America sentence example
In America, the proceeds went to The Red Cross.
I was born in America, and Mr. Anagnos was born in Greece.
The return address on the envelope was Columbia, South America, but it wasn't addressed to anyone.
On to rural America where the pickings are as fertile as the country side and there's always a trusting little soul willing to help a stranger.
You may come to America and be poor, but if you work hard, your children will have a better life and a better opportunity.Advertisement
Albania is perhaps the least-known region in Europe; and though more than a hundred years have passed since Gibbon described it as "a country within sight of Italy, which is less known than the interior of America," but little progress has yet been made towards a scientific knowledge of this interesting land and its inhabitants.
America was birthed in optimism.
I've left vestiges of my activities along the roadsides of America and yet, they don't know I exist!
He indeed became so disgusted with the false position of a pretender to the crown, into which he was being forced, that he wished to go to America, but, as the comtesse de Buffon would not go with him, he decided to remain in Paris.
This Robert Livingston, founder of the American family, became in 1675 secretary of the important Board of Indian Commissioners; he was a member of the New York Assembly in1711-1715and 1716-1727 and its speaker in 1718-1725, and in 1701 made the proposal that all the English colonies in America should be grouped for administrative purposes "into three distinct governments."Advertisement
Make a call to Jasmine in Latin America and see what we can get from them.
You have any luck putting North America back together?
The open grate still holds favour in England, though in America and on the continent of Europe it has been superseded by the closed stove.
In 1782 the presbyteries of the Associate and Reformed churches united, forming the Associate and Reformed Synod of North America; but as there were a few dissenters in both bodies the older Associate and Reformed Presbyteries remained as separate units - the Associate Presbytery continued to exist under the same name until 1801, when it became the Associate Synod of North America; in 1818 it ceased to be subordinate to the Scotch General Synod.
In Central and South America in 2000 were eighteen million Internet users; today, more than two hundred million.Advertisement
But the only true America is that country where you are at liberty to pursue such a mode of life as may enable you to do without these, and where the state does not endeavor to compel you to sustain the slavery and war and other superfluous expenses which directly or indirectly result from the use of such things.
How long had Morino lived in America?
Their natural habitat is from Argentina on north through Central America and into parts of Texas, New Mexico and Arizona.
A large variety of materials have been used in their manufacture by different peoples at different times - painted linen and shavings of stained horn by the Egyptians, gold and silver by the Romans, rice-paper by the Chinese, silkworm cocoons in Italy, the plumage of highly coloured birds in South America, wax, small tinted shells, &c. At the beginning of the 8th century the French, who originally learnt the art from the Italians, made great advances in the accuracy of their reproductions, and towards the end of that century the Paris manufacturers enjoyed a world-wide reputation.
They are all inhabitants of the open plains or the forests of the tropical and temperate parts of South America, with the exception of a few species which range as far north as Texas.Advertisement
Despite the fact that with the exception of the period of the "Great Awakening" (1740-1742), when he preached as an itinerant in several neighbouring colonies, his active labours were confined to his own parish, his influence on the religious thought of his time in America was probably surpassed only by that of his old friend and teacher Jonathan Edwards.
Of these eighty churches, twelve were in the United Kingdom, twenty on the continent of Europe, sixteen in North America, three in South America, ten in Asia, nine in Africa, six in Australia, two in New Zealand, one in Jamaica and one in Melanesia.
A loose union, called the "Federal Council of the Reformed Churches in America," was formed in 1894 by the churches mentioned (excepting the Southern Assembly) and the Dutch and German Reformed churches.
The latter, named the America, was the first to be delivered, reaching New York in January 1829, but one of the others, the Stourbridge Lion, was actually the first practical steam locomotive to run in America, which it did on the 9th of August 1829.
Canada had no railway till 1853, and in South America construction did not begin till about the same time.Advertisement
A transcontinental line was long ago undertaken across South America from Buenos Aires to Valparaiso, where the continent is only about goo m.
The use of automatic couplers for freight cars throughout the United States, introduced in 1893-1900, greatly reduced the number of deaths and injuries in coupling, and the use of air brakes on freight cars, now universal, has reduced the risk to the men by making it less necessary for them to ride on the roofs of high box-cars, while at the same time it has made it possible to run long trains with fewer men; but except in these two features the freight service in America continues to be a dangerous occupation.
The head monkey at Paris puts on a traveller's cap, and all the monkeys in America do the same.
It is a ridiculous demand which England and America make, that you shall speak so that they can understand you.
If we were left solely to the wordy wit of legislators in Congress for our guidance, uncorrected by the seasonable experience and the effectual complaints of the people, America would not long retain her rank among the nations.
Yes, I kept you from returning with Damian to North America.
We can pull in a Natural from Latin America.
Kris was next in size, standing on a mural of North America.
There was little hibernation in the town often called the Switzerland of America.
They want me to make another sales trip — to South America.
He didn't want her to go because he would be concerned about her safety in South America.
It was easy enough to remember the last time she cycled — the day Alex left for South America.
After America's entrance into the war they were frequently charged with disloyalty and in many towns attempts were made to suppress them.
But in the course of time, notwithstanding many criticisms and objections, the reform spread from bottom fermentation to top fermentation breweries on the continent and in America.
Its houses are usually one-storeyed, built of adobe and roofed with red tiles; its public buildings are among the finest in Central America.
The Thysanoptera are probably world-wide in their range, but they have hardly been studied outside Europe and North America.
The antithesis of this exists in the United States of America.
But the government of Bombay had hurried on a rupture with the Mahratta confederacy at a time when France was on the point of declaring war against England, and when the mother-country found herself unable to subdue her rebellious colonists in America.
About the same time the art was introduced into England by French refugees, and soon afterwards it spread also to America.
The publication of his best-known work, True Religion Delineated (1750), won for him a high reputation as a theologian, and the book was several times reprinted both in England and in America.
His conclusions were that the group "has never been nearer the mainland than it is now, nor have its members been at any time closer together"; and that the character of the flora and fauna is the result of species straggling over from America, at long intervals of time, to the different islets, where in their isolation they have gradually varied in different degrees and ways from their ancestors.
The presence of these giant reptiles on the group is the chief fact on which a former land connexion with the continent of America may be sustained.
Past elevations of land, however (and doubtless equally great subsidences) have taken place in South America since the Eocene, and the conclusion that extensive areas of land have subsided in the Indian Ocean has long been based on a somewhat similar distribution of giant tortoises in the Mascarene region.
The Didelphyidae are almost exclusively Central and South American, only one or two species ranging into North America.
Existing marsupials may be divided into three main divisions or sub-orders, of which the first, or Polyprotodontia, is common to America and Australasia; the second, or Paucituberculata, is exclusively South American; while the third, or Diprotodonts, is as solely Australasian inclusive of a few in the eastern Austro-Malayan islands.
Under the heading of Multituberculata will be found a brief account of certain extinct mammals from the Mesozoic formations of Europe and North America which have been regarded as more or less nearly related to the monotremes.
Besides the above, in the Trias of North America we have Dromotherium and Microconodon, extremely primitive forms, representing the family From Owen.
The supposed continent extended across the south pole, practically joining Australia and South America.
From an area corresponding to what is now South America there entered a fauna and flora, which, after undergoing modification, passed by way of Tasmania to Australia.
The discovery as fossil, in South America, of primitive or ancestral forms of marsupials has given it much support.
The opossums of America are marsupials, though not showing anomalies as great as kangaroos and bandicoots (in their feet), and Myrmecobius (in the number of teeth).
The opossum of America is the only species out of Australasia which is thus provided.
The birds of Australia in their number and variety of species may be deemed some compensation for its poverty of mammals; yet it will not stand comparison in this respect with regions of Africa and South America in the same latitudes.
Immigrants from Europe, and to some extent from North America and China, poured into Melbourne, where the arrivals in 1852 averaged 2000 persons in a week.
The colonies were, however, to have other and bitter experiences of strikes before Labour recognized that of all means for settling industrial Australians in South America.
He was the scholarly leader of the orthodox wing of the Presbyterian church in America, and was moderator of the General Assembly of 1891.
In the following year, by the death, of Ferdinand of Aragon, his maternal grandfather, and the incapacity of his mother Joanna, who had become hopelessly insane, he succeeded to the crowns of Castile and Aragon, which carried with them large possessions in Italy and the dominion, of the New World of America.
One important variation, however, was a clause in the bill of rights providing for the abolition of slavery, Vermont being the first state in America to take such action.
It is stated that the Indians of Central America, after having "guaconized" themselves, i.e.
Finding himself overruled by the war party in the cabinet, on the 1st of April 1861, Seward suggested a war of all America against most of Europe, with himself as the director of the enterprise.
The oaks are widely distributed over the temperate parts of Europe, Asia, North Africa and North America.
The chestnut oaks of America represent a section distinguished by the merely serrated leaves, with parallel veins running to the end of the serratures.
In America several oaks exist with narrow lanceolate leaves, from which characteristic they are known as "willow oaks."
There appears to be no foundation for the statement that he was stopped by an order of council when on the point of abandoning England for America, though there can be little doubt that the thoughts of emigration suggested themselves to his mind at this period.
Immediately to the south of Nares Deep lies the smaller Makarov Deep; and off the coast of South America are Tizard Deep and Havergal Deep.
Neumayr finds evidence of the existence of a continent between Africa and South America, which protruded into the central North Atlantic, in Jurassic times.
In the higher latitudes of the South Atlantic the salinity diminishes steadily and tends to be uniform from east to west, except near the southern extremity of South America, where the surface waters are very fresh.
In the South Atlantic the narrow land surfaces of Africa and South America produce comparatively little effect in disturbing the normal planetary circulation.
The tidal wave of the Southern Ocean, which sweeps uninterruptedly round the globe from east to west, generates a secondary wave between Africa and South America, which travels north at a rate dependent only on the depth of the ocean.
Having friends among the government party, including members of the Beresford family, he was enabled to make terms with the government, and in return for information as to what had passed between Jackson, Iowan and himself he was permitted to emigrate to America, where he arrived in May 179 5.
They were published after his death by his son, William Theobald Wolfe Tone (1791-1828), who was educated by the French government and served with some distinction in the armies of Napoleon, emigrating after Waterloo to America, where he died, in New York City, on the 10th of October 1828.
It is very common on the coasts of Europe and eastern North America, but its flesh is much less esteemed than that of the true Gadi.
There are local variations in the use of "hake" as a name; in America the "silver hake" (Merluccius bilinearis), sometimes called "whiting," and "Pacific hake" (Merluccius productus) are also food -fishes of inferior quality.
Bancroft's The Native Races of the Pacific States of North America, of which the principal authorities are the Noticias del Estado de Chihuahua of Escudero, who visited the ruins in 1819; an article in the first volume of the Album Mexicano, the author of which was at Casas Grandes in 1842; and the Personal Narrative of Explorations and Incidents in Texas, New Mexico, California, Sonora and Chihuahua (1854), by John Russell Bartlett, who explored the locality in 1851.
In 1896 a committee was appointed to consider the proposal for laying a telegraph cable between British North America and Australasia.
The next transmitter of note was that introduced by Francis Blake, which came into wide use in the United States of America a.nd other countries.
In America, on farmers' circuits, ten or more stations are frequently connected to one line; but in England ten is practically the maximum.
The development of telephony in the United States of America is much greater than anywhere else; on the 1st of January 1907, 5 per cent.
It is widely used in America, and was introduced into Great Britain in 1907.
Italians form about half of the total emigrants to America.
By the despatch of a squadron to South America he obtained satisfaction for injuries inflicted thirteen years previously upon an Italian subject by the United States of Colombia.
A son of William Thistlewood, and born at Tupholme in Lincolnshire, young Thistlewood passed his early years in a desultory fashion; he became a soldier and visited France and America, imbibing republican opinions abroad and running into debt at home.
His advocacy of an American episcopate, in connexion with which he wrote the Answer to Dr Mayhew's Observations on the Charter and Conduct of the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign Parts (London 1764), raised considerable opposition in England and America.
In the British fresh-water fauna only two genera, Hydra and Cordylophora, are found; in America occurs an additional genus, Microhydra.
Since then it has been discovered in other botanic gardens in various parts of Europe, its two most recent appearances being at Lyons (1901) and Munich (1905), occurring always in tanks in which the Victoria regia is cultivated, a fact which indicates that tropical South America is its original habitat.
Inasmuch as Lamarck attempted to frame a theory of evolution in which the principle of natural selection had no part, the interpretation placed on their work by many bionomical investigators recalls the theories of Lamarck, and the name Neo-Lamarckism has been used of such a school of biologists, particularly active in America.
The bishop of London was treated as the diocesan bishop of the colonists in North America; and in order to provide for testamentary and matrimonial jurisdiction it was usual in the letters patent appointing the governor of a colony to name him ordinary.
Hence, even in countries where the Roman Church is established, such as Belgium, Italy, the Catholic states of Germany and cantons of Switzerland, most of the Latin republics of America, and the province of Quebec, and a fortiori where this Church is not established, there is now no discipline over the laity, except penitential, and no jurisdiction exercised in civil suits, except possibly the matrimonial questions of princes (of which there was an example in the case of the reigning prince of Monaco).
Here too was signed (December 24, 1814) the treaty of peace between Great Britain and the United States of America.
As a result, however, partly of the usual want of work on the grasslands in certain seasons, there has been a considerable emigration to America.
In America it seldom attains the large size it often acquires in England, and it is there of less rapid growth than the prevailing form of the western plains; the name of "cotton-wood" is locally given to other species.
Some deserts, like those of Central America, are specially characterized by succulents; in other deserts, such as the Sahara, succulents are not a prominent feature.
The cardoon and milk thistle, both European plants, cover tracts of country in South America with impenetrable thickets in which both man and beast may be hopelessly lost.
SouTH TEMPERATE REGI0N.This occupies widely separated areas in South Africa, Australia, New Zealand and South America.
It was replaced by the Glossopteris flora which is assumed to have originated in a vast continental area (Gondwana land), of which remnants remain in South America, South Africa and Australia.
Other undoubted Dicotyledons, though of uncertain affinity, of similar age have now been detected in North America.
Upper Cretaceous formations in America have yielded a copious flora of a warm-temperate climate from which it is evident that at least the generic types of numerous not closely related existing dicotyledonous trees had already come into existence.
While Europe and probably North America were occupied by a warm temperate flora, tropical types had been driven southward, while the adaptation of others to arctic conditions had become accentuated.
This, as will be explained, did not take place to anything like the same extent in North America, the vegetation of which still preserves a more Miocene facies.
Amongst broadleaved trees Juglans has a similar Holarctic range, descending to the West Indies; so has Aesculus, were it not lacking in Europe; it becomes tropical in South America and Malaya.
Some species, such as Anemone alpine, which are wanting in the Arctic flora of the Old World, he thinks must have reached Europe by way of Greenland from north-east America.
It has a solitary representative in North America.
The highlands of Central America and the West Indies have preserved a number of Chino-Japanese typesBocconia, Deutzia, A belie, &c.not met with elsewhere in the New Woild.
The affinity to Atlantic North America is strongly marked as it has long been known to be in Japan.
Otherwise the Californian flora is entirely deficient in the characteristic features of that of eastern North America.
As in the IndoMalayan sub-region, epiphytic orchids are probably most numerous in point of species, but the genera and even sub-tribes are far more restricted in their range than in the Old World; 4 sub-tribes with 74 genera of Vandeae are confined to South America, though varying in range of climate and altitude.
The Amazon basin is the richest area in the world in palms, of which the Cocoineae are confined to South America, except the coco-nut, which has perhaps spread thence into Polynesia and eastward.
In the New World, as already explained, the path of communication between the northerri and southern hemispheres has always been more or less open, and the temperate flora of southern America does not exhibit the isolation characteristic of the southern region of the Old World.
Melastomaceae, copiously represented in tropical America, are more feebly so in Peru and wholly wanting in Chile.
Of Cupuliferae, Quercus in three species only reaches Colombia, but Fagus, with only a single one in North America, is represented by several from Chile southwards and thence extends to New Zealand and Tasmania.
Fagus, starting from the northern hemisphere, has more than held its own in Europe and Asia, but has all but died out in North America, finding conditions favorable for a fresh start in Australasia.
And it cannot be doubted that the profusion of Melastomaceae in South America was not derived from elsewhere, but the result of local evolution.
It is common round the British and Irish coasts, and generally distributed along the shores of the North Sea, extending across the Atlantic to the coast of North America.
Bacon argued keenly on geographical matters and was a lover of maps, in which he observed and reasoned upon such resemblances as that between the outlines of South America and Africa.
At the least there should be some consideration of four separate systems of discovery - the Eastern, in which Chinese and Japanese explorers acquired knowledge of the geography of Asia, and felt their way towards Europe and America; the Western, in which the dominant races of the Mexican and South American plateaus extended their knowledge of the American continent before Columbus; the Polynesian, in which the conquering races of the Pacific Islands found their way from group to group; and the Mediterranean.
The voyages of Columbus (1492-1498) resulted in the discovery of the West Indies and North America which barred the way to the Far East.
The direct line of Portuguese exploration resulted in the discovery of the Cape route to India by Vasco da Gama (1498), and in 1500 to the independent discovery of South America by Pedro Alvarez Cabral.
In the same year Alonso de Ojeda, accompanied by Juan de la Cosa, from whose maps we learn much of the discoveries of the 16th century navigators, and by a Florentine named Amerigo Vespucci, touched the coast of South America somewhere near Surinam, following the shore as far as the Gulf of Maracaibo.
In 1508 Alonso de Ojeda obtained the government of the coast of South America from Cabo de la Vela to the Gulf of Darien; Ojeda landed at Cartagena in 1510, and sustained a defeat from the natives, in which his lieutenant, Juan de la Cosa, was killed.
His work Suma de Geografia, which was printed in 1519, is the first Spanish book which gives an account of America.
This was one of the greatest calamities that could have happened to South America; for the discoverer of the South sea was on the point of sailing with a little fleet into his unknown ocean, and a humane and judicious man would probably have been the conqueror of Peru, instead of the cruel and ignorant Pizarro.
The first detailed account of the west coast of South America was written by a keenly observant old soldier, Pedro de Cieza de Leon, who was travelling in South America from 1533 to 1550, and published his story at Seville in 1553.
The Cabots received a patent in 1496, empowering them to seek unknown lands; and John Cabot discovered Newfoundland and part of the coast of America.
Reaching the Pacific through the Strait of Magellan, Drake proceeded northward along the west coast of America, resolved to attempt the discovery of a northern passage from the Pacific to the Atlantic. The coast from the southern extremity of the Californian peninsula to Cape Mendocino had been discovered by Juan Rodriguez Cabrillo and Francisco de Ulloa in 1539.
He took the same route as Drake along the west coast of America.
In the interior of South America the Spanish conquerors had explored the region of the Andes from the isthmus of Panama to Chile.
From this place Quiros returned to America, but Torres continued the voyage, passed through the strait between Australia and New Guinea which bears his name, and explored and mapped the southern and eastern coasts of New Guinea.
The French directed their enterprise more in the direction of North America than of the Indies.
One of their most distinguished explorers was Samuel Champlain, a captain in the navy, French North who, after a remarkable journey through Mexico and the America.
In South America scientific exploration was active during this period.
On reaching the North American coast, he proceeded northward, fixed the position of the western extremity of America and surveyed Bering Strait.
The Spaniards under Quadra had begun a survey of north-western America and occupied Nootka Sound, which their government eventually agreed to surrender.
The 18th century saw the Arctic coast of North America reached at two points, as well as the first scientific attempt to reach the North Pole.
In November 1769 Samuel Hearne was sent by the Hudson Bay Company to discover the sea on the north side of America, but was obliged to return.
In June 1741 he named the magnificent peak on the coast of North America Mount St Elias and explored the Aleutian Islands.
A striking fact in the configuration of the crust is cs 1'000 n that each continent, or elevated mass of the crust, is T diametrically opposite to an ocean basin or great de 5000 0 -5000 -15000 -20 2500 -300 pression; the only partial exception being in the case of southern South America, which is antipodal to eastern Asia.
The broad Pacific depression seems to answer to the broad elevation of the Old World - the narrow trough of the Atlantic to the narrow continent of America."
These " continents," " parts of the earth," or " quarters of the globe," proved to be convenient divisions; America was added as a fourth, and subsequently divided into two, while Australia on its discovery was classed sometimes as a new continent, sometimes merely as an island, sometimes compromisingly as an island-continent, according to individual opinion.
South America and North America follow this type most closely; Eurasia (the land mass of Europe and Asia) comes next, while Africa and Australia are farther removed from the type, and the structure of Antarctica and Greenland is unknown.
Lofty lines of fold mountains form the " backbones " of North America in the Rocky of Mountains and the west coast systems, of South America in the Cordillera of the Andes, of Europe in the Pyrenees, Alps, Carpathians and Caucasus, and of Asia in the mountains of Asia Minor, converging on the Pamirs and diverging thence in the Himalaya and the vast mountain systems of central and eastern Asia.
Phillipson, Studien uber Wasserscheiden (Leipzig, 1886); also I.C. Russell, River Development (London, 1898) (published as The Rivers of North America, New York, 1898).
These facts have led some naturalists to include the Palaearctic and Nearctic regions in one, termed Holarctic, and to suggest transitional regions, such as the Sonoran, between North and South America, and the Mediterranean, between Europe and Africa, or to create sub-regions, such as Madagascar and New Zealand.
The red type is peculiar to America, inhabiting every climate from polar to equatorial, and containing representatives of many stages of culture which had apparently developed without the aid or interference of people of any other race until the close of the 15th century.
In South America strictly defined boundaries are still the exception, and the claims of neighbouring nations have very frequently given rise to war, though now more commonly to arbitration.'
Republics, although represented in Europe, are the peculiar form of government of America and are unknown in Asia.
In 1833 he published anonymously England and America, a work primarily intended to develop his own colonial theory, which is done in the appendix entitled "The Art of Colonization."
Marsh, who, after 1870, discovered a great number of bird remains in the Cretaceous strata of North America.
The great auk, once common on the British coasts, those of Denmark, the east coast of North America, then restricted to those of Newfoundland, Greenland and Iceland, has been killed by man, and the same fate has overtaken the Labrador duck, the Phillip Island parrot, Nestor productus, and the large cormorant of FIG.
They express the main complexes of land with their dependencies in well-chosen terms; for instance the " Neotropical region " stands short for South and Central America with the Antilles.
The faunas of the two are as absolutely distinct as those of South America and Africa, and it is only because they are separated by a narrow strait instead of the broad Atlantic that they have become so slightly connected by the interchange of a few species and genera.
All the existing Ratitae (with the exception of the ostriches of Africa and South America, belonging to the genera Struthio and Rhea, and comprising at most but five species) are found in Austrogaea and nowhere else.
For instance, the kagu (Rhinochetus) of New Caledonia, a queerly specialized form with Gruine affinities pointing only to South America.
Of families we find twenty-three, or maybe more, absolutely restricted thereto, besides at least eight which, being peculiar to the New World, extend their range into the Nearctic region, but are there so feebly developed that their origin may be safely ascribed to the southern portion of America.
The differences between the Neotropical avifauna and that of North America are fundamental and prove the independence or superior value of the Neotropical region as one of the principal realms.
For narrow as are the channels between Cuba and the opposite coast of Central America, between the Bahamas and Florida, and between Grenada and Tobago, the fauna of the Antillean chain, instead of being a mixture of that of the almost contiguous countries, differs, much from all, and exhibits in some groups a degree of speciality which may be not unfitly compared with that of oceanic islands..
The HoLARCTIC Region, comprising North America and the extratropical mass of land of the Old World, may from an ornithological point of view be characterized by the Colymbi, Alcidae, Gallidae or Alectoropodous Galli, and the Oscines, which have here reached their highest development; while Ratitae, Tinami, Psittaci, and non-Oscine Passeres (with the exception of Tyrannidae extending into North America and Conurus carolinensis) are absent.
The close affinity of North America with the Palaearctic avifauna becomes at once apparent if we exclude those groups of birds which we have good reason to believe have their original home in the Neotropical region, notably numerous Tyrannidae, humming-birds and the turkey-buzzards.
Nearly 20 more are properly Palaearctic, but occasionally occur in America, and about 50 are Nearctic, which from time to time stray to Europe or Asia.
Enaliornis, England, vertebrae chiefly biconcave; Hesperornis, North America, vertebrae heterocoelous.
Of his two brothers, Theodore Lameth (1756-1854) served in the American war, sat in the Legislative Assembly as deputy from the department of Jura, and became marechal-de-camp; and Charles Malo Francois Lameth (1757-1832), who also served in America, was deputy to the States General of 1789, but emigrated early in the Revolution, returned to France under the Consulate, and was appointed governor of Wiirzburg under the Empire.
He was elected to the House of Representatives of the last Royal .Assembly of New Hampshire and then to the second Continental Congress in 1775, and was a member of the first Naval Committee of the latter, but he resigned in 1776, and in June 1776 became Congress's agent of prizes in New Hampshire and in 1778 continental (naval) agent of Congress in this state, where he supervised the building of John Paul Jones's "Ranger" (completed in June 1777), the "America," launched in 1782, and other vessels.
In America the name of dace is also applied to members of other genera of the family; the "horned dace" (Semnotilus atromaculatus) is a well-known variety.
Physically Indianapolis is one of the most attractive inland cities in America.
Where they did not exist, as in America, everything has made it more and more impossible that they should arise.
Reports of territorial encroachments aroused much sympathy with Liberia in America and led in February 1909 to the appointment by President Roosevelt of a commission which visited Liberia in the summer of that year to investigate the condition of the country.
In Germany the official title of the Church is Evangelische BruderUniteit; in Austria, Evangelische Bruder-Kirche; in England and America, Moravian Church.
Founded in 1519 by Pedro Arias de Avila, Panama is the oldest European town on the mainland of America.
He travelled much in North Africa, Mexico and South America, and wrote a number of short stories and vivid studies of life in those regions.
Early in the World War he went to South America to buy horses for the British army, and carried out his mission with success.
The Amphizoidae, for example, a small family of aquatic beetles, are known only from western North America and Eastern Tibet, while an allied family, the Pelobiidae, inhabit the British Isles, the Mediterranean region, Tibet and Australia.
A large number of beetles inhabit the deep limestone caves of Europe and North America, while many genera and some whole families are at home nowhere but in ants' nests.
The next important development in rail design originated in America, which, for the few lines that had been laid up to 1830, remained content with wooden bars faced with iron.
This type, which is often known as the Vignoles rail, after Charles Blacker Vignoles (1793-1875), who re-invented it in England in 1836, is in general use in America and on the continent of Europe.
In Australia the increase in railway mileage in the five years ending December 31st, 1907 was about 7%-a small proportion as compared with America, Asia or Africa.
The United States of America, with a capital of £3,059,800,000 invested in its railways on the 30th of June 1906, was easily ahead of every other country, and in 1908 the figure was increased to £ 3,443, 02 7, 68 5, of which £2,636,569,089 was in the hands of the public. On a route-mileage basis, however, the capital cost of the British railway system is far greater than that of any other country in the world, partly because a vast proportion of the lines are double, treble or even quadruple, partly because the safety requirements of the Board of Trade and the high standards of the original builders made actual construction very costly.
In comparing the figures, it should be noted that main line mileage in the Eastern states, as for example that of the Pennsylvania railroad and the New York, New Haven & Hartford, does not differ greatly in standards of safety or in unit cost from the best British construction, although improvement work in America is charged to income far more liberally than it has been in England.
In America, the basic units have been the ton-mile and the passenger-mile, and these figures are now required to be furnished to the Interstate Commerce Commission and to most of the state commissions as well.
America is now following the lead thus set, and all the most important lines in the United States have adopted block working and interlocking, but a great deal still remains to be done.
In certain respects, on the other hand, America has gone further than the United Kingdom, especially in the matter of automatic signalling, and in the operating of points and signals by electrical power or air-pressure instead of manual labour.
In America, also, freight trains are fitted with an automatic continuous brake, whereas in the United Kingdom this appliance is required by law only in the case of passenger trains, and in fact is not fitted to goods and mineral trains except in a few isolated instances.
In America the record is far less satisfactory.
The duty of a railway with deficient plant or facilities would seem to be to make up for their absence by moderating the speeds of its trains, but public sentiment in America appears so far to have approved, at least tacitly, the combination of imperfect railways and high speeds.
Of trespassers the number killed per mile of line is about as large in England as in America, the density of population and of traffic in Great Britain apparently counterbalancing the laxity of the laws against trespassing in America.
Of the total train mileage in America more than half is freight; in Great Britain much more than half is passenger.
Yet the best safety devices are made in America, and means of reducing these death records are well known.
Railway accidents in France are recorded in a shape somewhat different from that found in either Great Britain or America.
The laws regulating original outputs for capital were strictly drawn in Great Britain and on the continent of Europe; in America they were drawn very loosely.
Instead of the borrowing power being restricted to a small percentage of the total capital, as in European countries, most of the railway mileage of America has been built with borrowed money, represented by bonds, while stock has been given freely as an inducement to subscribe to the bonds on the XXII.
Both in England and in America this process of consolidation has been obstructed by all known legislative devices, because of the widespread belief that competition in the field of transportation was necessary if fair prices were to be charged for the service.
Such train ferries arc common in America, especially on the Great Lakes, and exist at several places in Europe, as in the Baltic between Denmark and Sweden and Denmark and Germany, and across the Straits of Messina.
In America a gradient of r in roo is often known as a r% grade, one of 2 in roo as a 2% grade, and so on; thus a 0-25% grade corresponds to what in England would be known as a gradient of r in 400.
In Great Britain the curvature is defined by stating the length of the radius, expressed in chains (i chain=66 ft.), in America by stating the angle subtended by a chord ioo ft.
In North America, except for small industrial railways and some short lines for local traffic, chiefly in mountainous country, it has become almost universal; the long lines of 3 ft.
Sleepers, called ties or cross-ties in America, are the blocks or slabs on which the rails are carried.
Machine shops are usually provided to enable minor repairs to be executed; the tendency, both in England and America, is to increase the amount of such repairing plant at engine sheds, thus lengthening the intervals between the visits of the engines to the main repairing shops of the railway.
The water cranes or towers which are placed at intervals along the railway to supply the engines with water require similar care in regard to the quality of the water laid on to them, as also to the water troughs, or track tanks as they are called in America, by which engines are able to pick up water without stopping.
The oldest and commonest method of shunting is that known as " push-and-pull," or in America as " link-and-pin " or " tail " shunting.
One of these, employed in America, is known as " poling."
Another method, which was introduced into America from Europe about 1890, is that of the summit or " hump."
The Stephenson link motion is used almost universally in England and America, but it has gradually been displaced by the Walschaert gear on the continent of Europe, and to some extent in England by the Joy gear.
Vauclain introduced a successful type of four-cylinder compound in America in 1889.
For many years this was practically the only one used in America for all traffic, and it is often spoken of as the " American " type.
In America it is still the standard engine for passenger traffic, but for goods service it is now employed only on branch lines.
It is used to a limited extent both in Great Britain and on the continent of Europe, but is much more common in America.
In America the type is used only for shunting.
It is used largely in America for goods traffic. In Europe it is in considerable favour for goods andpassenger traffic on heavy gradients.
This originated in America, where it is termed the " Consolidation."
This originated in America, where it is known as the " Decapod."
Compound locomotives have been tried, as stated in § 17, but the tendency in England is to revert to the simple engine for all classes of work, though on the continent of Europe and in America the compound locomotive is largely adopted, and is doing excellent work.
In America and other countries where distances are great and passengers have to spend several days continuously in a train sleeping and restaurant cars are almost a necessity, and accordingly are to be found on most important through trains.
This construction was introduced into England from America about 1874, and has since been extensively adopted, being now indeed standard for main line stock.
In America the long open double-bogie passenger cars, as originally introduced by Ross Winans on the Baltimore & Ohio railway, are universally in use.
The vehicles used for the transportation of goods are known as goods wagons or trucks in Great Britain, and as freight cars in America.
On the other hand, where, as in America, the great volume of freight is raw material and crude food-stuffs, and the distances are great, a low charge per unit of transportation is more important than any consideration such as quickness of delivery; therefore full car-loads of freight are massed into enormous trains, which run unbroken for distances of perhaps 1000 m.
In 1848, however, a peculiar form of it, believed to be based on abundant experimental evidence, arose in America and spread there with great rapidity, and thence over the civilized world.
Andrew Jackson Davis was in America the most prominent example of such persons; his work, The Principles of Nature, Her Divine Revelations (New York, 1847), was alleged to have been dictated in "clairvoyant" trance, and before 1848 his followers were expecting a new religious revelation.
Daniel Dunglas Home, the next medium of importance who appeared in London, came over from America in 1855; and for many years almost all the chief mediums for physical phenomena known in England came from the United States.
It had taken more hold in its original home in the United States of America, and thence it has spread in some degree to most Christian countries.
This view has, however, made but little way in England and America, where the opinions of the great majority of spiritualists vary from orthodox Christianity to Unitarianism of an extreme kind.
For America see the works of Frazer and Westermarck and the references there given.
All these have greatly declined in numbers, being profitably replaced by sheep. Land-birds are few in kind, and are mostly strays from South America.
As they had not been actually colonized by England, the republic of Buenos Aires claimed the group in 1820, and subsequently entered into a dispute with the United States of America concerning the rights to the products of these islands.
Excluding some varieties of domestic dogs, wolves are the largest members of the genus, and have a wide geographical range, extending over nearly the whole of Europe and Asia, and North America from Greenland to Mexico, but are not found in South America or Africa, where they are replaced by other members of the family.
These differences have given rise to a supposed multiplicity of species, expressed by the names C. lycaon (Central Europe), C. laniger and C. niger (Tibet), the C. occidentalis, C. nubilus, C. mexicanus, &c., of North America, and the great blackish-brown Alaskan C. pambasileus, the largest of them all.
In North America there is a second distinct smaller species, called the coyote or prairie-wolf (Canis latrans), and perhaps the Japanese wolf (C. hodophylax) may be distinct, although, except for its smaller size and shorter legs, it is scarcely distinguishable from the common species.
Hoffman, Californien, Nevada and Mexico (Basel, 1879); Nevada and her Resources, compiled under the direction of the State Bureau of Immigration (Carson City, 1894); U.S. Department of Agriculture, North America Fauna, No.
Few, if any, other places in America contain so many interesting landmarks as Plymouth.
With a party of congressmen he visited the Philippines on a tour of inspection July-September 1905, and in September 1906, on the downfall of the Cuban republic and the intervention of America, he took temporary charge of affairs in that island (September - October).
He returned to America with the rank of colonel, in 1918, and died in New York City, May 29 1919.
Most of them fled from Silesia into Saxony, and thence to Holland, England and North America.
It has a wide geographical distribution, being found in Europe (including England), Asia Minor, Burma, Straits Settlements, Java, China, Formosa, Egypt; west, south and Central Africa; Australia, South America, West Indies, United States and Canada, but is generally confined to local centres in those countries.
He made two unsuccessful ventures in journalism, and in 1857 went to Central America, where he acquired material for another series of lectures.
As a rule flies are of small or moderate size, and many, such as certain blood-sucking midges of the genus Ceratopogon, are even minute; as extremes of size may be mentioned a common British midge, Ceratopogon varius, the female of which measures only 14 millimetre, and the gigantic Mydaidae of Central and South America as well as certain Australian robber-flies, which have a body 1-11n.
This last-named event synchronized with the discovery of America; Columbus being accompanied by at least one Jewish navigator.
Jews made their way to America early in the 16th century, settling in Brazil prior to the Dutch occupation.
During the War of Independence the Jews of America took a prominent part on both sides, for under the British rule many had risen to wealth and high social position.
After the Declaration of Independence, Jews are found all over America, where they have long enjoyed complete emancipation, and have enormously increased in numbers, owing particularly to immigration from Russia.
At the present time orthodox Judaism is also again acquiring its due position and the Jewish theological seminary of America was founded for this purpose.
The Jews of America have also taken a foremost place in the succour of their oppressed brethren in Russia and other parts of the world.
Treaties of friendship were concluded with Germany, Great Britain, and the United States of America.
Among other species are P. antisianus, P. fulgidus, P. auriceps and P. pavoninus, from various parts of South America, but though all are beautiful birds, none possess the wonderful singularity of the quezal.
Here he became an active member of the committee of national defence, and when obliged to fly the country he joined Kossuth in England and with him made a tour in the United States of America.
After his return to America he had other offers from abroad, and thereafter was engaged in mining development throughout the world.
After America's entrance into the World War the work had to be carried on by neutrals, but Mr. Hoover remained chairman of the Commission.
Here you find articles in the encyclopedia on topics related to South America.
In North Carolina five of the seven life-zones into which North America has been divided are represented, but more of its area belongs to the upper-austral than to any other zone.
In 1772 he was appointed by Wesley "general assistant" in charge of the work in America, and although superseded by an older preacher, Thomas Rankin (1738-1810), in 1773, he remained practically in control.
In 1782 he was reappointed to supervise the affairs of the Methodist congregations in America.
Dr Coke was ordained at Bristol, England, in September, and in the following December, in a conference of the churches in America at Baltimore, he ordained and consecrated Asbury, who refused to accept the position until Wesley's choice had been ratified by the conference.
From this conference dates the actual beginning of the "Methodist Episcopal Church of the United States of America."
In 1785, at Abingdon, Maryland, he laid the corner-stone of Cokesbury College, the project of Dr Coke and the first Methodist Episcopal college in America; the college building was burned in 1795, and the college was then removed to Baltimore, where in 1796, after another fire, it closed, and in 1816 was succeeded by Asbury College, which lived for about fifteen years.
It contains two small genera of tropical Asia and Africa with almost regular flowers, and the large genus Cypripedium containing about 80 species in the north-temperate zone and tropical Asia and America.
Pleurothallidinae, characterized by a thin stem bearing one leaf which separates at a distinct joint; the sepals are usually much larger than the petals and lip. Includes To genera, natives of tropical America, one of which, Pleurothallis, contains about 400 species.
Laeliinae, with 22 genera, natives of the warmer parts of America, including three of those best known in cultivation, Epidendrum, Cattleya and Laelia.
Much still remains to be done in the exploration of China and eastern Asia; but it is known that many of the special forms of this region extend to the Himalaya, while others clearly indicate a connexion with North America.
The cinchona has recently been introduced with complete success; and the mahogany of America reaches a large size, and gives promise of being grown for use as timber.
The assemblage of birds of the Indian region is one of the richest and most varied in the world, being surpassed only by that of tropical America.
It amounts to this, that Asiatics stand on a higher level than the natives of Africa or America, but do not possess the special material civilization of western Europe.
The relation to Asia of the pre-European civilizations of America is another of those questions which admit of no definite answer at present, though many facts support the theory that the semi-civilized inhabitants of Mexico and Central America crossed from Asia by Bering Straits and descended the west coast.
More important still were his services in settling the question of the boundary between the United States and British North America at a time when a single injudicious word would probably have provoked a war.
The mouth of the Fox was early visited by French explorers, and Father Hennepin is said to have discovered here in 1680 the first deposit of coal found in America.
He had read a pamphlet published in America attacking the proposed order, which was to form a bond of association between the officers who had fought in the American War of Independence against England; the arguments struck him as true and valuable, so he re-arranged them in his own fashion, and rewrote them in his own oratorical style.
The first congregation in America was organized on Christmas Day 1723 by Peter Becker who preceeded Alexander Mack to Germantown, Pennsylvania.
Here in 1743 Christopher Sauer, one of the sect's first pastors, and a printer by trade, printed the first Bible (a few copies of which are still in existence) published in a European language in America.
In 1755 he went with Boscawen to North America as captain of the "Dunkirk" (60),(60), and his seizure of the French "Alcide" (64) was the first shot fired in the war.
It was doubtless because of his known sentiments that he was selected to command in America, and was joined in commission with his brother Sir William Howe, the general at the head of the land forces, to make a conciliatory arrangement.
It was reluctantly accepted by Lord Sandwich, then First Lord, but before it could take effect France declared war, and a powerful French squadron was sent to America under the count d'Estaing.
He considered that he had not been properly supported in America, and was embittered both by the supersession of himself and his brother as peace commissioners, and by attacks made on him by the ministerial writers in the press.
After occupying the positions of procurator of the Jesuits at Rome and censor (calificador) of the Inquisition at Madrid, Acuna returned to South America, where he died, probably soon after 1675.
The Executive Mansion of the Confederate States of America, built in 1819, purchased by the city in 1862, and leased to the Confederate government and occupied by President Jefferson Davis in 1862-65, was acquired in 1890 by the Confederate Memorial Library Society, and is now a Confederate Museum with a room for each state of the Confederacy and a general library in the " Solid South " room; it has valuable historical papers, collected by the Southern Historical Society, and the society has published a Calendar of Confederate Papers (1908).
The Alligator or Avocado Pear is Persea gratissima, a member of the natural order Lauraceae, and a native of the West Indies and other parts of tropical America.
McCormick and others in America, and finally perfected about 1879 by the addition of an efficient self-binding apparatus, is the most striking example of the application of mechanics to agriculture.
In one of these exceptional years, 1898, the average rose to 34s., but this was due entirely to a couple of months of inflated prices in the early half of the year, when the outbreak of war between Spain and the United States of America coincided with a huge speculative deal in the latter country.
In Great Britain little attention is paid to this important branch of agricultural science, but in America and the British colonies the case is different.
Nearly every state in America has its official economic entomologists, and nearly every one of the British crown colonies is provided with one or more able men who help the agricultural community to battle against the insect pests.
Most, if not all, of the important knowledge of remedies comes from America, where this subject reaches the highest perfection; even the life-histories of some of the British pests have been traced out in the United States and British colonies more completely than at home, from the creatures that have been introduced from Europe.
The most important works dealing with fruit and other pests come from the pens of Saunders, Lintner, Riley, Slingerland and others in America and Canada, from Taschenberg, Lampa, Reuter and Kollar in Europe, and from French, Froggatt and Tryon in Australia.
These beetles, characterized by their skipping movements and enlarged hind femora, also attack the hop (Haltica concinna), the vine in America (Graptodera chalybea, Illig.), and numerous other species of plants, being specially harmful to seedlings and young growth.
The plum curculio (Conotrachelus nenuphar, Herbst) in America causes endless harm in plum orchards; curculios in Australia ravage the vines and fruit trees (Orthorrhinus klugii, Schon, and Leptops hopei, Bohm, &c.).
One species, the slugworm (Eriocampa liynacina), is common to Europe and America; the larva is a curious slug-like creature, found on the upper surface of the leaves of the pear and cherry, which secretes a slimy coating from its skin.
Hundreds of acres of wheat are lost annually in America by the ravages of the Hessian fly; the fruit flies of Australia and South Africa cause much loss to orange and citron growers, often making it necessary to cover the trees in muslin tents for protection.
In America cattle suffer much from the horn fly (Haematobia serrata).
Sugar-canes suffer from the sugar cane borer (Diatioca sacchari) in the West Indies; tobacco from the larvae of hawk moths (Sphingidae) in America; corn and grass from various Lepidopterous pests all over the world.
The former attacks apple and pear; the latter, which selects orange and citron, was introduced into America from Australia, and carried ruin before it in some orange districts until its natural enemy, the lady-bird beetle, Vedalia cardinalis, was also imported.
The wood is strong, light and very elastic, forming an excellent material for small masts and spars, for which purpose the trunks are used in America, and exported largely to England.
The spruce-beer of America is generally made from the young shoots of this tree.
The hemlock spruce (Tsuga canadensis) is a large tree, abounding in most of the north-eastern parts of America up to Labrador; in lower Canada, New Brunswick and Nova Scotia it is often the prevailing tree.
Representatives of the family occur in many parts of Europe, but the typical genus is unknown in North America, where, however, other forms occur.
They prepared for flight to America - a step which Napoleon took care to prevent; and a popular outbreak at Aranjuez decided the king then and there to abdicate (19th of March 1808).
Several Silurian fossils have been identified as insects, including a Thysanuran from North America, but upon these considerable doubt has been cast.
Neotropical and distinctively Sonoran insects mingle with members of the Holoarctic fauna across a wide " transition zone " in North America.
Of those travellers then the first to be here especially named is Marsigli, the fifth volume of whose Danubius Pannonico-Mysicus is devoted to the birds he met with in the valley of the Danube, and appeared at the Hague in 1725, followed by a French translation in 1744.8 Most of the many pupils whom Linnaeus sent to foreign countries submitted their discoveries to him, but Kalm, Hasselqvist and Osbeck published separately their respective travels in North America, the Levant and China.
The only information at this period on the ornithology of South America is contained in the two works on Chile by Molina, published at Bologna in 1776 and 1782.
Forster published a Catalogue of the Animals of North America in London in 1771, and the following year described in the Philosophical Transactions a few birds from Hudson Bay.
The scope of this work was originally intended to be limited to North America, but circumstances induced him to include all the species of Northern Europe and Northern Asia, and though not free from errors it is a praiseworthy performance.
Still it seems advisable to furnish some connected account of the progress made in the ornithological knowledge of the British Islands and those parts of the European continent which lie nearest to them or are most commonly sought by travellers, the Dominion of Canada and the United States of America, South Africa, India, together with Australia and New Zealand.
Earliest in date as it is greatest in bulk stands Audubon's Birds of America in four volumes, containing four hundred and thirty-five plates, of which the first part appeared in London in 1827 and the last in 1838.
A Monograph of the Odontophorinae or Partridges of America (1850); The Birds of Asia, in seven volumes, the last completed by Mr Sharpe (1850-1883); The Birds of Great Britain, in five volumes (1863-1873); and The Birds of New Guinea, begun in 1875, and, after the author's death in 1881, undertaken by Mr Sharpe, make up the wonderful tale consisting of more than forty folio volumes, and containing more than three thousand coloured plates.
Special mention should be made of the following works most of which have appeared since America.
Elliot, Gallinaceous Game Birds of North America (New York, 1897) and Wild Fowl of the United States and British Possessions (1898), and Robert Ridgway's learned and invaluable Birds of North and Middle America, published by the Smithsonian Institution, Bull.
As has been stated, the first of this series of anatomical descriptions appeared in the fourth volume of his work, published in 1838, but they were continued until its completion with the fifth volume in the following year, and the whole was incorporated into what may be termed its second edition, The Birds of America, which appeared between 1840 and 1844.
Subsequent visits to the same part of North America, often performed under circumstances of discomfort and occasionally of danger, brought to this intrepid and energetic explorer the reward he had so fully earned.
In 1880 Marsh brought out Odontornithes, a monograph of the extinct toothed birds of North America.
The Scutelliplantares include a much smaller number of forms, and, with the exception of the first " cohort " and a few groups of the fourth and fifth, all are peculiar to America.
In addition to the books mentioned above he published a number of books which had a remarkable circulation in England and America, such as Speaking to the Heart (1862); The Way to Life (1862); Man and the Gospel (1865); The Angel's Song (1865); The Parables (1866); Our Father's Business (1867); Out of Harness (1867); Early Piety (1868); Studies of Character from the Old Testament (1868-1870); Sundays Abroad (1871).
In December 1 774 a copy of the order prohibiting the exportation of military stores to America was brought from Boston to Portsmouth by Paul Revere, whereupon the Portsmouth Committee of Safety organized militia companies, and captured the fort (Dec. 14).
His Ecclesiastical Characteristics (1753), Serious Apology (1764), and History of a Corporation of Servants discovered a few years ago in the Interior Parts of South America (1765), attacked various abuses in the church and satirized the "moderate" party.
He refused calls to churches in Dublin and Rotterdam, and in 1766 declined an invitation brought him by Richard Stockton to go to America as president of the College of New Jersey (now Princeton University); but he accepted a second invitation and left Paisley in May 1768.
Persia, Syria, Egypt, Greece, Austria, Germany and Switzerland, reached America in 1846.
Washington Street, still narrow, is perhaps the most crowded and congested thoroughfare in America.
The Lowell Institute, established in 1839 (by John Lowell, Jr., who bequeathed $237,000 for the purpose), provides yearly courses of free public lectures, and its lecturers have included many of the leading scholars of America and Europe.
Boston was the undisputed literary centre of America until the later decades of the 19th century, and still retains a considerable and important colony of writers and artists.
In 1692 the first permanent and successful printing press was established; in 170 4 the first newspaper in America, the Boston News-Letter, which was published weekly until 1776.
At this time Boston was the most flourishing town of North America.
A Boston vessel, the " Columbia " (Captain Robert Gray), opened trade with the north-west coast of America, and was the first American ship to circumnavigate the globe (1787-1790).
Mackerel are found in almost all tropical and temperate seas, with the exception of the Atlantic shores of temperate South America.
These early schools, which consist chiefly of one-year and two-year-old fishes, yield sometimes enormous catches, whilst in other years they escape the drift-nets altogether, passing them, for some hitherto Unexplained reason, at a greater depth than that to which the nets reach, 1 The term "Spanish mackerel" is applied in America to Cybium maculatum.
Geologically, spiders date from the Carboniferous Period, Arthrolycosa and others from the coal beds of Europe and North America being closely allied to the existing genus Liphistius.
Remains of spiders from the Baltic amber beds of Oligocene age and from nearly coeval fluviatile or lacustrine deposits of North America belong to forms identical with or closely related to existing genera, thus proving the great antiquity of our present spider fauna.
The last-named may be considered the founder of the strong company of entomological workers now labouring in America.
This he accepted, and performed the duties of the charge till 1794, when he determined to follow his three sons, who had emigrated to America in the previous year.
South America, the West Indies, tropical Africa and Southern Asia are the homes of the various members, but the plants have been introduced with success into other lands, as is well indicated by the fact that although no species of Gossypium is native to the United States of America, that country now produces over twothirds of the world's supply of cotton.
This machine, under various modifications, is employed for ginning the greater portion of the cotton grown in the Southern States of America.
Suggestions for its improvement, which if carried out would (it is estimated) result in a monetary saving of £r,000,000 annually, were made by the Lancashire Private Cotton Investigation Commission which visited the Southern States of America in 1906.
Formerly in Egypt the cotton was treated as a perennial, but this practice has been generally abandoned, and fresh plants are raised from seed each year, as in America; one great advantage is that more than one crop can thus be obtained each year.
The " cotton stainers," various species of Dysdercus, are widely distributed, occurring for example in America, the West Indies, Africa, India, &c. The larvae suck the sap from the young bolls and seeds, causing shrivelling and reduction in quantity of fibre.
At the close of the war in 1815 the revival of trade led to an increased demand, and the progress of cotton cultivation in America became rapid and continuous, until at length about 85% of the raw material used by English manufacturers was derived from this one source.