the tendency is rather towards what is known as " diversified " or mixed farming than to making cotton the sole important crop. Cotton, however, is in increasing demand, and the problem for the American cotton planter is to obtain a better yield of cotton from the same area, - by " better yield " meaning an increase not only in quantity but also in quality of lint.
In 1792 the quantity exported from the United States was only 1 It is related that in the year 1784 William Rathbone, an American merchant resident in Liverpool, received from one of his correspondents in the southern states a consignment of eight bags of cotton, which on its arrival in Liverpool was seized by the customhouse officers, on the allegation that it could not have been grown in the United States, and that it was liable to seizure under the Shipping Acts, as not being imported in a vessel belonging to the country of its growth.
True, the supply from India had been more than doubled, the adulteration once so rife had been checked, and the improved quality and value of the cotton had been fully acknowledged, but still the superiority of the produce of the United States was proved beyond all dispute, and American cotton was again king.
Spain.-Cotton was formerly grown in southern Spain on an extensive scale, and as recently as during the American Civil War a crop of 8000 to 10,000 bales was obtained.
Between the years 1788 and 1850 numerous attempts were made by the East India Company to improve the cultivation and to increase the supply of cotton in India, and botanists and American planters were engaged for the purpose.
In the future Korea may become an important source of supply for Japan, especially if, as appears likely, Korea proves suited to the cultivation of American cotton.
Since about 1875 the Russians have fostered the industry, introducing American Upland varieties, distributing seed free, importing gins, providing instruction, and guaranteeing the purchase of the crops.
A native variety known as " Terli," and American cotton, are grown.
F.) Marketing And Supply In the days of slave-grown cotton, the American planters, being men of wealth farming on a large scale, consigned the bulk Moving of their produce as a rule direct to the ports.
Receipts of Cotton at American Ports.
Owing to complaints of the careless packing of American cotton, attention has been devoted of late to the improvement of the square bale.
This custom of buying and selling through brokers continued unshaken until the laying of the Atlantic cable tempted selling brokers occasionally, and even some buying brokers, to buy direct from American factors by telegraph and thus transform themselves into quasi-importers.
Originally cotton was imported by the Liverpool dealer as an agent for American firms or at his own risk, and then sold by private treaty, auction, or through brokers, to Cotton market methods.
Estimates are published of the area under cotton cultivation, and conditions of the American crop are issued by the American agricultural bureau at the beginning of the months of June, July, August, September and October of each year.
To these publications were at various times added the annual report, issued in December, the American crop report, issued in September, and the daily advices by cable from America, issued every morning."
American cotton, we may remind the reader, is graded into a number of classes, both on the Liverpool and New York Ex changes, and an attempt is made in each market to keep the grades as fixed as possible.
As regards " middling " American, the committee fixes " spot " by allowing so many " points on or off " present month futures.
middling American cotton of " no staple," &c. Whether the purchaser of an option gains or loses depends upon the price that he has paid in relation to the gain, if any, that he makes out of his power.
British dependence on American supplies is greater even than that of the continent of Europe, for Russia possesses some internal supplies, and more Indian cotton is used in continental countries than in England.
West Indian grown cotton has realized even higher prices than American grown Sea Island.
In Sierra Leone little success has been met with, but on the Gold Coast some cotton better than middling American has been grown, and the association has concluded an agreement with the government for an extension of its work.
The cotton is almost entirely grown by natives in small patches round their villages, and generally it has sold for about the same price as middling American, though some of it realized as much as 25 to 30 " points on."
above middling American.
Though the association brought about an extension and improvement of the Indian crop, in which result it was enormously assisted by the high prices consequent upon the American Civil War, it sank after a few years into obscurity, and soon passed out of existence altogether, while the effects of its work dwindled finally into insignificance.
During the latter part of the War of Independence Peekskill was an important outpost of the Continental Army, and in the neighbourhood several small engagements were fought between American and British scouting parties.
He was for exempting American shipping from Panama Canal tolls and also supported woman suffrage.
Dawes, formerly general purchasing agent of the American Expeditionary Force.
He displayed his political tact in the choice of the American delegation, which was led by Secretary Hughes and included, besides Elihu Root, two members of the Senate, Lodge and Underwood, the Republican and Democratic leaders respectively.
The earliest mention 'of American petroleum occurs in Sir Walter Raleigh's account of the Trinidad pitch-lake in 1595; whilst thirty-seven years later, the account of a visit of a Franciscan, Joseph de la Roche d'Allion, to the oil springs of New York was published in Sagard's Histoire du Canada.
The active growth of the petroleum industry of the United States began in 1859, though in the early part of the century the petroleum of Lake Seneca, N.Y., was used as an embrocation under the name of " Seneca oil," and the "American Medicinal Oil" of Kentucky was largely sold after its discovery in 1829.
The calorific power of Baku oil appears to be highest, while this oil is poorest in solid hydrocarbons, of which the American petroleums contain moderate quantities, and the Upper Burma oils the largest amount.
The conditions of formation and accumulation of petroleum point to the fact that the principal oil fields of the world are merely reservoirs, which will become exhausted in the course of years, as in the case of the decreasing yield of certain of the American fields.
principal strata bored through, the Canadian method of drilling differs from the Pennsylvanian or American system in the following particulars: 1.
In conclusion it may be stated that the two systems of drilling for petroleum with which by far the largest amount of work has been, and is being done, are the American or rope Comparison system, and the Canadian or rod system.
In America, crude petroleum was at first transported in iron-hooped barrels, holding from 40 to 42 American gallons, which were carried by teamsters to Oil Creek and the Allegheny River, where they were loaded on boats, these being floated down stream whenever sufficient water was present - a method leading to much loss by collision and grounding.
The tins largely used for kerosene are made by machinery and contain 5 American gallons.
The American type of storage-tank is generally employed, in conjunction with clay-lined reservoirs.
The system is largely employed in Russia, and its use has been frequently attempted in the United States, but the results have not been satisfactory, on account, it is said, of the much greater quantity of dissolved gas contained in the American oil, the larger proportion of kerosene which such oil yields, and the less fluid character of the residue.
American stills of the former type are constructed of wrought-iron or steel, and are about 30 ft.
This was plainly stated by Professor Silliman in the earliest stages of development of the American petroleum industry.
In the American petroleum refineries it is found that sufficient cracking can be produced by slow distillation in stills of which the upper part is sufficiently cool to allow of the condensation of the vapours of the less volatile hydrocarbons, the condensed liquid thus falling back into the heated body of oil.
The mission of the American Presbyterian Church, which has had its centre in Beirut for the last sixty years, has done much for Syria, especially in the spread of popular education; numerous publications issue from its press, and its medical school has been extremely beneficial.
Consequently, the people of Florida were for the most part loyal to Great Britain during the War of American Independence.
The westward expansion of the United States made necessary American ports on the Gulf of Mexico; consequently the acquisition of West Florida as well as of New Orleans was one of the aims of the negotiations which resulted in the Louisiana Purchase of 1803.
When it was found that the Spanish governor did not accept these plans in good faith, another convention was held on the 26th of September which declared West Florida to be an independent state, organized a government and petitioned for admission to the American Union.
The word usage examples above have been gathered from various sources to reflect current and historial usage. They do not represent the opinions of YourDictionary.com.